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religion, Hinduism is somewhat unique in that it does not revolve around a specific, singular point of origin, belief system, or scripture. Indeed, it appears to have spontaneously evolved along with the cultures in India. The people of India are united by means of their food, customs, work, language, and beliefs. All these aspects are known as the "life of the people," and is fundamentally integrated with the Hindu belief system.
According to Fisher (2005, p. 69), the term "Hinduism" was in fact propagated not by the Indians themselves, but by British colonialists, who used the term as a category for the purpose of census-taking. Informally, foreigners used the term to refer to people living in the Indus River region. Today, adherents to Hinduism prefer the term "anatana Dharma." anatana, according to Fisher, means eternal or ageless, and Dharma to the various elements under the term "religion." These include elements…
Hinduism is a faith that embraces love, it unites the laws of karma and dharma, and Hindus believe in reincarnation. Hindus embrace vegetarianism and they say a specific prayer prior to eating (asking to be forgiven for eating a vegetable or plant which may have its own soul). Although there is not one, single, dramatic uniting system of beliefs in Hinduism, there are nine basic Hindu beliefs that make up the religion, according to Hinduism Today. Those nine are as follows:
Hindus have a "reverence for…revealed scriptures"; people following this faith believe in the "divinity of the Vedas, the world's most ancient scripture" and the Agamas are ancient hymns which brings God's word through the Sanatana Dharma which is the eternal religion, having no beginning and having no end, going on eternally (Hinduism Today).
Two: Hindus believe in "one, all-pervasive Supreme Being, who is both immanent and transcendent";…
Baylor University. (2008). Indians / Asian Indians. Retrieved April 6, 2013, from https://bearspace.baylor.edu .
Fisher, Mary Pat. (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London,
UK: I.B. Tauris.
Hinduism Today. (2009). 9 Basic Hindu Beliefs. Retrieved April 6, 2013, from http://www.hinduismtoday.com .
Learning & Assessment Skills
It is very important for high school juniors and seniors -- including students from a diversity of ethnic and cultural backgrounds -- to be immersed in exercises and scholarly challenges that help them gain mastery on the English Language. hether they seek careers as surgeons or professional truck drivers, they should leave high school with language skills -- including pronunciation, comprehension, and the ability to apply the language -- that will be the foundation of their competencies when it comes to communication. hat they learn and how they are able to apply their knowledge will be assessed in this lesson.
Assessment and Lesson Plan -- AP orld Hinduism
This class focuses on Advanced Placement orld Religion, but in its revised format it will incorporate learning assessment features that are part of the class work and course expectations. Students and instructors can gain from assessments; students gain…
Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st Century. Retrieved November 30, 2014,
from https://student.ashford.edu .
Chatterjee, P. (1992). History and the Nationalization of Hinduism. Social Research, 59(1),
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).
This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.
In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.
Instead, we can…
This book, written from a scholarly viewpoint by professors of religion, looks at the dynamics of seven major religious traditions and how those traditions are adapting to the world of globalization.
Rifkin, I. Spiritual Perspectives on Globalization: Making Sense of Economic and Cultural Upheaval. Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing. Print.
For author, speaker and journalist Ira Rifkin, globalization is changing how humans live at a very rapid, and sometimes unpredictable, rate. Some of this change revolves around the shift in values from individual cultures and the anger and uncomfortability humans are left with when faced with change. The book, written in lay terms without undue citations, examines Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Baha'i, tribal religions and Protestantism to explain how each view the economic, social and religious aspects of globalism. The major point focuses on how the social constructs that tend to arise out of spirituality can not only enhance…
By concentrating on God's Name (or many titles), one conquers the ego and unites with God" (Islam in Sikhism, n.d.).
The compilation of the Sikh scriptures began in 1604 by the Fifth Guru. The last of the ten Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh, announced that he would be the last personal Guru and that after that Sikhs were to regard the Adi Granth as their teacher. This sacred book is thought to be the living embodiment of all ten Gurus and is therefore the focus of worship in all Sikh temples. The Adi Granth, though never claiming to be a revealed scripture, is made up of three main parts. A long poem by Nanak, that sums up the elements of Sikhism. A collection of Ragas, or songs that were written by the first five Gurus and a mixed collection of commentaries that elaborated on the Ragas together with hymns of many…
"7. Dalits -- on the Margins of Development" n.d. 4 October 2009,
Ali Nadwi, Syed Abul Hasan. 2008. "Islam and Civilization." 4 October 2009, <
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
Hindu Festivals: Manifestation of the Hindu Society and Culture
Throughout history, human civilization were influenced by numerous religions that carry with it a specific set of beliefs and customs, and philosophy that guided people how to live their lives on earth. Early world religions are characteristically Eastern or traditionalist, in their approach, such as uddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. These old world religions have bee influential in changing and developing many facets of human civilization, particularly in developing social interaction among people and cultivation of culture that is unique and characteristically derived from the dominant and prevailing religion in a society.
Hinduism, as an old world religion, is considered as the cradle of civilization for most South Asian countries, particularly India, where Hinduism was born as early as 1500 .C. It is evident that India as a nation is greatly influenced by Hindu philosophy and culture. The way of life among…
Klostermaier, K. (1994). A Survey of Hinduism. NY: New York Press.
Hinduism." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002.
Shattuck, C. (1999). Hinduism. London: Taylor & Francis.
Zelliot, E. (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. NY: New York Press.
In both cases, He "is an impersonal force; an indefinable, all-pervading deity. Hinduism recognizes hundreds, even thousands, of lesser gods." (Evangelical.us) the same is true in uddhism, "God is an abstract. In essence, uddhism is an atheistic philosophy." (Evangelical.us) in both Hinduism and uddhism, there are stories of how the divine interacts with humans, but there is no historical proof. Only Christianity has historical proof. Since I am not Asian, I naturally want historical evidence, and I naturally want to follow a religion with a real God who cares about me as a person. Hinduists and uddhists have no sense of self-worth in the scope of the universe. "Humans, as with all living things, are just manifestations of rahman. We have no individual self, or self-worth. The world and everything on it are manifestations of rahman. Sin is committed against oneself, not against God." (Contender Ministries) This idea is opposite…
Christian Response to Hinduism." Apologetics. Contender Ministries. http://www.contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php
Comparitive Religions & Christianity." Bibleone.net. 2004. http://www.bibleone.net/print_SF3.html brief comparison of Mohammed to the founders and leading figures of other major religions."
Support the Fight to Acheive Freedom, Secularism, Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. http://www.pcpages.com/ani/pages/isl/moh-comp.htm
How do we know Christianity is the one true way? http://www.evangelical.us/is-christianity-true.html
In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."
One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."
The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even…
Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.
Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Most of the world's religions have many common thoughts and underlying beliefs, including commonalities in beliefs about developing good character and the importance of love and compassion. This essay will attempt to create a new religion (called the Harmony) that is inspired by the commonalities seen in many world religions. Rituals, commandments and beliefs will all be examined, and where applicable, outlined for this new religion.
Stand up comedian George Carlin's comedy routine "Complaints and Grievances" reflects a great many North American's attitudes about faith and sex. The premise of his discussion of the Ten Commandments is that Ten Commandments are an artificially inflated number designed to invoke authority, and that the commandments should be revised down to a minimalist number that are more logical and workable. At the end of his discussion, Carlin gives his list of two commandments. They are, 1) "Thou shalt always be honest and…
Carlin, George. 2001. Complaints and Grievances. Atlantic.
Shreve, Mike. Celebrating Commonalities. The True Light Project. "In Search of the True Light" ©2002 copyright by Mike Shreve. 28 March 2004. http://www.thetruelight.net/commonalities.htm
Religion is an analysis of seven works that the author, Daniel Pals, believes have shaped the understanding of religion in the past century. These theories represent seminal attempts to see religion in its social context as a system of values and beliefs, something that would be popularized by French structuralists and students of myth and semiotics in the last half of the 20th century. The theories reviewed put forth a 'scientific approach to religion' that 'first caught the imagination of serious scholars' in the 19th century. (pg. 10) These theories 'exercised a shaping influence not only on religion but on the whole intellectual culture of our century.' Some of the names put to us are familiar to us, such as Freud and Marx, whereas others are more obscure, such as Tylor and Frazer, Emile Durkheim, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz. The author picks what might be called the…
Religion: How Universal is the Christian Church?
Given all the variations of Christian denominations and different religions, how is it that the Church can still claim to be universal? "The name refers on one hand to the inclination towards uniformity (universus) existing in different things, in virtue of which different things may be represented by a single idea applicable to all in the same way and on the other hand to this one idea which is applicable to the different things (unum vs. alia)" (Universals pg). As used in the Nicene Creed, Catholic means 'universal' or 'all-embracing,' thus, Jesus Christ intended his church to embrace all people, just as he embraced all people, demonstrating in his own ministry to Greeks and Jews, rich and poor, woman and man, free person and slave alike (Schreck 89). The term 'catholic' in reference to the church is first recorded in a letter of…
Akin, James. "THE TWO CANONS: SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION." http://www.ewtn.com/library/ANSWERS/2CANONS.htm .(accessed 01-23-2003).
Schreck, Alan. Basics of the Faith: A Catholic Catechism. Servant Books. 1987; pp. 69, 70, 89, 90, 110, 112, 120, 265.
Universals." New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15182a.htm .
A accessed 01-23-2003).
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
Learning that we all believe in one force, yet a force that is represented with different entities and faith demonstrated through various traditions and practices, I have learned to reconcile these differences by just believing in a force, without any subsistence to religious names and labels and traditions.
As what I have discussed earlier, what used to be my religion was the belief I was exposed to since birth. However, as I grew up and became exposed to different forms of religions and beliefs in my society, I have learned to adapt to the diversity of religious philosophies extant by creating my personal philosophy. This personal philosophy is one that believes in a 'general force,' which is formless and not bound with the traditional practices. This force enables me to confide with an entity without any fear or limitations on what I can say or ask of it. It has…
...social conditioning was effected in such a way, that any thing that was considered primal, pagan, or unchristian, was frowned upon... [leading to] persecution of the Druids, Witches, Gypsy, and Jewish cultures that still continues today." Curiously, it may be that very historical hostility towards the primal which has corroded the power of Catholic sacred music and turned new catholics and protestants alike against it.
In the Jewish ritual, music of all sorts has long played an important part. The majority of each service is sung. The Jewish Encyclopedia described the history of this tradition and describes the way that (in antiquity) the singers-of-songs were slowly absorbed into the priesthood because of the importance of their role. From the ancient days cantors (those who sing the Torah scriptures) have received tunes from their ancestors and embellished them to fit the present eras. Thus one can see in such Jewish rituals…
Brown, Karen McCarthy. "Drum Is the Ear of God: Africa's Inner World of Music." Harvet Moon. http://www.harvestmoon.net/Vodou/Articles/Women/women.html
Hull, Arthur. "RHYTHMACULTURE: The Birthing of American Rhythmaculture," Percussion Source Magazine, Spring 1997. http://www.drumcircle.com/arthurian/rhythmaculture.html
Jewish Encyclopedia (1901). archived at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/index.jsp
Schiller, Benjie-Ellen. "Some notes on the future of Jewish sacred music." Union for Reform Judaism. http://urj.org/worship/letuslearn/s9sacredmusic/
Dharma is related to "karma," another basic Buddhist principle that governs reincarnation and rebirth. Karma is the idea that a person must perform moral deeds throughout his life to attain a higher level of reincarnation and rebirth. Karma governs these moral deeds, and a person must "pay" in the next life if they do not act morally and spiritually in this life. Thus, karma governs more than one life, and is an important concept in the religion.
Buddhism differs from many of the world's major religions in many ways. For example, monks are the holy men of the religion, but they do not act as priests or officials of the church. In fact, many rituals, such as baptism and marriage, are considered family rituals and are not presided over by monks. They do attend funerals, because Buddhists believe death is simply the gateway to another life, and the beginning of…
Keown, Damien. Buddhism a Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Robinson, B.A. "Buddhism, Based on the Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama." ReligiousTolerance.org. 2007. 28 June. 2007. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism.htm
Schmidt-Leukel, Perry. "Buddhism and the Idea of Human Rights: Resonances and Dissonances." Buddhist-Christian Studies (2006): 33+.
Seager, Richard Hughes. Buddhism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Witham, Larry. "Buddhism Influences U.S. Thought." The Washington Times 11 Oct. 1997: 7.
Buddhism and Jainism
Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…
The first elemental difference between Hinduism and Taoism is the transcendental nature of the former and the immanent nature of the latter. This characteristic also leads to Hinduism's sacramental orientation and the importance lent to the use of sacred words and scriptures in areas such as music and art vs. The more mystical leanings of Taoism and the value it places on silence and wordless meditation. The second significantly different pattern of contrast is that while Hinduism advocates dualism or that nature is contaminating and exists as an opposing force to the non-material world of the spirit, Taoism believes that nature is sacred and needs no alteration (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.) third aspect of contrast is that Hinduism preaches the doctrine of karma and cyclical time, and that the 'atman' or human soul will receive 'moksha' or liberation from personal limitation, egotism and rebirth only through following a path of 'Jnana Yoga,' 'Karma Yoga' and 'Bhakti Yoga,' whereas Taoism places far less emphasis on the individual. Taoism, instead, takes the view that actions are not guided by an internalized moral system but by society, tradition and a sense of mutual obligation (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
The fourth point of marked difference is that while Hinduism practices 'exclusiveness,' Taoism is inclusive in nature accepting belief in many deities and regarding truth as relative in the interests of attaining social harmony.
In conclusion, though there are some similarities and some differences when comparing any two religions, Buddhism and Jainism do seem to have a very common basis in their overall orientation whereas there seems to be sharp differences between Hinduism and Taoism.
While the similarities in ethical and theological concepts are great, some differences emerge. For instance, Islam seems to be the more fundamental or faith-based of the two religions, as obinson (2008-1) points often to a liberal branch of Christianity that questions even the very fundamentals of the faith. For instance, while Muslims believe that Jesus was born of a Virgin, even though they do not accept him as the Son of God, liberal Christians do not accept the idea of the virgin birth (obinson, 2008-1). While Christianity has gained its share of criticism, many critics have targeted Islam in the wake of the September 11, 2009 attacks. Many criticize Islam for the concept of Jihad, a term that obinson (2008A) argues is one of the most misunderstood in the religion. Some interpret this term as war against non-believers. Ellian (2008) also criticizes Islam for its inability to accept criticism and…
Ellian, A. (2009). "Criticism and Islam." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Wall Street
Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120692614173175795.html
Robinson, B.A. (2007). "Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity." Retrieved June 10,
2009, from Religious Tolerance.org. Web Site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
Diana Eck's new book about religion, entitled, "A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" Has Now ecome the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation" talks about the growing diversity in religious affiliations in America especially among its immigrants and native people. Eck provides her readers a new issue that is controversial politically, sociologically, and personally among America's citizens. The book was released before the September 11, 2001 bombings at the World Trade Center in New York City, USA, but its release became even more important, since Eck discusses the important issue that played in the said terrorist attacks, that is, the issue of religious and cultural diversity. This paper will discuss and analyze whether "religious pluralism," a term used by Diana Eck in her book so many times, a term used to describe America's 'melting pot' of various Western and Eastern religions, serves as a unifying factor to the Americans…
Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.
The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…
Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.
Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
eligion and Leadership
Core religious and philosophical worldviews have a strong bearing on leadership style and effectiveness. eligious and philosophical worldviews provide the ethical and moral foundations for decision-making, which is a critical component of leadership. Moreover, religious and philosophical worldviews impact the ways leaders guide, teach, and serve others.
Worldview extends beyond religion. Defined loosely as "visions of life," worldviews encompass the "beliefs, values, and principles" that guide behavior and motivate change (Valk, 2010, p. 83). A worldview is a set of mental constructs that impacts the formation of biases and stereotypes. Biases and stereotypes can come in the way of effective leadership. On the other hand, worldviews are influenced by religious beliefs. eligious beliefs impact the formation of ethical codes that define both individual and organizational behavior. A worldview is a paradigm of life. Although a worldview affects more than leadership effectiveness, there are few areas in which…
Agosto, E. (2005). Servant Leadership. Danvers, MA: Chalice.
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M. & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly 20(2): 241-261.
Boyum, G. (2006). The Historical and Philosophical Influences on Greenleaf's Concept of Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Aug 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/2006/boyum.pdf
Fry, L.F. (2009). Towards a theory of being-centered leadership: Multiple levels of being as context for effective leadership. Human Relations 62(11):1667-1696
eligion, World History
ise of China
It would not seem likely for the previous thousand years that not Europeans, but Indians and Chinese would take over the world by 2000 and that the Chinese would settle Australia and America rather than the people of Britain; except for the time of oman Empire, China was richer, more cosmopolitan and advanced than any other European place. For example, Hangzhou had a population of a million when it was the capital of China in the twelfth century and facts state that Guangzhou had more than two million foreign inhabitants that included Turks, Africans, Indians, Malays, Persians and Arabs. In comparison, Paris, which was the largest city in Europe in the 1400s, had a little more than a million inhabitants. China at that time cared about filial piety, religion, ancestors, education, arts, culture, honor and prestige, and money was not on top of the…
Ajami, F. (n.d.). The Other 1492: Jews and Muslims in Columbus's Spain. pp. 174-177.
Atkins, C. (2003). The Shrine of Islam's Tragic Divisions. History Today. November 2003. pp. 116-117.
Goodstein, L. (2006). Zoroastrians Keep the Faith, and keep Dwindling. The New York Times. pp. 122-123.
King, K.L. (1998). Women in Ancient Christianity - The New Discoveries. pp. 128-131.
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
Einstein, A. "Religion and Science." Retrieved August 19, 2013, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/einstein/einsci.htm
This article is intriguing because it was written by one of history's most renowned scientists with the purpose of clearing the mystery concerning the conflict between religion and science. Einstein was a convinced scientists, but this did not prevent him from acknowledging situations when religion had assisted the world of science and from realizing that religion was in many cases responsible for influencing people to come up with logical explanations to particular events.
Ferngren, G.B. (2002). Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction. JHU Press.
This book presents a typical account concerning the relationship between science and religion. The fact that it uses thirty scholarly essays with the purpose to document the history of the topic while also introducing strong opinions supporting each of the two sides shows that the debate is still alive and that it is very difficult…
Sikhism is a progressive religion that was well earlier than its time when it was established over five hundred years ago. The Sikh religion today has over twenty million followers worldwide and is ranked as the worlds 5th largest religion. Sikhism advocates a message of Devotion and commemoration of God at all times, honest living, equality of mankind and condemns superstitions and blind ceremonies. "Sikhism is open to all by way of the teachings of its 10 Gurus preserved in the Sikh Holy Book and Living Guru, Sri Guru Granth Sahib" (Sikhism, 2011).
"The word Sikh in the Punjabi language means disciple, Sikhs are the disciples of God who follow the writings and teachings of the Ten Sikh Gurus. The knowledge of these teachings in Sri Guru Granth Sahib is sensible and worldwide in their petition to all mankind. The creator of the Sikh religion was Guru Nanak who was…
Frequently Asked Questions about Sikhism. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/FAQ
Singh, N.G.K. (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. LTD.
Sikh Beliefs. (2009). Retrieved from
familiar with the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism but the religion of Jainism, although enjoying nearly as many members, is not as well-known. Similarly, most know something about the practices and beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism but very individuals know anything about Jainism.
Jainism is a well-established religion that is largely based on the concept of non-violence which is one of the five great vows of the religion (Long, 2009). The other four vows are non-attachment to material things, no lying, no stealing, and promotion of sexual restraint. As to sexual restraint, celibacy is considered to be the ideal.
Followers of Jainism view the world as a highly integrated unit. They believe that all living things, including animals and plants, possess a living soul and that humans, animals, and plants all operate on an equal level. This belief places a strict duty on the part of its followers to treat…
Cush, D. (1999). 'Learning from' the Concept and Concepts of a Religious Tradition: Jainism in the RE Curriculum. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion and Education, 60-74.
Jamison, D. (2003). Janism and Buddhism. In D. Jamison, A Companion to Environmental Philosophy (pp. 52-66). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Long, J.D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction . London: I.B. Tarius.
Jainism, Buddhism, Hinduism
oldest and most widely practiced religions in the world, Hinduism is an attractive and flexible tradition. ith its colorful pantheon of deities, Hinduism has evolved over millennia, and has survived vast transformations in Indian culture. The fundamental teachings of the religion are contained within its sacred texts, namely the Vedas and the Upanishads. Hindu deities like Krishna, Ganesha, and Shiva have become well-known around the world, and Hindu practices like yoga are also renowned.
The Vedas are considered to be divine teachings containing immutable knowledge. However, their scope is wide and diverse. A supreme being is espoused, one who is personal and impersonal, immanent and transcendent. The Supreme Being is viewed as creator of the universe of both seen and unseen realities. The existence of other realms of existence, including deities, is central to Hindu cosmology. Communion with the gods is made possible by spiritual practice, devotion, ritual, sacrifice, and…
Aiyar, C.P.Ramaswami; Dutt, Nalinaksha; Wadia, A.R.; Mujeeb, Pal; Dharm M., and D'Souza, Jerome. "An Introduction to Hinduism." Hindusim. The Gazetteer of India, Volume 1: Country and people. Delhi, Publications Division, Government of India, 1965. 11 June 1997. 3 July 2003. http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/hinduism.htm#intro .
Hinduism: The World's Third Largest Religion." About.com. 3 July 2003. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm .
ethnic and universalizing religions and offers Christianity and Hinduism as examples. A brief comparison and contrast between Christianity and Hinduism is then offered along with a cultural landscape of each.
Though the number of religions worldwide is far too numerous to address, the nature of those religions can be categorized in one of two groups. They are either universalizing religions or ethnic religions. An example of a universalizing religion is Christianity while an example of an ethnic religion is Hinduism. Though they differ significantly, they also have commonalities. These commonalities are a direct result of the very definition of religion and its defining characteristics. Another commonality is that they have both made significant imprints upon the cultural landscape though the actual geographic locations differ significantly.
Religion is best defined by addressing the characteristics which comprise it. Essentially, it is a belief in a deity or in a greater…
Of course, Americanized women are more apt to push the edge of human rights, whether internally or for their bretheran abroad. The book is very personal in orientation, not footnoted, and scholarly only on the point of interest level and tone.
ADD CITATIO, this is for scans 103-109 in book.
Postcolonialism has been accentuated by globalism, and is a particular change factor in the Hindu world. For much of this world, centuries of colonialism had a dominant effect upon culture, expression, gender roles, and political awareness. In particular, the media (telecommunication, television, the Internet) engenders reform within society because it shows younger Hindus what is possible in the outside world, what other younger people are doing in different parts of the world, and how they can remain compatible with Hinduism while still becoming citizens of the modern world. Change is the ultimate decision maker for culture, and the post-colonial Hindu…
Nasr, V. (2010). Forces of Fortune: The Rise of the New Muslim Middle Class. New York:
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability of a number of products and services from the Western world that are somewhat questionable in the Islamic culture. Outside the political sphere, many Muslims say that the forces of satellite TV, the Internet, certain movies, McDonald's and other fast food restaurants may be problematical and not always equitable with traditional Muslim society. This, combined with the rise of a new, more fisically viable, middle class changes the way many Muslims perceive the world -- particularly Muslim women. Different countries adapt to technological and economic change differently, but the simple fact is that Islam cannot feasibly divorce itself from the modern world -- so must find a way to adapt the Koranic teachings to the modern world.
Christianity and Hinduism -- Similarities and Differences
Christianity and Hinduism
This paper will provide a comparison and contract of Christianity and Hinduism with particular regard to the subjects of monotheism and eschatology. Christian monotheistic practice and Hindu monotheism will be highlighted, and the end-times philosophies of each religion are reviewed with regard to structure and caste system.
Christianity has always stood out as a monotheistic practice, celebrating belief in the one God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth, "all things visible and invisible" (Bolt, 2004). Many sects within the Christian faith believe in the Trinitarian principle, which is the idea or concept of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as one body (Bolt, 2004; Sunday, 2005).
Most do not consider Hinduism a monotheistic practice; but it is actually if one believes in monotheism as the belief in one God. Hinduism is not polytheistic, because it simply recognizes…
Bhattatiri, Mepathur Narayana.2003.Narayaneeyam-Bhagavata, Condensed
Edition.SriRamakrishna Math. pp. 234-239.
Bolt, Peter. 2004. The cross from a distance: Atonment in Mark's gospel, a new studies in biblical theology. Downers Grove: Intervarsity.
Gulshan, Esther. 2010. The torn veil, a biography. CLC Publications.
Salvation will come based on one's deeds rather than on his capacity to achieve a high spiritual level, as in the Hindu faith and others.
Christianity does not necessarily provide all the answers. Christian believers will still have doubts about their existence, about their role on Earth and about their lives, as well as about their capacity of attaining salvation. However, Christianity provides the means by which one can integrate successfully into his or her life, enjoy the life here, while committing to a life within the Church and doing the good deeds that can help an individual attain eternal salvation. The idea of salvation puts things into perspective, but with a direct impact on the present, because it is the acts of the individual here that will get the salvation or not.
Christianity can be considered, from all these perspectives, the most complete religion in existence and a way…
1. Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
2. Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13407a.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Barrow, Martin. The Four Gospels. 1995. On the Internet at http://www.domini.org/tabern/martyn.htm.Last retrieved on February 3, 2009
Salvation. 2008. The Catholic Encyclopedia. On the Internet at
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places
Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…
Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print
Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print
Emptiness, as we also find in some Hindu philosophies like Advaita, is the eternal emptiness that is beyond dualism and which is rich with possibilities that far exceed the dualities of the ordinary world. In most Buddhist schools of thought we understand the search for Nirvana as the personal search for enlightenment and understanding of existence beyond ordinary duality. This is also reflected in Advaita Hinduism.
Another important area of comparison is the rejection of a personal God or the concept of God as part of the realization of Nirvana. This is evident in all forms of Buddhism and in Advaita Hinduism. However, the Dvaita school of thought and other forms of Hinduism tend to place emphasis on God or Gods as essential for enlighten.
There are many other similarities and differences between these two faiths, which would take as few books to discuss. In the final analysis we could…
Advaita. February 6, 2010.
Dasa, Shukavak N. A Hindu Primer. February 3, 2010.
For this reason, it is important to identify the most basic differences between Hinduism and Christianity (Christian esponse to Hinduism (http://contenderministries.org/hinduism/christianresponse.php)."
While Hindus believe in a Creator the truth behind that creator is that there are many Gods within the Brahman. The Christian faith provides one Lord, one God and one true creator.
The bible instructs man to worship and love only one God.
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one." Deuteronomy 6:4
And call upon me in the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you will honor me." Psalm 50:15
In the Hindu faith each person is nothing more than a manifestation of the Brahman. It is something that can create great stress with the belief that one is on earth because in a previous life they were not worthy.
The Christian faith believes that God created all mankind with free will. He…
Ghasarian, Christian (1997) We have the best gods! The encounter between Hinduism and Christianity in La Reunion. Journal of Asian and African Studies
Lambert, Yves (1999). Secularization or New Religious Paradigms? Sociology of Religion, 60 (3), Fall, pp. 303-333.
Cohen, Charles L.(2003) the colonization of British North America as an episode in the history of Christianity. Church History
Study of Basic Christian Beliefs (Accessed 5-23-07)
Wearing Guru Jacket
Sikhism is a religion that was formed by Guru Nanak who was born in 1469 in a village in Pakistan. The teaching of this founder Guru and the successive ten Gurus are the basis for the faith in this religion. The tenth Guru is actually a holy (sacred) book called the Guru Granth Sahib. A unique feature of Sikhism is the fact that they do not have a definitive God but they believe their God to be shapeless, timeless and sightless, which means there a possibility they would interpret even the universe to be God. Sometimes this religion is misunderstood to the extent of being taken as branch of other religions that are well established because they have been around for a longer time. However, looking deeply into its doctrines the differences and similarities that can be seen in all the other religions are evident.
Juss, S.S. (2010). The Secular Tradition In Sikhism . Rutgers Journal Of Law & Religion, 271-349.
Singh, G. (1976). The Religion of the Sikhs. Delhi: Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee.
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)
Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand
Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…
Kapur, A. (2010). Hindu sect devoted to its environment. International Herald Tribune, 2.
Kitiarsa, P. (2005). Beyond syncretism: Hybridization of popular religion in contemporary
Thailand. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 36(3), 461-487.
McCurry, Justin T. (2008). Religion: Buddhism forced to turn trendy to attract a new generation in Japan: Priests visit bars to reach out to young sceptics amid dramatic decline. The Guardian, 31-31.
Thus, it is a primary duty by Sikhs to keep their hair in best condition and long, as a symbol of faith of God's will and importance of humility and acceptance; 2) Khanga, or wooden comb, is used, because it can be easily worn easily in the hair at all time. Besides its practicality, the comb stands for cleanliness. As the comb eliminates the tangles, so too do the Sikhs comb their lives to eliminate impure thoughts by repeating God's name, NAAM in the mind; 3) Karra, which means a link or bondage, is signified by wearing a steel bracelet o the right wrist as if it were a wedding ring or connection between a pair of people. This symbolizes the Guru's ring to Sikh and the never-ending bond with the Guru and among each other who belong to the Khalsa brotherhood. Similarly, the circle represents personal restraint and continually…
Cole, W. Owen. Understanding Sikhism. Edinburg: Dunedin Academic Press, 2004. Cunningham, Joseph D. History of the Sikhs. London: John Murray, 1853.
Leaf, Murray J. Information and Behavior in a Sikh Village. Berkeley: University of California,1972
Singh, P. Guru Granth Sahib. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Sinha, J. Imagining Architectures: Creativity in the Religious Monuments of India. Newark, DE:
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Jews and Jewish eligion
Judaism is one of the revealed religions of the world and like Islam and Christianity; this religion also endorses the concept of monotheism. Being one of the oldest monotheist religions, Judaism has a long history but throughout this history, its basic beliefs, traditions, sacred texts and rituals have remained more or less the same.
Monotheism in Judaism
Like Christianity and Islam, Judaism is one of the most well-known monotheist religions. Monotheistic means believing in one God. Unlike some other religions like Hinduism and Buddhism, Jewish religion believes in the existence of one single God who is the source of all power in the world. In Torah, God says: "I am the first, and I am the last; and besides me there is no God." (Isaiah 44:6)
Jewish people tend to believe that there is one Supreme Being that controls the whole world and our destinies. Over…
1) Isaac Unterman. The Jewish Holidays. Bloch Pub Co. New York. 1950
2) Jewish rituals: accessed online: http://lexicorient.com/cgi-bin/eo-direct-frame.pl-http://lexicorient.com/e.o/judaism.htm
3) Leo Trepp, A History of the Jewish Experience, Springfield, NJ: Behram House,. Inc., 2001
Eastern eligion, Eastern Mysticism, And Magic
Influence the Pop Culture in America
Eastern religion" - also alluded to in this paper as "Eastern Mysticism" and "mysticism" - and the occult, along with magic and its many off-shoots have had a considerable influence on American Pop Culture over the past few decades. Movies, books, music - all have been touched and enhanced by mysticism and its cousins. So, when referring to "Eastern religion," this paper is generally alluding to the ancient religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and other spiritual genres.
It is also important to be clear on what "occult" truly means; it is a word that comes from the Latin occultus, meaning, literally, "hidden" or "concealed" (Merriam-Webster defines occult as "to shut off from view or exposure"). "Occult" has been equated with Satan, witchcraft, vampires, and other unseemly topics related to death and blood-letting. For this paper's purpose, the occult will…
Arnold, Thomas K. "Azkaban audiences do a vanishing act." USA Today 15 June
Bowles, Scott. "Cruise shows clout again with 'Collateral'." USA Today
Davy, Emma. "Harry Potter's Magic: Physics or Fiddlesticks?" Current Science 86
Jainism and Hinduism
Jainism, along with Hinduism and uddhism, constitutes the three central religious and philosophical traditions of India. In many ways the linkages and evolution of these three religions are inextricably intertwined and can be seen to be coterminous and related to each other. Jainism and uddhism emerged from within the growing and evolving matrix of Hindu doctrine and philosophy.
Jainism in particular developed in reaction to various aspects of Hindu worldview, particularly with regard to the rahmanistic stratification of society and its ritual theism.
A comparison of these two faiths also brings attention to bear on the various interpretations of Hinduism. It should also be noted that Hinduism is not one homogenous body of clear-cut practice and doctrine, it is in fact a complex amalgam of various interpretations and views that form a sometimes contradictory whole. Jainism also cannot be seen in isolation from the cultural and philosophical…
Archer, John Clark. Faiths Men Live By. New York: T. Nelson and sons, 1938.
Basham, A.L. The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press, 1954.
Birodkar, S. Jainism- Gave us Non-Violence as an Ethical Outlook. 25 August, 2004. http://india.coolatlanta.com/GreatPages/sudheer/book2/jainism.html
Brockington, J.L. The Sacred Thread: Hinduism in Its Continuity and Diversity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981.
In the reading, Maya has been given different meanings by the Upanishads. From my understanding, the world contains both magic and matter. Therefore, the world is real because it takes many different forms and accommodates diversity. Therefore, God is our creator who directs us to the concept of Maya when dealing with nature. For the Shvetasvatara this implies that God is the one who rules over Maya and this includes human beings and all other things found on earth. The world can be looked at as something stable and permanent, but some disparity can be drawn from the aspect that makes movements. This move has enabled it to shift and change all the time and is similar to the world of one’s thoughts and dreams where changes also take place. Time is also seen by people to be something that is real and the distinct divisions in this element…
America a Christian Nation?
During the founding of the new Republic, soon to be the United States of America, the idea of Christianity and the power of God to represent the best will of the people was part of the Founding Fathers' notions. It was inconceivable to them, in fact, to separate the idea of being religious and being political; and the notion of religion was tied with Christianity. The social view of the time was different than it is now, and there was a difference between the cultural heritage of religion and Biblical Christianity. There are examples from both sides of the argument that show America as one founded on the basic principles of Christianity -- the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution being, for their time period, quite egalitarian. In the Declaration of Independence, for instance, there is a clear reference to the "Laws of Nature and of…
Universal religions have grandiose political and social schemes. Unlike smaller-scale spiritual faiths, universal religions are those that seek to expand their locus of power and control over larger areas, such as through proselytizing or linking with political rulers. Universal religions also extended deeper into more areas of individual, family and community lives. For example, universal religions propagated specific social norms, morals, and ethics, and became one of the fundamental means of establishing laws. Universal religions also became linked with culture and ethnicity, providing a means by which people forged collective and individual identities. Yet unlike ancient religions, universal religions did not limit their scope to specific geo-political terrain. Believers would spread universal religions far beyond the place where they originated. Universal religions were believed to possess transcendent truths, which could be communicated to and received by people from various cultures, ethnicities, backgrounds, and belief systems. Unlike the localized faiths, universal…
As with water methods of visually perceiving patterns, divination serves as a literal mirror for the cosmos. The visual cues of divination such as cowry shells or the patterns made by mice sometimes serves as a pictorial language spoken between nonhuman and human participants. That language is not one used in human communications, even though it may inform human social order and modes of cognition.
The language of divination represents communication between human and super-human forces. A diviner acts much like a translator would, communicating the perceived patterns of cosmic order to an individual or to the community. Divination is integral to all traditional African religions as well as to the religions of most other cultures. The function of divination is artistic, epistemological, and expressive. Divination also creates, maintains, and interprets social and spiritual order.
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African…
Bourgeois, Arthur P. "Insight and Artistry in African Divination - Book Review." African Arts. Summer 2002. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0438/is_2_35/ai_94010411/?tag=content;col1
"Exploring Africa." African Studies Center. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m14/activity2.php
Peek, Phillip M. African Divination Systems. Indiana University Press, 1991.
Pemberton, John III. "Divination in Sub-Saharan Africa." Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination. 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2009 from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/oracle/essayPemberton.html
Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").
Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…
"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
hen Buddha discusses suffering or pain (dukkha), the First Noble Truth, he is referring not only to pain as though someone had burned a hand on a stove, or had stumbled and bruised knee. Dukkha-dukkha is in reference to negative things, painful emotional moments, mental agony and the suffering that goes along with mental disturbances. According to sources used for this paper, some scholars suggest that dukkha alludes to something closer to "dissatisfaction" or "stress" (about.com). And viparinama-dukkha also refers to change or a lack of permanence. For example, when a person is very happy but the success that produced that happiness fades away, that is dukkha (about.com).
The cause of suffering (samkhara-dukkha) (the Second Noble Truth) can be attributed to a "craving," and to "desire" and "ignorance"; desire means craving for material things and pleasure, along with immortality (pbs.org). Buddha believed these wants and desires could never be…
About.com. (2010). What is Self? / Life Is Suffering? What Does That Mean? Retrieved
July 20, 2015, from http://buddhism.about.com .
BBC. (2009). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from http://www.bbc.co.uk .
Bliss of Hinduism. (2012). The Self in Hinduism. Retrieved July 20, 2015, from https://blissofhinduism.wordpress.com.
Hinduism With Other eligions
There are a number of common characteristics that Hinduism shares with other religions. One of the most fundamental of these is the notion of the afterlife in Hinduism. Specifically, Hinduism posits the notion that there is both a heaven and a hell that people will encounter after their physical existence ends on earth. This idea is reflected in Christianity and in Judaism. Additionally, it is significant to realize that Islam is also partly predicated on the conception of paradise, which is largely akin to the Hindu tenet of heaven. Hinduism is also extremely polytheistic, which is one of its notions that is also found in other religions such as those which dominated classical Greece and ome during the period of antiquity (and prior to ome's adoption of Christianity by Constantine as its official state religion). Interestingly enough, there is a conception in Hinduism of a trinity,…
Hebbar, N.H. (2002). Modern Hinduism. www.boloji.com Retrieved from http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1494
Hoffert, B. (n.d.). Hinduism in the modern world.
Hindu society dictates that once a girl is married, she no longer belongs in the home of her parents and her husband's home is her entire future. She may never return to her maternal home on a permanent basis, for that would bring shame upon her in Hindu society. This is the reason why Hindu weddings are always characterized by much weeping as the girl ceremoniously bids farewell to her ancestral home. Her husband becomes her God, his home becomes her home and her life is dedicated to serve him and obey him. In the absence of the support of her maternal home, dowry was provided as a means to provide for the girl's new family needs in the event of a financial crisis. However, over the years this practice has degenerated into a mercenary enterprise, where a premium is placed on a male and the woman is bought and…
Narayan, Vasundra: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/women/html/wm_016100_hinduism.htm
Malhotra, Rajiv: (2000): http://www.infinityfoundation.com/ECITempowermentframe.htm
Dollar, David and Gatti, Roberta: (1999): Gender Inequality, Income and Growth: Are good times good for women?: www.worldbank.org/gender/prr
O'Henry, Edward: THE JAYAMALA RITE in EASTERN NORTH INDIA: OUTSIDERS' and INSIDERS' MISUNDERSTANDINGS, Department of Anthropology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5020 http://www.unm.edu/~jar/v59n4.html#a4
Rodney L. Taylor, 'The Religious Character of the Confucian Traditions'
• Confucianism calls into question the definition of religion.
• Confucianism is commonly treated differently from other religious traditions, because it is more about social harmony, ethics, and comportment than about theology.
• All religions address ethics, morality, and social codes, and so does Confucianism. Then why is Confucianism not called a religion?
• The main reason is that Confucianism "lacks a concept of the transcendent," (p. 80)
• Is a concept of the transcendent a necessary part of the definition of a religion? No.
• It is a "western" assumption that a religion is defined by an overt reference to the transcendent.
• Buddhism and Taoism lack formal concepts of deities like those in Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity but are nevertheless relatively indisputably considered religious traditions.
• Moreover, Confucian writings are not typically referred to as "scripture," even though…
The research showed that Hinduism is a religion that has been practiced in South Asia for more than 4,000 years, and despite having experienced some fundamental changes during these millennia, the religion has been adopted by people from all over the world. hile the majority of Hindus are still in India where four out of five people are Hindus, the research also showed that the billions of people who subscribe to Hinduism do not assign this term to their faiths, and may not even have ever heard the term "Hindu" in their lives. The worldview held by these billions of faithful is therefore naturally varied, but largely relates to a perpetual universe in which unrequited desire is the source of human misery, and the cycle of life will continue until these desires are understood and extinguished. Finally, the research also showed that Hinduism is characterized by the shared concepts…
Basham, a.L. "Hinduism." In the Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, R.C. Zaehner (Ed.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.
Beck, Richard. (2006). "Defensive vs. Existential Religion: Is Religious Defensiveness Predictive of Worldview Defense?" Journal of Psychology and Theology 34(2): 142.
Carmody. Denise Lardner and John Tully Carmody. Mysticism: Holiness East and West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Findly, Ellison Banks. (2002). "Hinduism and Ecology: The Intersection of Earth, Sky, and Water." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122(4): 925.
It is likely that in order to achieve this "release" from the tedium of one's worldly conception of one's self will only be achieved with the guidance of a Guru (or siddha) who provides inspiration but does not intervene on one's behalf.
The key scriptures in Hinduism are referred to as "Shastras" (a collection of spiritual guides and laws revealed by "saints and sages" along the historical route through which Hinduism traveled (Das, p. 1). The deities (gods and goddesses) that are associated with Hinduism number into the "thousands or even millions," Das explains (p. 2). These many deities all represent particular aspects of "Brahman," which is the supreme Absolute, Das goes on. Notwithstanding all those deities, the most powerful and visible of the deities is the "Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva -- creator, preserver and destroyer, respectively" (Das, p. 2). It is also known that Hindus worship trees,…
Das, Subhamoy. (2010). How Do You Define Hinduism? Hinduism for Beginners. The Uniqueness of Hinduism. About.com. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2010, from http://hinduism.about.com .
Lorentz, Melissa. (2008). Basic Beliefs of Hinduism. Minnesota State University. Retrieved Dec.
14, 2010, from http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/hinduism/beliefs.html .
Mysorekar, Uma. (2006). Eye on religion: clinicians and Hinduism. Southern Medical Journal.