Research Methods Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Research in the Social Sciences Methods

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66814121

Methods
Preferring to use a quantitative approach to provide the business community with numerical data it can use to transform organizational practices and increase employee retention, I will be using a survey as the primary instrument of data collection. Pennsylvania State University (2006) defines a survey as “a research method for collecting information from a selected group of people using standardized questionnaires or interviews,” (p. 1). While the central component of the survey method is a questionnaire, the survey methodology also includes the selection of the population sample, designing reliable and valid survey instruments that accurately measure the target variables, and using the most robust methods of data analysis. Performing surveys is a critical component of social science research, and it is important to ensure survey method validity and reliability.
Surveys are not necessarily easy or simple. The most common methods of collecting survey data is by using in-person questionnaires,…… [Read More]

References

Kelley, K., Clark, B., Brown, V. & Sitzia, J. (2003). Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 15(3): 261-266.
Pennsylvania State University (2006). Using surveys for data collection in continuous improvement. Innovation Insights 14. Retrieved online:  http://www.virginia.edu/processsimplification/resources/PennState%20Surveys.pdf 
Pew Research Center (2017). Collecting survey data. Retrieved online:  http://www.pewresearch.org/methodology/u-s-survey-research/collecting-survey-data/ 
Ponto, J. (2015). Understanding and evaluating survey research. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology 6(2): 168-171.
View Full Essay

differences between qualitative and quantitative research

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97387452

1. Qualitative research does not depend on numbers or statistics, unlike quantitative research. Liberated from the need to devise surveys or instruments to measure only quantifiable results, the research can gather information that is more abstract, subjective, or exploratory in nature. Both qualitative and quantitative research are empirical methods relevant to the social sciences, and can be used together to bolster understanding of a specific subject, population, theory, issue, or set of variables. Some of the most common research designs used in qualitative research include interviews, observations, and case studies.
Some of the drawbacks of qualitative research methods include the small sample size, and the lack of generalizable data. To make up for this drawback, researchers can supplement their initial qualitative research with a follow-up study that focuses on some of the key variables that were elucidated in the qualitative research. Qualitative research is systematic, even though it is not…… [Read More]

References
Morse, J.M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K. & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1 (2). Retrieved online:  https://sites.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/1_2Final/pdf/morseetal.pdf 
 
View Full Essay

Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90647310

Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]

References

Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
View Full Essay

Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33133730

gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/
View Full Essay

Legal Research Method the American Legal System

Words: 328 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20029116

Legal esearch Method

The American legal system comprises trial courts, appellate courts, and supreme courts. Generally, trial courts hear cases first; appellate courts hear appeals filed by litigants who are unsuccessful at the trial court level; and the appropriate supreme courts hear issues appealed from those decisions. The Federal Court of Appeals system comprises thirteen federal circuits based on geography; they hear appeals from state federal courts. Legal research consists of identifying previous decisions dealing with the same legal issues as a particular case, especially cases decided in the same jurisdiction because courts apply the informal concept of stare decisis to them. Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court are binding on all federal, state, and lower courts. The fundamental research presentation method follows the traditional IAC approach of identifying both the legal issue in the case and the relevant case law, applying that case law to the case, and formulating…… [Read More]

Reference

Gilbert Law Summaries: Legal Research, Writing, and Analysis 10th ed. (2006).

BarBri Group.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91391740

Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory

British Crime Survey (BCS) Review

The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Case Study as a Research Method

Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45301752

Christian Perspective

Discussion and Inference

Synthesis Paper

Comprehension about esearch

A key responsibility of the work of a professional researcher is that of publishing research results. esearchers' writings always serve as a store of knowledge for the writer, but researchers also pen their findings because their peers and readers expect a standard language, form and style when reviewing their work. While it can be hard for beginners to write in a clear scientific style, the skill is trainable and can be mastered with practice (Michael Derntl, 2014).

When doing case study research, as one looks at past studies and reports, the researcher gets a unique opportunity to explore and understand some of the most complicated issues in society from differing perspectives. This approach can be viewed as robust approach especially when in depth and holistic investigations are involved. Case study is appreciated in many fields as a critical tool to…… [Read More]

References

Kristina Olson, & C.A. Meyersburg. (2008). A Brief Guide to Writing the Psychology Paper. Harvard College Writing Center.

Jennifer Marie Mccarron. (2004). An Integration Of Biblical Principles In Counseling: Psychology Filtered Through Scripture. Honors Program Liberty University.

Kohlberg, L.. (1971). From is to ought: How to commit the naturalistic fallacy and get away with it in the study of moral development. New York: Academic Press.

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: A Christian Apprisal. (2016, October 8). Retrieved from Reclaim The Mind: http://www.reclaimingthemind.org/papers/ets/2005/Moroney/Moroney.pdf
View Full Essay

Methods of Instruction and Intervention

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56250778

proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…… [Read More]

References

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.

Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
View Full Essay

research methodologies and design

Words: 1175 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623155

Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.

O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.

van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
View Full Essay

Research Approaches in Education

Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84885030

Educational Leadership

Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.

Introduction

The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]

References

Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.

Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.

Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
View Full Essay

Research Approaches in Education

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40594305

Education

Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.

In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm

Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from  https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
View Full Essay

research approach

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74401619

learning for you in considering these materials. What variations in research approach to your dissertation topic might be suggested by them? What encouragement, related reading, or other ideas can you suggest?

"Experience" is a term increasingly bandied about in academic circles, partially in relation to the present interest in phenomenology among social scientists. Many attempts have been made to define the term over time, from a cultural studies and social anthropology standpoint. ut, scholars usually bring up this subject without any description of what is really meant by it. Even those scholars who have, earlier, discussed this issue could not come to any consensus with regard to defining 'experience'. A focus on experience of a sensory nature raises the methodological question of how to comprehend others' experiences considering experience's complexity. It is not possible to peek into their mind or underneath their skin for thinking or feeling the way others…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: Sage Publication.

Pink, S. (2008). Research Methods for Cultural Studies: Analyzing Visual Experience. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Robson, C. (2013). Real World Research. Wiley: Washington.

Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage
View Full Essay

Research on the Benefits of a College Degree

Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22803645

Benefits Obtaining a College Degree

ecently, students have been paying huge amounts of money to attend a college but earned less upon graduation (Arai, 1998). Such trends have caused many observers to question if a college degree is a worthwhile investment. To be precise, college students endure the following expenses: supplies such as textbooks, tuition fees, food, and room and board among others. Supplies, tuition fees and books are the direct costs of education, but board and room are indirect costs as they are incurred to sustain a subsistence level of education. Besides the above, opportunity cost is one of the most important costs as these students forgo earnings while in school. While it is categorized under indirect costs, it accounts for nearly 40% of the total college degree costs (eynolds et al. 2007). In addition to the above costs that students endure, a college education is also associated with…… [Read More]

References

Arai, K. (1998). Economics of Education: An Analysis of College-Going Behavior. New York: Springer-Verlaq

Gratz, D. B. (2009). The Peril and Promise of Performance Pay: Making Education Compensation Work. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

McIntyre, L. J. (2005). Need To Know: Social Science Research Methods. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Reynolds, L. G., Masters, S. H., & Moser, C. H. (2007). Economics of Labor. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall
View Full Essay

Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31406654

Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.

eferences

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.

Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]

References

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
View Full Essay

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects

Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84083495

(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at:  http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:  http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
View Full Essay

Role of Research Problem in Choosing an

Words: 4782 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83788076

role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.

Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers

Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:

After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]

References

Atchariyachanvanich, K., & Okada, H. (2007). "How Consumer Lifestyles Affect Purchasing Behavior: Evidence from Internet Shopping in Japan," Journal of Entrepreneurship Research, 2 (2): 63-78.

Basefsky, M., Maxwell, J.L., Post, A. & Turner, B.G. (2004). "Manager to Manager - What Are the Five Most Important Qualities of an Effective Leader?," Journal American Water Works Association, 96 (7): 34-36.

Bennis, W.G. 2009, On Becoming a Leader, 20th Anniversary Edition. New York: Basic Books.

Bernthal, P. & Wellins, R. (2006). "Trends in Leader Development and Succession," Academic journal article from Human Resource Planning, 29 (2): 5-9.
View Full Essay

Ethics in Research for Organizations of All

Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83305104

Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
View Full Essay

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research Is Imperative to

Words: 587 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94626748

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research

Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Trochim, W & Donnelly, J. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base. (3rd ed.) Mason,

OH: Cengage.
View Full Essay

Experimental vs Quasi-Experimental Research Evaluating

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3270639

Trochim (2006) states that a quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient -- random assignment. He notes that his mentor [Don Campbell] used to refer to quasi-experiments as "queasy" (2006) experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling.

With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins (Trochim 2006).

The most important part of both experimental and quasi-experimental research is the measure of the dependent variable, which it allows for comparison. Some types of data are very straightforward, but there are other measures, but there are other types of data that are completely subjective. In cases where the data is highly subjective, the quasi-experiment will have to have various strategies to…… [Read More]

Reference:

Trochim, William K. & Donnelly, James P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base. Thomson Custom Publishing.
View Full Essay

Designing a Research Project Over

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83930768

("Applied Research") This involves primary sources, as Mary is going to be using actual cases to understand what is happening. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")

Which two techniques of data collection do you feel would be more beneficial for Mary to use?

The primary data collection is more useful to Mary. The reason why, is because they are focusing on real cases and statistics surrounding juvenile crime. This will make her findings and analysis more realistic by looking at the actual numbers. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")

Would this project be more suited to quantitative or qualitative research methods? Support your opinions with reasons.

Qualitative research would be more suitable for this kind of project. This is because we are looking at the environment that these individuals are living in. At which point, we are seeking to address the underlying problems by:…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Applied Research." Business Dictionary, 2011. Web. 30 Jul. 2011

"Conditions Associated with an Increase in Violence." OJJDP, 2000. Web. 30 Jul. 2011

"Definition of Qualitative Research." MRC, n.d. Web. 30 Jul. 2011

"Regularity Theory of Causation." Philosophy Professor, 2011. Web. 30 Jul. 2011
View Full Essay

Sigma This Chapter Presents Research

Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1043953

Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.

Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]

References

Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.

Cambridge University Press.UK.

Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.

Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
View Full Essay

Mixed Methods Benefits and Challenges of Qualitative

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5190647

Mixed Methods

Benefits and challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods approaches to research

Benefits and Challenges of Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach to esearch

In any type of research, it is possible to characterize a research's study methodology as qualitative, quantitative, or one that involves the two methods, in which case it becomes a mixed method approach. Moreover, the term research design is popular in research, but it takes varied meanings in various studies. For instance, the term might refer to the entire research process in a given study, whereas in another study, it may refer to the applied methodology (Mary, Hanne and Frank, 2011). It is crucial for one to recognize a study's research design because the design communicates information, which is relevant to the study, and can vary for qualitative (Pop and Mays, 2000), quantitative and mixed methods. In addition, a key element, which is common…… [Read More]

References

Creswell, J.W. (2003). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005). Introduction. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.),

The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 1 -- 29). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Difficulties Empirical Research Is Necessarily Designed to

Words: 1885 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31846627

Difficulties

Empirical research is necessarily designed to provide a workable framework through which a researcher may test a hypothesized explanation for observable phenomena, but the two primary branches of scientific inquiry differ greatly in terms of the analytical scope and style employed throughout an experiment. While quantitative research is capable of recording, sorting and analyzing voluminous amounts of numerical data, from credit card usage rates for various tax brackets to the pace of population acceleration within a given demographic, this methodology is left lacking when researchers seek to explain the trends and configurations they have identified. In order to develop informed explanations of behavioral patterns, emotional capacity, artistic inclination, and any number of similarly intangible phenomena, the use of qualitative research must be employed to ascertain the motivational processes used to determine basic decision making. Although the traditional quantitative method of research is more widely known by laymen, with surveys,…… [Read More]

References

Berg, B.L. & Lune, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (8th ed).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Cegielski, C.G., Jones-Farmer, L.A., Wu, Y., Hazen, B.T. (2012). Adoption of cloud computing technologies in supply chains: An organizational information processing theory approach. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 23(2), 184 -- 211.

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Sage Publications, Incorporated.
View Full Essay

Managerial Decisions Run the Research

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63689444



There are many more challenges involved in the development of forecasting models and the development of predictive analytics as they relate to the impact of both CoffeeTime's and competitor's advertising spending. The following are additional considerations in the development of more thorough predictive analytics and statistical forecasting models of the Indian market for CoffeeTimes' beverages and sandwiches:

Advertising spending increasing overall market growth or cannibalizing competitive sales? This is a major question that needs to be addressed through more econometric modeling, specifically looking at the aggregate impact of industry-wide spending on increasing the total market size for served coffee in key segments of the market vs. forcing consolidation of the market and cannibalization of sales. This dichotomy of market direction could best first be tested from the standpoint of attempting to predict aggregate demand and consumption for coffee in India for three to five years. Next taking the approach of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Measurement Scale and Business Research

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92246886

Measurement Scale

The first decision with respect to measurement scale is whether the findings will be reported on a composite scale or a summated scale. A composite scale is probably the most appropriate for this study. A summated scale is commonly used in the social sciences, and can be used to reflect people's attitudes, emotions and feelings. There are four main characteristics of a summated scale. The first is that the scale must contain two or more items. The second is that the format must be a rating scale. The third is that the scales "must be designed to assess an underlying construct that is quantifiable. The fourth is that the items do not have correct answers (Spector, 2006). A Likert scale is an example of a summated scale.

The composite scale is one that transforms the original data point. There may be just a single variable, but sometimes there…… [Read More]

References

Marcus, B. (2006). Composite measurement. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from https://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n26.xml

Spector, P. (2006). Summated ratings scale. Sage Research Methods. Retrieved November 18, 2015 from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n203.xml
View Full Essay

Business Research Purpose of Business

Words: 1729 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96573858

It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.

There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.

It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.

eferences

De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…… [Read More]

References

De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009) Interacting contributions of different departments to brand success, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 297

Payne, a.; Storbacka, K.; Frow, P.; Knox, S.; (2009) Co-creating brands: Diagnosing and designing the relationship experience, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 379

Roderick, J.B.; Whittome, J.R.M.; Brush, G.J.; (2009) Investigating the service brand: A customer value perspective, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss.3, pg. 345

Teddington; (2008) the innovative media offerings for a man's world, Campaign, Oct 10, 2008, pg. 17
View Full Essay

Psychology Research and the Scientific Method A

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60105169

Psychology

esearch and the Scientific Method: A Concise Definition

esearch as a term does not have an assigned definition. Indeed, different authors have in the past offered varying definitions of the same. In the opinion of Goddard and Melville (2004), research does not limit itself to information gathering. esearch as the authors point out "is about answering unanswered questions or creating that which does not currently exist" (Goddard and Melville, 2004). In that regard, an individual who seeks to systematically gather new information in an attempt to find answers to specific questions is in one way or the other involved in research. On the other hand, when it comes to the scientific method, the same according to Jackson (as cited in Coon and Mitterer, 2010) can be defined as "a form of critical thinking based on careful collection of evidence, accurate description and measurement, precise definition, controlled observation, and repeatable…… [Read More]

References

Brain, C. & Mukherji, P. (2005). Understanding Child Psychology. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2010). Psychology: A Journey (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Gravetter, F. & Forzano, L.B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (2004). Research Methodology: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
View Full Essay

Mixed Methods Study Design What's Wrong With

Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17429433

Mixed Methods Study Design

What's Wrong with Mixed Methodology

Morris and Burkett (2011) witnessed the relatively recent emergence of what has been called "mixed methods" research. A study using a mixed methods design would meet both quantitative and qualitative evaluative criteria. From the author's perspective and that of others cited in their publication, quantitative and qualitative research designs are effectively mutually exclusive. The only concession that Morris and Burkett (2011) seemed to allow was a study design where qualitative and quantitative were used in a complimentary fashion, essentially conducted side-by-side.

The two competing perspectives discussed by Morris and Burkett (2011) in their publication were (1) both study designs could be combined effectively if the appropriate research methods were used and (2) the controversy is overblown and getting in the way of research. The authors, however, did not see any value in these positions and instead tried to support their perspective…… [Read More]

References

Morris, E. & Burkett, K. (2011). Mixed methodologies: A new research paradigm or enhanced quantitative paradigm. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(1), 27-36.
View Full Essay

Goal of This Research Is to Identify

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48679248

goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.

Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…… [Read More]

References

Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online:  https://explorable.com/research-designs 

De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.

Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online:  https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design
View Full Essay

HR Research Requirements There Are

Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30740063

Without adapting both instruments and the analyses of responses based on some level of assessment of the cultural values and interpretations, results (especially from qualitative research instruments such as the proposed questionnaires and interviews that will be most effective in this research) are likely to be less accurate and are certain to be less meaningful to the organization in question (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006). Taking into account cultural diversity as well as other types of personal values and beliefs that might affect results is necessary to ensure that the information collected is reliable and remains meaningful through interpretation (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006).

There are also other more mundane factors that must be controlled in order to ensure that adequate amounts of reliable information are gathered in the research process. Proper foresight and knowledge regarding statistical techniques and demands during the gathering of data is necessary, such that reliable conclusions can…… [Read More]

References

Bharracharyya, D. (2007). Human resource research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.

HR Guide. (2001). Job analysis. Accessed 31 January 2011.  http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G012.htm 

Stahl, G. & Bjorkman, I. (2006). Handbook of research in international human resource management. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
View Full Essay

Popular and Highly Common Method of Data

Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31551347

popular and highly common method of data collection used in all manner of research. The survey can take a wide array of forms and typically requires the respondent to answer a series of questions or items. The effective survey instrument will be one that is objective and which offers questions that are presented in an unbiased manner.

Practical Application

The practical applications of the survey are manifold. One practical application of the survey is in ts capacity to yield first-hand accounts which may be protected by anonymity and which enable researchers to formulate data analyses that are not influenced by personal perceptions of subjects. This benefit is supplemented by the ability which the survey offers researchers to craft data-gathering questions according to the needs of the study. With this method of qualitative data accumulation, questions can be shaped to cast a broad reach in terms of that which can be…… [Read More]

References

Trochim, W. & Donnelly, J.P. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3e.

Atomic Dog Publishing.
View Full Essay

Interest A Research in Human

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73201123



The data collection methods

Questionnaires effectively aid in data collection. To capture the right data, it must be well organised and prepared. The variables required in the result must be prepared well in advance for they guide the researcher on how to frame the questionnaire. The questions in it must be clear and simple to avert confusing the respondent. A time frame should set on the duration a respondent should stay with the questionnaire. The mode of its distribution should be established to ensure only the relevant responds receive it.

Another data collection method to be employed will be oral interviews. The interview question should be prepared in advance with reference to the variables required. Good interviewer training is necessary for it prepares him on how to ask the questions and manage the interviewee.

Possible methods of data analysis

A thorough data analysis process is crucial for effective data analysis.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Social Research Effective and Ethical

Words: 1797 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33012620

This allows the researcher and the research to be completely and comprehensively concerned with doing the "right" thing, regardless of what the observations and evidence gathered in the course of the research shows. This applies to honesty in recording and presenting information as well as to the collection methods for obtaining this information.

Without a strong ethical through-line in social research, the entire purpose of this research ends up being lost. Social research exists specifically to identify issues in society and among individuals and to suggest ways to improve these issues, and to build better-functioning societies that allow for greater chances at group and individual success. The measures of this success and the determination of exactly what constitutes a "better functioning society" are, of course, issues with many often hugely divergent conclusions, but even when these conclusions seem diametrically opposed the individuals that hold these conclusions are working towards the…… [Read More]