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Wienclaw, .A. (2009). eligion and Society: eligious Persecution. 1-5.
The article is examines the issue of religious persecution from a theoretical perspective. The author places the challenge of international persecution within the most appropriate theoretical context. Theory seeks to accomplish three purposes namely to describe, explain or predict phenomenon. This work attempts to accomplish the first two objectives. The author describes the nature of religious persecution. Following the description the author, tries to identify key independent variables that are able to explain the phenomenon. Consequently, it is not an examination of data that is produced from any primary research. The author combines existing knowledge of about persecution with secondary evidence to produce a compelling narrative about the nature of persecution and the central sociological issues involved in addressing persecution. The author is not reporting on any new research.
There was a useful attempt by the author to categorize…
Denzin, N.K. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Proposed Synthesis
American Sociological Review 34(6):922-934
Grim, B.J. & Finke, R. (2007). Religious Persecution in Cross-National Context: Clashing
Civilizations or Regulated Religious Economies? American Sociological Review 72(4):
They focus on what can be documented, such as church membership and taxation.
Critique 2: The Devil in the Shape of a oman
The social historian Carol Karlsen the Devil in the Shape of a oman eschews economic data and instead focuses more on the symbolic and social orientation of the young girl's anger. Karlsen is specifically determined to understand why so many of the accused were female, poor or, conversely, females who were unexpectedly well-off. Her answer is that they lived world where "there were two types of dangerous trespass: challenges to the supremacy of God and challenges to prescribed gender arrangements" (Karlsen 119). "itchcraft was rebellion against God," and religion and culture cannot be separated when discussing issues pertinent to Salem, nor merely seen as a mask for economic interests (Karlsen 120). In rebelling against the religious culture, women in the past had often played a prominent role…
Boyer, Paul & Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft.
Chapter 4. Salem Town and Salem Village: The Dynamics of Factional Conflict. pp. 80-110.
Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New
England. Chapter 4: Handmaidens of the Devil. pp. 117-153
persecution of Christians that took place during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries in England.
The religious persecution that was inflicted on Christians by the Church and State of England to extract compliance and adherence to the Church of England and the authority of the English Crown. There existed conflicts between the Protestant and Catholic Religions of the day and was a time of turmoil and upheaval for the people of England who did not hold the same religious beliefs as that of the Church and English Crown.
ackground and Historical Overview:
The Church of England was fully committed to the Roman Catholic Church that ruled from a position of supremacy and was backed up fully by King Henry VIII. During the year of 1530 the King who considered himself to be a "Defender of the Faith" issued as a proclamation that certain books and literature which was in conflict against…
Stephens, Leslie & Lee, Sidney, eds. "The Dictionary of National Biography" London Oxford University
Low, Sidney J. & Pulling, F.S. "The Dictionary of English History " Funk and Wagner. New York
New Standard Encyclopedia Ed. 6 Vol. 8, 1984 New Standard Publishing Co. New York.
Low, Sidney J. & Pulling, F.S. "The Dictionary of English History " Funk and Wagner New York
However, Henry VIII was still insistent at that time on Catholicism in everything except loyalty to the Pope. The Pope had named Henry VIII a Defender of the Faith for the opposition that Henry had to Martin Luther, and Henry's theology did not change any because of his rejection of the authority of the Pope.
Thomas Cranmer and some or the other leaders of the Church, however, decided that there was a need to reform what they considered to be the heresies that had developed. Especially important to them were a liturgy and a ible that was printed in English. In addition to this, they also wanted to do away with some of the beliefs and practices that the Catholic Church had and that they believed did not fit in with Scripture, such as veneration of saints, celibacy for the clergy, and Purgatory. Their desire by accomplishing these things was…
Becker, Carl Lotus. Beginnings of the American People. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1915).
De Molen, Richard, L. ed., Leaders of the Reformation (Selinsgrove: Susquehanna University Press, 1984)
King, John N. English Reformation Literature. The Tudor Origins of the Protestant Tradition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982)
Luther, Martin. Ninety-Five Theses (Internet: www.bartleby.com,1517)
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…
1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:
Lutterworth Press Cambridge
2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:
Simon and Schuster.
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic President of the United States in 1960 which "due to his popularity, charisma and personal integrity reassured non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was legitimate and that Catholics could be trusted" (Emerson, 256).
Second, Pope John XXIII who had been elected as Pope in 1958 became one of the most popular and beloved Catholic Pope in modern history, due to his attempts to bring Catholics and non-Catholics together in friendship and appreciation. Third, John XXIII also convened…
Ellis, J.T. Catholics in Colonial America. New York: Helicon Press, 1965.
Emerson, Charles W. The Story of Catholics in America. Rome: Paulist Press, 1978.
Marino, Anthony. The Catholics in America. New York: Vantage Press, 1960.
Trisco, Robert F. Catholics in America, 1776 to 1976. Boston: Committee of the National
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Persecution has been a component of the Christian experience since the time of Christ. The oman government periodically led formal persecution campaigns that were significant for the development of Christian identity and consciousness. Ten of these oman persecution campaigns were historically significant, beginning with one led by Nero and causing the martyrdoms of Peter and Paul ("Persecutions in the Early Church," 2013). Martyrdom thus became a core motif for Christians, leading to the tradition of Christian sainthood: "The high regard for the martyrs as the heroes of the church and the privileges assigned to them led to the cult of the saints," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Although they could be severe, early persecutions of Christians were sporadic and localized, rather than being "a constant experience," ("Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" 1990). Once Constantine the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of ome,…
"Persecution in Early Church: Did You Know?" (1990). Retrieved online: http://www.christianhistoryinstitute.org/uploaded/50cf7cb17495c9.82992192.pdf
"Persecutions in the Early Church," (2013). Retrieved online: http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/history/persecution.htm
Reid, D.R. (n.d). Expect to be persecuted. http://www.growingchristians.org/dfgc/persecut.htm
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
eligion provides a valuable source of spiritual meaning for those who might feel lost psychologically without a larger purpose to their lives. eligion contributes a comprehensive moral framework for human social interactions that generates a motivation for ethical conduct in the human community.
One of the most profound benefits of religion is the extent to which it allows some people to negotiate emotionally trying circumstances, especially in relation to the loss of loved ones. Irrespective of whether or not religious beliefs about the afterlife and the continuous existence of the human soul after physical death are true, they undoubtedly help countless people cope with emotional loss.
eligious traditions enable the efficient passage of social culture from one generation to the next and serve to connect the current generation to those in the past in a manner that also allows entire communities to maintain a unified social system and a shared…
Armstrong, K. (1993). A History of God. London, UK: Heinemann.
Marantz-Henig, R. "Darwin's God." New York Times Magazine, March 4, 2007.
Pinker, S. "The Moral Instinct." New York Times Magazine, January 13, 2008.
These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…
Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown -
Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:
orshipping is typically performed in synagogues that replaced the historical Temple initially meant to provide Jews with a praying location. Jewish religious rulers are called rabbis and they control the many ceremonies and customs that are very important in Jewish religious tradition.
Synagogues appeared consequent to the destruction of the Second Temple by Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian in 70 A.D. Although this is considered to be the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora, it actually began approximately six centuries earlier, at the time when the Babylonians conquered the kingdom of Judea and destroyed the First Temple. Ever since this moment, Jews scattered around the world and are presently located in a wide range of countries. Most of them have expressed a particular desire to return to their traditional home. hile there are presently approximately 14 million Jews in the world, only about five million live in Israel with the other…
Goldschmidt, Arthur, "Concise History of Middle East (9TH 09 Edition)," Westview Press.
New Religious Movements
Of the myriad new religious movements which have arisen over the course of the twentieth century, only a few have resorted to violence and mass suicide as a course of action. Perhaps the most famous of these, the so-called Jonestown Massacre, resulted in the deaths of over nine hundred people, and serves as the basis for John Hall's examination of the particular preconditions and precipitating factors which lead one cult or new religion to violence instead of another. Hall's theory is applicable beyond the case of Jonestown, and in fact may be used to better understand the motivating factor behind the mass murder/suicides committed by the Order of the Solar Temple in the 1990s. In particular, by considering Hall's theory in conjunction with the analysis of the Solar Temple deaths given by Jean-Francois Mayer, it will become clear that each of the six preconditions and three precipitating…
Hall, John R. "The Apocalypse at Jonestown." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden,
MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Print.
Mayer, Jean-Francoise. "Our Terrestial Journey is Coming to an End': The Last Voyage of the Solar Temple." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Publishing, 2003. Print.
Even though the Gypsies in prewar Germany consisted of a very limited per capita population they received massive amounts of attention from the Regime and were left ripe for further marginalization and destruction.
Though they made up less than 0.1% of the German population (between 20,000 and 30,000), Gypsies, like Jews, received disproportionate attention from the authorities as the various agencies of the state sought to transform Germany into a racially pure society. etween 1934 and the outbreak of World War II, a series of laws and regulations created a web of restrictions that set Gypsies apart and severely restricted their ability, individually and collectively, to survive. In July 1934, a decree forbade intermarriage between Germans and Gypsies. 4 the same year, the law permitting the deportation of aliens was extended to foreign Gypsies. 5 in September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws declared the Gypsies "an alien People" 6 and restricted…
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe,. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Csepeli, Gyorgy, and David Simon. "Construction of Roma Identity in Eastern and Central Europe: Perception and Self-Identification." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30, no. 1 (2004): 129.
Csepeli, Gyrgy, and Antal rkeny. "The Changing Facets of Hungarian Nationalism." Social Research 63, no. 1 (1996): 247-286.
Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.
The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:
Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
Haas, Christopher. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church,
257-260." Church History, vol. 52, no. 2 (June 1983): 133-144.
In this article, Haas discusses the persecutions of the Early Church under the emperor Valerian and identifies the main motive for Valerian's sudden persecution of Christians as being religious in nature. It was, according to Haas, a direct attack from the pagan Roman Emperor on the Christian religion in an effort to shore up "certain related social aims" of the Roman government at this time.[footnoteRef:1] Haas also compares Valerian's attitude and actions towards Christians to his predecessor's and examines why there was a severe shift away from relative tolerance to severe persecution. The result of Valerian's attack on Christians, which lasted more than 3 years, was the brutal martyrdom of many Christians, later revered as saints by the Church. It was a very difficult period for Christians, who were…
Billings, Bradley. "At the Age of 12: The Boy Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:41-52), the Emperor Augustus, and the Social Setting of the Third Gospel." Journal of Theological Studies, 60(1): 70-89.
Haas, Christopher. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church,
A.D. 257-260." Church History, vol. 52, no. 2 (June 1983): 133-144.
Lienhard, Joseph. "The 'Arian' Controversy: Some Categories Reconsidered."
Articles on the History of Christianity
Christopher J. Haas' article "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, A.D. 257 -- 260" was published within the scholarly journal Church History in 1983, and the author focuses his attention on the persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor Valerian. According to Haas, one of the most compelling aspects of Valerian's persecution of Christians was the sudden shift in his official religious policy in the year 257 A.D. Haas asks in the article, "prior to that time the church was largely undisturbed, but the years 257 -- 258 witnessed a series of increasingly severe imperial edicts directed against Christianity. What prompted this sudden reversal of imperial religious policy in 257?,"1 and it is this question which forms the foundation of his subsequent scholarly inquiry. y reading this article, one learns that Valerian actually launched his campaign of persecution against Christians in…
Evans, Gary. "Christological Errors: Then and Now." Affirmation and Critique, July (2008): 35-
Haas, Christopher J. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, AD
257-260." Church History 52 (1983): 133-144.
In both Silence and the Mission, violence breaks out among two types of European foreigners: those who would favor religious priorities over economic ones (the priests), and those who would favor economic priorities over religious ones (the European tradesmen in Silence and the Portuguese and Spanish bounty hunters in the Mission. Moreover, according to Pena, like the Jesuits in the Mission, who are alone, isolated, at odds with their church, and sometimes even each other, "Rodrigues' trials are exacerbated by his physical and cultural isolation... Culturally, he must confront being in a nation whose language and customs are mostly alien and threatening to him."
In the Mission, the story begins when a bounty-hunting Spaniard, Rodrigo, kills his younger brother Felipe over a woman they both love, but who loves only Felipe. Languishing in prison afterward, Rodrigo is certain that all is lost until he is visited in his prison cell…
Endo, Shusaku. Silence. London: Taplinger, 1980.
Joffe, Rolfe (Dir.). The Mission.
With Robert De Niro and Jeremy Irons.
United Kingdom. 1986.
While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…
Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." AISH.com. 2007. 26 March 2007. http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_15_-_The_Time_of_the_Judges.asp
This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.
Natural Rights Theory
Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…
Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.
Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge
Univ. Press, 2006.
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…
Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html
Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm
Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
Voltaire's "Candide" (lake and Kazin, 1976) contain aspects of anti-religious sentiments. oth epics are quasi-historical -- they provide a commentary on the prevailing times; both works also provide a view into lake and Voltaire's personal opinions and leanings. Voltaire was educated by the Jesuits -- priests belonging to the society of Jesuits. Voltaire railed against the prevailing cultural and religious mores that sought to forget socio-economic conditions to satisfy some pre-ordained, religious (mis)interpretations of divine mandates. lake, similarly, was mortified by the dualism practiced by the religious of the time. He did not like or appreciate the way in which every thing was seen from the point of black or white. If the Church deemed something unfit, the practitioner of that aspect of life came under severe remonstrations and even met the ultimate penalty of death. oth authors struggle against the fact that these rules were beneficial to those in…
Blake, William, and Alfred Kazin. "Songs of Innocence and of Experience." The Portable Blake: Selected and Arranged with an Introduction by Alfred Kazin. Ed. Alfred Kazin. New York: Penguin Books, 1976. 83-118.
Caddy, Caroline. Conquistadors. The Australian Poetry Series. Ringwood, Vic., Australia; New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books assisted by the Literature Board of the Australia Council, 1991.
Hirsch, E.D. Innocence and Experience: An Introduction to Blake. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.
Homer, and Denison Bingham Hull. Homer's Odyssey. Greenwich, Conn.: Hull, 1978.
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…
Adherents.com. "Major Religions Ranked by Size." Adherents.com. 2007. Adherents.com 28
Sept. 2007 http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html .
Carlson, Doug. "ENDA: Ending an Important Employer Right." The Ethics and Religious
Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. 2007. The Southern Baptist Commission. 28 Sept. 2007 http://erlc.com/article/enda-ending-an-important-employer-right .
America, states' rights are a hot topic. Can states legalize gay marriage, or is that something that is better left to the federal government? Can states make their own gun laws, or should we have a general law by the U.S. government about them? These are just a few examples of issues where states' rights are disputed. Religion is a hot topic as well; can students pray at football games and graduation ceremonies? Can a person's religious beliefs make taking an otherwise illegal drug legal? Foreign affairs gets a lot of coverage, as well: should America be concerned about democracy in other nations? Should we use force to patrol the world, perhaps making it a more secure place?
These all seem like very modern questions, and in many ways, they are. Football games and gay marriage were hardly relevant during the colonial period of American history. But the events of…
The book the American Story attempts to dispel common notions of the conquest of the New World. According to the author,
"The story recounted first in Europe and then in the United States depicted heroic adventurers, missionaries and soldiers sharing Western civilization with the peoples of the New World and opening a vast virgin land to economic development. The familiar tale celebrated material progress, the inevitable spread of European values and the taming of frontiers." (Divine, 2)
Divine believes this is a grossly distorted version of the truth for many reasons explained below.
First, North America was already a land of great cultural and technological achievement before the Europeans arrived. There are many examples provided, but the one that stands out the most is Chaco Canyon on the San Juan River in present-day New Mexico (Divine, 4). With as many as fifteen thousand people, Chaco Canyon had…
Divine, Robert, et. al. The American Story (Second Edition). New York: Penguin, 2002.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone Books, 1995.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
It was this tumultuous political and religious environment that led this second wave of Iranian immigrants to the United States.
Because many of the supporters of the Shah's regime had relatives studying in the U.S. As a result of the first influx of Iranian immigrants, they sought asylum in that manner. Others made their pleas based on political and religious persecution issues. Others still, entered the country on student visas and managed to obtain permanent status later.
Assimilation is difficult for any migrating group, but the Iranians faced severe obstacles in the form of fierce discrimination and outright hatred by many Americans. With Americans being so ethnocentric it is extremely difficult for anyone to come from a different culture and fit in with the majority in the United States. With the prevailing sentiment towards Iranians after the Iranian Hostage Crisis, it was more than difficult, it was virtually impossible. Further,…
Bozorhmehr, M. (1998). "From Iranian studies to studies of Iranians in the United States."
Iranian Studies 31(1), 4-30.
Ghaemi, N. (2009, February 2). The psychology of Iranian-American relations. Retrieved December 11, 2011 from Psychology Today website: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mood-swings/200902/the-psychology-iranian-american-relations?page=2
Gillis, M. (2011). Iranian Americans. Retrieved December 11,2011 from Countries and Their
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
Both points-of-view may be absolutely correct, but neither really addresses the issue of whether or not Alexander was truly great.
Perhaps the best way to evaluate Alexander's greatness is to look at the lasting effects that he had on civilization.
First and foremost, Alexander conquered the known world. "Before Alexander world civilization had been dominated by eastern cultures - Persians, Egyptians, and Babylonians. Alexander shifted the spotlight once and for all. From now on the western societies of the Romans and the Greeks would take over the torch." Alexander used the gold reserves of conquered Persia to build new cities and ports, which he used to spread the Greek civilization around the world. In fact, "the economic system that began to take shape after Alexander's reign remained virtually unchanged until the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th century." hile the Greeks may have found Alexander's successes great, not all of…
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Wehrstein, Karen. 2003. Alexander's True Passion: Transcendence [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=26&keyword_id=2&title=Passion;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
Welman, Nick. 2005. General Overview [online]. Pothos; available at http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=88&keyword_id=2&title=General%20Introduction;Internet; accessed 14 March 2005.
In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…
Egner, R.E. And Denonn, L.E. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London,
Einstein, A. (1999). Ideas and Opinions. (Edited by Seelig, C.) New York: Crown.
Hawking, S. (2001). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved…
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from U.S. Department of State. Web site: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2878.htm .
Caruana, J. (2005). Political Structure. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from Economist.com. Web site:
unified cultural need to establish their dominance in another land is the most important reasons for the foothold established by the English and the Spanish in the New orld. It is true that a plethora of different races, ethnic groups, nationalities, and cultures arrived on the North American soil prior to 1776, the year that America began its process of embarking upon its independence, of officially becoming the independent country of United States of America.
This begs the question of why did the Spanish (and Spanish Americans) and later primarily the English (and English Americans) become the dominant ethnic groups in the New orld, and not the other nations that established settlements, for instance, perchance, the Dutch?
This paper will argue that the predominant historical evidence, as discussed in The Ethnic Dimension in American History and Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History as well as American Mosaic suggests…
Class Notes and Discussion
Gierde, J Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History. New York:
Houghton Mifflin College Edition, 1998.
The Ethnic Dimension in American History. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
hile some eventually returned to their homelands, the vast majority settled throughout the United States, forming ethnic communities in urban areas, and homesteading farmlands in the west and mid-west rural areas. They fled their homelands due to economic depressions, and/or religious and political persecutions for the opportunity to establish a better life in the New orld, and in the process endured many hardships and often discrimination. Today, more than 43 million Americans claim German ancestry, and another 34 million claim Irish roots.
Cohn, Raymond L. "Immigration to the United States." Illinois State University.
Retrieved November 13, 2006 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cohn.immigration.us
Hansen, Lawrence Douglas Taylor. "The Chinese Six Companies of San Francisco and the smuggling of Chinese immigrants across the U.S.-Mexico border, 1882-1930." Journal of the Southwest. March 22, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hardwick, Susan . "Galveston: Ellis Island of Texas." Journal of…
Cohn, Raymond L. "Immigration to the United States." Illinois State University.
Retrieved November 13, 2006 at http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/cohn.immigration.us
Hansen, Lawrence Douglas Taylor. "The Chinese Six Companies of San Francisco and the smuggling of Chinese immigrants across the U.S.-Mexico border, 1882-1930." Journal of the Southwest. March 22, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hardwick, Susan W. "Galveston: Ellis Island of Texas." Journal of Cultural Geography.
Between the Revolution and the Civil War: How will you teach about the 3 to 4 generations that lived between 1776 and 1861 differently? In other words, how have you come to understand this time period better than you did before?
Like most Americans, I had previously been under the general impression that the generations in between the War of Independence and the Civil War worked steadily to incorporate the fundamental liberties and values that the original Colonists pursued in seeking emancipation from the British royal crown in the first place. In particular, we have always learned that religious freedom and the right to practice religion freely and without fear of government intervention or persecution were fundamental tenets of the early American people. Similarly, the contemporary historical narrative dramatically downplays the degree to which the white Americans and the federal government exploited the Native Americans unfairly, in many respects, even…
Founding European Colonies in the New World
Founding of European Colonies in the New World
The New World was not founded over night. It was, in fact, a very laborious period where several European colonies worked for centuries to secure a new spot in a virgin territory, filled with natural resources the continent of Europe had never seen before. Early struggles and hardships eventually led to successful colonies which, over time, developed into their own autonomous nations.
There were a number of events which led to the early development of European colonies in the context of the New World. Essentially, some of the greatest navy developments in Europe took place during this time period. Countries like Spain and Portugal began building up their navy in an attempt to hold greater competitive advantage over their other European counter parts. There were a number of wars and conflicts during the period, where…
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
All other Christian and Jewish groups interpret these same passages as referring to dietary laws, to the actual eating of meat containing blood (Robinson). itnesses also urge to "discontinue their chemotherapy treatments when platelet transfusions are needed" (Robinson). Moreover, they believe that any blood that leaves the body must be destroyed, thus they do not approve of an individual storing his own blood for a later auto-transfusion (Robinson).
An important tension within the itness discourse is the "transformative and revolutionary potential of the Society's iconoclastic millennialism" (Elliot). They believe that "A Christian, being realistic, must face life as it is - not as he wishes it might be," and that "Christians cannot change prevailing human customs, prejudices and laws," and basically should just put up with them, therefore interracial marriages are not formally wrong, but are considered unwise given the nature of prejudice (Elliot).
The headquarters of the Jehovah's itnesses…
Elliott, Joel. (1999). You Can Live Forever on a Paradise Earth: The Visual
Rhetoric of Jehovah's Witness Iconography. Retrieved November 03, 2005 at http://www.unc.edu/~elliott/icon.html
Jehovah's Witnesses. Retrieved November 03, 2005 at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/christ/esp/jw.html
Lawson, Ronald. (1995 December 22). Sect-state relations: accounting for the differing trajectories of Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses.
The American dream is something people in the United States and the world over, have strived for throughout the years. From the first immigrants of Western Europe to the new immigrants of Asia, Africa, and the Americas, many came to this country in pursuit of freedom a chance at upward mobility. This American Dream essay example will focus on the ways Americans have in the past and present, attempted to achieve a life of happiness and fulfilment in the United States.
Pursuit of the American Dream
To be or not to be: The American Dream
A chance at Upward Mobility: The American Dream
The Modern Day American Dream
Why Do People Pursue the Elusive American Dream?
How to resurrect the American Dream
The Ideals Behind the American Dream
A. The History Behind the American Dream
B. The Modern Day American Dream…
In ussia, any display of the swastika would generate a hostile response, just as it does in virtually all other Western cultures and societies simply because of the social context in which it was first introduced in the 20th century.
The Swastika in Buddhist and Hindu Social Culture:
Prior to the 20th century, the swastika was used in various ancient and medieval societies in a manner that had no relation to its subsequent revival and adoption by the Nazis many centuries later (Macionis, 2003). In some respects, it was adopted many different times as a fairly common symbol in so many different societies mainly because of its geometric simplicity and its symmetry. In many Far Eastern societies, particularly among Buddhists and Hindus, the swastika is a symbol that has decorated temples and other culturally significant structures for thousands of years.
In fact, in Thailand, where both Buddhism and Hinduism are…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Myers, D.G., Spencer, S.J. (2004). Social Psychology. Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
Smith claimed that polygamy was practiced by the "pre-Judaic" tribes (Harris). Polygamy was called "celestial marriage," and Joseph Smith claimed that he received his orders to practice polygamy in a religious vision ("The Mormons"). Polygamy was and still is illegal even though it was still a part of the Mormon traditions.
According to the BBC, there are "substantial differences" between the Church of Latter-Day Saints and the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox Christian Churches. Even though all the Christian Churches are based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, they all differ in their practices and beliefs. The Mormon Church also has a different leadership hierarchy than other Christian Churches, but one that still includes priests, bishops, and clergy. Unlike in the Catholic Church, the Mormon priesthood is not a professional one (BBC).
Besides the practice of polygamy, several things set apart Mormonism from other Christian faiths. The Mormons believe that "human…
BBC. "Religion and Ethics -- Mormonism." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/mormon/
Harris, William. "Mormons." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 26 Mar. 2009
"The Mormons." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/mormons/
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
Moved" by Uvavnuk is a celebration of life, of being alive to enjoy the world. The author has captured that moment of exhilaration that most humans, if they are lucky, feel at least once in their life. It is a moment when all seems right in the world. Everything is as it should be, and being present in that moment stirs the soul and warms the heart. A Buddhist would refer to this moment as nirvana, a state of blissfulness. Andrew iget points out that Inuit poetry is unique for its juxtaposition of humans against nature, how humans are dwarfed by the enormity of nature which results in human beings "continually struggling to secure their existence" (iget). iget also notes that this view of nature corresponds to the notion of the Romantic sublime, "a combination of awe, terror, and humility" (iget). Dee Finney notes that Uvavnuk was initiated when she…
Finney, Dee. "On Shamans. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from:
Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." Retrieved November 06, 2005 from:
eligion played an important role in the lives of many of the Northern colonists as well, but by the time of the evolution it was not nearly so prevalent in the politics of the day as it had been during the earlier times of the Puritan and Pilgrim settlements. This was, in fact, one of the main societal -- and ultimately political -- differences between the Northern colonies and the rest of the British colonies. The quiet reserve and stoicism that was a strong part of the Puritan tradition persist even to this day, however, and was if anything stronger then than it is now. In certain ways, then, religion did play an important role in shaping New England society. Though its direct effects were muted by the time that the evolutionary action was beginning, the puritan streak influenced the personality of the culture and many of its individuals.
Bonomi, Patricia U. "Hippocrates' Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution." The History Teacher, 29 (2), pp. 137-44.
Bushnell, Amy Turner. "Review: Another's Country: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on Cultural Interactions in the Southern Colonies," J.W. Joseph and Martha Zierden, eds. The Journal of Southern History, 2002. Pp. 889-91.
Kierner, Cynthia A. "Hospitality, Sociability, and Gender in the Southern Colonies." The Journal of Southern History, 62 (3) pp. 449-480
Pagliassotti, Druann Lynn. "Apparel and attribute: The social construction of status in New England colonies and the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, United States -- California.
religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.
The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…
Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.
Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.
< http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html >
Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…
Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007
Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.
New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
eber's Analysis Of Vocation In The Modern, Secular Protestant orld
In both his essays on "Science as a Vocation" and "Politics as a Vocation," the father of sociology Max eber advances the idea that the development of a Protestant religious ideology created modern, secular notions of what constituted a vocation. At the time of his writing, eber stated, it had become increasingly accepted that there was an equal validity of the vocations of science and politics, as opposed to the sole existence of a vocation of faith in service of God. Before Protestantism, religious dogma and religious bureaucratic institutions alone determined scientific truth. Religious internal politics also influenced national politics and political affairs. Now, Protestantism allowed for the creation of a private, religious sphere of the sacred that was intrinsically separate from a public, secular sphere of academic or political thought.
This rendering science and politics as potentially respectable vocations…
Weber, Max. "Science as a Vocation" and "Religion as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Translated and edited. New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. Retrieved from Dead Sociologist's Society Website at http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/scivoc.html and http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Weber/polvoc.html.
ith respect to these principles, Unitarians have historically supported social justice movements within the United States, such as the Civil Rights movement, and anti-war causes. They also support interfaith dialogue, and believe there is value in all religious faiths, not just Christianity. The merged organization does not hold solely to Universalist or Unitarian beliefs, but honors both in the shaping of the tradition. Many women have served prominently in the movement since its inception, as have African-Americans. Unitarian Universalists also support full social equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people (GLBT).
Unitarian Universalists have occasionally been accused of being irreligious, because of their tolerance of so many conceptions of faith, and the fact that they do not insist that adherents subscribe to a particular conception of God, or even to believe in a traditional, anthropomorphic form of the divine at all. Unitarian Universalists view the religion as part of…
Hughes, Peter. "Michael Sevetus." Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS).
March 24, 2011. http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/michaelservetus.html
Rasor, Paul. "Unitarian Universalist views of God." Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).
March 24, 2011. http://www.uua.org/publications/pamphlets/spiritualtopics/151278.shtml
Jewish-ussian heritage. The writer details the emergence of the Jewish faith in ussia, the radical actions taken to stop its growth and existence and the more recent developments that have created it to begin a resurgence. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
In the past two decades the former Soviet Union has gone through many different changes, with the biggest one being the dismantling of its very existence and government and the slow process of rebuilding it from the ground up. In the former Soviet Union there were many strict rules and the heavy arm of Communism was felt throughout the state. One of the things that was heavily mandated was the freedom of religion. The Jewish faith had encountered severe opposition in the Soviet Union for many years and all but the most stubborn Jews had been driven out of the land many years…
Messianic Jews gaining ground in Russia By Alexandra Alter http://www.jrn.columbia.edu/studentwork/cns/2003-04-27/233.asp
Jewish heritage in Russian children's literature Olga Maeots Russia ( http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/107-152e.htm )
The Fate of Jews immediately after the Russian Revolution http://csf.colorado.edu/mail/psn/oct97/0100.html
The revolutions across Europe
During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).
Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.
Conceptually, civil law is a group…
If we are honest with ourselves, we can admit that we live in a society of tyranny and oppression. It might not be as blatant a case of civil rights violations as were the Jim Crow laws of the South, and it might be a more complicated issue when it comes to matters of personal faith. In the arena of public affairs, however, it is exactly the same. Either all people are equal, or none are free.
It cannot be the purpose of a democratic government to legislate morality. John Stuart Mill warned us of the danger of a tyranny of the majority -- the situation wherein the bulk of a society's people have made an arbitrary moral determination and proceed to impose on those small factions that do not adhere to the same beliefs. Such tyranny was seen time and time again in all forms of government -- the…
National security is an important concept which has often been mistakenly used to refer to protection against external threats. With people gaining better knowledge of the term security, national security has become a complex term that involves human as well as environmental security. For a nation to feel completely secure, it should not only be protected against external threats and aggression but also against internal problems that might make its citizens feel less safe. National security also includes local or internal security which is often defined separately as if it was not a part of the broader term. We must understand that if a person feel threatened in his own country due to any reason such as racism, religious persecution or environmental problems, then he cannot consider his country secure for himself.
Local insecurity leads to national disturbance which might make a country and its people feel vulnerable. For…
1) UN Human Development Report 1994: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en / (Accessed on 04/30/05)
2) Howard Zinn, The Logic of Withdrawal, January 2004 Issue: (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.progressive.org/jan04/zinn0104.html
3) Peter K.B. St. Jean, The Relevance Of National Security To Economic, Political, And Social Development. University of Chicago, Department of Sociology (Accessed on 04/30/05) http://www.da-academy.org/devsecure.html
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).
The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…
Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.
Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.
Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
Environmental History of Sandia Mountains
The view from the top of Sandia Peak is breathtaking. Showing off some of Nature's finest work, the Tramway glides along the cable climbing the rugged Sandia Mountains presenting spectacular views of the io Grande Valley and nearby Sandia Crest. Even though you're just a few miles from Albuquerque, the 15 minute tram ride has taken you far away from the everyday world. As your eyes sweep across the mountain range, appreciating one geological feature after another, you're taken by the spirituality of the scene. You have discovered what every Pueblo Indian knows, that this is indeed a sacred space. At the same time, you understand too why obert Nordhaus was inspired to build the Sandia Peak Tramway to share this picturesque bounty with millions of tourists. For Sandia Mountains, past and present, is a place where residents and tourists, Native Americans and…
Benedict, Cynthia. 2009. Contemporary American Indian uses and tribal consultation, U.S. Forest Service, http://www.fs.fed.us/outernet/r3/cibola/projects/nepa_reports/hondo/tribal_uses_specialist_report.pdf (accessed March 22, 2012).
Hawkinson, Bruce. 2011. History A brief, unresearched history of the Sandia Park Scenic Byway neighborhood. Sandia Park Scenic Byway Neighborhood Association, http://www.sandia-park.com/History_and_Maps.html (accessed March 22, 2012).
Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Sandia Pueblo, http://www.indianpueblo.org/19pueblos/sandia.html (accessed March 22, 2012).
New Mexico State Record Center and Archives. 2012. Sandia Pueblo, http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID=1220 (accessed March 22, 2012).
Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680
What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?
In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…
Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.
Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.
Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.
Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
Most of the Jews who had settled in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were in the hinterlands, and were as poor as their neighbours. In those provinces where Jews could own land, there was a requirement that the Jews live on and work their land -- in order to prevent land speculation. As a result, many Jews in Niederoestereich and around Linz, where von Schnerer and his family resided, were themselves farmers. Natural increases and immigration resulted in large Jewish populations in the Austrian Empire; it has been estimated that over 70% of all the Jews in the world lived in these areas in the late 19th century (Engleman, 1933) One can imagine that the entry of Jewish farmers created tension within the communities of rural Austria, as they competed in the marketplace for customers, and demonstrated their abilities to succeed through education and hard work. This contrasted with the Austrian "auern,"…
Engleman, U. (1933). The Decline of Jewish Population Density in Europe. Social Forces, 244-247.
Hitler, a. (1931). Mein Kampf. Berlin: List.
Hofer, H. a. (1997). Regional per capita income convergence in Austria. Regional Studies, 31 (1), 1-12.
House, P.A. (1884). Austrian House of Representatives. Vienna: Austrian Parliament.
Faulkner masterfully weaves lives in and out of this fabric, demonstrating the importance of self-identity as well as social acceptance. Light in August, however, draws more attention to how the conflicts and differences between race, gender, and social constraints are destructive forces.
The birth of Lena's child "holds out the promise of a new age that transcends the social contradictions that Joe's violent tale bears witness to" (Lutz), according to Lutz. Furthermore, Faulkner looks toward the future with the birth of this child to this meek woman. Lena is comfortable with herself and she copes well hen others choose to judge her by her unwed status. This is a striking contrast to how Joe chooses to deal with how others perceive him. Lena may not be able to see the future but she is confident she can unearth some hope in it somewhere. Mrs. Hines response to the child suggests…
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: The Modern Library. Print. 1950.
LUTZ, JOHN. "Faulkner's Parable of the Cave: Ideology and Social Criticism in Light in August." The Mississippi Quarterly 52.3.1999.459. Gale Literature Resource Center.
Web. 1 Sept. 2010. http://go.galegroup.com
Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Light in August.'" Novels for Students. Ed. 2007. Gale