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Respiratory Ethics Nursing Ethics in
Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19560657
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2008).. This points to the ethical responsibility of nurse educators -- it is not enough to treat the disease, bit one must treat the patient.

Failure to provide the proper level of education to a patient is certainly one way to fail them both ethically and medically, bit the opposite can also be true. That is, it is possible to provide too much care -- what is deemed "medically futile care" -- and this also raises very serious ethical issues in the realm of respiratory illnesses (Sibbald et al. 2007). This particular stuffy found that insufficient communication among the medical team was one of the primary causes for prolonging futile care, which often means increasing and/or prolonging a patient's discomfort without any reasonable expectation of an improvement in their condition (Sibbald et al. 2007).

The ethical choice here, of course, is to end care (with the consent of the patient…

References

Efraimsson, E.; Hillverik, C. & Ehrenberg, A. (2008). "Effects of COPD self-care management education at a nurse-led primary health care clinic." Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 22(2), 178-85.

Selecky, P.; Eliasson, A.; Hall, R.; Schneider, R.; Varkey, B. & McCaffree, D. (2005). "Palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases." Chest 128(5), pp. 3599-610.

shiao, J.; Koh, D.; Lo, L.; Lim, M. & Guo, Y. (2007). "Factors predicting nurses' consideration of leaving their job during the SARS outbreak." Nursing Ethics, 14(1), pp. 5-17.

Sibbald, R.; Downar, J. & Hawryluck, L. (2007). "Perceptions of 'futile care' among caregivers in intensive care units." Canadian medial association journal, 177(10), pp. 1201-8.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus RSV Is
Words: 2800 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57245085
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It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).

Diagnosis

The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm .

Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.

Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp .

Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at  http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .

Infection Control
Words: 343 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83933536
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Failure to implement infection control precautions can lead to potential complications that include the spread of infection to otherwise healthy individuals within the ward or facility where the infection occurs and even out into the community through visitors who become infected (Banach, Bearman, Morgan & Munoz-Price, 2015). Thus, complications that arise from infection spreading may not be confined to the hospital or facility where they occur but can easily become an issue that impacts the outside world as well. Examples abound, whether they are influenza related, SARS-related, and so on. Communities can suffer significantly when even the simplest infection control precautions are not followed by nurses in health care facilities.

Another potential complication can be resource-related, as infection spreading can lead to a drain on resources as procedures are put in place to stem the spread and deal with contamination, quarantine and clean-up (Koutlakis-Barron & Hayden, 2016; Revolinski, Huang &…

New Respiratory Drugs
Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24708838
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new respiratory drugs that have been approved for medical use over the past decade. The paper will highlight the diagnoses of the drugs i.e. when and why it is prescribed, how it is meant to be used and how often, its side effects, the impact for a missed dose or an overdose along with any other relevant information that will add depth to it appropriate use.

The main purpose for the respiratory drugs is to help cure the ailments directly or indirectly related to the functioning of lungs or general breathing of an individual. There are numerous sectors where studies on new respiratory drugs can be carried out and some of the most recent studies to include this particular aspect include allergies, asthma attacks, Acute espiratory Distress Syndrome (ADS), pneumonia and sinus infections.

In this paper we will focus on the following new respiratory drugs: Arcapta, Daliresp, Dulera, Tyvaso, Alvesco,…

References

Beeh, K.M., Derom, E., Kanniess, F., Cameron, R., Higgins, M., van As, A. (2007). "Indacaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-agonist, provides sustained 24-h bronchodilation in asthma." Eur. Respir. J. 29 (5): 871 -- 8.

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010). Dulera Inhaler. Accessed 02-02-12 from:  http://www.drugs.com/dulera.html 

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010a). Tyvaso. Accessed 02-02-12 from:  http://www.drugs.com/tyvaso.html 

Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010b). Alvesco. Accessed 02-02-12 from:  http://www.drugs.com/alvesco.html

Viral Uri Viral Upper Respiratory
Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 33984182
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Virological tests indicated that in all (64.6%) or 558 of 864 URI specimens were positive for viruses. Results from the tests showed that Adenovirus and rhinovirus were the most common viruses associated with URI. However, the results further revealed that coronavirus, RSV and adenovirus were the three most commonly associated virus types in URI complicating AOM. This result is in concurrence with previous studies by Henderson et al., Heikkinen et.al etc. Adenovirus was responsible for almost 23.6% of AOM, while RSV was implicated in 15.8% of the cases of Otitis media. The high rates of these two viruses and their association with AOM incidence offers new implications for treatment of URI in children. The Overall results from this study indicate that over 61% of the URI is OM complicating with 37% AOM and 24% OME respectively. OM complication was manifest in 50% of children with URI by adenovirus, coronovirus and…

Bibliography

1) Tasnee Chonmaitree, M.D., Krystal Revai & James J. Grady et.al (2008), 'Viral Upper respiratory tract infection and Otitis Media complication in Young Children'  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744371/

Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome Irds
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9723398
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Fortunately, there are tests that can be conducted to help determine whether an infant has IRDS so that treatment can begin. These tests include an analysis of the blood gases, x-rays of the chest, studies of lung function, and blood cultures to rule out other issues, such as sepsis and infection, that may also cause respiratory distress in infants, especially if they are premature (www.nlm.nih.gov,2004).

As for treatment for IRDS, premature and other high-risk infants require a very prompt treatment by pediatric resuscitation teams. High humidity and oxygen concentrations are the first thing given to an infant suffering from IRDS. Those that have only mild symptoms are simply given supplemental oxygen. Those that have much more severe symptoms are placed on a ventilator, not only to ensure that they receive enough oxygen, but also to provide enough pressure to keep their lungs inflated. Sometimes, a lung surfactant made from an…

Bibliography www.infoplease.com.(2004). Infoplease Encyclopedia. Infant respiratory distress syndrome. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. Columbia University Press. Pearson Education. Retrieved 24 January 2005 at  http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0907204.html  www.nlm.nih.gov.(2004). Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in infants. Medline Plus. Retrieved 24 January 2005 at  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/print/ency/article/001563.htm

Diphtheria Is a Bacterial Infection
Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 57790562
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After 10 days, when pharyngeal infection becomes more acute, patients have an increased risk for myocarditis and peripheral neuritis. These can result in circulatory loss and loss of motor functions in the peripheral organs. Diphtherial infection should be immediately treated and even suspected cases should be treated on a prophylactic basis since the infection has a high mortality rate. Airway management is critical for patients presenting with respiratory complications. Intubation is essential in cases where the laryngeal membrane growth affects normal breathing process. Failure to secure airway passage is one of the main causes of death due to diphtheria. . [Allysia & Mark, 2009]

Firstline medication involves antibiotic treatment with penicillin or erythromycin to control bacterial growth and the use of antipyretics to control temperature. . Concurrent intravenous treatment with Diphtheria antitoxin is also critical to check the spread of the toxin and control further tissue damage. Patients manifesting respiratory…

Bibliography

1) Allysia M. Guy & Mark a Silverberg, (Oct 2009), 'Diphtheria', Accessed March 7th 2010, available at,  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/782051-overview

HIV Infection and Its Implications
Words: 2318 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8730084
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Description of the communicable disease

Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…

References

Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/ 

Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2 

Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.

CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from:  http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf

Caglar S Yildiz S Savaser S 2010
Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27292841
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Caglar S; Yildiz S; Savaser S. (2010). Observation results of hand-washing by health-care workers in a neonatal intensive care unit. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(2), 132-137.

In this article the authors wanted to determine whether healthcare professionals were washing their hands and if they were doing so effectively. The researchers observed 344 incidents in which hand washing was warranted and found that nurses were 63% compliant and physicians were 53% compliant. However, when it came to making sure that the job was done thoroughly, physicians were able to do a better job than nurses at a 24% to 13% rate of success. Since hand washing has been proven to be the most effective and simplest method for preventing infection, it is imperative that healthcare professionals perform it as often as needed and thoroughly.

amos M.M., Schrader, ., Trujillo, ., Blea, M., & Greenberg, C. (2011). School nurse inspections improve…

Researchers are trying different techniques to increase the incidence of compliance with hand washing guidelines and in this study they used social pressure. Initially, compliance with hand washing regulations was deemed to be significantly below expected standard within the nursing staff. To hopefully combat this, researchers told the staff that they were going to weigh the soap dispenser bags to see if people were actually using them or not. The object of the study was to determine if this type of pressure would induce the staff into better compliance with hand washing regulations. The researchers found that this type of behavioral technique is very effective.

15. Parish, C. (2008). Patient campaigner calls for TV cameras to check hand-washing. Nursing Standard, 22(38), 6.

The author of the article looked at the compliance records of staff and whether patients and visitors used infection controls. The campaigner, Roger Goss, said that because MRSA and other similar healthcare-acquired infections were becoming more dangerous that staff and visitors needed to be monitored more closely to prevent spread. The man advocated that close-circuit televisions be used to determine compliance with regulations, and he encouraged staff to be fired and visitors not welcomed if they did not comply. The warning here to nurses is that people are watching whether they wash their hands properly, and they are ready to have them terminated if they do not.

Difficult Step in Responding to
Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38529934
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Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).

The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…

References

Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Emergency preparedness and response." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Anthrax." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/

Gerberding JL, Hughes J, Koplan J. (2002). "Bioterrorism preparedness and response." Journal of the American medical association. Accessed 25 April 2009.  http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/7/898

Management of Immunocompromised Patients in Beginning I
Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85496540
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Management of Immunocompromised Patients

In beginning I writer specific nursing assignment. The Question: 2000 Words While clinical placement asked prepare a single room an admission. The patient requiring admission isolation room immunocompromised.

Immunocompromised patients usually require isolation in order to prevent them from becoming infected with infections from other patients which is known as protective isolation. For the immunocompromised patients, their immune system is unable to fight the infectious diseases. There are many diseases or conditions that lead to immunodeficiency in patients.

One is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The pathophysiology of AIDS starts when the person's CD4+ T cell count begins to decrease as the disease kills these cells. This is HIV-induced cell lysis where the virus enters the CD4+ cells where it inserts its genetic information to the cell nucleus thus taking over the cell and replicating itself. The virus then mutates extremely rapidly thus making it more and…

References

Agusti, C., & Torres, A. (2009). Pulmonary Infection in the Immunocompromised Patient: Strategies for Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bodey, G.P. (2010). Managing Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(Supplement 4), S239. doi: 10.1086/427328

Glauser, M.P., & Pizzo, P.A. (2009). Management of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hayden, R.T. (2008). Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This
Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.

Vitamin D In Controlling Urtis in Recent
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 59808390
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Vitamin D in Controlling UTIs

In recent times, several experimental studies have been conducted in order to understand the impact of vitamin D on controlling Upper espiratory Tract Infections. This paper has selected by article "Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDAIS randomized controlled trial," a research study conducted by Murdoch et.al (2012). The goal of the article critique is to thoroughly analyze the article and to determine its validity and reliability. Furthermore, the critique would help in understanding the impact of Vitamin D on UTIs in healthy adults.

Experimental studies have reported that the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and upper respiratory infections is inversely proportional. Murdoch et.al (2012) has reported that results of these experimental studies have been found to be inconclusive. The goal of Murdoch et.al (2012) was to study the impact of vitamin D on Upper respiratory…

References

Murdoch et.al (2012). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2012 Oct 3; 308(13):1333-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.12505.

Laryngotracheobronchitis or Commonly Called Croup
Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27138685
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There are several things that cause it but parainfluenza type 1 is the most common. Rhinovirus, Reovirus, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus type a are some of the other causes of croup (www.emedicine.com,2005).

In making the diagnosis of this condition, the physician usually listens to the chest looking for a prolonged expiration and inspiration, decreased breath sounds, and wheezing. A red epiglottis is sometimes also seen but an examination of the throat is usually undertaken by a physician very cautiously in a very small child. An x-ray can also show a foreign body or other problems. In very mild cases that are caused only by viruses humidified air that is either warm or cold is often used and going outside when the air is cold sometimes is also helpful. There can also be bacterial causes and these need Augmentin or some other type of antibiotic treatment. If…

Works Cited www.ecureme.com.(2003). Acute Laryngotracheobronchitis. Retrieved 9 February 2005 at  http://www.ecureme.com/emyhealth/data/Acute_Laryngotracheobronchitis.asp .

A www.emedicine.com.(2005). Pediatrics, Croup or Laryngotracheobronchitis. Retrieved 9 February 2005 at  http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic370.htm .

Best Practice Instructional Strategy
Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 22359165
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ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View

Web Article eview

The principle best-practice strategy elucidated within Louis DePaola's article entitled "Infection control in the dental office" is for practitioners to adhere to sanitary and hygiene mandates as noted within a pair of documents produced by the Centers for Disease Control. The first document is the Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care (which was published in 2011), and the companion Infection Prevention Checklist for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. These documents have a number of specific measures for those working in dental offices to follow to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections (HAI).

In addition to denoting several of the key guidelines for practitioners to adhere to in order to ensure safety and reduce the rate of infection transmission, the author also reinforces several key facets of this literature that apply to dental office…

References

DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." http://static.ow.ly/. Retrieved from http://static.ow.ly/docs/RICDE%20Infection%20Control%20in%20the%20Dental%20Office,%20Standards%20of%20Care%202012%20(CE%20Article%20PDF)_Mcl.pdf

Evidence-Based Practice Project a Literature Review Conducted
Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68908398
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Evidence-Based Practice Project

A literature review conducted by abie and Curtis (2006) aimed at establishing the effects of washing hands in reducing respiratory infections. The literature was obtained by searching CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science library. The inclusion strategy for the review were any studies that reported having an impact of hand washing to reduce respiratory infections. All articles included in the review were published before June 2004. This was a quantitative systematic review, which made it an effective method of analyzing and evaluating the selected studies. After searching for the relevant articles, the researchers found 395 articles, but only 61 articles were selected after the researchers reviewed their abstracts (abie & Curtis, 2006). The review and selection process continued and the final review included only eight articles, which the researchers established were more relevant to their study. Having eliminated the articles that focused on children…

References

Loeb, M., McGeer, A., McArthur, M., Walter, S., & Simor, A.E. (1999). Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Archives of internal medicine, 159(17), 2058-2064.

Rabie, T., & Curtis, V. (2006). Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical medicine & international health, 11(3), 258-267.

Smith, P.W., Bennett, G., Bradley, S., Drinka, P., Lautenbach, E., Marx, J., . . . Stevenson, K. (2008). SHEA/APIC Guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility. American journal of infection control, 36(7), 504.

Routine Oral Care Positioning to
Words: 2436 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77539372
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(Schleder, 2003)

Elevating heads of beds for patients on mechanical ventilation

Along with the recommendations for removal of plaque, there is also a guideline made by CDC that for proper treatment to "elevate at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees the head of the bed of a patient at high risk for aspiration." The benefits elevation of the head of the bed is on the theory that then gravity will reduce the possibilities of regurgitation that exists in an overly distended stomach. The recommendation by CDC also clearly states that the patients should not be lying flat unless there is some clinical need for that. At the same time, some medical authorities feel that this is likely to make the patients uncomfortable, though the recommendation is from CDC. This makes them reduce the angle of laying the patients bed at a lower angle than the angle specified by CDC.…

References

Afessa, Bekele. (May, 2004) "From pro and con debate to evidence-based practice: ventilator- associated pneumonia" CHEST. Retrieved at  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0984/is_5_125/ai_n6094553 . Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Caffery, Lisa. "Preventing Ventilator associated Pneumonia" Retrieved from www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf+elevating+patient's+beds+for+ventilator+acquired+pneumonia&hl=en"  http://www.genesisheart.com/clinical_staff/ventilator_pneumonia.pdf . Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Chulay, Marianne. (1 March, 2005) "VAP Prevention: The latest guidelines" Retrieved at http://rnweb.com/rnweb/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=149672Accessed on 20 July, 2005

Geyer, Sherree. "Breathing easy" Retrieved from www.matmanmag.com/matmanmag/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=AHA/PubsNewsArticleGen/data/0407MMH_FEA_Cover_Story&domain=MATMANMAG

Whooping Cough Known Medically as
Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46415890
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Because some children have developed brain damage after the immunizations, some parents are concerned that the vaccine is responsible for neurologic impairment, however research does not indicate a definitive link between the pertussis vaccine and brain damage, although research is still ongoing (hooping 2005). Yet, as a precaution, children with a history of seizures or brain disorders may not be proper candidates for the DTaP vaccine (hooping 2005).

2001 study revealed that pertussis was the cause of chronic cough in 19.9% of the patients studied. Once a disease that ravaged children worldwide, whooping cough is once again on the rise (Green 2002). Today, approximately 300,000 children worldwide die every year from whooping cough, usually in areas where immunization rates are low (Green 2002). Nonetheless, even in the United States, where immunization rates are high, roughly 1 out of every 200 babies who get whooping cough will die from it, another…

Works Cited

Green, Alan. (2002). Pertussis. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.drgreene.com/21_1155.html 

Whooping Cough. (2005). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whooping-cough/DS00445/DSECTION=3 

Whooping Cough. (2006). MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/whoopingcough.html 

Whooping cough a continuing problem. (2002, June 29). British Medical Journal.

Mold Assessment and Indoor Exposure
Words: 2524 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34077722
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quality of indoor air has received and increasing amount of attention, including a large amount of discussion about sick building syndrome, which has been recognised since the 1970's. Certainly, most North Americans spend the majority of our lives indoors, and the quality of our indoor air environment has been shown to play a huge role on our health. A wide variety of indoor pollutants can have an effect on human health, including environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and biological pollutants. iological indoor pollutants include dust mites, cockroaches, effluvia from pets like birds, rodents, dog and cats and mold.

Early investigations into sick building syndrome often gave a multi-factorial explanation for the symptoms of occupants. However, these investigations often could not explain the long duration of effects. Further, investigations into indoor air quality have historically ignored the problem of mold, and failed to give a clear history of water…

Bibliography

Ammann, Harriet M. Ph.D., D.A.B.T. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? (20 May 2002).  http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html 

Carlile, M.J. The Fungi, 2nd ed. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 2001.

Indoor Air - Mold/Moisture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (20 May 2002).  http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/moldresources.html 

Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division. (20 May 2002).  http://www.epa.gov/iaq/molds/index.html

Nitrogen Dioxide Killing U S Softly
Words: 2609 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18630416
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The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).

Toxicity

EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…

Bibliography

Belanger, K., et al. (2006). Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. 10 pages. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: American Thoracic Society

Bohan, S. (2007). Nitrogen overdose. 4 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers

Fields, S. (2004). Global nitrogen. cycling out of control. 9 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Osenga, M (2005). EPA Proposes stationary diesel emissions regulations. 3 pages. Diesel Progress: Diesel and Gas Turbine Publications

Ethical Case Analysis JOHNSO62 on
Words: 3376 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71485907
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The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.

Step Three

Affected Parties

This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…

References

1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.

2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.

Children Putting to a Test
Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92746564
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Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302 

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005

Family Practice Spec Icd Codes Much of
Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1081451
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Family Practice Spec. ICD Codes

Much of the treatment scope associated with the specialty family practice revolves around prevention. In other words the family practice provider often sees individuals when they are not ill at all but need health care access to determine normal values and a general state of health for developmental purposes in children and sometimes for school or vocational reasons in adults. Family practice often sees multiple minor injuries as well. Family Practice can also manage as a primary care provider many chronic conditions or disorders with or without intervention of a specialist, such as diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart diseases of various kinds and most minor infections. Below is a list of just a few diagnostic codes for some of these commonly seen disorders and/or cases seen in the family practice specialty.

outine Physicals exams for Adults

outine general medical examination at…

Resources

Endres, Chris "Free online searchable ICD9 Codes," retrieved November 25, 2011 at  http://icd9cm.chrisendres.com/ 

Taylor, R.B. (2002) Manual of family practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Oral Health
Words: 2715 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90361025
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Oral Health

Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…

References

"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online:  http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/ 

Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/ 

"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online:  http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors 

"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online:  http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf

Stress Definition of Stress Researchers Define Stress
Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5991786
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Stress

Definition of stress

esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.

Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…

References

AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm

Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from  http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body 

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D 

Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx

Impregnated Mosquito Bed Netting in
Words: 5949 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35956222
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The race between new drugs and new resistances has not stopped since then.... And in 1986, WHO's expert panel concluded that a magic solution could not be relied upon, and that furthermore, malaria patterns were determined by a variety of socioeconomic as well as biological, climatic and geographic factors. " (Banfield, 1998. p. 35)

The article refers as well to the impact of malaria on the people of Kenya "... where people in the Bomet district were dying at a rate of three or four a day..." (Banfield, 1998. p.35)

Another general study which includes informative data relative to the topic of this study is The Heavy Cost of Malaria and AIDS by De Giorgio (2000). This article refers to some significant economic aspects and to the way that the high rate of malaria infections is affecting the economy of Kenya, as well as other countries in the region. The…

References

ALAII J. et al. (2003) COMMUNITY REACTIONS TO THE INTRODUCTION OF PERMETHRIN-TREATED BED NETS FOR MALARIA CONTROL DURING A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL IN WESTERN KENYA. Retrieved November 3, 2006, at  http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/68/4_suppl/128.pdf   http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002294055 

Banfield, J. (1998, September). Malaria: Africa's Public Enemy No. 1. African Business 35+. Retrieved November 4, 2006, from Questia database:

Analyzing the Pediatric Asthma Issues
Words: 1492 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 19794362
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Pediatric Asthma

Asthma is a debilitating condition caused by unspecified reasons. As such prevention, control and diagnosis becomes difficult. In addition, symptoms may vary largely. Cultural and ethnic beliefs and remedies add to the complexity, making the attending nurses' jobs that much more difficult. Deciding on the measures and framework needed to provide long-term care is deemed important in this context. This work attempts to consider the pathophysiology and epidemiology of asthma and other variables to provide an effective protocol to attend to Asthmatic patients.

Pediatric Asthma

Asthma, a condition that usually occurs in both adults and children is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the airways and is usually characterized by breathlessness or difficulty in breathing. Among adolescents, between the ages of 5-17, asthma is responsible for the loss of over 10 million school days per year and consumes about $726.1 million of caretaker's money every year due to…

References

Jackson, D.J., Lemanske, R.F. & Guilbert, T.W. (2014). "Management of asthma in infants and children." In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al., eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby: Chapter 53.

Lugogo, N., Que, L.G., Gilstrap, D.L. & Kraft, M. (2015). "Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management." In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders: Chapter 41.

Wildfire, J.J., Gergen, P.J., Sorkness, C.A., Mitchell, H.E., Calatroni, A., Kattan, M., et al. (2012). Development and validation of the Composite Asthma Severity Index -- an outcome measure for use in children and adolescents. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol;.129: 694-701.

Flanders-Stepans M Wilhelm S L & Dolence K
Words: 2214 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2803940
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Flandes-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposue to Tobacco. Biological eseach fo Nusing, 8(2), 104-114.

Consideing the title of the wok, one would believe that the poblem statement would explain ways to educe infant exposue; when in fact the aticle commences by explaining the lage monetay buden that smoking elated issues has bought about in the medical field. The aticle then begins to explain the coelation that exists between the smoking patten of the mothe and the level of exposue to Envionmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). Finally, it is explained that a stong coelation has been made between beastfeeding and educed ETS; howeve it is also stated that in fact a child is moe likely to have elevated levels & symptoms associated with ETS if the beastfeeding mothe is a smoke. It is also stated that thee is a distinct coelation between the smoking patten…

references utilized in this article there could have been more useful information provided from these sources. In addition, considering the fact of the redundancy of this research compared to the previous research it would have been an improvement to look at another alternative to decreasing ETS. Though the title of the research would lead one to believe that this will in fact be about ways to decrease ETS, this is not what is truly portrayed in the research in the beginning. The reader is given information as to how much money ETS is costing medically due to health issues and infant related deaths, but very little discusses the impact that breast feeding has. It appears in the beginning that the researchers want to prove that children should be breastfeed and that mothers should not smoke because the infants that are breastfed are protected from the health problems associated with ETS. However little information is given neither in the intro nor in the review of literature to show what impact there really is for a child that is breastfed by a mother that does not smoke, in relationship to ETS from second hand sources i.e. cars, malls etc. Another weakness, which I have already discussed several times through this critique, is the sample size. This was a rather small sample and the ways in which the control and test group were handled may not have been the best methods possible. Ultimately, this research left me wondering why one would want to conduct research to confirm the already obvious, while offering no additional information to the resolution or problem at hand.

Reference

Flanders-Stepans, M., Wilhelm, S.L., & Dolence, K. (2006). Smoking Hygiene: Reducing Infant Exposure to Tobacco. Biological research for Nursing, 8(2), 104-114.

Role of Genetics in Ataxia
Words: 2716 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22182658
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The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.

In most cases, the patient gets…

Bibliography

Adler, Tina. Single Gene Causes Ataxia, Cancer Risk - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Gene Causes Fetal Disorder or Increased Risk of Cancer. Science News: Science Service, Inc., 1995.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v147/ai_7142442 

Barrett, Julia. Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Gale Research, 1999.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/ai_2601000157 

Bird, Thomas D. Hereditary Ataxia Overview. Gene Reviews: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2005. http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/ataxia/details.html

Robinson, Richard. Friedreich's Ataxia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research, 1999.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000562

Global Human Development
Words: 2534 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85012049
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UNDP Report Study

Human Development Report 2011:

A Study of the Improvements and the Deteriorations in our Nations

Our world has changed immensely in the past twenty-one years. Major improvements, such as high-speed communication via the internet, have allowed East and West to link together, yet some countries have stagnated, and others have even deteriorated. The reason the world is unequal and many countries are still suffering from war, disease, and poverty is because development does not happen overnight and does not happen in a uniform way. However, it is troublesome that there are still countries that do not know about the internet, or do not use cellular phones, and do not therefore take part in the advancements that could propel our world and our civilization forward. The reality of this fact leads one to ponder how these countries have evolved, and how can some poor countries rise up to…

From the data presented above, it is clear to see that, indeed, the studies mentioned in this paper correlate with the status of the countries at present and that Estonia and India seem to be faring a lot better than the DRC and Mexico. For example, it is clear that the DRC has gone down considerably in all four areas. Mexico, however, is a different story. It seems that it has gone up in all facets, which is does not correlates with research on Mexico that shows fluctuation in progress. It is a pity that the 2010 report does not yet have all the facts on Mexico, because they could, again, fluctuate due to the drug wars. The statistics for Mexico might look so great, despite the problems the country faces, due to Mexico's proximity to the U.S. And the help it receives from this country. Lastly, it is evident, especially from the GDP growth, that both India and Estonia have been growing steadily, as has Mexico, which is great news. Though this is in stark contrast to the DRC, which is at a pitiable $291 in GDP for 2010, according to the UNDP data in the table above.

This paper has presented a multitude of facts to examine what makes a country progress, while others stagnate. With the help of a comprehensive literature review and UNDP reports, the essay has concluded the two of the examined countries, Estonia and India, are faring better economically and political (and thus from health and education perspectives) than the DRC and Mexico. This has been due to the fact, as read in the literature review, that the first two countries have either international support in terms of trade and/or manpower and organization. The latter two, as seen above, are either torn apart by violence, or have a history of ineffectual political organization, and thus cannot fully prosper financially. Furthermore, their literacy rates, survival rates and GDP are substantially lower. In order to rise, Mexico and the DRC, and the latter especially, must find a way to put violence aside, so that the country may join in the progress of the modern world.

Though this research seems comprehensive, it has only analyzed other studies and the UNDP reports. Thus, a shortcoming is the inability of the researcher to be on the ground, or at least speak to experts on the issue, both inside the specific country and outside of it to obtain opinions on whether the poorer countries of the world can ever reach the kind of development that they should. Thus, the study presented here must be continued so that we may find future patters for development and help countries such as the DRC and Mexico advance in the world economy.

Gum Disease Can Lead to
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 83386159
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This article was published in Cosmos, which is a popular science magazine, and it presented the information at a level that was more appropriate for general public consumption than it might be for a practicing clinician or a student. As a student and a future dental hygienist, I was appreciative of the fact that Merolla brought this information to light, but I was also left wishing that I could have seen a peer-reviewed journal that documented the findings in greater detail. The article was complete for a general audience and it performed its function of making pregnant women aware that oral health is a serious issue, but from a hygienist's viewpoint, I would have liked to have seen the article presented in its original scholarly form because it would have included more information about how the disease was transmitted from mother to child.

As a future dental hygienist, I felt…

Removing Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 91781793
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emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…

References

Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).

Infant Feeding Practices in Africa
Words: 2718 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62766667
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There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…

Bibliography

Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822 

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm 

Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm 

Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at  http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html

Heart Transplant Asthma & Pulmonary
Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74860934
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Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%

in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#

ILIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1

adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041

Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac

Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,

March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1

Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:

Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1 

Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041

Panax Ginseng Korean Ginseng Has
Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96260406
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The researchers controlled for intervening variables such as a possible riess reaction or bacterial contamination that might induce iNOS. Furthermore, the researchers were able to isolate specific components in the ginseng aqueous solution that were responsible for the NO production: polysaccarides. The authors also note that macrophages are instrumental in the immune response: they produce NO; NO in turn acts as an antimicrobial and antiviral compound. A sustained NO production may be a key to preventing serious disease.

inseng is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a tonic herb, one that has an overall effect on preventing illness, enhancing immune response, and defending the body against pathogens. Prior research, listed in the Results section of the Friedl, et al. (2001) report, has substantiated the claims of traditional medicine. Research using aqueous solutions of Panax ginseng has also yielded results suggesting that the root enhances antibody formation. Oral administration of Panax…

Ginseng is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a tonic herb, one that has an overall effect on preventing illness, enhancing immune response, and defending the body against pathogens. Prior research, listed in the Results section of the Friedl, et al. (2001) report, has substantiated the claims of traditional medicine. Research using aqueous solutions of Panax ginseng has also yielded results suggesting that the root enhances antibody formation. Oral administration of Panax ginseng in vivo studies also show promising results of the herb on stimulating the body's natural defenses especially against common respiratory infections.

The current research deepens the body of literature already extant on Panax ginseng. By isolating the polysaccarides as the compounds that are mainly essential for nitric oxide stimulation in cells, the researchers potentially contribute to the growing compendium of medical literature addressing the potential of natural healing interventions to complement or replace pharmaceuticals. The current research also isolates the main reason why Panax ginseng is effective in enhancing immunity: ginsenosides stimulate the production of NO and NO is associated with enhanced natural defenses against pathogens. The results also depended on dose: the greater the exposure of the murine macrophages to the ginsenosides, the greater the production of NO.

However, the authors do suggest that current methods of standardizing powdered, commercially available ginseng may not be as effective as intended. The powdered Panax ginseng such the Nature's Way brand available in stores and used in the current study, contained standardized amounts of ginsenosides. The current research shows that not all ginsenosides are responsible for the immune system response. Polysaccharides are the compounds most responsible for enhancing the body's natural immune defense via iNOS, the simulation of nitric oxide. Because it is the iNOS action that prevents infection, standardized extracts of Panax ginseng should probably be reformulated to contain the maximum amount of polysaccharides: if the herb is being marketed specifically as an immune system enhancer. The wide range of tonic effects claimed by Traditional Chinese Medicine might mean, however, that the whole gamut of ginsenosides may be useful in helping the body heal.

Nature Verses Nurture One of
Words: 1792 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88332443
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(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.

Conclusion:

Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.

eferences

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…

References

Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at  http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.

Retrieved at  http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at  http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005

Social Cultural and Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Words: 4282 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16620351
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Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery

Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…

References

Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.

Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.

Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.

Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.

Radon Gas Is a Major
Words: 1747 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31032205
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The information gathered from testing the two houses shows how radon can be present in the homes anywhere. The gas affects the house without regard to the houses age, the economic situation of the occupants, or any other factors. Since only two houses were checked, truly accurate results for the area as a whole cannot be calculated due to the small population size. The occupants of the homes had no knowledge of the radon levels in their homes nor had they ever had them tested. Luckily the levels were too low to cause any serious effects. Out of the two women, only one had any knowledge of radon and the seriousness it; but even with the knowledge she had never tested or had tested the home.

Awareness must be made to alert the public to this issue and availability to test equipment for lower income families provided. Lung cancer from…

Bibliography

Cancer.gov. (2010). "Radon and Cancer: Questions and Answers" Retrieved on April 19, 2010

From  http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/radon  eHow.com. (2010). "Identification" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.ehow.com/about_4672754_symptoms-radon-poisoning.html

EPA.org. (2010). "A Citizens Guide to Radon" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from  http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html 

Healthcare.com. (2010). "What is the Definition of Radon Gas?" Retrieved on April 19, 2010

Career Positions at Humana Is Product Development
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career positions at Humana is product development. This can be a risky position particularly since it may involve working in an environment that contains substances that may be non-conductive to one's health.

There are many controversial chemicals in some products and some individuals working with these can be at risk whether known or not. Products can be toxic or harmful. In Australia alone, exposure to hazardous workplace substances cause over 2000 deaths annually (Better Health Channel).

Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) definition of harmful substances include toxic substances such as chemical matters or biological agents that are known to cause harmful health effects. Many of Humana's innovation or product workers work in such environments. Interaction with such products include health effects that introduce respiratory infections, positioning, disorder of lung, kidney, and liver, skin rashes, burns, neurological impact and far more. The common hazardous substances in the workplace that product…

References

Workplace safety- hazardous substances. Better health Channel.

www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/.../pages/Workplace_safety_hazardous_substances?OpenDocument

Patent Ductus Arteriosus Is a
Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3318860
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Fatigability and dyspnea on exertion may be seen in PDA patients that have reached 40 years old, however, if their PDA has not been treated, or has not been treated properly (www.med-help.net).

Having a PDA allows for blood to shunt from left to right, or from the systemic circulation to the pulmonary circulation. The flow of blood is therefore excessive on the pulmonary side and there are very few factors that can control how severe this actually is. The larger the narrowest point of the ductus arteriosus, the larger the shunt. A restrictive ductus arteriosus can also have an effect, depending on the length of the narrowed area. Having a longer ductus is often associated with having a smaller shunt. It is also partially controlled by how much pulmonary vascular resistance there is when compared with systemic vascular resistance. Low pulmonary vascular resistance or high systemic vascular resistance creates a…

Bibliography www.emedicine.com.(2004). Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Retrieved 23 January 2005 at  http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1747.htm  www.med-help.net.(n.d.) Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Retrieved 23 January 2005 at  http://www.med-help.net/PatentDuctusArteriosus.html

Family of International Classifications the International Classification
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97015162
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Family of International Classifications

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a system of disease classification adopted by orld Health Organization members. The ICD, now in its tenth revision, was adopted in 1967. The HO Nomenclature Regulations require the use of ICD in its most current revision to report mortality and morbidity statistics by all Member States (orld Health Organization, 2011).

The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological use; it is also used for many health management purposes as well as clinical use. These uses include the analysis of the general health situation of population groups along with the monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems, as they relate to other variables including the characteristics and circumstances of the individuals affected, resource allocation and so forth (orld Health Organization, 2011).

The ICD is used to classify diseases and other health…

Works Cited

World Health Organization. (2011). ICD-10 Version: 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2011 from:  http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/X 

World Health Organization. (2011). International classification of diseases (ICD). Retrieved December 8, 2011 from:  http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/ 

World Health Organization. (2011). International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Retrieved December 8, 2011 from:  http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/ 

World Health Organization. (2011). International classification of health interventions (ICHI). Retrieved December 8, 2011 from:  http://www.who.int/classifications/ichi/en/

Strategies for Reducing Asthma Attacks
Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91752102
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Strategies for Reducing Asthma Attacks
Causes of Asthma
Asthma is a condition that causes the patient's airways to swell and narrow making breathing difficult triggering coughing (Shaheen, 2019). The patient might have a whistling sound when they breathe due to shortness of breath. Some people will only get a minor nuisance from asthma. However, for others, it will be a major issue, which interferes with their daily activities. It could also lead to a life-threatening asthma attack. The causes of asthma are not well known. Asthma is a condition that has puzzled many health professionals, but most of them have noted genetic and environmental factors do play a huge role (Shaheen, 2019). When a person has asthma, they will react to things in the world around them, and this reaction is referred to as asthma triggers. Exposure to certain substances and irritants that trigger allergies will result in signs and…

References
Gautier, C., & Charpin, D. (2017). Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma. Journal of asthma and allergy, 10, 47.
McCracken, J. L., Veeranki, S. P., Ameredes, B. T., & Calhoun, W. J. (2017). Diagnosis and management of asthma in adults: a review. JAMA, 318(3), 279-290.
Shaheen, S. (2019). Elucidating the causes of asthma: how can we do better? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 7(8), e25.

Nursing Healthcare Information Systems Key
Words: 3682 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9839470
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Others include delays in data accessibility, albeit shorter delays and the continued need for source data verification (Donovan, 2007).

Other obstacles have occurred in the developing of mobile healthcare applications. These have included mobile device limitations, wireless networking problems, infrastructure constraints, security concerns, and user distrust (Keng and Shen, 2006).

A third problem that has been encountered is that of a lack of education on not only the importance of the information technology but also training on how to use the specific pieces of equipment. The tools that are provided to people are only as good as the training that is provided on how to use them. The tools may be able to do wonderful things, but if those that are using them do not know how to get the best use out of them they will in the end be less efficient.

Medical Errors

According to an Institute of…

References

Al-Assaf, Al F., Bumpus, Lisa J., Carter, Dana, and Dixon, Stephen B. (2003). Preventing Errors

in Healthcare: A Call for Action. Hospital Topics. 81(3), 5-12.

Brommeyer, Mark. (2005). e-nursing and e-patients. Nursing Management -- UK. 11(9), 12-13.

Damberg, Cheryl L., Ridgely, M. Susan, Shaw, Rebecca, Meili, Robin C., Sorbero, Melony E.,

Ethical to Raise Animals for
Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55572059
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fosterfacts.net).

Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.

Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…

Works Cited

East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,

From  http://www.fosterfacts.net .

Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle

And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.sacbee.com.

Label Drug Use Useless Costly
Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33447573
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The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).

Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…

Bibliography

Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug

Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group

2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.

2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8

Nursing Most Scholars Are in
Words: 2627 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36022230
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" (1) What does the phrase "concept inventing" mean to you?

2) Does the process of concept inventing add clarity to a unique lived experience that aides in individualizing patient care? - or - Does the process of concept inventing add unnecessary jargon to the profession of nursing which creates barriers in collaboration with other disciplines? (3) State your stance on this issue and create a logical argument to defend your thoughts.

C. (1). "Concept inventing" can be thought of as a way to analyze situations in such a way as to contemplate their meaning to create understanding. Using both the aspects of science, including logic, rationality, and empirical analysis, and art, including intuition, emotion, integrity, honor, and compassion, nurses can process information in such a way as to create a complete conceptual picture of both the abstract aspects and concrete facts of a situation. In doing so, nurses can…

References

Chen, K.M. (2000, January.) The focus of the discipline of nursing: Caring in the holistic human health experience. Nursing (Graduate Research), 2(1). Retrieved Dec 3, 2006 from Graduate Research. Website: http://www.graduateresearch.com/kueimin2.htm.

Nagai-Jacobson, M.G., & Burkhardt, M.A. (1996). Viewing persons as stories: A perspective for holistic care. Alternative Therapies, 2(4), 54-58.

Rogers, M.E. (1990). Nursing: Science of unitary, irreducible, human beings: In E.A.M. Barrett (Ed.), Rogers' Science-Based Nursing. New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Wainwright, P. (1999). The art of nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 36, 379-385.

Loss of Function on the Quality of
Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80286987
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Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population

Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…

References

Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812 

Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.

Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Business of Health Care
Words: 2602 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85234356
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Business of Health Care

This study highlights essential facts about health care and health in the local, national, and international health care delivery. Healthcare in the U.S. stands at crossroads between opportunities and challenges. Both the local, national, and international health systems face common problems in the delivery of efficient, high quality and equal health services. All these are concurrently happening in times when the amount of care delivered exceeds the resource base. In the U.S., the demand for healthcare, just as in any industrialized country, is rising because of rising public expectation and the ageing population. The combination of technological developments and demographic changes increases the provision costs (Garman, oyer & Johnson, 2011).

Consequently, local, national, and international health care delivery systems are facing same issues of service rationing to cut costs due to a decreasing tax base for paying a rising demand and an increasing demand. Similarly, maintaining…

References

Garman, A.N., Royer, T.C., & Johnson, T.J. (2011). The future of healthcare: Global trends worth watching. Chicago, Ill: Health Administration Press.

Geisler, E., Krabbendam, K., & Schuring, R. (2013). Technology, health care, and management in the hospital of the future. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Gibson, R., & Singh, J.P. (2012). The battle over health care: What Obama's reform means for America's future. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kolker, A. (2011). Management engineering for effective healthcare delivery: Principles and application. Hershey: Medical Information Science Reference.

Technological Solutions Health Economics Questions What Are
Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39671084
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Technological Solutions

Health economics questions

What are the two basic tools of economics? Give an example of each with respect to health, medical services, and hospitals.

The two basic tools of economics are marginal analysis and optimization techniques and supply and demand analysis. Marginal analysis and optimization techniques underline the fact that economics is the science of studying scarce resources. Only though setting specific criteria when deciding how to use scarce resources can costs be minimized and outputs be maximized. In the field of healthcare such analysis is particularly critical, given that hospitals must often make decisions about what types of technology to spend money on and which types of specialists to hire, based upon the needs of the population. Health insurance agencies are famously criticized for refusing to cover specific procedures because they deem less costly measures to be equally effective, even if the patient or his or her…

References

Arnst, Catherine. (2008). Behind rising healthcare costs. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved:

 http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-07-14/behind-rising-health-care-costsbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice

Common Health Care Practices in Honduras
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71723525
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Health Care Practices in Honduras

In order to understand healthcare in Honduras, it is important to understand that Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western hemisphere (ennert & Koop, 2009).

"The economic situation is accompanied by a shortage of health professionals throughout the country. There are 57 physicians and 129 nurses per 100,000 people. In the United States, the corresponding ratios are 256 and 937 per 100,000 respectively" (ennert & Koop, 2009). This scenario means that many people in Honduras lack access to formal healthcare and must rely upon home or folk remedies for diagnosis and treatment of disease. The dire economic conditions in Honduras help create an atmosphere of chronic disease and health conditions that promote disease. Some of these problems include: diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, lack of access to clean drinking water, waste disposal issues, muscle pain, and tuberculosis (ennert & Koop, 2009). In fact,…

References

Marson, M., Prohaska, A., Burris, S., Richardson, C. Crigger, N. (2006). Rural Hodurans perceptions about health and healthcare practices. Retrieved September 30, 2012 from Journal of Undergraduate Nursing Scholarship website: http://www.juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202006/marson.htm

Massachusetts General Hospital. (2012). Honduras: Bits of culture. Retrieved September 30,

2012 from http://www2.massgeneral.org/interpreters/b_hon.asp

Rennert, W., & Koop, E. (2009). Primary health care for remote village communities in Honduras: A model for training and support of community health workers. Family Medicine, 41(9), 646-51.

The Central Chemosensory Process
Words: 1855 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95070408
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Perceptual Functioning

Chemical Senses: Reflections on Cognitive Features influencing the central chemosensory process

Smell and taste are important parts of the sensory system that are imperative in food and nutrition selection for sensory and hedonic experience of food for fast and healthy metabolism in order to live a quality life. The olfactory and gustatory systems show variety in the mechanism of transduction and in the last ten years, there has been a lot of progress towards understanding of the main mechanisms of smell and taste. The understanding of functions of normal chemosensory organs has helped in clearing the molecular actions that highlight the disorders of smell and taste. More than two million Americans have chemosensory disorders and the numbers are growing along with the population. The disorders of smell are more common than the taste disorders because of the anatomical difference in the olfactory system. This is because a fall…

Bibliography

Calvert G.A, Brammer M.J, Bullmore E.T, Campbell R, Iversen S.D, David A.S. Response amplification in sensory-specific cortices during crossmodal binding. NeuroReport. 1999;10:2619-2623

de Araujo IE, Gutierrez R, Oliveira-Maia AJ, Pereira A Jr., Nicolelis MA, Simon SA (2006) Neural ensemble coding of satiety states. Neuron51:483-494.

Dulac C, Wagner S (2006) Genetic analysis of brain circuits underlyingpheromone signaling. Annu Rev Genet 40:449-467.

Frank R.A, van der Klaauw N.J, Schifferstein H.N.J. Both perceptual and conceptual factors influence taste-odor and taste-taste interactions. Perception & Psychophysics. 1993;54(3):343-354

Nursing Related Case Study Tom's Vitals in
Words: 3386 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 27331105
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Nursing elated Case Study

Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.

Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.

Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…

REFERENCES:

Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from  http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf 

Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.

Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.

Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php

Resp Report the Progress of
Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20580497
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Six days after his initial complaint, the patient returned with worsening symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. No bacterial or viral infections could be found, but the patient was treated with antibiotics anyway as his symptoms suggested that his respiratory distress and other symptoms were due to some sort of infection. The fact that his condition continued to worsen without any notable effect from broad-spectrum antibiotics suggests that perhaps the physicians erred in this assessment, and that the negative results of the many tests for infectious agents administered to the patient were more accurate than the physicians thought. Focusing attentions more immediately on other potential causes and more direct methods of symptom relief, either in addition to or instead of the antibiotic treatment and observation that constituted the primary means of treatment at this stage, might have prevented or at least postponed the need for intubation and the mechanical…

Evidence-Based Solution to Reducing Incidence the Goal
Words: 2666 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63294087
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Evidence-Based Solution to educing Incidence

The goal of this assignment is to increase my ability to appraise and synthesize evidence to provide experience a logical argument in support of a proposal for practice change, and to provide experience in designing a detailed implementation and evaluation plan for my project. I need to discuss my project plan with you.

An evidence-based solution to reducing incidence of hospital acquired infections through indwelling medical devices

Hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of disease in developed countries. The increased insertion and implanting of prosthetic or indwelling medical devices is a leading cause of these infections since the introduction of a foreign body significantly reduces the body's immunity and decreases the number of bacteria needed to produce an infection. Prosthetic or indwelling medical devices such as urethral catheters, suprapublic catheter, nasogastric tubes, hemodialysis catheters, central venous catheters, and tracheostomy tubes are associated…

References

Chambless, J.D., Hunt, S.M., & Stewart, P.S. (2006). A three-dimensional computer model of four hypothetical mechanisms protecting biofilms from antimicrobials. Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(3), 2005-2013. doi: 10.1128/aem.72.3.2005-2013.2006

Chu, V.H., Crosslin, D.R., Friedman, J.Y., Reed, S.D., Cabell, C.H., Griffiths, R.I., . . . Fowler, V.G., Jr. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J. Med, 118(12), 1416. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.06.011

Cookson, S.T., Ihrig, M., O'Mara, E.M., Denny, M., Volk, H., Banerjee, S.N., . . . Jarvis, W.R. (1998). Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 19(1), 23-27.

Digiovine, B., Chenoweth, C., Watts, C., & Higgins, M. (1999). The attributable mortality and costs of primary nosocomial bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med, 160(3), 976-981. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.160.3.9808145

Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 7686776
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Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…

References

1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

Cuban Case Study Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a
Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 52134499
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CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.

CUBAN CASE STUDY

As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?

Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.

Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez

in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?

People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…

References

Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved:  http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .