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recruiting study participants as well as collecting and analyzing data are important markers of research credibility and integrity. In quantitative research, the major components of methodology include research design, population and sampling, ethics, data collection, and procedures. The appropriate research design, sample size, and data collection instrument must be selected (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) study took the form of cross-sectional design. Though this design tends to be less costly compared to other quantitative designs, there could be difficulties in determining cause and effect relationships. As the population of the study was haemodialysis nurses, the sample was recruited from the enal Society of Australasia (SA), which has about 1,300 members (95% of which are nurses). Overall, 417 nurses were included in the sample. This is an appropriate representation of the target population.
Ethical concerns must also be addressed when conducting quantitative research. This entails obtaining…… [Read More]
Work Environment, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Burnout Among Haemodialysis Nurses
This article was authored by Hayes, Douglas, and Bonner and published in the Journal of Nursing Management in 2015. The article was selected as an example of the cross-sectional survey design.
Nursing work involves activities, tasks, and processes that may be a source of significant stress for nurses. This is particularly true for haemodialysis nurses. In the execution of their day-to-day duties, haemodialysis nurses interact with difficult patients. They also grapple with inadequate staffing, excessive workload, extended work schedules, short work breaks, as well as intricate interpersonal relationships with the other members of the multidisciplinary team. These factors may cause job stress, eventually resulting in burnout and job dissatisfaction. In some instances, the burnout may lead to turnover and even change of profession.
Statement of Purpose
The purposed of the study was to examine the perceptions of haemodialysis nurses in…… [Read More]
Locating and Critically Analysing Primary esearch Articles
In their study, Housholder-Hughes et al. (2015) investigate the usefulness of a nurse-led disease management program for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following discharge from hospital. The study shows that ACS patients who attended the program after discharge depicted greater adherence to evidence-based self-management behaviour, improved mental and physical health, as well as increased satisfaction with care. The 12-week program -- broken down into three one hour visits every month -- involved assessing patients for clinical symptoms and risk factors, educating them about coronary artery disease (CAD), and referring them to appropriate nutrition and exercise. The study underscores the role of nurses in promoting physical and mental health in ACS patients after they are released from hospital. Nurses help ACS patients adopt the right behaviours post-discharge in terms of physical activity, dietary habits, compliance with medication, and lifestyle modification in general. This…… [Read More]
Unforeseen technology-related events could have impacted the study.
Maturation - No, this would not have been a potential threat as the class is short in relative time period. This was controlled through semester scheduling.
Testing - Yes, this could have had a major impact on the research, and needed to be addressed through the definition of methodologies and statistical test definitions.
Instrumentation - Yes, this could have had an impact on the research, yet was minimized by the standardization of tests, the inclusion of online students in classrooms for proctored exams, and the use of a standard evaluation form.
Mortality - Yes, this was a major risk and is illustrated in the 2 students who dropped in-class participation. This was controlled through the selection of the respondent base.
Regression (Statistical Regression), Location - No, did not pose a risk to the research as the respondent base did not include previous…… [Read More]
The following questions pertain to:
Velayutham, S. G., Chandra, S. R., Bharath, S., & Shankar, R. G. (2017). Quantitative balance and gait measurement in patients with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer diseases: A pilot study. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 39(2), 176-182. doi:10.4103/0253-7176.203132
1) What is the purpose of this research
Initially, subclinical shifts are anticipated; therefore, quantitative measures will prove immensely helpful when it comes to pattern comprehension. This will function as an easy-to-access market as well as help initiate timely rehabilitation.
2) What is the research question (or questions)? This may be implicit or explicit.
Determination of parameters’ subclinical connection may help differentially analyse discrete parameters concerning the conditions, in addition to facilitating the planning of fall prevention strategies.
3) Give a complete description of the research design of this study.
The study’s chief focus was studying the association of gait measurement with quantitative balance among Alzheimer’s and…… [Read More]
Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts International. (Order No. 3132743)
In addition to sexual minority stress, same-sex parents may experience stressors that are specific to parenting, similar to the parental stress experienced by heterosexual parents (Lichtanski, 2004). Stress related to parenting can be chronic, as the stressors may be pervasive, ongoing, and require that families adapt to compensate for the effects of the stressors
Bos, H.M.., van Balen, F., van den Boom, D., & Sandfort, G.M. (2004). Minority stress, experiences of parenthood and child adjustment in lesbian families. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(4), 1-14. doi: 10.1080/02646830412331298350 4
Non-legal same-sex parents who have more restrictions and fewer rights may experience parenting as more stressful than same-sex parents who have full parenting rights. Examples of this may be feeling frustrated by not being able to provide health insurance to their children or concern about not having custody if the parents' relationship ends.…… [Read More]
EMD combined with TAU will lead to a significantly greater reduction of PTSD symptoms than TAU alone, when comparing PTSD symptoms from baseline to 6-month follow-up. There are also secondary concerns that the research sought to answer, the research examined the effectiveness of EMD on substance use-related outcomes, depressive symptoms, dissociative symptoms, emotion dysregulation and quality of life.
To investigate the hypothesis, this study will take a rater-blinded 2-arms CT. Assessments for the participants were scheduled at the pre-treatment (T0), post-treatment (T1), at 3-month (T2) and at 6-month (T3) follow-up. Participants are meant to be randomly assigned to either the EMD plus TAU group or the TAU group. Data will then e assessed at an inpatient rehabilitation center in Germany (AHG Clinic Dormagen). The research intends to recruit 158 adult patients with SUD and comorbid PTSD attending inpatient rehabilitation treatment from September 2015…… [Read More]
S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in…… [Read More]
Service Quality esearch
The research discussed in this paper is based on the application of the SEVQUAL model to the restaurant sector of the hospitality service industry. The SEVQUAL model was developed in 1985 and has been refined since for use in the service industry. In contrast to goods, service quality has been difficult to measure because of the intangibility, variability and heterogeneity of the service. Moreover, the service quality depends on the interaction between service provider and consumer. The SEVQUAL model was developed to overcome these limitations. The research articles discussed in the following sections were all conducted to apply the model in the restaurant sector to evaluate the service quality of various kinds of restaurants.
In addition to the SEVQUAL model, another useful model is the DINESEV model which has also been used by a couple of the researches discussed in this paper. The researches discussed in this…… [Read More]
Acquainted with Research
What is the name of your journal?
-- Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition
For whom does it seem to have been written?
-- Experimental Psychologists and researchers, Cognitive psychologists, sensation and perception psychologists/researchers, people interested in how individuals process visual information in order to read.
Choose a representative research article whose title interests you. Write the name of its time and briefly explain why it interests you.
Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips During Reading
This article seemed interesting because I often notice that when I read, even if I do not read every single word in a sentence, I still understand the meaning of the sentence. I was hoping to learn more about how the brain processes information in a way that allows it to seemingly skip over some pieces of information and yet still retain the overall meaning of the text that has…… [Read More]
Evidence-based practice has become popular in several disciplines of healthcare and continues to do so. One of the major characteristic of EP is its reliance on scientific evidence, individual choices and needs of the patient and clinical expertise. It is one of the healthcare approaches, in which the professionals make use of the hard evidence available in order to make healthcare decisions for a patient. It builds, enhances and values clinical knowledge, and expertise of pathophysiology and the mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, it also includes conscientious and complex decision-making, that is based not just on the evidence available but also on the situation, preferences and characteristics of the patient. EP recognizes the individuality in healthcare and accepts that it is constantly changing and involves several probabilities and uncertainties. It is ultimately the formation of a process that has been practiced for years by the best clinicians (McKibbon, 1998 ).
Energy…… [Read More]
daunting undertaking, in large part due to the statistical tests and complex language involved (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Whatever the case, the results of the analysis must be presented in a clear, readable manner, often with the use of tables, graphs, and charts. In Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article, data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), a common data analysis tool. The results were presented with the help of both descriptive and inferential statistics. Measures of central tendency such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation as well as tables and graphs were used to present data relating to demographic characteristics, work environments, job stress, job satisfaction, and burnout. T-tests, ANOVAs, and correlation analyses were then conducted to explore relationships between nurse and work environment characteristics, job stress, job satisfaction, and burnout.
The study found that there were high levels of burnout amongst the…… [Read More]
unequivocal (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Also, it should ideally be 10-15 words long. The title of the quantitative article is "Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses" (Hayes, Douglas & Bonner, 2015). The title clearly adheres to the recommended length of an article title. In addition, the title unambiguously identifies of the purpose of the study, which is to examine relationships between nurse characteristics, work environment attributes, job satisfaction, job stress, and burnout in nurses working in haemodialysis units.
The abstract should provide a succinct summary of the study, inclusive of the research problem, purpose of the research, methodology, sample size, findings, as well as conclusion and recommendations (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). The reader should judge from the abstract whether an article is worth further reading. Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article provides a precise and straightforward overview of the study, clearly summing up the…… [Read More]
Sand-Jecklin, K., & Herman, J. (2014). A Quantitative Assessment of Patient and Nurse Outcomes of Bedside Nursing eport Implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-2863.
This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele (2011) points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.e. "quantify quantitative outcomes of a practice change to a blended form of bedside nursing report." It is clear that the authors in this case seek to quantify behaviors and opinions in an attempt to come up with results from a sample population that is significant. I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…… [Read More]
Gum Chewing Following Cesarean
In their research article entitled "Gum-Chewing Speeds Return of First Bowel Sounds but Not First Defecation after Cesarean Section," Harma et al. (2009) explore a two-fold research question. First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section. Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum. The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. hat the researchers found was that there was no marked difference between the three groups in comparing the time it took to their first episode of…… [Read More]
oss et al. (2010) placed electrodes at specific points on participants' skulls that were used to apply small electrical charges at various times during the experiment, while no charge or "dummy charges" (a charge that provided the same sensation as a full charge, but that did not actually provide current to the brain) was given at other times in order to test and control for the real effect of an actual charge to the brain. This methodology is described in brief by Porter (2011), however the technical elements that are carefully detailed in the research publication of the methods used are not presented in this popular media article (oss et al., 2010). All of the information aside from the key findings of the article are left out also, although the basic limitations of the finding are described and there is evident care taken to not inflate the results or over-exaggerate…… [Read More]
A slightly broader study was deployed for the quantitative study entitled "Multiple gestations: side effects of antepartum bed rest." This study found that high-risk pregnancies and bed rest significantly increased the stressors upon the women. It measured this by using the Antepartum Stressors Hospital Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The weekly rate of maternal weight gain during hospitalization was also significantly less than recent recommendations for multiple gestation weight gain and women on bed rest reported a high number of depressive symptoms than those patients not on bed rest. CES-D scores for depressive symptoms were high as were postpartum symptoms for women in the study.
This study also recommended that it is critical for hospitals to attempt to alleviate antepartum stress, but it focused on the physical risks posed by maternal weight loss, as well as psychological stress, stress, depression,…… [Read More]
Multicultural Workplace esearch: Abstract eview
The research study entitled, "The impact on the cultural diversity to employees' job satisfaction between mainland China and Taiwan: a comparison of Taiwanese invested companies" by Chuan-Cheng Wu and Yu-Chen Chiang (2007) looked into the effect of cultural diversity to employees' satisfaction among mainland Chinese and Taiwanese employees. In the abstract of the research article, the authors shared key points about their research, although details provided were incomplete. Among the research details shared in the abstract were the research topic, research question, participant groups in the study and a summary of the key findings. However, among items not specifically included were the following: methodology, analyses used, and a conclusion that ultimately tells the readers the main result of the study.
eviewing the research article, these missing details about the research are identified. To develop a complete abstract for the study, these gaps must be addressed…… [Read More]
Bringing Quality Back to Commercial Air Travel
In 1988, ten years after deregulation of the aviation industry in the U.S., Gourdin's article titled "Bringing Quality Back to Commercial Air Travel" was published in the Transportation Journal. The article gives a good overview into the way that the aviation industry has developed following deregulation. The article focuses on quality issues, demonstrating the way in which interpretation and satisfaction of quality issues varies across the three main stakeholders; the carriers themselves, passengers, and the government (Gourdin, 1988). This is an interesting piece written by the author using their knowledge, therefore, when reviewing this article it should be noted that it is more of an opinion piece rather than a research article found in peer reviewed journals.
When examining the article, it maybe argued that although Gourdin obviously has a strong knowledge of the airline industry, and the way it operates, that…… [Read More]
statistics statistics and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics are used for different types of designs. For example, correlational studies will utilize descriptive statistics to measure a set of data's central tendency along with the way variables vary and relate to one another. A Pearson r would be a type of descriptive statistics test conducted to evaluate the strength of the relationship or if there relation goes in any one direction but descriptive statistics can also be used in causal-comparative design studies to measure data variability (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 70). Inferential statistics on the other hand are used to compare means (typically a t-test is conducted) and statistical significance is determined by whether the p value is > or < than alpha (commonly .05) (Statistics for the non-statistician, n.d., p. 61).
Another way to think of descriptive statistics is that they are "used to synthesize and…… [Read More]
administration had to conduct research to confirm the research agenda. The research agenda advises assessment of state policy as well as implementation and needed to be robust enough to created informed decisions. While there were a plethora and variety of articles provided, he articles provided in the research were not from recent articles. Some were over 6 years old and they should be a maximum of four years old.
Furthermore, the quality of the articles submitted were questionable. For example, some articles came from blogs or websites. They needed to be solely peer-reviewed. Many of the articles were also informative articles and not articles in which researchers conducted studies and performed reviews of other articles for their research topic/area of interest. Best practices come from results collected by researchers performing studies. They put forth a hypothesis and test this hypothesis in order to draw a conclusion.
Informative articles do not…… [Read More]
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…… [Read More]
namely, evaluating the structure of the research upon which scientific conclusion are drawn. More specifically, the function of a research report (article) is to inform readers about the problem being investigated, the methods used to solve the problem, the results of the investigation, and the conclusions being inferred from the results. The printed manuscript is to inform the reader, as expeditiously as possible, what was done, the outcome of the doing, and the investigator's conclusion.
In addition to the above, research reports must be succinct, objective, and crystalline. The ultimate test of an excellent research report is in its ability to be replicated by those who read it. If this criterion cannot be met, then the report is inadequate. The remainder of this review will be an analysis of a particular professional article wherein a group of nurses were interviewed and questioned with respect to their knowledge about promoting sun…… [Read More]
journals include articles that have been evaluated and approved by professionals in the field. With that said, no one journal article is perfect. Some articles may lack strong theoretical foundations while others may contain flawed research designs. In your literature review, it is important to point out both the strengths and limitations of articles related to your topic and state how your research seeks to address them.
Post by Day 4 a brief summary of one article you plan to include in your literature review. hen evaluate the article, noting its strengths and limitations.
Annotated bibliography entry
McCreary, L.L., & Dancy, B.L. (2004). Dimensions of family functioning: Perspectives of low-income African-American single-parent families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(3), 690-701.
his research article is a qualitative study designed to assess family functioning of African-American single-parent families. All too often the functioning of single-parent families is assessed in a holistic manner,…… [Read More]
Though I have never had the opportunity to truly work with a data expert on a specific piece of nursing research, one of my colleagues that I was able to interview has worked on a variety of research projects and has a strong knowledge both of statistical models and practices as well as specific nursing research practices, theoretical constructs, and validity measures. The insights that this individual shared did not provide complete clarity on the subject -- far from it, in fact -- but rather opened up many new areas of questions and considerations that I had not previously even known to ask or consider. It is in this area that human research resources, i.e. nurses that have been there before, are especially important, as they can provide new avenues of thinking and investigation in a way that research articles, textbooks, and other similar pieces of knowledge and literature simply…… [Read More]
2009). The greater the extent to which a young person identified with homeless culture, the more likely he or she was to be an abuser of drugs and alcohol. Although this cultural factor was the strongest correlative factor, the other domains in the study likewise were highly correlated with substance abuse amongst homeless young people.
The authors stated that although drug abuse is often seen as a problem by social workers who deal with the homeless, for the homeless themselves, abuse is often seen as a useful coping strategy to deal with the challenges of their lives. The disaffection felt by young adults also suggests that there may be built-in resistance to adopting what is considered 'normal' behavior. Homeless persons who were involved in alcohol and drugs showed higher levels of identification with street culture and a greater likelihood of being involved in violent crimes in their pasts.
The implications…… [Read More]
Nursing Workforce Issues and Concerns
The article, "Nursing Workforce Issues and Trends Affecting Emergency Departments" by obinson and colleagues (2004) looks at the range of contemporary issues which directly impact the quality of care which is received in America's emergency rooms (E).The authors argue that looking at the most pertinent issues which impact the nation's Es is a sound way of taking the temperature of the general healthcare climate as a whole. Examining things like workforce issues, staffing issues and the ratios of patients to nurses can help all individuals involved get a better sense of the challenges that this professional arena faces when it comes to delivering a high quality of care. One of the strengths of this research article is that a host of strategies are engaged in to better improve the quality of care for patients while bolstering the number of qualified nurses and other staff team…… [Read More]
articles as well as an analysis of the three articles that have been chosen. There will also be a reflection on the connections that these three articles have towards the best practices in the social studies context and field in general. The three articles to be reviewed and analyzed are;
"Technology and classroom practices: An international study." By obert B. Kozma
"Using poetry in social studies classes to teach about cultural diversity Social justice." By Ava L. McCall.
"How to teach thinking skills in social studies and history." By Barry K. Beyer.
Technology and classroom practices: An international study. By obert B. Kozma
The main focus of the paper is how technology is used in classrooms all over the world and how it has changed the practice in class and general approach to learning by both students and teachers. According to the article the use of technological tools in classrooms…… [Read More]
Accordingly, operational definitions have become a psychological standard by which psychological research has been-based for nearly a century; they enable a clear path of communication between psychologists and psychological researchers.
2- Do you have any hypotheses (2-tailed) related to any of these variables? List 3 possible hypotheses.
One-tailed hypothesis: predicts the direction in which the results will go.
hypothesis regulates or controls the course of experimentation.
Two-tailed hypothesis: hypothesis states that one factor affects another rather than state a direction, or that there will be a difference between the scores without stating the direction of the difference.
Definition: A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis…… [Read More]
articles "Evaluating Supplier Performance" and "Vendor Management Tips: Building Relationships" and evaluates the criteria they discuss.
There are inherent problems in using performance evaluations, as McGuiness et al. point out. "To have any validity, performance evaluations must be systematic and fair, and based upon explicit criteria of which the suppler has notice" (McGuinness, Kevin, Bauld & Stephen, 2005). For such evaluations to be of any value, they must use valid performance measures and reporting mechanisms. Of course, such a labor-intensive process precludes its being practical to implement for most projects.
Tyler's article focuses instead on ways to effectively manage the vendor relationship. In terms of ranking, some of the tips are more effective and more likely to yield the desired outcome of successful project completion, and are therefore more valuable than others. The following criteria are the most important:
All the criteria that recognize the value of a successful implementation…… [Read More]
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]
articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?
The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.
It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…… [Read More]
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…… [Read More]
Articles on the History of Christianity
Christopher J. Haas' article "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, A.D. 257 -- 260" was published within the scholarly journal Church History in 1983, and the author focuses his attention on the persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor Valerian. According to Haas, one of the most compelling aspects of Valerian's persecution of Christians was the sudden shift in his official religious policy in the year 257 A.D. Haas asks in the article, "prior to that time the church was largely undisturbed, but the years 257 -- 258 witnessed a series of increasingly severe imperial edicts directed against Christianity. What prompted this sudden reversal of imperial religious policy in 257?,"1 and it is this question which forms the foundation of his subsequent scholarly inquiry. y reading this article, one learns that Valerian actually launched his campaign of persecution against Christians in…… [Read More]
articles regarding pedagogy to bridge the gap between practice and theory in education. We will see how new teachers can apply their freshly absorbed knowledge in order to benefit them in their fresh classroom environments in the area of ESOL teaching. Increasingly, immersion is seen to be effective in improving ESOL as well as it is in the teaching of foreign languages. What the study discovered is that interaction is the key in training children in ESOL
ESOL Effectiveness Online
In an article in Journal of esearch on Technology in Education analyzes the effectiveness ESOL students in communication using the agency of electronic discussion boards. The study focused on the use of electronic discussion boards equipped with ESOL students who were in grades K-12 in school. There has been a movement within ESL in recent years to concentrate on competency as opposed to grammar and form, hence the format…… [Read More]
side-listed positions possible. There are also questions with regard to the nature of e-commerce queries and the trends in sponsored links that shed light on their effectiveness overall.
Comparing Literature eviews
In both articles, the literature reviews are thorough and very well organized. Starting with (Jansen 2007) the depth of literature review to the cause -- and effect level of the analysis is impressive. The researchers who completed the analysis in this article have found many references to research that refute their claim, that sponsored search is more effective. In fact the secondary research and open-ended discussions completed by the Marketing Leadership Council (2006) are exactly the opposite of the findings of (Jansen 2007). Of the two, the latter has created a bibliography that supports how contextually-driven sponsored search is relative to non-sponsored research, showing that search engine results page (SEP) is an accurate metric for evaluating the effectiveness of…… [Read More]
Motivation Theory and Ergonomics
The study by Szalma (2014) entitled "On the Application of Motivation Theory to Human Factors/Ergonomics: Motivational Design Principles for Human-Technology Interaction" proposes a set of principles and guidelines for motivational design that can be applied to the field of ergonomics. In terms of health and occupational safety, the article focuses on how motivation theory can be useful for reducing risks associated with fatigue, stress and boredom in the workplace environment by assessing the motivation aspects within the technology-human interaction. This paper will discuss the objectives of Szalma's (2014) study, the theory used, the concepts utilized, the argument made, the method employed, the evidence obtained, the values identified, the literature reviewed, and the contribution to ergonomic knowledge that the study makes.
The article sets out to achieve the following objectives: first, the article attempts to "describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction," and, second,…… [Read More]
This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of dispersion are also reviewed, with an explanation of whether the research supports or disproves the hypotheses explored.
Variables - Independent and Dependent
The data collected reflects the independent and dependent variables explored for purposes of this study. The independent variables explored include: sex and gender of study participants, ethnicity of participants, socioeconomic status and religious or moral practices. The dependent variables explored include: participants age, the type of justice used (restorative model or correctional models).
The statistical analysis measures the frequency distribution for "numeric" discrete variables and "categorical variables" labeled (e.g. A_AGE) (USF, 2001:3). All variables are un-weighted for purposes of this study. Table 1.1 below provides the statistical analysis and distributions for the independent and dependent…… [Read More]
healthcare model that could enable physicians determine their patients' susceptibility to future disease on the bases of their medical records, and most importantly, their similarity to other patients. They acknowledge that despite numerous studies indicating a shift from the traditional disease-based to the more effective patient-centered approach of healthcare delivery, there still exists a knowledge gap, particularly because of the lack of a computational tool that can effectively discover patients' disease patterns without "falling prey to the noise" (Chawla & Davis, 2013, p. 660). The authors put forth the CAE model, which they posit addresses these concerns better than the existing models. They base their development on a number of findings from exiting literature.
The CAE model establishes risk factors by leveraging a patient's symptoms and traits with their interactions and biological disease information. To this end, its operation rides on the findings of a 2009 study by Schadt, which…… [Read More]
This then gives the work reasonable transferability.
The second article addressed the challenge faced by the wives of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, the researchers examined the perceptions of nine wives whose husbands were experiencing PTSD. The data were collected using a semi-structured in-depth focus group. The sample design for the research is purposeful and consequently the researcher was unable to derive statistical generalizability from their data. However, the data collected would have great depth and authenticity since it would represent the phenomenon more completely than another approach.
The focus group lasted two hours and provided an opportunity for the wives to engage in rich discussion about their experiences (Strauss & Corbin 1990). The group discussion was conducted in Hebrew; it was videotaped and later transcribed. The use of the focus group would be beneficial for this problem because the quantum of available data…… [Read More]
It is clear that weight loss is not simple, and so, a nutritionist must understand this when dealing with patients, so they can help motivate them, create enough diversity in the diet to make the patients happy, and still promote weight loss and better health.
Our society is obsessed with thinness, and yet, more people are overweight than ever. Clearly, the lifestyle of the nation needs to be modified. etailers and restaurants can help by providing healthier choices on their menus. Schools can help by creating healthier cafeteria choices, and beginning nutritional education at a young age. Parents can help by promoting a healthier lifestyle for the entire family, and health care professionals and researchers can help by discovering new ways to manage and treat obesity in children and adults. If all facets of society work together, it seems that people would become healthier and happier as a result. It…… [Read More]
performed by a group of professionals that included: Dr. Xiao-Mei Li (Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, egistered Nurse), dean and associate professor of the nursing department of Chinese university, Jiao tong University's College of Medicine; Kai-Na Zhou (Master of Science in Nursing, N), assistant researcher in the same department; Professor Dr. Hong Yan (PhD), public health department of same university's College of Medicine; Yin-Ping Zhang (PhD N), Associate Professor at the same department; and Professor Dr. Duo-Lao Wang (PhD) from Medical Statistics department, Faculty of Population Health and Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK. The randomized clinical study was titled "Effects of music therapy on anxiety of patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy." The Care, Cure and Core model of Hall was used. A clinical trial of 120 women suffering from breast cancer was conducted between March and November 2009, using randomized controlled research design. Half…… [Read More]
police officers should follow to stop people for questioning.
"High-crime zones" are recognized by constitutional law: people in such areas have Fourth Amendment safeguards, distinct from those within different areas of those towns, states or cities. This step is representative of a big shift from equality of constitutional protections of every citizen. In some cases, regarding the Fourth Amendment, ranging from Adams v. Williams to the Illinois v. Wardlow case, the U.S. Supreme Court has considered neighborhood's character as one of the aspects in finding "sensible suspicion" in order to stop an individual. The neighborhood's character is not a sole validation criterion for stopping someone, but it has given two factors as the required circumstances: "high-crime zone" and 'unwarranted' running away from the police (Ferguson and Bernache, 2008). Lower level courts have also allowed high-crime zones and other otherwise innocent deeds to be considered reasonable enough suspicion to stop…… [Read More]
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…… [Read More]
research databases in the Walden Library. Some may be more useful than others for finding articles related to your dissertation topic. Before you begin to search for articles, it is important to identify the databases that will be most useful. It also is important to use the best searching strategies. If you search using keywords that are too broad, you may be inundated with useless information. If you search using keywords that are too specific, you may miss articles that are pertinent to your dissertation topic. As you prepare for this assignment, be sure to visit the Walden Library web article "Searching Strategies" listed under the resources for this week.
Then provide a list of the research databases and/or scholarly resources you plan to search for your literature review. Finally, describe two techniques and/or strategies you think will be useful when searching for and identifying articles for your literature review.…… [Read More]
However, both articles show, despite the criminal justice system's best effort, that is often not the case. Juveniles often return to the court system repeatedly, and when they do, they are often tried as adults, which only seems to add to the problem. It is not that the court systems are ineffective (although in some cases it seems that they are), it is that they are still trying to develop ways to deal with juvenile offenders, and many of the methods they are trying do not seem to be effective in keeping kids out of criminal activities.
While the first article seems to be more positive in the results it talks about, the second article has an important point to make about rehabilitation. The people that are most affected by it, the offenders, say it works, and it seems to work much more effectively than being tried as an adult.…… [Read More]
Library Search: Books
nut, W. (n.d.). The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936-1956. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, p. xiii.
Zimmerman, M. (2000). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.205-227.
Vilas, C. (1985). The workers' movement in the Sandinista revolution. In Harris, R. And Vilas, C. (eds.), Nicaragua: A Revolution Under Siege. London: Zed Books.
Zwerling, P. And Martin, C. (1985). Nicaragua: A New ind of Revolution. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. Also, reviewed in Foreign Affairs. n.p., 1 Sept. 1985. [Webpage]. Retrieved http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/40113/robert-d-crassweller/nicaragua-a-new-kind-of-revolution.
Library Search: Journal Articles
Harris, R.L. (1987). The revolutionary transformation of Nicaragua." Latin American Perspectives, 14(1 Winter), 3-18.
Leogrande, W.M. (1996). Making the economy scream: U.S. economic sanctions against Sandinista Nicaragua, Third World Quarterly, 17(2), 329-348.
Paris, R. (2002). Peacebuilding in Central America: Reproducing the sources of conflict? International Peacekeeping, 9(4 Winter), 39-68.
Schroeder, M.J. (2005).…… [Read More]
Feminist economists can broaden our understanding of economic processes and institutions by exploring the ways in which people's economic opportunities, choices and constraints are influenced by their multiple and often contradictory social locations. Examining the ways in which ostensibly universal categories are constituted by oppositional dualisms can reveal the ways that false universalism naturalized and reproduces social hierarchy and inequality. Finally, taking gender seriously, as well as other significant dimensions of collective identity, will result in less partial and less distorted accounts of people's actual lives in all their many varieties. This can lead to economic theorizing that illuminates economic realities and facilities socially progressive policy analyzes (Burnett, 1999).
Value is the most important word to understand an economic and non-economic context. The word means to be strong or worthy. In purely economic terms is refers to the amount of some commodity, medium or exchange which is considered to be…… [Read More]
Longitudinal evaluation of a GIS laboratory in a transportation engineering course," Bham, Cernusca, Luna and Manepalli look at the effectiveness of a geographic information system-based tutorial in the teaching of transportation engineering. The authors studied students who were given this form of tutorial in conjunction with other learning techniques. They found that the students who received this tutorial performed better than those who did not. The paper serves to build the body of evidence with respect to GIS as a teaching technique for this subject. The authors sought to show that this technique is effective, and they accomplished that. The study was significantly rigorous to make a reasonable contribution to this field of study.
The article initially introduces the problem. They noted that "previous studies reveal that ... entry-level engineers lack significant exposure to transportation engineering methodologies" despite having hourly requirements for study in transportation-related courses in civil engineering programs…… [Read More]
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…… [Read More]
Practice Project on Diabetes Intervention Based on Evidence
Diabetes mellitus is a kind of health problem where depicted by an abnormal increase in the level of blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus can be defined as a disease with an inappropriate hyperglycemia and disordered metabolism caused by inadequate insulin secretion or an imbalance between insulin resistance and the right amount of insulin secretion. There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus: Type I, symbolized by total insufficiency, and the more rampant type II symbolized by high insulin resistance with defects of different rates of secretion of insulin (Nanda Nursing, 2011).
Modification of lifestyle, in specific recommendations to go along with a suitable dietary plan, has been widely adopted as the major treatment procedure for people suffering type II diabetes, following the belief that an adequate energy and nutrients intake will reduce the risks of possible complications by improving glycaemic control. Nevertheless,…… [Read More]
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
The Use of Style to Craft an Argument: Upton Sinclair's the Jungle
"Sinclair uses language effectively, and in a variety of ways, to shape his characters and develop his themes" and thus effectively created a novel that outraged the public and created the beginnings of reform in American industry (Oatman 30). Upton Sinclair's most infamous novel, The Jungle, is a story of an immigrant worker forced into a society of extreme exploitation and disregard not only for workers conditions but also for the conditions of the products being made in the factories. Sinclair discusses one immigrants journey, as Jurgis comes in to the working system as an ignorant immigrant worker and nine is transformed into a person demanding social responsibility from the companies who care so little about their workers. In this context, Sinclair uses a number of stylistic devices in order to make his point…… [Read More]
Still, the concept of guided imagery tends to stray far from traditional methods of pain management. Pharmaceuticals have long been a major method of treatment for pain, but have resulted in major backlashes in regards to patients becoming addicted, especially in long-term and chronic cases of pain. If guided imagery could be a successful method, it may reduce pain or increase pain tolerance, without the threat of chemical dependence.
There are a number of benefits which are seen in the ongoing discourse today. As such, the expected improvements include things like drops in blood high blood pressure, lower heart rates, and reduction of chronic pain symptoms, lessoning of headache pain, and increasing overall pain tolerance (Cornelius, 2010). In situations were patients going into a major surgery were coached with guided imagery, it was "shown to decrease stress and anxiety before and after surgery," thus helping reduce additional pain issues during…… [Read More]
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the erratic responses to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005, critical incident management has become the focus of a growing body of research. In addition, there is an ongoing need for timely and effective responses to manmade and natural disasters, and improved approaches continue to be identified. To gain some fresh insights into current critical incident management, this paper reviews three studies concerning a coordinated multi-disciplinary response to a critical incident as well as the National Incident Management System. A review of a final article concerning response and management of a chemical, biological, radiological and explosive incident is followed by a summary of the research and a description concerning how the research contributes to knowledge in these areas.
eview and Analysis
Coordinated Multi-Disciplinary esponse to a Critical Incident.
In his study, "esponding to Bio-terrorism equires a Concerted Effort," Mughai…… [Read More]
Inductive reasoning occurs when one makes inferences from particular situations or scenarios to predict future situations. In this study, the authors seek to use information from particular youth's experiences of the transition to adulthood and apply it to the development of a general understanding of whether or not youth can overcome existing social class, gender and ethnic divisions (MacDonald et al., 2005).
5. Identify at least 4 major findings from this study.
MacDonald et al. (2005) found that with few exceptions youth stayed within the community in which they were raised. The authors attributed this finding to the housing market but a more influential factor appears to be the preference of these youth to remain in their neighborhoods despite the presence of social exclusion. A key factor in this preference was the comfort that is provided through familiarity with the neighborhood (MacDonald et al., 2005). Within these neighborhoods, MacDonald et…… [Read More]
For this kind of research to be effective, researchers must gain the trust and confidence of these individuals. Careful planning, focus group research, and investigation may help to build this kind of trust, but all of those steps add time (and expenses) to the research process.
c) Use of untested assumptions. Researchers may have their own assumptions about how people react to trauma, and these assumptions may negatively affect their own neutrality. Those assumptions may also impact the design of the study, through the types of questions being asked in the research to the way the researcher interacts with the subjects. Misconceptions about trauma are rampant, and in fact people react very differently to stresses in their lives.
Major Findings: Researchers discovered a great deal of variability in post-traumatic response among individuals in the immediate community where the trauma took place. Many of those closest to the trauma had…… [Read More]
The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:
…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…… [Read More]
Products Liability esearch:
Mattel Inc. is a company that was founded in 1944 by Elliot and uth Handler that designs, manufactures, and markets a huge range of toy products. The firm is headquartered in California with its core product lines including Hot Wheels die-cast vehicles, Barbie fashion dolls, Disney toys, Fisher-Price preschool toys, and games like Scrabble. While Mattel also manufactures its toy products based on license agreements with movie makers, most of its toys are produced outside its huge market in the United States i.e. Southeast Asia. Actually, the firm's principal manufacturing facilities are located in several countries in Southeast Asia like Malaysia, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and even Mexico. Since its inception, the company has continued to experience significant growth that enables it to generate huge revenues. By 2007, its revenues had grown to $5.97 billion with its three largest customers accounting for 41% of sales across the globe.…… [Read More]
¶ … Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation
Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness
A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.
Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.
Link to previous research: What the author (SATOMI TAKAHASHI) had done on this topic area and what he had found; unanswered questions that your research study plans to answer.
The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2. (Schmidt, 1990). Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire…… [Read More]