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religious faith. Part of this faith is the belief that homosexuality is against God and God's teachings. The researcher is part of a research team working together on a grant-funded project focusing on adjustment of children raised in families with same-sex parents. The researcher has been tasked with completing a major part of the literature review related to the topic. What advice would you give the researcher for remaining unbiased while reviewing the literature?
The researcher has the challenge of remaining objective whilst reading the material and selecting that which he would incorporate in his writing. There are various strategies that the researcher can use:
Being aware of his bias
It is crucial that the researcher be aware of the fact that he has heterosexual tendencies that have been shaped by his religious inclinations and that this fact may impact his work. t the same time, he needs to be…
APA (2012) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. "Guidelines to Reduce Bias in Language," (pp. 61 -- 76)
Creswell JW. (2009) Research Design, (3rd ed.) Sage Publication.
Herek GM et al. (1991) Avoiding Heterosexist Bias in Psychological Research American Psychologist, 46, 957-963
religious faith seems to most of us living in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century to be a purely private one. e (most of us believe) that a person's choice of religion, of congregation, of philosophy is something that each individual must decide for himself or herself. If a person finds most intellectual and emotional comfort in being a Muslim or a Jew or an atheist or a Theosophist we believe that such choices are between that person and his or her conscience alone. However, this acceptance that people must choose their own moral path in life as a purely individual choice is a relatively new idea and one that we owe very much to the beliefs promulgated by the thinkers and writers of the Enlightenment who for the first time began a systematic exploration of the ways in which questions of morality, religion and conscience…
In time, Bringham Young became the Mormon leader and led the Mormons further west ultimately to the Salt Lake Valley.
hat are the Tenets of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints?
According to the Mormon website, there are six key points that believers must adhere to in the Mormon Church: a) "God Is Our Father" (God is the "Father of our spirits," humans are "created in His image" and humans have a "divine nature and destiny"); b) "e lived with God" (before people were born they lived with God and hence, "All persons on earth are literally brothers and sisters in the family of God"; c) "Earth Life Is Part of God's Plan" (the lives of people are purposeful, and by coming to Earth -- through Jesus Christ -- God's plan for us is "…to gain a physical body and learn to choose between good and evil");…
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. (2011). Our Eternal Life. Retrieved August 11,
2011, from http://lds.org/plan/print/our-eternal-life?lang=eng .
Gibson, Michelle. (2010). "However Satisfied Man Might Be": Sexual Abuse in Fundamentalist
Latter Day Saints Communities." The Journal of American Culture, 33(4), 280-294.
ideals of Religious faith looking at such questions as "What are the grounds of religious faith? What does a faith do for a life?. Examples used are historical data such as Germanic faith, Vedic cultures and faith from Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Bibliography cites four references
Faith; Blind love or stupidity
What are the grounds of religious faith?" This question is as ambiguous, and as difficult to answer as the question "Does a God exist?" There are many ways of understanding the need and grounds for a religious faith, such as psychological, sociological and cultural. It also needs to be recognized many devout followers believe that their God is supreme, for instance followers of the Muslim faith.
However, to answer the question, where are the grounds for faith in religion, we need to look at the evidence and the reason of the existence of faith. The moist common answer may…
Whether or not God chooses to forgive the choice not to accept Christ in life, any punishment for that in the afterlife is a matter for God, not man, to consider. Likewise, the decision to forgive earthly sins based on repentance and acceptance of Christ is also a matter for God's infinite wisdom and not man's fallible intellectual powers.
In all likelihood, there are explanations besides genuine remorse for one's sins that explain the unusually high religious conversion rates observed in prisons generally, and among those sentenced to life terms and to death, in particular. For one thing, all of us have a psychological need to think of ourselves as being good people. In then outside world, so called illicit pleasures and impulses that conflict with religious morality are a powerful temptation to stray from the moral path. Without immoral temptation, after all, there would be no motivation to sin…
Faith and reason: Can one Live without the other?
Habitually, faith and reason have respectively been looked at as being the sources of justification for religious faith. For the reason that both can supposedly serve this same epistemic purpose, it has been a question of much interest to theorists and theologians how the two are linked and as a result how the rational agent should treat claims resulting from either basis. Some theologians have held that there can be no struggle between faith and reason -- that reason correctly employed and faith correctly assumed will never create opposing or opposing claims -- whereas others have supported that faith and reason can be in honest disagreement over certain propositions or events (O'Collins, 2003). The Instruction on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian explains, "y its nature, faith appeals to reason because it reveals to man the truth of his destiny…
Murphy, N., 2007. Religion and Science." The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In: New York: Routledge, pp. 230-236.
Nichols, A. O., 1991. The Shape of Catholic Theology. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press.
O'Collins, G. a. F. M., 2003. Catholicism The story of Catholic Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…
1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:
Lutterworth Press Cambridge
2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:
Simon and Schuster.
In society today, we are bombarded with messages that suggest that our morality is driven by anything but the Bible. Indeed, turn on the television and images which are antithetical to Christ's word are everywhere, open the pages of a textbook and you will see pages upon pages of secular explanations of the existence of mankind; however, Matt Slick author of "What is a Christian Worldview? And Why Do We Need One?" warns us not to despair and that things are actually looking up for Christians. In fact, more people today derive his/her morals from God than did three hundred years ago. For example, in the 1700's, less than 20% of the American population went to church where now it is above 50% of the population (Slick). At this rate, in another 500 years, we will have attained a 100% participation rate!
The Christian conception of life and death and…
Cosgrove, M.P. (2006). Foundations of Christian thought: faith, learning, and the Christian worldview. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.
Gleghorn, M. (n.d.). An Exploration of Religious Knowledge:: Michael Gleghorn. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from http://www.michaelgleghorn.com/artExplorReligKnowledge.php
Slick, M. (n.d.). What is a Christian World View and Why do Christians Need One? What is a Christian World View and Why do Christians Need One? Retrieved from Http://www.carm.org/christianity/christian-issues/what-christian-world-view-and-why-do-christians-need-one .
Valk, J. (2007). Plural public schooling: religion, worldviews and moral education. British Journal of Religious Education, 29(3), 273-285. doi:10.1080/01416200701479661
This extends to environmental concerns as well, because scientific research has demonstrated that the diversity of an ecosystem is what allows the constituent parts of that ecosystem to thrive, with the diversity of genetics, organisms, and personalities giving any given ecosystem a robustness such that it is not as susceptible to destruction or eradication at the hands of a single negative element. Adherents of the Faith seek harmony with all things, such that one goal is the advancement of technology to the point that humans might be able to genetically and technologically alter themselves such that they may sustain their own lives without causing undue harm to other lives, whether those be the lives of animals or plants. Thus, adherents of the Faith look towards the day when humanity has used the ample intellectual and scientific skill amassed over the years to overcome the current limitations of biology so that…
Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.
As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…
Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.
Faith-Based eentry Programs
Legal and logistical challenges in corrections
The separation of church and state is codified in the First Amendment. State support of faith-based organizations designed to reduce recidivism rates was permitted when President George W. Bush signed the Second Chance Act in 2007. The Second Change Act allowed federal funds to be used for reentry programs, including faith-based reentry programs. As expected, the legislation could theoretically pose some First Amendment issues given that it involves federal support for programs run by religious institutions, but given that members of the clergy are already a presence in most prisons, there has been muted debate on the topic. When evaluating the utility of such programs two central questions may be asked: do such reentry programs 'work' and if so, is the faith-based component sufficiently necessary to justify the potential blurring of the line between church and state, as…
Gramlich, J. (2008). States want Second Chance Act funded. Stateline. Retrieved from:
PEW Charitable Trust.
Muhlhausen, D. (2010). The Second Chance Act: more evaluations of effectiveness needed.
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic President of the United States in 1960 which "due to his popularity, charisma and personal integrity reassured non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was legitimate and that Catholics could be trusted" (Emerson, 256).
Second, Pope John XXIII who had been elected as Pope in 1958 became one of the most popular and beloved Catholic Pope in modern history, due to his attempts to bring Catholics and non-Catholics together in friendship and appreciation. Third, John XXIII also convened…
Ellis, J.T. Catholics in Colonial America. New York: Helicon Press, 1965.
Emerson, Charles W. The Story of Catholics in America. Rome: Paulist Press, 1978.
Marino, Anthony. The Catholics in America. New York: Vantage Press, 1960.
Trisco, Robert F. Catholics in America, 1776 to 1976. Boston: Committee of the National
Numerous artists have made use of religious principles as they devised ideas to use in their work. "It is no wonder, therefore, that so much of the finest art of history has religious meaning, from the Parthenon and Chartres to the Taj Mahal and Rothko Chapel, from the Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost through the erman Requiem to the Brothers Karamazov" (Dutton 230).
Bermudez, Jose Luis, Art and morality, (Routledge, 2003)
Dutton, Denis, the art instinct: beauty, pleasure, & human evolution, (Oxford University Press, 2009)
Widdows, Heather, the moral vision of Iris Murdoch, (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005)
Even though there are many individuals who promote the belief that art should not be associated with religion, people appear to ignore the fact that religious concepts can functions as catalysts strengthening the relationship between man and the divine. Art practically represents the best that humanity can give birth to and it should…
Gedacht, Daniel C. Art and Religion in Ancient Rome, (the Rosen Publishing Group, 2004)
Kaplan, Leslie C. Art and Religion in Ancient Egypt, (Rosen Classroom, 2004)
Tanner, Jeremy, the invention of art history in Ancient Greece: religion, society and artistic rationalization, (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
If he had love, he had no pot in which to plant it. And so it stayed trapped in his mind, separate from any object -- for Kant insisted on the gulf between faith and reason. If one had to accept certain truths on the authority of the one revealing them -- Kant wanted no part in it. According to Kant, one should accept only that which can be reasoned. According to Aquinas, it is not unreasonable to accept that which is revealed.
In a sense, many of us today are Kantian rather than Thomistic. We are Hamlet figures, forever trapped in doubt. What Aquinas allows us to do is put away doubt. He allows us -- in fact, implores us, to act. He is now to us like the ghost of Hamlet's father -- reappearing to urge his son to action. Still, Hamlet delays. What happens to Hamlet --…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Contra Gentiles. London: Burns and Oates, 1905.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican
McInerny, Ralph, ed. Thomas Aquinas: Selected Writings. England: Penguin, 1998.
The things that Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal have in common appear to originate from the foundations of the Jewish faith. Both make use of the Jewish scriptures such as the Talmud, and both adhere to Jewish traditions in terms of holidays and general practices. Another significant similarity is the importance that both directions have for women. The Orthodoxy is reported to give significance to the feminine style of devotion to God, which includes a more emotional, nurturing relationship with him. The Renewal appears to be an inclusion of more emotional qualities in the style of worship for both women and men.
The differences are more marked, and thus easier to identify. Regarding the role of women, for example, the Jewish Renewal seeks to include women in all aspects of Jewish worship. They are thus not excluded from leadership roles or practices within the synagogue.
The style of…
Faith Community Hospital: Case Analysis and ecommendations
Modern day organizations, including community or not-for-profit ones, have to integrate political, legal, societal, cultural and economic concerns of the environment with corporate goals and interests. While many such environmental issues are relatively minor in the context of organizational legitimacy and survival, there are times when the issues go to core business practices or products. At such times, an organization must take immediate and effective corrective measures or be willing to be forced out of existence by various concerned publics and stakeholder groups (Metzler, 2001). A review of Faith Community Hospital's current situation indicates that its problems may be severe enough to challenge its very legitimacy and existence. Indeed, this is evident in the list of critical issues facing the management.
Situational Analysis: A close examination of the list of issues facing the management of Faith Community Hospital reveals the following environmental concerns:…
Metzler, M.S. (2001). Responding to the Legitimacy Problems of Big Tobacco: An Analysis
of the "People of Philip Morris" Image Advertising Campaign. Communication Quarterly. Vol. 49: 4, p. 366+. Retrieved March 20, 2005: www. questia.com
SkyMark Corporation. (2005). Cause and Effect Diagram. Retrieved March 20, 2005:
There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.
By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.…
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
People can be affected by religion in different ways and The Misfit becomes the perfect character to uncover the grandmother's gullibility. She, in turn, is the perfect person to expose his evil nature. This contrast allows O'Connor uses to reveal the delicate nature of man. Somehow, in the midst of everything, the two people bond, leaving the grandmother with a false sense of hope. She believes, because she knows best, that she has transformed his life. She truly believes she can change him. Parini writes that at the moment he shots her, she realizes "they are connected, and through a horrible act of violence she has received a moment of understanding, if not grace" (Parini 231). The showdown becomes one between The Misfit's powerful convictions and the grandmother's shallow beliefs. O'Connor proves with these individuals the importance of being passionate about the right thing. Being passionate about Jesus is good,…
Denham Robert D. "The World of Guilt and Sorrow: Flannery O'Connor's 'Everything That
Rises Must Converge." The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin 4. 1975. Gale Resource Library.
01 May 2010. Web.
Malin, Irving. "O'Connor and the Grotesque." Flannery O'Connor. Broomall: Chelsea House
Paul Tillich was one of the most famous theologians of the 20th century. He represented the 20th century movement called neo-orthodoxy. Most of Tillich's work is represented in a series of transcribed lectures. Tillich's work contains volumes of historical details and theological connections. One of his most important works is the three volume systematic theology, which details theology from 1951 to 1963.
Tillich's theology was that God exists or that God is a being. He identifies God as being itself. He quotes "God is being-itself, not a being." Tillich's theory is different from the other theologians. He does not believe in the existence of God. Theologians believed that there is no external factor in the existence of God. The general feeling is that God has not been derived from any source nor is He dependent on anything.
Argument and Example
According to Tillich, it…
1. Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 205, 209, 237.
2. Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, vol. 2 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957, Page 6)
3. William Rowe, Religious Symbols and God (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 76-77
4. Forrest E. Baird, "Descartes' Epistemology." New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2000.
Fowler is the one who is truly upset about the bomb in the square and the innocent peoples who are killed. He says, "A two-hundred pound bomb does not discriminate. How many dead colonels justify a child's or a trishaw driver's death when you are building a national democratic front" (Greene 163). Fowler may not believe in God but he seems more moral than Pyle who is idealistic and seems like he believes anything any one will tell him. Maybe that is why he is the one who believes in God and religion in the book. He believes what he reads, and he reads a lot so he has probably read the Bible and believes everything in it. Fowler is a reporter, and he has seen a lot of life so he questions things more closely. He does not just believe every thing he reads because he is a writer…
Gaston, Georg M.A. The Pursuit of Salvation: A Critical Guide to the Novels of Graham Greene. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1984.
Greene, Graham. The Quiet American. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
Neilson, Jim. Warring Fictions: American Literary Culture and the Vietnam War Narrative. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.
At the same time, I think that this belief in a higher power which is not directly related to the text of the Bible is essential because it gives us the sense of not being alone. From various experiences I learned that the toughest sentiment of the human soul is, in my opinion, the feeling of being alone. However, no human being or material possession can feel that void. It is only the conviction that there is something that protects, guides, and represents a constant presence for your soul that can actually give me the sense of relief and determination to move on. However, the Bible cannot offer this insurance because there are too many interpretable aspects from the Creation to the acts of Jesus. This undefined position can become a point of disequilibrium which in the end can even affect the actual aim of the belief.
There is no…
In fact, there is a sense here in which the will to do good deeds restores God to the universe as the fountainhead of morality, with the famous "categorical imperative" substituting for specific divine commandments. However, those who are not already convinced that moral truths are possible -- who are not already "morally certain" -- tend to find this argument circular (Palmer 259).
For the rest of us, it is a very different proposition to develop and defend a moral framework in the absence of religious certainty. e can simply reframe our notions of good and evil in terms of personal responsibility, as Kierkegaard does when he defines wrongdoing (sin) as the very absence of certainty itself. In this approach, human nature is split between conviction (or faith) on the one hand and anxiety on the other. "The anxiety of sinfulness manifests itself either as an anxiety about evil or…
Aldrich, C.A. (1931). The primitive mind and modern civilization. London: Routledge.
Kant, I. (2008). Kant's critiques. Radford, VA: Wilder Publications.
Palmer, M.F. (2001) The question of God: an introduction and sourcebook. London: Routledge.
Palmquist, S. (2000). Kant's critical religion Aldershot: Ashgate .
.. The actual universe, with all its good and evil, exists on the basis of God's will and receives its meaning from His purpose. However, these two conclusions do not stand in simple contradiction, to one another. The one says that evil is bad, harmful, destructive, fearful and to be fought against as a matter of ultimate life and death. But the other does not deny this. It does not say that evil is not fearful and threatening, inimical to all good and to be absolutely resisted. It says that God has ordained a world which contains evil- real evil- as a means to the creation of the infinite good of a Kingdom of Heaven within which His creatures will have come as perfected persons to love and serve Him through a process in which their own free insight and response have been an essential element."
Bowker, John. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.
New York: Oxford, 1997
Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions.
New York: Crown, 1954
Miracles: When Faith Contradicts Reason
Theologians, and philosophers alike, have traditionally sought to bring out the relationship between reason and faith. This they have done in an attempt to clarify the link between the two terms or points-of-view -- an undertaking that involves the determination of how agents are supposed to respond to assertions drawn from either perspective, within the context of rationality. A number of scholars are of the belief that reason and faith cannot yield conflicting outcomes, if each one is understood, and used in the right circumstances. Others hold the contrary opinion; conflicts between the two will always arise. The issue, in this regard, has always been 'which one, between the two, should prevail when a conflict arises?' Some advocate for the prioritizing of reason, and others, faith. Others, however, in appreciation of the different contexts within which the two are applicable, hold the view that, reason…
Dougherty, Jude P. "Wretched Aristotle." On Wings of Faith and Reason: The Christian Difference in culture and Science. Ed. Craig Steven Titus. Washington: CUA Press, 2008. 56-67. Print.
Gilman, James. Faith, Reason and Compassion: A Philosophy of the Christian Faith. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Guisepi, Robert. An Analysis of the Grounds of, and Concepts Expressing
Fundamental Beliefs. World History Center. Web.
(Krukowski, 2001) Civil religion and workplace mysticism each change the institutional locus of religious expression from the church, synagogue, or mosque to another public organization- the state or the company. The existence of these different organizations hoists the main question of individuality and perhaps challenging faithfulness.
Both civil religion and workplace theology do not show the likely clashes and problems often met by employees who are also religious practitioners. Jews, Christians, or Muslims who are workforce of a company may well have grounds to question the customs of their company on religio-moral basis. Workplace theology in a funded organization does not distinguish these possible clashes. Institutionally conveying workplace theology is obviously not identical with permitting individual employees to convey their beliefs and customs at work. This grave outlook of workplace theology should not be realized, as a censure of persons who want to live out their definite religious or spiritual…
Alpert, Richard T. "Religious Diversity in the workplace." Retrieved at http://users.crocker.com/~amedpub/rc21d/Religion%20in%20the%20Workplace11.htm. Accessed on 4 February, 2005
"Workplace Religious Freedom: What is an Employer's Duty to Accommodate? A Review of Recent Cases" Workplace Religious Freedom / 49. Retrieved at http://homepages.ius.edu/LCHRISTI/Journal%20of%20emply/religious%20accommodation.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Deveney, William D. (September-October, 2004) "Religious Harassment Claims: Case Studies in Good Faith." No. 05-05. Retrieved at http://www.etsw.com/NewsletterLB/2004_09-10.pdf . Accessed on 4 February, 2005
Nursing and Jewish Faith
Currently, about 6 million Jewish reside in the U.S. These Jews might subscribe to the Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform paths of Jewish faith, or they might be secular and non-aligned. Even though devout customs and degrees of following among these paths of Judaism differ extensively, nurses must gradually come to terms with the religious customs of Judaism to extend the utmost complete care. (Jewish Perspectives on Pregnancy and Childbearing) This paper shall deal with patients having strong Jewish faith which are the Orthodox Jews and the role of a nurse in providing special considerations to this particular community. The orthodox Jews constitute a special cultural class and they devote their complete lives preaching about Torah. Their religious faiths are shown in every facet of their lives, in health as well as illness. (Special considerations for Orthodox Jewish patients in the emergency department) The manners in which…
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…
Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.
Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.
Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.
Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
The concern is immediate gratification and the result of one's actions right here, right now.
Another way that Tillich helps readers view their changing world is by making the distinction between science and faith. Increasingly, it is also becoming more difficult to separate the two. As Tillich states: "The distinction between the truth of faith and the truth of science leads to a warning, directed to theologians, not to use recent scientific discoveries to confirm the truth of faith. Microphysics has undercut some scientific hypotheses concerning the calculability of the universe." ather trying to choose sides in a struggle between religion and science, where it is difficult to determine one right and one wrong contender, Tillich goes above and beyond the fray by using the terminology "truth of faith," rather than "truth of religion."
Lastly, Tillich's book is "a blessing," because it puts the word "humble" back into religion. ecently,…
Tillach, Paul. Dynamics of Faith. NY: Harper, 1957.
PLUALISM BEST FO SOCIETY?
Diversity and Pluralism
Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?
Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?
Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…
Dick, P.K. (1968). Do androids dream of electric sheep? New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Eck, D.L. (1997). From diversity to pluralism. In: On Common Ground. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://www.pluralism.org/encounter/challenges .
McFaul, T.R. (2006). Religion in the future global civilization. The Futurist, 40(5), 30-6.
He thought that religion was for everyone, not just the elite. In 1517, after writing letters to the Bishops and finally to the Pope himself, Luther publicly disputed several practices of the Church and nailed his famous 95 Theses to the door of a prominent Church. By this very act, of publically disagreeing with the Pope, Luther ignited what would be the basis of the Protestant reformation movement which would change the political, cultural, and social situation of European civilization.
The Pope offered Luther the chance to recant his position, and in 1521 he was ordered to appear before the Diet of Worms, which was a general assembly of many of the ruling elite in the area. He was asked if he stood by the contents of his works, and after prayer and consultation, replied, "Unless I shall be convinced by the testimonies of the Scriptures or by clear reason……
Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.
However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.
Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…
Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice
Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.
Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New
York, pp. 232-262.
eligious Life of Planet Earth
This report seeks to establish if planet Earth is a religious planet. In so doing, the report will primarily outline the criteria used to determine if the inhabitants of the planet are religious and the various beliefs and behaviors they exhibit in line with the criteria. Further, the report will also highlight the function of religion (as it appears to be) on the planet under consideration.
To establish whether or not Earth is indeed a religious planet, the very nature of religion on the planet must first be understood. This can be accomplished using a number of approaches. On of the most effective approaches in this case has got to do with evaluating the primary characteristics of religion. This is the criteria the report utilizes in an attempt to determine if the inhabitants of planet Earth are indeed religious.
Characteristics of eligion: What eligion Looks…
Gogerty, D.E. (2001). On Earth: As It Is in Heaven. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Gwynne, P. (2011). World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction. Maiden, MA: John Wiley and Sons.
Hinde, R.A. (2009). Why Gods Persist: A Scientific Approach to Religion (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Hinnells, J.R. (Ed.). (2009). The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
religious art. This include: music, dance,
The religious piece of artwork that I have chosen to discuss within this document is Murillo Bartolome Esteban's "Crucifixion Paining." This particular work of art was rendered in oil. This work of art is emblematic of that highly influential religion known as Christianity which has dominated the estern Hemisphere since its inception early on in the year of our lord (or A.D.). Christianity has spread throughout the world, although it is most widely practiced and championed in estern Civilization.
Specifically, Estaban's work details the passion of Christ. It depicts Jesus immediately after his crucifixion. There are a number of salient details that give such an impression to the viewer. Christ is still positioned on the cross in this work; one of the most eminent features regarding his person is the blood staining his torso in which he was stabbed to officially 'kill' him. One…
Esteban, Murillo. "Crucifixion Painting." www.yahoo.com. 1675. Web. http://search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=AhOOtZWn8sACtP2WVhVV.NibvZx4?p=museum+painting+crucifixion&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-900
Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.
The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.
It is often said that Buddhism…
The spread of public education in the 20th century gave rise to even greater tensions about the appropriate role of religion within the public education system. The Supreme Court declared that mandated prayers in public schools were unconstitutional, yet the words 'under God' were inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance (Prayer, 2010, eligious Tolerance). Students can wear religious clothing and jewelry to school, and teachers can teach about religion -- but not preach to their students. Walking the fine line between endorsing certain religious traditions within an officially secular community can be tricky, and the definition of what is secular and what is religious continues to evolve with the passage of time. Today, the debates about religion rage on -- the role of so-called 'creationist' science in biology classes that teach about evolution and the right of religious groups to hold meetings on school grounds are two recent examples of…
Horace Mann. (2001). School: The story of American public education. PBS.
Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/innovators/mann.html
Neil, John. (2005). John Dewey's philosophy of education. Experiential learning.
Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.
This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.
Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.
The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists
Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.
Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.
"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…
religious history of my family as I know it, and its impact on me.
I myself am from Vietnam and am studying in New York. My parents are Vietnamese and living in Hanoi, Vietnam.
We follow a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism, although I think that somewhere way back, my grandparents or great-grandparents - I know little of either side -- may have been pure Buddhists. Actually, I see similarities in both, in that both focus on peace within oneself, and I think that the popular way of how Americans see Buddhist belief of nirvana as believing that we are feted to suffer is wrong.
Thinking of my family's beliefs and how it has shaped our lives and my life in particular, I think it is more Vietnam's beliefs in general; that has impacted us rather than that of my particular family. The two primary beliefs in Vietnam in general,…
Primary Source Analysis: Islamic Text
The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most notable conservative Pan-Islamic groups -- it is based in Egypt but has a worldwide influence. As is the case with most fundamentalist organizations, the Brotherhood takes an extremely gendered view of women. According to one of its most influential members Hasan al-Banna in his tract "Towards the light:"
"Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam...Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem - one of the most important social problems - will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess...a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as…
Al-Banna, Hasan. Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna. Translated by Charles Wendell Berkeley,
1978. Excerpt available:
[20 Apr 2013]
This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."
John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."
Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…
Hijra. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/SocialStudies/RE/Database/Glossaries).
John Calvin. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM).
John the Baptist. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm).
Samuel Holdheim. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.knowallabout.com).
Faith Community Hospital case has been analyzed using a SWOT analysis in order to identify the pertinent issue and define the problems the organization faces currently. The SWOT analysis was also done with a view to developing solutions that take into consideration environmental factors, especially the interests of various stakeholder groups
efer Appendix 1). However, prior to discussing the conclusions drawn from the SWOT analysis, it would be important to briefly introduce the organization itself.
Faith Community Hospital is a not-for-profit organization established with the aim of promoting the health and well-being of the people in the communities it serves. While there may be several similar organizations in the health care industry, it is important to note that Faith Community Hospital is an organization that has been built on a foundation of spiritual values. Indeed, the hospital's spiritual heritage and values is the single-most important "point of commonality" among its…
University of Phoenix. Faith Community Hospital Case Study.
(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)
The Secularization by odney Stark
In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…
Casanova, J. (n.d.). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stark, R. (1999). Secularization. Sociology of Religion 60 (3), 249 -- 273.
Stark, R. (n.d.). The Dynamics of Religious Economies.
Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know -- And Doesn't," Prothero claims that "Americans are both deeply religious and profoundly ignorant about religion." The professed religiosity of most Americans belies a lack of actual knowledge about religion. As Prothero puts it, "They are Protestants who can't name the four Gospels, Catholics who can't name the seven sacraments, and Jews who can't name the five books of Moses," (p. 30). Most Americans, according to Prothero, are unable to distinguish a Muslim from a Sikh, and cannot even name the five major world religions beyond Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Religious ignorance has very real consequences, other than being a simple embarrassment. As Prothero points out, religious ignorance led Americans to target any man wearing a turban after September 11. Religious ignorance is a sign of a broader xenophobia and general ignorance about cultures, people, and history beyond American borders. The consequences…
Hinduism and People
Unlike most religions which ask their practitioners to prescribe to a designated set of behaviors wherein they shall all behave uniformly, Hinduism bears the motto that "People are different." Most religions begin from a dogma which is a written interpretation of what the creators of that religion state their God or Gods want from the followers of that religion. Because of this, the religions are slow to evolve and more or less stagnant. According to J.N. Nanda, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (106). That is to say, those that practice Hinduism understand that there is no one type of person. Individuality, by its very definition states that people will have singular ideas and singular personalities. There is no one type of person living in the world, just as there is no one…
Keene, Michael. Religion in Life and Society. Dublin, Ireland: Folens. 2004. Print.
Ketkar, Shridhar. The History of Caste in India: Evidence of the Laws of Manu. Ithaca, NY:
Taylor & Carpenter. 1909. Print.
Lipner, Julius. Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Chatham. 1994. Print.
Spirituality Children's Temperment
A Synthesis of the Research on Spirituality in Young Children's Temperament and Self-Control
Years ago, when school systems actually permitted religious instruction, children were able to tap into their own spiritual sides, and were able to process their feelings about their emotions and their concerns about the world against a more nuanced and detailed spiritual backdrop. This allowed them to have a clearer sense about moral values, feeling obedient vs. disobedient, engaging in respect, honesty, truth and communicating their feelings with compassion. By allowing students to have some sort of spiritual education, educators were ensuring that they would be able to more confidently shape these children into good people who were well-rounded and who had a clearer understanding of how to behave in the world, along with stronger values of what matters most to them. However, in a secular education system, much of this potential…
Holder, M., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. (2010). Spirituality, Religiousness, and Happiness in Children Aged 8 -- 12 Years. Journal of Happiness Studies, 131-150.
Roehikepartain, E. (2006). The Handbook of Spirtual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. New York: Sage.
interview was conducted with 30-year-old Sandra. This essay examines her answers within the context of her identity as it pertains to religion and religious belief. The first question asked what she identified as. Her answer was non-denominational Christian. hat is it to be a nondenominational Christian? It means these Christians choose not to formally align with an established and Christian religious denomination. (Lantzer) In essence, they hold on to the framework of the basic Protestant tenets, electing to identify themselves as "born-again Christians" or just "Christians." hen someone chooses this kind of Christianity, they desire to believe and follow the word of Jesus Christ, but not through a specific tradition or group.
This could be because of her origins with Christianity. Her family is Baptist and while she attended church service when she was around 6 or 7, she did not go to church in her teens. hile her parents…
Lantzer, Jason S. Mainline Christianity. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Print.
Wilberforce, William, and Kevin Charles Belmonte. A Practical View Of Christianity. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1996. Print.
Of course, most proselytizing of this nature is also prohibited by law but a non-exclusive hiring policy obviously provides more opportunities to expose non-Christians to the faith in permissible ways than an exclusive hiring policy that excludes non-Christians altogether.
3. How would your answers change, if at all, if they planned to open a Christian school rather than a manufacturing facility? Legal but not advisable.
Because a Christian school is a primarily religious institution, it would be excepted from the obligation to comply with Title VII even if it employed more than 15 employees (Friedman, 2005). Because the essential purpose of the school would be to teach and promote Christianity, it would be advisable to employ only teachers of Christian faith. However, there is not reason that excluding non-Christians from non-teaching positions would be preferable or beneficial and it would promote discrimination instead of multicultural tolerance and non-discrimination in society…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Healthcare & Faith
The author of this report has been asked to answer a few questions pertaining to faith and healthcare. The first question will be a compare and contrast of Christianity and Buddhism using the seven worldview questions as a prism. The second question asks the author to do a comparative analysis of the two faith systems and religions. Next, the author will explain the author's personal spiritual perspective on healing. The author will then explain the critically common religions/beliefs when it comes to healing, prayer, meditation and so forth. Next, there will be a description of what would be important to patients of a faith that is delivered by healthcare providers that are of a different religious persuasion. Lastly, the author of this report will explain what was learn as part of this project. While the religions of the world are quite similar in many respects when it…
Bratcher, S. (2015). Why Do We Suffer? Buddhism vs. Christianity. Reformed Perspective. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.reformedperspective.ca/resources/55-christian-living/196-why-do-we-suffer-buddhism-vs.-christianity
Christianity.com. (2015). 8 Questions Every Worldview Must Answer. Christianity.com. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.christianity.com/theology/other-religions-beliefs/8-questions-every-worldview-must-answer.html?p=0
FFE. (2015). What is a worldview?. Retrieved 9 June 2015, from http://www.faithfromevidence.org/what-is-a-worldview.html
The author of this report is asked to profile and otherwise answer questions regarding Canadian company JGH. A description of the services and structure will be offered and then the author will speak of the management theories and practices that the company engages in. How obvious and transparent these practices are will be discussed and whether or not it would be prudent and wise of JGH to continue that strategy. The climate of the organization will be summarized and critiqued as well as the diversity orientation of the firm. While JGH certainly has room for improvement, they are indeed doing many things quite well and they are certainly moving in the right direction.
JGH stands for Jewish General Hospital, a research hospital based on Montreal, Quebec, Canada. They are a McGill University teaching hospital and their website is tailored to the mixed language disposition of…
Brimmer, K. (2012, August 30). Hospitals recognized for promoting overall diversity.
Healthcare Finance News. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/hospitals-recognized-promoting -overall-diversity
Hopkins. (2014, March 30). Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Diversity and Inclusion at Johns Hopkins. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/diversity/
JGH. (2014, March 30). Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Jewish General Hospital - Hopital general juif. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://www.jgh.ca/en/home
Thomas Aquinas created his worldview through a combination of theology and philosophy. He believed that an individual must be ordered toward the right attributes on a daily basis. Attributes such as charity, peace and holiness are all apart of philosophy he called, "Virtue Ethics." He believed that good scriptural theology presupposes good philosophical analysis and analysis. Thomas primarily used philosophy as a medium to discern what we can naturally know about human being and God. As an Aristotelian and an Empiricist, his works were heavily influenced by these streams of thought. Aquinas believed in both supernatural revelation and natural revelation. With natural revelation, Aquinas believed the truths are available to individuals based solely through their human nature and correct reasoning's. With supernatural revelation, he believed that humans could learn the truth only through reading the scripture. The theological virtues of faith, hope and charity and Aquinas believed, were supernatural and…
1) Comenius, Johann Amos. 1673. The Gate of Languages Unlocked, or, A Seed-Plot of All Arts and Tongues: Containing a Ready Way to Learn the Latine and English Tongue. London: Printed by T.R. and N.T. for the Company of Stationers.
2) Spinka, Mathew. 1967. John Amos Comenius: That Incomparable Moravian. New York: Russell and Russell.
Faith influences attitudes toward health, healing, and the role of healing practitioners in the lives of individuals and their communities. Because of this intersection between faith and wellness, it is critical for nurses to be sensitive to diverse patient backgrounds and belief systems. By understanding multiple faith systems and how those systems' worldviews impact patient attitudes, behaviors, and communication styles, nurses can provide more appropriate and effective interventions. Even if the majority of patients are of the same background as the nurse, it is necessary to remain open to alternative worldviews. Moreover, even within one faith category individual differences will warrant scrutiny towards the patient's attitudes toward existential questions.
Christianity is itself a highly diverse faith. Different denominations espouse various attitudes toward illness and health, healing and wellness. Therefore, the nurse should never assume that all Christian patients have the same values. When it comes to working with patients from…
Koenig, H.G., King, D.E. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Matsuoka, M. (2005). The Buddhist concept of the human being. The Journal of Oriental Studies 15, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.sgi.org/resources/study-materials/the-buddhist-concept-of-the-human-being-from-the-viewpoint-of-the-philosophy-of-the-soka-gakkai.html
Monier-Williams, M. (1889). Buddhism and Its Connection with Brahmanism and Hinduism and in its Contrast with Christianity. New York: Macmillian.
Shelly, J.A. & Miller, A.B. (2006). Called to Care. InterVarsity Press.
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…
Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?
Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.
Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.
Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
Cottingham and Adams on Faith as a Virtue
Faith as a Virtue
There is presently much controversy regarding the difference between theists and atheists, as the masses have a limited understanding of each of these groups. Naturalists are particularly important in this situation, as they concentrate on performing an in-depth analysis of things before being able to express an opinion regarding these respective things. The scientific community is generally inclined to refute concepts related to a supernatural force controlling the universe and it emphasizing the importance of evidence when considering things that ideas should accept as being valid. In contrast, religious people believe that faith is actually the result of sufficient evidence that has been gathered through the years and that materialized in emotions felt by believers and in traditions that they uphold.
Theists are typically inclined to believe that atheists are unable to appreciate life to its full potential…
Cottingham, John, "What Difference Does it Make? The Nature and Significance of Theistic Belief"
Merrihew Adams, Robert, "The Virtue of Faith"
Wood, "W. K. Clifford and the Ethics of Belief"
Health Care & Faith Diversity
It is quite obvious how different religions hold different philosophical views on various aspects and even when it comes to healing. Each religion highly upholds their spiritual values hence the need for health practitioners to be cautious while handling varied clientele whether they hold the same religious sentiments or not. In this research we will major on the views held by the Sikh, Buddhist and Judaist religions in comparison to the Christian belief on healing.
The Sikh hold the belief that when one is sick it is the will of God and that He is merciful to heal; however one has to consider medical treatment in order to get well. During illness: Sikh patients engage in prayers to seek God for help, seek to obtain peace by remembering Gods name, recite sacred hymns (Gurbani) which are words from the holy scriptures (Guru Granth…
Dharma Haven, (2005).Tools for Healing Relaxing and Awakening. Retrieved March 30,
2012 from http://www.dharma-haven.org/tibetan/healing.htm
Manitoba, (2006). Core Competencies for Spiritual health care Practitioners. Retrieved March 30, 2012 from http://ahpcc.org.uk/pdf/compaudittool.pdf
Marinell & James (2009). Jewish Views of Illness and Healing. Retrieved March 30, 2012
Keeping the Faith: Presentation Outline
"Keeping the Faith" is a comedy movie that shows relationship between love, friendship and faith. The writer Stuart Blumberg and director Edward Norton have presented a story of three friends who belong to different faiths but fall in love due to close friendship. Overall it is a thought provoking and a romantic comedy drama movie which shows the complexities of relations between the faiths/religions of different people.
The two central characters of this comedy drama are the rabbi and priest (Frederic and Brussat, 2012) namely Jake and Brian. Jake is a "Jew" and Brian is a "oman Catholic." These two young adults, who grew up together in the New York City, take very much interest in each other's religion and have committed their lives to their faiths. Anna is their childhood neighbor and junior school friend who meets them after several years.
In these two…
Cardullo, B. (2012). World Directors and Their films, Essay on African, Asian, Latin American
and Middle Eastern Cinema. Published by Scarecrow Press Inc., USA.
Frederic and Brussat, M. (2012). Keeping the Faith. Film Review. Spiritualityandpractice.com
Godawa, B. (2009). Updated and Expanded Hollywood World News, Watching Films with Wisdom and Discernment, Intervarsity Press.
These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…
Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown -
Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:
Virtual eligious Service
Islam is a religion of great misconceptions and of immense misunderstanding. It was because of this same notion that this religion in particular was of great interest. With all the negative publicity that Islam receives in the media, people only get exposed to the violent extremists that represent a minute minority of this religion. A picture of violence and death is flashed on the television daily, forcing many to create negative misconceptions about Muslims. Their portrayal of how their females are treated is an aspect that has also come under speculation. The media portrays oppressed hopeless females, which induces viewers to think that this is actually true. These are both misconceptions that I had prior to my viewing of the online religious service and research.
Violence and terrorism are shown constantly across the television screen whenever extremist Muslims are depicted. This creates a sense of misconception as…
Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. CRC Press.
Common misunderstandings of muslims [Web log message]. (2008, February 26). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com /Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1
Lawrence, B.B. (1998). Shattering the myth: Islam beyond violencec. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
True Power: An Examination of Abrahamic Faith
There are several aspects of Abrahamic faith that are admirable and are worthy of commendation. Author Soren Kierkegaard details many of these notions in his manuscript Fear and Trembling, which is a fairly exhaustive analysis of Abraham's actions, hypothetical possibilities of courses of actions he could have taken, and interpretations of both. In fact, one of the principle characteristics of Abrahamic faith that render it so virtuous to the point of almost being ineffable is the incomprehensible nature of it -- particularly when compared to the zeitgeist in which Kierkegaard originally composed this text, as well as when it is compared to the thoughts and sentiments of the contemporary age we currently exist in now. However, when one considers that one of the defining traits of faith is the fact that it primarily is illogical, unreasonable, and in many cases inexplicable,…
Kierkegaard, Soren. Fear and Trembling. Ygorasill's Library. 1843. Web. http://www.whitenationalism.com/etext/fear.htm
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…
Dursteler, E. (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jacoby, D. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. The Sixteenth Century Journal. 38 (4): 1156-7.
King, M. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. Renaissance Quarterly. 60 (1): 155-6.
See: Diamond, J. (2011). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised. New York: Penguin Books; Huntington, S. (2011). Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.