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teps in Content Analysis: There are ten steps in content analysis including: (1) copying and reading the transcript and making notes where pertinent information is located: (2) reviewing notes and making a list of the various information types located; (3) reading the list and categorizing each item and providing a description for what information has been identified; (4) identification of whether the categories are potentially linked and then listing the primary categories and the minor categories; (5) comparison and contrast of the primary and minor categories; (7) If more than one transcript exists then one should repeat the first five steps again for each additional transcript and collect the themes or categories and do a detailed examination; (8) After categorizing the transcript data into primary and minor categories or themes conduct a review to make sure that the information is categorized correctly; (9) Conduct a review of all categories and…… [Read More]
Justifying esearch Methods and Design
Insider threats are one of the primary sources of risk to an enterprise network and to intellectual property. For decades, the internet security realm has been rather narrowly focused on pre-empting insider threats by mean of sophisticated architecture and conventional login identification barriers. More recently, internet communications and technology (ICT) experts have taken an active position by using technological capacity to identify risk patterns, and devising systems to address insider threat when and where it is most likely to happen -- before it happens. In other words, rather than just taking a technological approach to the problem of insider threats, professionals with expertise in internet security dovetail sociological and psychological knowledge with technological knowhow The research in socio-technical methods for mitigating insider threat to enterprises hold profound promise for effective and agile solutions to a pervasive, expensive, and fluid problem.
A socio-technical approach to assessing,…… [Read More]
Another approach to the survey study is to launch an online survey site for Starbucks customers. Qualified respondents will be randomly selected through a program integrated in its POS system, which will identify which customer will be randomly picked for the survey. To encourage 100% response from customers, these randomly selected customers will receive a "gift" or token for their participation in the online survey, to be claimed after they have completed the online survey. This approach ensures completeness of information from randomly selected Starbucks customers. This approach also makes this survey an anticipated activity for customers because of the gift or token s/he will receive after participating in it.
After data collection (the survey should run for a specific period only to capture information about the customers and their behavior/patterns in a timely manner), data analysis will be conducted, wherein important information shall be generated and uncovered. The survey…… [Read More]
Sociology and Cultural Anthropology
esearch Methods used in Sociology
Closed or Structured Questionnaires and Participant Observation are among the many research methods used in sociological studies.
Structured questionnaire is a quantitative research method that was postulated by Emile Durkheim. It is positivist in nature and is comprised of low researcher involvement and high respondents' participation. A questionnaire is, in fact, a series of questions posed to individuals for obtaining statistically useful information about a certain subject matter. If a questionnaire is appropriately created and sensibly controlled, it becomes an imperative tool to make accurate and acceptable statements about particular groups or people or whole populace. Social research often uses questionnaires as it is a helpful method to collect ample information from a large number of individuals. In order for a survey to be successful, sufficient questionnaire creation is important. Any survey that has badly chosen questions, incorrect questions' arrangement, erroneous…… [Read More]
Marketing Research Process and Research Methods
The four steps in the marketing research process are designed to capture the information and insights needed to make better strategic and tactical decisions, gain greater intelligence on customer needs, and ultimately create greater value for a company. The four stages of the market research process are defined in this analysis with their applicability for given strategic decisions and trade-offs also discussed. The three dominant research methods including causal, exploratory and descriptive research are also analyzed from the standpoint of their applicability to specific types of decisions. Both of these concepts of the marketing research process and research methods fit into the broader definition of marketing research as defined in the text. The authors state that marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization. This paper will also illustrate how these…… [Read More]
Focus of the study will be males within the age group of 15-25 years old, with equal split across ethnic membership/race. Controlling for this variable is critical as this study will need to establish if there are differences in the intervention (short-term counseling) results across race or ethnic membership. The experimental group will participate in short-term counseling sessions, as described earlier in this proposal (i.e., weekly one-hour sessions for six weeks). The counseling sessions will be conducted to two kinds of experimental group: first, novice criminals who are currently incarcerated, and second, male teenagers who have a history of committing criminal offenses. Names will be generated from the county or state's prison institution, to be randomly selected, but must be qualified given the initial criteria set.
Data collection will be in the form of self-accomplished questionnaires before and after the short-term counseling period. To ensure the authenticity of the respondents'…… [Read More]
Some descriptive observation can even be unethical, if the subjects are unaware of the fact they are being observed.
Historical research is similar to descriptive research in that it cannot, by virtue of its retrospective nature, affect the variables in question under tightly controlled conditions. A historian may examine historical or past trends in a descriptive or comparative way, and test a hypothesis by examining different types of data, like marital trends in 20th century America, for example, to see if people were marrying older or younger than in previous eras (Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods, 2004, AllPsych).
A correlational method of research attempts determine if a relationship exists between two variables. Unlike experimental research, which attempts to make assumptions about cause and effect, correlational research assesses the strength of a relationship (Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods, 2004, AllPsych). It can be useful for…… [Read More]
Other pertained to the consumer's preferred method of going to the Starbucks, such as whether the consumer usually patronized the same Starbucks; frequency of patronization; preference for taking out beverages vs. eating in; and the usual size of the consumer's beverage. Finally, more subjective responses were requested, such as whether the store's customer service was good and the prices were fair.
Classification of findings
Findings were classified on a nominal basis, except for age and income. Because this was a small, preliminary survey, the responses and number were often merely recorded. For example, when asked 'how would you rate customer service' at Starbucks, 17 responded excellent, 3 responded good, and none responded fair. Another type of ranking would have involved ranking the customer service experience from 1-5 (excellent-poor) and averaging the frequency of different responses (for example, what numbered rankings received the greatest number of responses). However, this was not…… [Read More]
Psychology esearch Methods
Imagine studying correlation research. Is there a possibility that this measure can get used in an actual psychology study? What does a positive, negative or zero correlation mean? Can a relationship exist between two variables? One will study in depth correlation through much evaluation and research.
The correlational research method is appropriate when an individual wants to study two different variables to see if there is a link between them or not. These are used when one wants to predict the results as well as describe what could occur between the concepts involved for the study. For example, research was conducted by Mayer as well as in 2004. People were required to fill out questionnaires in hopes to determine if there is a correlation between nature and life satisfaction. As a result, a positive correlation was found, and the researchers determined that there was a correlation between…… [Read More]
Social Media Use by Minors, Teens and Youths
Benefits of children and adolescents using social media
Socialization and Communication
Enhanced Learning Opportunities
Accessing Health Information
isks of youth using social media
Cyberbullying and Online Harassment
Privacy Concerns and Digital footprint
Influence of advertisements on buying
On 'Too Young': Mixed Messages from Parents and the Law
Putting concerns over sexting into context -- the 'sexualization' of culture
ole of Monitoring of Cell Phone Use and Capable Guardians
ole of other professionals -- e.g. Pediatricians
esearch Methods and Statistics: Impact of Teenage Sexting on Children and Its Consequences
To date, not one state in the country has legally defined sexting. The closest thing many states have come to prohibiting the same, are legislations against the sharing of nude / semi-nude photos of minors via cellphones. The word sexting is a combination of the…… [Read More]
School Advisory Systems
Some studies describe the attributes of programs that are run after school and assist in boosting social and academic growth of the youth in high school. Since the number of afterschool programs is limited, the importance of adopting the practices discussed in this paper will be significant and consequential. Following these practices will also help boost investment in after-school programs for youths in high school (Holstead, Hightower King & Miller, 2015). The effectiveness of advisory programs have corresponded to scope and intensity in the past. The delivery of learning and the ensuing firm innovation differs from program to program. Various methods are used to examine the range of delivery of various advisory programs, which are both quantitative, and qualitative (Sawang, Parker and Hine, 2016). Irrespective of the chosen hypotheses, esearch methods have to be effective. If they are not, there is a risk of failure to collect…… [Read More]
In this paper, we provide a brief two page summary of the recently printed eighth edition of the book “Research Methods in Social Sciences” written by Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D. and DeWaard, J., published in the year 2015. The authors are an exprienced group of people in the field of social sciences. Chava Frankfort-Nachmias works at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She is a respected Emeritus Professor of Sociology there. She has been a part of many other co-writing and co-editing projects for works like Social Statistics for a Diverse Society and Sappho in the Holy Land. David Nachmias works at the Israel Democracy Institute (IDI) as a Senior Fellow Emeritus. He has also worked tirelessly in projects within the fields of Public Administration and Policy, in Israel and internationally. Jack DeWaard works in the Minnesota Population Center at University of Minnesota as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology.…… [Read More]
Preferring to use a quantitative approach to provide the business community with numerical data it can use to transform organizational practices and increase employee retention, I will be using a survey as the primary instrument of data collection. Pennsylvania State University (2006) defines a survey as “a research method for collecting information from a selected group of people using standardized questionnaires or interviews,” (p. 1). While the central component of the survey method is a questionnaire, the survey methodology also includes the selection of the population sample, designing reliable and valid survey instruments that accurately measure the target variables, and using the most robust methods of data analysis. Performing surveys is a critical component of social science research, and it is important to ensure survey method validity and reliability.
Surveys are not necessarily easy or simple. The most common methods of collecting survey data is by using in-person questionnaires,…… [Read More]
1. Qualitative research does not depend on numbers or statistics, unlike quantitative research. Liberated from the need to devise surveys or instruments to measure only quantifiable results, the research can gather information that is more abstract, subjective, or exploratory in nature. Both qualitative and quantitative research are empirical methods relevant to the social sciences, and can be used together to bolster understanding of a specific subject, population, theory, issue, or set of variables. Some of the most common research designs used in qualitative research include interviews, observations, and case studies.
Some of the drawbacks of qualitative research methods include the small sample size, and the lack of generalizable data. To make up for this drawback, researchers can supplement their initial qualitative research with a follow-up study that focuses on some of the key variables that were elucidated in the qualitative research. Qualitative research is systematic, even though it is not…… [Read More]
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
nursing interventions purposed at assisting ambulatory surgical patients with the management of postoperative symptoms at home. The problem statement is easy to locate and is clearly stated. In addition, the problem statement does build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study in the need for obtaining research data about nursing interventions.
The problem stated does have significance for nursing with respect to patient care given to patients subsequent to receiving ambulatory surgery. The research might contribute to nursing practice by outlining the proper and fitting nursing interventions needed to ensure that ambulatory surgical patients do not experience pain after the procedures.
There is a good fit between the research problem and the paradigm within which the research was conducted, in that, the research encompassed comparison between patients that received NCI intervention and those that experienced usual practice to examine the impact.
As pointed out, the research does provide…… [Read More]
Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.
This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership. The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study. As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership. The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.
As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!” The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…… [Read More]
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.
Some preliminary questions will address;.
Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?
If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?
How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?
How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?
What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?
With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…… [Read More]
Business esearch Methods
The company selected for this particular analysis is Samsung Group. This public company is one of the biggest companies in the mobile industry. The following table will outline the SWOT analysis of the company.
Easy integration with different operating systems and software
High level of innovation and design
Low production costs
Strong brand marketing
Significant share market in many products
Too reliant on other software companies
Place emphasis on too many products
Minimal profit margin
Key rival companies are largest buyers
Increased growth in tablet market
Developing mobile advertising market
Great prospects for diversification
Growing Indian market
ival companies place emphasis on one product
Change in innovation and technology
Depletion of one product line impacts the others
Competition from Chinese commodities
1. Easy integration with different operating systems and software: Samsung places great emphasis on creating…… [Read More]
Legal esearch Method
The American legal system comprises trial courts, appellate courts, and supreme courts. Generally, trial courts hear cases first; appellate courts hear appeals filed by litigants who are unsuccessful at the trial court level; and the appropriate supreme courts hear issues appealed from those decisions. The Federal Court of Appeals system comprises thirteen federal circuits based on geography; they hear appeals from state federal courts. Legal research consists of identifying previous decisions dealing with the same legal issues as a particular case, especially cases decided in the same jurisdiction because courts apply the informal concept of stare decisis to them. Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are binding on all federal, state, and lower courts. The fundamental research presentation method follows the traditional IAC approach of identifying both the legal issue in the case and the relevant case law, applying that case law to the case, and formulating…… [Read More]
Ciminal Justice - Reseach Methods
Soucebook of ciminal justice statistics Online
Respondents' concen ove effects of illegal immigants
Gallup, Inc., The Gallup Poll [Online]. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/
127649/Ameicans-Value-Aspects-Immigation-Refom.aspx [June 16, 2010].
Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK staff.
Oveall, the suvey espondents indicate substantive concens with the pesence of illegal immigants in the U.S. Thee items elate to the oveall question: (1) Unfai buden on U.S. schools, hospitals, and govenment; (2) Encouages othe immigants to move hee illegally; (3) Low wages eaned by illegal immigants educes oveall wages paid to Ameican wokes. The oveaching question is how concened espondents ae fo each of the items, and the highest anking item was elated to the unfai buden immigants place on schools, hospitals, and govenment. Fo all thee items, thee is significant diffeence in the pecentage of esponses unde vey concened vs. unde somewhat concened. A majoity of U.S. citizens ae vey concened about…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory
British Crime Survey (BCS) Review
The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…… [Read More]
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…… [Read More]
Discussion and Inference
Comprehension about esearch
A key responsibility of the work of a professional researcher is that of publishing research results. esearchers' writings always serve as a store of knowledge for the writer, but researchers also pen their findings because their peers and readers expect a standard language, form and style when reviewing their work. While it can be hard for beginners to write in a clear scientific style, the skill is trainable and can be mastered with practice (Michael Derntl, 2014).
When doing case study research, as one looks at past studies and reports, the researcher gets a unique opportunity to explore and understand some of the most complicated issues in society from differing perspectives. This approach can be viewed as robust approach especially when in depth and holistic investigations are involved. Case study is appreciated in many fields as a critical tool to…… [Read More]
Q7. The survey should be demographically balanced: in other words, it should be representative of the consumers whose behavior the survey was designed to assess in terms of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The questions should be clear and simple, and free from misleading wording that could influence the results. The survey questions should be internally consistent -- in other words, responses that indicate wildly different views in the responses of the same individual raise questions about internal validity. There should be controls to prevent respondents from presenting themselves in an overly positive light. The survey should not draw overly broad conclusions, based upon what respondents were asked.
5a. The city should take public responsibility for its actions, stating that although it was trying to act in the best interests of the city, it crossed the line when it hired a private investigator to infiltrate the boating organization. Avoiding litigation…… [Read More]
Web Critique of a Website
The chosen website for criticizing the web is from AAMFT, n.d-American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. The site contains content such as family and marriage counseling, building career, finding the appropriate therapist, using webinars to enhance knowledge, annual events and conferences, professional advancement on both state and federal levels, all relevant information about the association and membership application. Some other relevant content include news, job connection, professional development, adoption, adult ADHD, children from same sex marriages and their same sex parents, and infertility issues.
Among the website strengths are detailed contact information and time of response with office times and availability, without any broken links, and the UL of the website that is straightforward and concise including the company's abbreviation. The limitations are a lot of information contained on the site's home page. Although a home page is expected to be easily navigatable…… [Read More]
There are several ethical responsibilities that psychologists need to consider when conducting a research with adult human participants. The first is to follow APA (American Psychological Association) ethics standards for rights of the participants (Zechmeister, n.d., p. 53). Second, the researchers must conduct a risk-benefit analysis before carrying out the study. Third, the researchers must take informed consent of the participant, which is the critical ethical responsibility in every exploration. Fourth, maintaining the participant's confidentiality is another major ethical task. Privacy should be maintained in order to gain true data from the respondents. Fifth, deception should be avoided. Last, a quick but comprehensive debriefing should be given to the human adults so that any possible misconceptions could be avoided.
Historical Example of Psychological esearch
One historical example of psychological research that raised serious ethical questions is Milgram Obedience Study (Cherry, 2016). It was conducted after World War 2,…… [Read More]
This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…… [Read More]
Alignment helps keep both qualitative and quantitative research studies cohesive, meaningful, and valid. The purpose of the study and its implications for policy or practice should be aligned with the research questions, design, and method. Research by Forster, Grigsby, Unger, et al. (2015) illustrates the concept of alignment in a quantitative study. The research focuses on the links between exposure to violence in the community, social ties with gangs or gang members, social self-control, and aggressive behavior. Based on prior research, the authors hypothesize that exposure to violence in the community would be associated with aggressive behaviors. The authors also hypothesize that having friends or family members in gangs was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, and that lower levels of self-control were also correlated with aggressive behavior. All of these hypotheses have the same dependent variable (aggressive behavior exhibited over the past week). These hypotheses and related research questions are…… [Read More]
Understanding esearch & esearch Methods in Social Work
Feminist evaluation: An evaluation of the conceptual framework
According to ebecca M. Beardsley and Michelle Hughes Miller's 2002 article "evisioning the process: A case study in feminist program evaluation," feminist program evaluations are based upon three core principles. The first principle is cooperation, namely that all relevant stakeholders must be considered when setting the standards for evaluation, not simply the program designers. The second is one of a lack of hierarchy -- the evaluation team members are all regarded as equal partners. Thirdly, the program must be evaluated from the ideological perspective of feminism. Although this final standard might seem unrealistic to use in program evaluation in anything buy a woman-oriented program, such as the program targeting females in the article, Beardsley and Miller point out that the majority of consumers of social services are female. The authors believe that…… [Read More]
The information presented (Ch. 12) notes that the perception of respect is an important determinant of customer satisfaction. The company, Campbell-Ewald, used surveys to determine the importance of respect to customer loyalty, and further linked loyalty to purchasing. The company's surveys sought to operationalize respect using a number of questions. Its output is a set of five "people principles" that it believe are correlated with customer perception of respect. Customers want to feel appreciated, actions matter more than intentions, customers want companies to listen, it's about the customer and customers want companies to admit when they make mistakes.
The survey questions were responded to in a Likert scale from 1-5 ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." This provides information not only about the importance of respect but also the key issues that are the most important to customers. The questions that score the highest are the most…… [Read More]
Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.
2.2 Challenges facing Human esources
According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…… [Read More]
Nursing Discussion Posts
Regarding Data Collection and Analysis
It is possible to use a word processor to analyze qualitative data (LaPelle, 2004), an idea that is appealing because of the implied simplicity and because it is comparatively inexpensive. As I understand it, a qualitative data analysis tasks include the following major steps: Coding and retrieving data; inspection of data to prepare for indexing; creating hierarchies of categories by indexing; review and editing of the theme codes; including face sheet data about individual respondents (if interviews or surveys have been used) through demographic coding; relating the demographic data from the face sheets to the conceptual codes; quantifying the frequency of the instances of the codes; and annotating the text or narrative (MacQueen, et al., 1998) The terminology is a bit esoteric, but the process of qualitative data analysis is iterative so it helps me to think of the data as passing…… [Read More]
.....child's household income level growing up and how they spend their money when they become adults. Essentially, you want to know if there is any association between childhood wealth and spending in their later years asadults -- not only in the sample but also in the larger population from which the sample was drawn.THIS DATA IS COMPLETELY MADE-UP.
Below is the resulting contingency table with the actual frequencies.
Spending in Adulthood
Grew up 'poor'
Grew up 'rich'
Compute the expected frequencies (fe) for the table above. YOU MUST SHOW YOUR WORK.
Formula; Eij = Ti * Tj /N
fe11 = 65*67/140 = 31.11 fe12 = 65*73/140 = 33.89
fe21 = 45*67/140 = 21.54 fe22 = 45*73/140 = 23.46
fe31 = 30*67/140 = 14.36 fe32 = 30*73/140 = 15.64
2. State the null hypothesis and…… [Read More]
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…… [Read More]
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]
learning for you in considering these materials. What variations in research approach to your dissertation topic might be suggested by them? What encouragement, related reading, or other ideas can you suggest?
"Experience" is a term increasingly bandied about in academic circles, partially in relation to the present interest in phenomenology among social scientists. Many attempts have been made to define the term over time, from a cultural studies and social anthropology standpoint. ut, scholars usually bring up this subject without any description of what is really meant by it. Even those scholars who have, earlier, discussed this issue could not come to any consensus with regard to defining 'experience'. A focus on experience of a sensory nature raises the methodological question of how to comprehend others' experiences considering experience's complexity. It is not possible to peek into their mind or underneath their skin for thinking or feeling the way others…… [Read More]
Benefits Obtaining a College Degree
ecently, students have been paying huge amounts of money to attend a college but earned less upon graduation (Arai, 1998). Such trends have caused many observers to question if a college degree is a worthwhile investment. To be precise, college students endure the following expenses: supplies such as textbooks, tuition fees, food, and room and board among others. Supplies, tuition fees and books are the direct costs of education, but board and room are indirect costs as they are incurred to sustain a subsistence level of education. Besides the above, opportunity cost is one of the most important costs as these students forgo earnings while in school. While it is categorized under indirect costs, it accounts for nearly 40% of the total college degree costs (eynolds et al. 2007). In addition to the above costs that students endure, a college education is also associated with…… [Read More]
In order to study career aspirations, a survey of fifteen students was conducted to determine what level the student expected to achieve as their highest level. The students polled were all business students. The unit of analysis was scalar, with the options reflecting hierarchical levels within a corporation. The results of the survey were as follows:
These results show that business students have a wide range of aspirations and expectations for their careers. While some see themselves on a path to executive-level leadership, others see themselves slotting into middle- or upper-level managerial positions as their apex. None of the business students surveyed felt that they were likely to end up in a non-management role. Because of the desire to create scalar units of measurement, the question did not distinguish between these levels and entrepreneurship. So the size of the company…… [Read More]
Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).
At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…… [Read More]
The claim has been made that chocolate operates upon the brain in much the same way as an antidepressant drug. Generate specific predictions based on this general hypothesis and provide operational definitions of the variables involved.
Chocolate releases a unique neurotransmitter called phenylethylamine or chocolate amphetamine, which fluctuate the blood and sugar levels, causing euphoria and attentiveness. Unlike amphetamines, however, it doesn't cause addiction to the consumer, but it does act as an anti-depressant by lightening the mood of a person. According to Coveleskie (2004), phenylethylamine in chocolate gives you the same feeling you get when you're in love and therefore, it's also called a love drug.
Chocolate also releases the lipid anandamide, similar to the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is found in the drug, marijuana. The THC as well as the lipid anandamide produce the neurotransmitter 'dopamine' which makes people happy and high. The chemical anandamide is already…… [Read More]
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.
Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.
Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers
Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:
After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
Trochim (2006) states that a quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient -- random assignment. He notes that his mentor [Don Campbell] used to refer to quasi-experiments as "queasy" (2006) experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling.
With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins (Trochim 2006).
The most important part of both experimental and quasi-experimental research is the measure of the dependent variable, which it allows for comparison. Some types of data are very straightforward, but there are other measures, but there are other types of data that are completely subjective. In cases where the data is highly subjective, the quasi-experiment will have to have various strategies to…… [Read More]
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…… [Read More]
("Applied Research") This involves primary sources, as Mary is going to be using actual cases to understand what is happening. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Which two techniques of data collection do you feel would be more beneficial for Mary to use?
The primary data collection is more useful to Mary. The reason why, is because they are focusing on real cases and statistics surrounding juvenile crime. This will make her findings and analysis more realistic by looking at the actual numbers. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Would this project be more suited to quantitative or qualitative research methods? Support your opinions with reasons.
Qualitative research would be more suitable for this kind of project. This is because we are looking at the environment that these individuals are living in. At which point, we are seeking to address the underlying problems by:…… [Read More]
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]
There are many more challenges involved in the development of forecasting models and the development of predictive analytics as they relate to the impact of both CoffeeTime's and competitor's advertising spending. The following are additional considerations in the development of more thorough predictive analytics and statistical forecasting models of the Indian market for CoffeeTimes' beverages and sandwiches:
Advertising spending increasing overall market growth or cannibalizing competitive sales? This is a major question that needs to be addressed through more econometric modeling, specifically looking at the aggregate impact of industry-wide spending on increasing the total market size for served coffee in key segments of the market vs. forcing consolidation of the market and cannibalization of sales. This dichotomy of market direction could best first be tested from the standpoint of attempting to predict aggregate demand and consumption for coffee in India for three to five years. Next taking the approach of…… [Read More]
The first decision with respect to measurement scale is whether the findings will be reported on a composite scale or a summated scale. A composite scale is probably the most appropriate for this study. A summated scale is commonly used in the social sciences, and can be used to reflect people's attitudes, emotions and feelings. There are four main characteristics of a summated scale. The first is that the scale must contain two or more items. The second is that the format must be a rating scale. The third is that the scales "must be designed to assess an underlying construct that is quantifiable. The fourth is that the items do not have correct answers (Spector, 2006). A Likert scale is an example of a summated scale.
The composite scale is one that transforms the original data point. There may be just a single variable, but sometimes there…… [Read More]
It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.
There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.
It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…… [Read More]
esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition
esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…… [Read More]
The data collection methods
Questionnaires effectively aid in data collection. To capture the right data, it must be well organised and prepared. The variables required in the result must be prepared well in advance for they guide the researcher on how to frame the questionnaire. The questions in it must be clear and simple to avert confusing the respondent. A time frame should set on the duration a respondent should stay with the questionnaire. The mode of its distribution should be established to ensure only the relevant responds receive it.
Another data collection method to be employed will be oral interviews. The interview question should be prepared in advance with reference to the variables required. Good interviewer training is necessary for it prepares him on how to ask the questions and manage the interviewee.
Possible methods of data analysis
A thorough data analysis process is crucial for effective data analysis.…… [Read More]