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There is also a point-of-view that the writer introduces about the new trend of crime in io. He suggests that there is a new trend of crime spreading to the richer zones is not a typical of io as he suggests and the reason he give of this is due to the thriving drug trade and the contiguity to the congested slums also known as Favelas. He further holds the opinion that the new restrictions that were introduced to the inmates particularly drug convicts resonated into the spate of crimes in the richer zones as well. In his opinion, the drugs cartels among the several favelas are controlled by drug some few gangs numbering to about three. This to his opinion is a pointer to a highly organized and highly centralized drug dealing in io.
The drug issue is so serious that 70% of the murders in io are drug…
The Economist, (2003).Crime in Brazil: What ails Rio de Janeiro? Retrieved June 22, 2011 from http://www.economist.com/node/1768688
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
" (KGI, 1)
I did start to notice many changes in myself, both in terms of my increasing tendency toward physical activeness and my heightening interest in the opposite sex. At first, this interest was manifested of my generally social nature. And to the point, this adolescent period would be an excellent time in my life in terms of cultivating a loose but increasingly intimate social network. This conforms with my general research on this stage of development, which is highlighted by a transition from a life dominated by home and family to one increasingly more divided to the pursuits of school, extra-curricular activity, athletic team membership and information social gathering. These tend to function as substitutes in certain areas where previously only the family fulfilled certain needs.
This was a tough time though. In the midst of the rapid changes that were altering my physical and emotional experiences, my…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.
Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood & Society. W & M. Morton & Co.
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive.
KGI. (2007). Growth Milestone-12 Years: Declaration of Independence. Kids Growth. Online at http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/articledetail.cfm?id=1130
For example, it is very probable that Ferreira Meirelles would have had trouble producing a motion picture on life in the favelas if he did not have access to Lins' manuscript. However, a successful artist needs to gather information from immediate sources in order to be able to efficiently tell a story from his perspective. This is basically what Ferreira Meirelles did at the time when he used Lins' book with the purpose of directing City of God.
Denying a person the right to talk in regard to a certain subject can be categorized as an act of discrimination. As long as she or she is familiar with the topic that he or she tackles, it would seem absurd to claim that he or she is not entitled to relate to the respective subject. A person who is well acquainted with social problems and psychology can encounter little to no…
Dir. Fernando Ferreira Meirelles. City of God. Miramax Films, 2002.
This allows access to the WAN resources over the Internet. It entails secure access to HHSC resources applying encryption. This enhances the security by regulating the protocols that the workstations can access. It has regulatory access to the applications to which the employee is not authorized. (DI Wide Area Network (WAN) Operations) Each of the TCP/IP network requires a unique IP address. An IP address is a 32-bit number that specifically identifies a network interface on a machine. The IP address constitutes some decimal digits.
It is formatted in forms of four 8-bit fields demarcated by periods. Such form of representations of IP address is sometimes referred to dotted decimal format. The IP address is dived into two categories -- the network part and the host part. The network part indicates the specified number assigned to the specific network. This also assists in identifying the class of the network assigned.…
DIR Wide Area Network (WAN) Operations" Retrieved at http://www.dir.state.tx.us/hhscn/operations.htm . Accessed 17 August, 2005
IP Addressing Scheme" Retrieved at http://www.idevelopment.info/data/Networking/Networking_Basics/BASICS_IP_Addressing_Scheme.shtml. Accessed 17 August, 2005
LAN Technologies" Retrieved at http://www.wb.nic.in/nicnet/lan1.html. Accessed 17 August, 2005
Routing" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RoutingAccessed 17 August, 2005
Time delays and cost would be an additional concern. I would, therefore, go for Brazilian-produced material and forego the glass.
In regards to the gold leaf, I would also go for the cheaper local material, but I may decide to conduct some impromptu surveys amongst potential businessmen of the market that I am seeking in order to identify their aesthetic opinions in regards to internal and external architectural decoration. I would use the results of these surveys to lead me in my final selection.
I would prefer to lease the building to multiple, rather than to one single tenant, particularly given Brazil's lack of foreclosure laws and its bungling leasing system. Multiple tenants would pose less of a risk and would also, simultaneously and hopefully, provide me with the desired publicity that I would like for this development to attract further lessees in the future. Multiple tenants may also induce…
Poorvu, W.J. (2003). Financial analysis of real property investments
Segal, A.J. & Reisne, R. (2004). Hines goes to Rio. 9-805-001.
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…
Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.
Keele, Steven W. (1968). "Movement Control in Skilled Motor Performance." Psychological Bulletin 70:387-403.
Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.
Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
Each chapter provides sufficient entertainment material to draw the interest of lay people, while balancing this with a good amount of academic information for those who wish to study the country and its people. The narrative throughout the book is bound together well by starting each chapter with a narrative about Gloria or those who share her world. Another strong connecting factor is the quotation at the start of each chapter, which is relevant to the specific topic of the chapter as well as to the general ideas in the book as a whole. While these are excellent techniques, I think the structure of the chapters themselves could have been handled better by more consistently organizing the information in each.
One shortcoming of the book is the internal structure of each chapter, which can be haphazard in some cases, and also a lack of consistent focus on the laughter element.…
Tarsila Do Amaral
One of the most important razilian artists of the 20th century, Tarsila do Amaral, was born in Sao Paulo in 1886. She had a privileged childhood as the grandchild of a rich farmer. This brought with it various advantages, including an education that taught her to read, write, embroider and speak French (Damian, 1999). Finishing her studies in France and returning to razil, this artist left an impression on the Modernist movement in the country that remains to this day. With her husband Oswald de Andrade, Tarsila worked towards creating a unique artistic perspective for the razilian people. This perspective would not reject the European forms and images that had ruled the country's art world until the 1920s. Instead, these would be used and incorporated into traditional forms to create an entirely new and more inclusive perspective.
The Modernist movement came in the midst of a razil…
1. Amaral, Aracy. "Stages in the Formation of Brazil's Cultural Profile." The journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 21 (1995): 8-25.
2. Amaral, Tarsila do. Brazil, Sao Paulo drawing [Semana de Arte exhibition, 1922] c.1913.
3. Amaral, Tarsila do. Drawing Study of Black Woman. 1923.
4. Amaral, Tarsila do. Madrid: Fundacion Juan March. Tarsila, 1886-1973: 2009.
Also, the hotel is placed so to offer quick access to the national and international airports.
The hotel takes the utmost advantage of their strategic location and does not need to add more value to this part of their business. Proof of the successful location of the Copacabana Palace stand the great number of customers who stay there each year generating increased profits, and also the highly beneficial reviews the hotel has received along the year. One of these reviews writes:
The Copacabana Palace is superbly located: it faces the famous Copacabana each and yet is only minutes from the centre of Rio. The hotel is located eight miles from the domestic airport, Santos Dumont, and 20 miles from Rio de Janeiro's international airport, Tom Jobim. Within ten miles of the hotel are botanical gardens, downtown, Sugar Loaf Mountain, and Maracana Stadium."
6. Satisfaction Methodologies
Customer satisfaction if a key…
2007, Introduction for Copacabana Palace, Rio de Janeiro, Yahoo Travel, http://travel.yahoo.com/p-hotel-346965-action-describe-copacabana_palace_hotel-i , last accessed on November 2, 2007
2004, Targeting Your Market, Virtual Advisor, http://va-interactive.com/inbusiness/editorial/sales/ibt/target_market.html , last accessed on November 2, 2007
July 2007, Copacabana Palace Hotel, Rio de Janeiro, Bisca International Investments, http://www.yeego.com/brazil/riodejaneiro/hotel7759.html , last accessed on November 2, 2007
Matthews, K.E., September 2007, How to Find Out What Your Customers Want, and What Your Competitors Are Up to!, Kendall Matthews Wordpress, http://kendallmatthews.wordpress.com/2007/09/25/how-to-find-out-what-your-customers-want-and-what-your-competitors-are-up-to/,last accessed on November 2, 2007
Influx of Money Impact Hospitality Sector in Brazil
how influx of money impact brazil'S HOSPITALITY SECTO
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
The literature review seeks to scrutinize and evaluate the probable effects of the influx of money from 2014 World Cup in Brazil in relation to growth and development of the country's hospitality industry (Jones 2012). Since the major declaration (October 2007) by FIFA that Brazil shall be hosting the biggest world event, the hospitality sector has embarked on building new hotels, bistros, and lodges. The sector has also stepped up efforts to renovate existing facilities ahead of the tournament slated for June 2014. Although preparations are still underway, an influx of visitors and money is inevitable with considerable accommodation bookings reported across the country (Jones 2012).
Influx of Money is…
Burt, J. (2012, May 25). Boys staying in brazil. The Daily Telegraph.
Davis, J.A. (2012). The Olympic Games Effect: How Sports Marketing Builds Strong Brands.
Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Global outlook: Sporting events - sporting chance. (2010). Foreign Direct Investment,, n/a.
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Item Page Number
Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping tourism is a major aspect of the global tourism trade and as such is an area of tourism that is and should be promoted by destination countries and locations. This is true for Hong Kong as well as in other locations throughout the world. Ashworth (1989) writes that urban regeneration and tourism have become critically important activities beginning in the 1980's. Ashworth specifically notes two elements that link the ideas of the city and tourism and which show the complex relationship that exists between the features of a city and the functions of tourism that serve to result in shopping tourism in the city. The first element is comprised by the specific characteristics of a city and how this…
Cheung, Sidney (nd) Cultural Tourism and Hong Kong Identity. Department of Anthropology. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from: http://cuhk.orientalecom7.com/en/publish/workingpaper4.pdf
Discover Hong Kong by Rail (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/discover-hongkong-rail.html
Experience Unique Hong Kong (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/cultural-tours.html
Hong Kong Culture (2012) Tourism Asia Network. Retrieved from: http://hong-kong.tourism-asia.net/index.html
b) The Football Championship in Lisbon
The capital of Portugal has received little investments in developments and infrastructure from both the public as well as the private sectors. But the football championship has stimulated the construction and development of two stadiums in north and northeast parts of the capital, namely the Benfica and Alvalade stadiums.
The hosting of the football championships, supported by the two stadiums, draws the attention of investors and stimulates their efforts to set out new operations in the community, supporting as such its social and economic development.
"In general terms, those buildings give support to a modern city vision, that attempts to preserve its ancient culture at the same time it projects an image of progress.
Those infrastructures, given their magnitude in the urban context, might help to promote Lisbon as an international capital. They will certainly allow the city to re-structure its present functional structure.…
Barghchi, M., Omar, D., Aman, M.S., 2009, Cities, sports facilities development and hosting events, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 2
Copley, J., 2005, Sports events leave a giant 'ecological footprint', New Scientist, http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Papers/Impacts08-FLangen_and_BGarcia_May_2009_Events_Review.pdf last accessed on October 26, 2011
Cugola, G., Nitto, E.D., Fuggetta, A., 1998, Exploiting an event-based infrastructure to develop complex distributed systems, ICSE '98 Proceedings of the 20th international conference on software engineering, IEEE Computer Society Washington
Gursoy, D., Kendall, K.W., 2006, Hosting mega-events: modelling locals' support, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 3
Oscar Niemeyer's Public Works:
He is called an architect of the people and is known as Brasilia's greatest architect. Oscar Niemeyer has undoubtedly left a great and important mark not only upon this city, but upon the country as well. From his work in architecture, to his remarkable life, this man had a valuable and respect-worthy footprint upon humankind. his short synopsis will examine Niemeyer's life and his work in architecture.
Niemeyer was born in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil in 1907. By 1934, he graduated from the Art school in Rio, at which time he joined a team of architects who were collaborating with Le Corbusier. he architects were building a new Ministry of Education and Health in the city of Rio. Niemeyer worked with these architects until 1938. However, his work with Le Corbusier left a lasting influence upon his work, though he gradually acquired his own…
The first work to be analyzed is Cathedral of Brasilia. This work was completed in May of 1970. The Cathedral of Brasilia is said to be "often compared to the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral by English architect Frederick Gibberd" due to the fact that both buildings are "circular with high spires that extend from the top." The difference, however is that Niemeyer's spires on the cathedral are boomerang shapes that seem to flow and suggest curved, heaven-reaching fingers. [4: " Cathedral of Brasilia." About.com. 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011. < http://architecture.about.com/od/findphotos/ig/Oscar-Niemeyer/Cathedral-of-Bras-lia.htm >. ] [5: " Cathedral of Brasilia." About.com. 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011. <
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
Global Nova Case Study
A Case Study in Entrepreneurship and Corruption
GlobalNova was conceived by a Brazilian Engineer while working for IBM. He allied himself with a Brazilian Politician from the southernmost State of io Grande do Sul (S). Politician approached a local business Tycoon, whose family controls the largest steel company in Brazil, for start-up financing for "a company to exploit the internet." (Gerdau, 2011) Tycoon, thinking that Politician was looking for the usual political hand out, readily agreed. Tycoon frequently mentioned that his family recognized the realities of making sure that his representative in Brasilia was treated well. Later he was astonished to learn that his money had actually been used to fund the early operations of GlobalNova. (Consultant, 2011)
Voice over the Internet
From the initial "fuzzy" objective, Engineer decided that the best opportunity would be to use the internet to transmit international long…
Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Brazil Country Profile. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from www.business-anti-corruption.com
Consultant, 2011, Personal Interview
Datora Telecom, Brazilian international outsourcing telecom operator. Retrieved February 4, 2011 from www.datora.net
Delaware, "Why do so many companies incorporate in Delaware?" Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://corp/delaware.gov
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
" (Fletcher in Gogeometry Website, 2008). The trail to Machu Picchu is known as one of the best trekking sites in the world, particularly for its landscapes that showcase the remnants of its historic past as well as its diverse ecology (ibid).
Mexico's Chichen Itza also showcases its nation's rich, historical past in the same way the Machu Picchu does. Chichen Itza, roughly translated as "at the mouth of the well of the Itza," is considered as a political, commercial, and religious center of the ancient Mayan tribe in Mexico. In this city, one can locate the Temple of Kulkulan (Feathered Serpent), the Observatory, an astronomical observatory, and Temple of the Warriors and the Sacred Cenote (Well of Sacrifice). These structures have religious and scientific significance for the Mayan culture (ibid.).
Not too far from Mexico, we can find Brazil's huge Christ edeemer structure. "Christ the edeemer is a large…
Garrison, L. (n.d.). Petra - Lost City in Jordan and One of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Retrieved at http://cruises.about.com/od/southwestasiacruises/ig/Petra/?once=true&on Nov. 12, 2008.
Gogeometry Website. (2007). New 7 Wonders. Retrieved at http://www.gogeometry.com/wonder_world/index.html . On Nov. 12, 2008.
Seven Wonders of the World Website (2007). The World Has Voted for the New 7 Wonders! Retrieved at http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/on Nov. 12, 2008.
Capoeira was developed surreptitiously, with two men pretending that they are taking part in a dance, when in fact they are practicing kicks and blows. There is also a whole style of Capoeira music which goes along with the martial arts culture. In areas of Brazil where gangs are rampant, youth learn this dance and the drumming music that goes along with it is a positive alternative to fighting each other and is a peaceful way to ward off anger and aggression in youth (MacSwan 19).
The discipline fuses flexibility, agility, strength, balance, self-confidence, self-defense, coordination and rhythm; creating a workout like no other. To hide despair and intention of rebellion from their masters, the dancers combined playful and graceful dance and acrobatic movements with moves of attacks and defense using only the legs. hile training they would avoid unnecessary harm by having very little contact with each other. They…
Brazilian Music Guide. Styles. 2007. http://www.slipcue.com/music/brazil/aa_styles/aa_styles.html.
Consulate General of Brazil. About Brazil. http://www.brazilsf.org/culture_capoeira_eng.htm.
Lima-Moore, D. Swing Brazil UK - Rio Samba.2007. http://www.swingbrazil.co.uk/.
MacSwan, Angus. In violent Rio slum, music group offers alternative. Brocktown News. 23 Dec 2005. http://www.capoeira.com/news.php?item.17.
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Dutch invasion of razil
In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.
The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.
The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…
Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.
Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
Brazil's culture is a fascinating blend of European, African and Amerindian influences. Portuguese settlers brought with them strong influences in religion, later Europeans such as Italians and Germans arrived bringing 20th century ideas about government, Africans brought drums and dance, and Amerindian influences can be found in a number of spheres. Over the course of the past five hundred years, these influences have been shaped by the vast and varied landscape, the climate and political events. Even though different parts of the country developed almost in isolation from one another due to geographic distance, some elements of culture bind all Brazilians. Carnival is one of those. The combination in dance, music, costume and religion into a single event is one of the defining elements of Brazilian culture. At once, it takes deep roots and social significance, while maintaining a lighter popular side that pays only superficial homage to…
Lewis, C. (1996). Woman, body, space: Rio Carnival and the politics of performance. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. Vol. 3 (1) 23-42.
Lee Chong Wei holds the current #2 ranking in men's badminton, by the Badminton World Federation (BWF, 2016). Lee is expected to compete at the 2016 Summer Olympics in io de Janeiro, Brazil representing Malaysia. As the top player from his country only injury would keep him out.
Lee is one of the veterans on the world badminton circuit, at the age of 33. He was born in Bagan Serai, in the state of Perak. This city is located on the northwest region of the country, in an area that has produced a large number of Malaysia's top badminton players. Lee grew up in this city, but as a badminton player initially. His father was a badminton player, and pushed him into the sport, where he quickly excelled at the local level. This was at age 11, and he had only taken up the sport on his father's insistence…
BBC (2015). Lee Chong Wei: Badminton star given eight-month ban for doping. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from http://www.bbc.com/sport/badminton/32478719
BWF (2016). BWF world rankings. Badminton World Federation. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from http://www.bwfbadminton.org/page.aspx?id=14955
Lee, C. (2008). Interview with Lee Chong Wei. Badminton Information. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from http://www.badminton-information.com/lee-chong-wei.html
Reuters (2015) Badminton player Lee Chong Wei given backdated eight-month doping ban. The Guardian. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2015/apr/27/lee-chong-wei-badminton-malaysia-backdated-eight-month-ban-doping
Capoeira brazillian dance martial art originally Angola. All sources MUST BE McFarlin Tulsa City/County Library. I updated a file guide line understand I .
In spite of the fact that many are familiar with it, Capoeira remains a mysterious concept in the contemporary society. The masses are likely to associate it with a dance or with a fighting style, but very little people are likely to pinpoint exactly what it entails or to describe how it developed. Its name leads people to think it is Brazilian and it actually seems it was developed in the second part of the twentieth century, this largely being owed to the fact that it became more popular around the world during this period.
One of the first reasons why people generally have a wrong understanding of capoeira is the fact that they attempt to associate it with a particular activity. Some call it a…
Aula, I. "INTRODUCTION TO THE MULTICULTURAL HISTORY OF BRAZIL." Cultural Anthropology, Department of Cultural Research in the University of Eastern Finland. Retrieved April 20, 2015, from https://brazilexperience2014.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/multicultural-history-of-brazil.pdf
Brough Luna, E. "CAPOEIRA," Retrieved April 20, 2015, from http://www.ele-mental.org/dropbox/capoeira/old/Capoeira-History.pdf
Varela, S.G. "The Perception of Time in Afro-Brazilian Capoeira Angola." Omertaa 2008 Journal of applied anthropology
Zika, that was identified accidentally in Uganda in 1947 in the midst of insect and primate monitoring, had so far stayed as a hidden virus limited to a slim equatorial belt functioning along Africa and running into Parts of Asia. Not much is known with regards to ZIKV’s release in the US. Phylogenetic studies suggest that the virus originated with the French Polynesian ZIKV force came into Brazil around May and Dec of 2013.
The unparalleled dimension and impact from the ZIKV pandemic within the Americas could be the all-natural consequence of a unique release right into a big populace without having preexisting immune system; Much like the Americas, the communities of Yap Tropical island and French. The seriousness of results in latest breakouts, in comparison with previous findings of moderate illness, has directed a few to hypothesize that this virus seems to have mutated to become much more…
In this regard, Selzer notes that, "Pan American World Airways was a great carrier and a foremost representative of the American way around the world. Its triumphs were one of the major reasons why English is the primary language spoken in air-traffic control towers throughout the globe" (p. 20).
Notwithstanding these early successes, by the late 1980s, though, Pan American was experienced serious financial trouble and sought relief through wage and benefits negotiations with the flight attendant and flight engineer unions (uben 1989). By the early 1990s, the writing was on the wall for all to see and Pan American's days were clearly numbered. Based on his analysis of Pan American's demise, Branson (2007) suggests that Trippe was relatively out of touch with the important global events that swirled around him during the early 1990s and failed to respond to these changes in a timely fashion. According to Branson, "Trippe…
Barrett, F. 2009, January 25 "This Year You Could Conquer the World - for Less Than a Grand." The Mail on Sunday, p. 38.
Branson, R. 2007 "Juan Trippe (1899-1981) Biography." Charles Lindbergh: An American
Aviator. [online] available: http://www.charleslindbergh.com/plane/trippe.asp .
Burns, G.E. 2011 "The War Years." Pan American Historical Foundation. [online] available:
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Criteria of buyer/investor on project type and location
A huge variety of CDM project locations, types and sizes exists and these are open to potential CDM investors. The national investment climate plus factors at the national level influence decisions on where, what type of projects to undertake as well as whether they ought to be developed as CDM projects. The investor's role in CDM project influences the physical spread of the CDM market. For instance, a technology provider who is offered payment partly via CE revenues may have a broad list of options of potential areas where to locate the project but a smaller choice of project type to engage in. Some funds set aside and intended for CDM funding have been decided upon as intended for specific project types and specific geographical areas. For example, the Spanish Carbon Fund directs its energies towards establishment of CDM projects in North…
Austin, D. And Faeth, P (2000). Financing Sustainable Development with the Clean
Development Mechanism. World Resource Institute, Washington, D.C.
Banuri, T., Gupta, S., (2000). The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable
Development: An Economic Analysis. Asian Development Bank, Manila.
9% of total GDP in Colombia (U.S.$3,524 million) and generates 386,000 direct jobs, equivalent to 1.8% of total employment in the country (Tourism Industry in Colombia).
The Composition of Tourism in Colombia
With 3,208 km of coastline (1,760 km on Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km on Pacific Ocean),
and 400 km of Amazon forest and Andean mountains, Colombia has a vast array of possible tourist destinations.
Some of the reasons tourists are interested in visiting Colombia would be its privileged location on the continent. All the environments of the tropics are present: glaciers, beaches, plains, rainforests, and deserts, which all add to its desirability (Where to go?).
Colombia also has countless tourist destinations offering a wide array of activities. Even the most jaded traveler can't help but be swept up by the magic of Cartagena, steeped in history and gentle people. Oozing romance, the old city is a warren of…
"1995-2000 Tourism-Sector Development Program." 2000. Mexico's Tourism Policy. 16 Apr 2009 .
"About Mexico." n.d. visitmexico. 15 Apr 2009 .
"Colombia Tourism." 1988. Geographic org. 16 Apr 2009 .
"Costa Rica has something for everybody." n.d. Costa Rica Tourism and Travel Bureau . 15 Apr 2009 .
Globalization profoundly alters relationship global North South
The international exchange and integration of economies, societies, cultures, and governing policies play host to the worldwide phenomenon known as globalization. Countries interact through transportation, trade, and communication; inherently influencing the respective realms of economy and political agenda. Traditionally, globalization is highlighted by this integration of economic and political systems across the globe, however this exchange transcends into societies, ethics, cultures, industry, ecological effects, and a myriad of other global influences. Globalization is a process perceived as "good" or "bad" depending on geography, profession, and how one relates globalization in terms of values (othernberg 2002). A person in Los Angeles, London, io de Janeiro, and Hong Kong would identify differently with the concept of globalization, just as opinions vary between business leaders, elected officials, and the unemployed. Some understand globalization to be the Americanization of world culture and a source of United States…
Arrighi, G. (2003), 'Industrial convergence, globalization, and the persistence of the North-South
Divide', Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3-31.
Avi-Yonah, R.S. (2005), 'Bridging the North/South Divide: International redistribution and tax competition', Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
Escobar, A. (2004), 'Beyond the third World: imperial globality, global coloniality and anti-globalisation social movement'," Third World Quarterly, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 207-230.
correctly identify opportunities and threats to the products of soap and laundry detergent. Specifically, three marketing environment forces will be identified that impact this type of products. These include environmental quality factors such as sewage treatment and other environmental pollution issues in the detergent manufacturing plants, allergies to chemicals or other ingredients in the products themselves and product changes dictated by various changes in washing machines. In the essay, the author will also describe each force and analyze why and how it will impact the soap and detergent industry.
One of the primary issues that the soap and laundry detergent is the issue of pollution in the manufacture of the product. hether from a desire to avoid running afoul of government fines and regulation, to avoid litigation from issues related to pollution or to avoid bad public relations or "ecotage" (actual sabotage by environmental radicals) this issue is probably the…
Energy star. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.climate.org/climatelab/Energy_Star .
Kanerva, L. (2000). Handbook of occupational dermatology (521-522). (1st ed.). Berlin, DE: Springer-
Poulter, S. (2008, June 9). Spin dry:the washing machine that needs just one cup of water. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1025043/Spin-dry-The-washing-machine -needs-just-cup-water.html?ITO=1490University.
As a result, liberal international institutions broke down. Conversely, ineffective international institutions compounded national economic difficulties. (Holm & Sorensen, 1995, p. 148)
Following World War II, the United States assumed a leadership role in developing new types of international institutions. For example, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided for a liberalization of international trade, the Bretton Woods framework created a fixed exchange-rate system (which lasted until 1971), and the International Monetary Fund controlled the flow of credits until the mid- 1970s and once again from the early 1980s thereafter; in addition, these authors note that the EEC institutionalized a free-trade area in the heart of Western Europe at this time (Holm & Sorensen, 1995). According to Mingst (2006) international institutions are defined as those they are comprised of membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a…
Burke, T. (1997, June 20). The buck stops everywhere. New Statesman, 126(4339), 14.
Calestous, J. (2005, March). Biotechnology in a globalizing world: The coevolution of technology and social institutions. Bioscience, 55(3), 265.
Danks, C.J., & Kennedy, P. (2001). Globalization and national identities: Crisis or opportunity? New York: Palgrave.
Debrah, Y.A., & Smith, I.G. (2002). Globalization, employment, and the workplace: Diverse impacts. London: Routledge.
The final decision will be made at the IOC general assembly in eptember in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Politics may also have played a part in pushing out the sport. Modern pentathlon, for instance is even less popular than wrestling, but it remains largely due to the fact that its sport was invented by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Games and that it is supported by Juan Antonio amaranch Jr., son of a former I.O.C. president and a member of its executive board.
The IOC is correct: Olympic style wrestling does not have the same luster as the other events possess. It lacks the celebrities and, in the U..A., is suppressed by the staged allure of professional wrestling. Other more contemporary sports such as rock climbing, rollerblading and wakeboarding have also climbed in to demote it.
On the other hand, wrestling also has its advocates. And many…
Longman, J (February 12, 2013) Olympic Fixture Since 708 B.C. Will Be Dropped. The New York Times
(Feb 26, 2013)
Wrestlers not happy to see Olympic sport eliminated http://www.lancastereaglegazette.com/article/20130225/HSSPORTS/302250035/Wrestlers-not-happy-see-Olympic-sport-eliminated
Political Leaders In Latin America: Hugo Chavez And Lula
Who is Hugo Chavez and Lula
Hugo Chavez was born on 28 July 1954 in Sabaneta, Venezuela. Chavez attended Venezuelan military academy and took up service as an army officer prior active participation in efforts of the overthrowing government in 1992. His actions led to a two-year sentence in prison after arrest. In 1999, Chavez was named president of Venezuela. Within the early days of his presidency, he developed new constitution in the nation that was inclusive of changes of the capital name to the Bolivarian epublic of Venezuela. Chavez engaged in a critical focus of efforts towards gaining ultimate control of state-run oil companies. However, this was stirred with controversy and translated into protests and strained relations between Venezuela and the U.S. As well as subsequent nations. Chavez has a brief comment on the removal from power (Clairmont,…
Clairmont, F.F. (2002). Hugo Chavez: The Fall and Rise. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(19), 1797-1799.
Cole, N.S. (2007). Hugo Chavez and President Bush's Credibility Gap: The Struggle against Us Democracy Promotion. International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique, 28(4), 493-507.
Corrales, J. (2011). Dragon in the Tropics: Hugo Chavez and the Political Economy of Revolution in Venezuela. New York: Brookings Institution Press
Encamacion, O.G. (2002). Lula's Big Win. World Policy Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Winter, 2002/2003), pp. 73-77
They feel they have survived and overcome harsh business environment and want to operate in risky markets like razil. Some of them benefited from privatization or part-privatization. The current government dislikes the notion of privatization, which tends to improve businesses. ut it likes national champions to succeed abroad. A government minister wrote the World Economic Forum in 1996 that it was not in the interest of the government for razilian companies to expand abroad. He said that capital was limited and they wanted to create local jobs. razil's laws also make the sending of profits from foreign subsidiaries back to razil impossible. They also refuse to recognize losses incurred abroad in company accounts. Some of the olivian assets of foreign investor Petrobras were nationalized by razil's president, Evo Morales. Multinationals are likely to encounter similar obstacles, but commodity producers, consumers or traders can be sure that their built-in comparative advantage…
Ardichvili, a. et al. (2010). Ethical business practices in BRICs. Society for Business
Ethics: Center for Ethical Business Cultures. Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.cebglobal.org/uploadedfiles/Ethical_Business_Practices_in_BRICs.pdf
Banham, R. (2010). The party gets started in Brazil. Treasury & Risk: the Free Library.
Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/the+party+gets+started+in+Brazil%3A+multinational+corporations+are...-a02212023634
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…
'AMREF Canada. Water and Sanitation Lesson Plan -- Science Experiment and Activity', viewed 9 September, 2010, http://canada.amref.org/silo/files/water-science-experiment-grade-11-12.doc.
'ASCE Code of Ethics', viewed 7 September, 2010,
'DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY', viewed 6 September, 2010,
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
Antarctica, Enjoy Chile, http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php last accessed on December 10, 2009
Australia Tourist Guides, Sino, 2009, http://www.sino.net/australia-tourist-guides/attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
India Tourist Attractions, Info India, http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
Italy Tourist Attractions, Vacation Idea, 2009, http://www.vacationidea.com/articles/italy_tourist_attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
This is another large sculptural representation of a religious figure, but it is not nearly as accessible. Though still visited by intrepid tourists, this statue is perched precariously on the top of a mountain, arms impossibly outstretched and utterly dominating the view in that direction. The Catholic religion that mny Brazilians are members of and that was the cause of the statue being erected takes a much different view of religion than the Buddhists, and this is reflect in their statue. O Cristo Redentor is meant to be awe inspiring, dominating, and perhaps even a little intimidating. The Buddha, on the other hand, smiles in welcome to his visitors, and it is easy to walk right up to (or at least underneath) the statue. Here, it requires an arduous and even dangerous climb; a willingness to suffer and sacrifice if one wants to be close to the symbol of their…
" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)
The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)
There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.
Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf
Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.
Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.
Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
In addition, increased awareness of both testing and treatment options can help to eliminate the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS. Marketing should focus on the normative lifestyle now available to those infected with HIV; the fact that a positive test result is now no longer the death sentence it once was has made the disease less socially abhorrent, and increased testing has shown positive results in the reduction of spread (Pembrey, 2009). Brazil has excellent social programs in place to deal with HIV / AIDS, and public awareness of these programs and their benefit to individuals and society at large is essential in combating the disease in Brazil.
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVET.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "aising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American…
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVERT.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "Raising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American people: HIV / AIDS." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/brazil.html
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
S. market anticipated to deliver between 5 and 7% margin growth over the next five years. Further, the Chinese marketplace is also one marked by lower labor costs and a lack of the stigma associated with working in fast food establishments that exists in the United States and other westernized nations.
Looking at Table 2: U.S. Operating Profit Source by Brand for 2004 according to SEC filings (2004) clearly Taco Bell contributes the majority of profits followed by Pizza Hut at 34%, then KFC at 15%. Long John Silver's and A & W. have been continually losing share and profits relative to larger competitors.
Table 2: U.S. Operating Profit Source by Brand
Long John Silver's/A&W
Contrast U.S. profit source by brand with International profit sources, and the critical role of KFC in any expansion strategy becomes clear. Table 3, International Operating Profit Source by Brand…
Brazilian Ethnic Issues
The racial / ethnic composition of Brazilians is quite different from the racial / ethnic make up of people in the United States, and unique in the world in many respects. How is the government dealing with ethnic and racial relations within their very large and culturally diverse country? This paper will review the literature on the dynamics (and history) of this multi-ethnic, multi-racial South American nation. And in addition some aspects of ethnicity and racial data in Brazil will be compared and contrasted with those data in the United States.
Racism is Learned, Justified, and Reinforced
According to author Benjamin P. Bowser, racism is "…a historic and cultural belief (in one race's inferiority and in another's superiority) that has been used by national elites" in order to continue a kind of "social stratification" that leans in their favor (Bowser, 1995, p. 285). Racism has been "very…
Bowser, Benjamin P. (1995). Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective. Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE Publications.
Daniel, G. Reginald. (2010). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States:
Converging Paths? University Park, PA: Penn State Press.
Angela Garcia goes at providing more information regarding Hispanic addicts in the U.S. And their personal experiences. She relates to how New Mexico treatment facilities deal with numerous cases of addicts who experience overdose several times in their lives, are unable to defeat addiction, and eventually experience death. These individuals are in a condition where they accept their situation and believe that there is nothing that can be done for them. To a certain degree, however, it appears that Hispanics reacted differently to heroin when compared to other racial groups in the U.S. Many Hispanics in New Mexico apparently use heroin as a means to compensate for how they feel as a result of "then recurring pains associated with the ongoing history of loss and displacement that had come to characterize Hispano life" (Garcia 2008:720). Such patients are considered to suffer from a chronic addiction and they are generally believed…
1. Dannemiller, K. "Juarochos: Fleeing Ciudad Juarez." Visual Anthropology Review: 2010.
2. Garcia, A. "The Elegiac Addict: History, Chronicity, and the Melancholic Subject." 2008.
3. Gilliam, Angela 1992 "Toward a New Direction in the Media "War" Against Drugs." Transforming Anthropology 3 (1): 19-23.
4. Heggenhougen, H.K. 1984 "TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND THE TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS: THREE EXAMPLES FROM SOUTHEAST ASIA." Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16 (1): 3-7.
Nursing Research in Future
Hallberg, I.R. (2006). Challenges for future nursing research: Providing evidence for health-care practice. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43: 923-927
Nursing research has become a question of practicality. Is it prudent for funding to go into Nursing research when there is so much funding getting cut from everything and anything that is involved in health care. This article goes into the usage of nursing research and examines its need for society, from both a sociological perspective, as well as a medical and health perspective. The idea is to get nursing research into a more mainstream type of environment in which its practicality is more valued and it can be seen as something that can be used in future studies outside of nursing.
Nursing research tends to lean more towards the qualitative side of research. Although this in itself has brought plenty of contribution into the medical…
Macnee, C.L. & McCabe, S. (2008). The role of research in nursing. In Understanding nursing research in evidence-based practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams, & Wilkens. 271-286.
Knowing the history of nursing research allows one to know that the challenges that currently faces it now have always been present. Its role within the health field has always been questionable because of its believed lack of applicability and practicality, and the use of it has always been determined practically non-existent. Having all this in mind, the future of this discipline in greatly discussed in this section and it is this that brings to mind its usefulness. If nursing research is compared head to that of a more scientific nature, or research conducted by medical doctors, than it could be viewed as coming in second, or lacking importance, but when reviewed by itself and broken down in terms of what it actually covers, nursing research can be as useful in any health discipline.
The challenges of nursing research in the future still does involve its lack of practicality and applicability, but since it is now shifting more towards health policy nature and it seems to have more practicality in the politics behind health care, that in itself has become the new challenge. Nursing research is being redefined to the point that it has lost what it once was. The way in which the nursing research being done now is conducted, its human side is being lost and more administrative applications are being put forth upon it. This is a challenge that has been overwhelming the discipline and having veterans of nursing research come face-to-face with what nursing research is slowly becoming. Having to enable this part of nursing research in order to redefine an entire concept has become something of concern that will only keep growing in the future. The challenges of nursing research can be defined as one of a constant battle.
MNC - International Phones Inc.
According to Pacek and Thorniley (2007), Emerging markets, a term first used by Antonie W. back in the 1980s is today loosely used as an umbrella term to lump together all those countries whose growth (economic) is expected to be relatively high going forward. However, other analysts take emerging markets to be those economies whose incomes are extremely low. According to the two authors, what remains the single most important force shaping the desire of companies to invest in emerging markets is the high level of demand originating from these unique markets. This also happens to be the guiding force when it comes to International Phone Inc.'s decision to expand into Brazil.
Based on the matrix analysis of the various elements which underscore Brazil's attractiveness as an investment destination, it remains clear that International Phone Inc. could be better off (in terms of profitability, stability…
Henry, A. (2008). Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford University Press.
Pacek, N. & Thorniley, D. (2007). Emerging Markets: Lessons for Business Success and the Outlook for Different Markets. Bloomberg Press.
The Economist (2011, March 10th). Brazil's Labor Laws: an Archaic Labor Code Penalizes Businesses and Workers Alike. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/18332906
In order to reach this objective I thoroughly analyzed the market, the activity of other competitors, but also the needs and preferences of customers. I developed a series of studies and surveys among these customers in order to determine their satisfaction level and the products and services they consider the spa should include in its offer. I think that the success of this spa reflects my interest, determination, and abilities regarding my intention of attending this MBA program and developing a career in a management consulting company.
The short-term goals I want to reach on professional level refer to improving my business administration education in order to be able to develop better managerial abilities and knowledge. I currently own a spa and its success on the market determines me to pursue a managerial career. As a short-term goal I hope that this program will help me develop strategies that can…
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
e-anking as a Competitive Advantage in razil
The Federative Republic of razil is the largest and most populous country in Latin America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it is the easternmost country of the Americas and it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, olivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana - every South American nation except for Ecuador and Chile. Named after brazilwood, a local tree, razil is home to both extensive agricultural lands and rain forests. The official language of razil is Portuguese.
Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool, razil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. Major export products include coffee, soybeans, iron ore, orange juice, steel and airplanes.
After crafting a fiscal adjustment…
Bank of America. 9 April 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.bankofamerica.com/deposits/checksave/ .
Benson, Todd. Brazil's Banks Adjust View of Their Market. April 9, 2005. The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.changemakers.net/library/temp/nytimes04905.htm .
Chandler, Lester V. And Goldfeld, Stephen M. The Economics of Money and Banking. New York. Harper & Row. 1977.
Colitt, Raymond. A modest start for flashy virtual malls. October 30, 2000. Retrieved June 7, 2005 from ePayNews.com. 9 April 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.epaynews.com/statistics/bankstats.html .
For centuries women have entered into political struggle in order to secure the livelihoods of their families and communities." What is new is the advent of women in leadership positions and political office who have incorporated women issues into their programs which offers new hope and presents new possibilities. Just as British women felt their country was full of freedom even though they did not have the right to vote there are cultures in the world that freedom within that specific society would be prison within another in the view of women.
In order for feminism to become transnational the elite women in the richer countries must be able to consider and conceive the plight of the rural women in a third world country and as well all within the feminist movement must be able within their own consciousness to cross a deep chasm in order to comprehend women of…
Brenner, Johanna (2003) Transnational Feminism and The Struggle for Global Justice [from New Politics, vol.9 no.2 whole 34, winter 2003) Online available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue34/brenne34.htm .
Grewal, Inderpal & Kaplan, Caren (2000) Postcolonial Studies and Transnational Feminist Practices San Franciso State University and University of California Berkley Online available at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/jouvert/v5i1/grewal.htm.
Moghadam, Val (2005) Transnational Feminism and Afghan Women's Rights Rubrique: Femmes & Mondalisation Online available at http://www.peuplesmonde.com/article.php3?id_article=269 .
Moghadam, Val (2004) From International to Transnational Organization: A Century's Feminist Journey- Against the Current Online available at http://www.solidarity-us.org/atc/109moghadam.html .
Brazilian exporters have diversified trading partners.
The emerging economies have come to the rescue of world leading economies with their financial bailouts. This they have done on condition that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) increases their voting share by around 6%. This is an indication that emerging economies are now demanding even greater share power. The United States spirited objection to joining IMF bail out fund characterized by the Congress increased embrace of isolationist economic policies is an indication that the U.S. is no longer a superpower as people initially believed. In fact, its share of global GDP which was 25% in 1980 declined to 19% in 2011 (Sachs, 2012). It is projected to hit a record low of 18% in 2017. By this time, China shall have overtaken the United States economy in absolute size.
With the emergence of BICS and smaller powers like Nigeria and Turkey we no…
Mansfield, E.D. (1993). Concentration, Polarity, and the Distribution of Power. International Studies Quarterly, 37 (1), 105 -- 128.
Peral, L. (2009). Global Security in a Multipolar world. Paris: European Union Institute of Security Studies.
Sachs, J.D. (2012). The Challenges of a Multipolar World. Retrieved from http://www.social -
Community participation is a key ingredient of any powerful community. The life blood (citizens) of the community is pumped by the heart, called as participation. Community participation is a requirement as well as a condition. It is a condition for raising resources and achieving more results. It engages the citizens deeply in work of the development of community. Community participation is about performing activities for the benefits of any community. The partners of the community follow certain rules and posses unique elements. They have a goal to achieve. This topic has various aspects; the purpose of writing this case study is to explore the minor and major aspects of community participation among kids and adults, both. This case study begins with the background of use of community participation as a tool, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of government in expanding this tool and the ways of communication used for…
10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.
11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.
12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.
In "UN Summit to push for corporate green plans," Clark (2012) mentions a summit in io de Janeiro, in Brazil. In addition to the cultures represented by the host country, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India are also mentioned in the article. Clark's (2012) article, which is published in The Financial Times, illustrates some of the challenges with cross-cultural communications and business.
In "UN Summit to Push for Corporate Green Plans," Clark (2012) refers directly to the "resistance" of countries including the United States, Canada, and India to some environmental strategies "because of fears that it will add to companies' regulatory burdens." The cultural values this represents include an economic model in which businesses operate with as little regulation on the part of government as possible. However, some businesses are on board with the environmental regulations. As Clark (2012) points out, "a group of businesses…
Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.
Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online: http://theunjustmedia.com/Corporation/Articles%20on%20Corporation/Corporate%20Colonialism.htm
Globalization of Hybrid Cultures
Argentine Nestor Garcia Canclini, in his book, "Globalization of Hybrid Cultures," presents a culture made up of surviving traditions and incoming modernity, particularly in Latin America, where he was born. Viewing the quaint merger at a pluralistic perspective, he asserts that pluralism is indispensable in dealing with Latin America, that is, in considering its "contradictory and unequal components" of modernization, which are emancipation, expansion, renovation and democratization (Canclini 1995). In presenting the theoretical and practical challenges of a hybrid culture, he asks (1) how to hybrid cultures constituting modernity can be studied and given a specific profile in Latin America; (2) how the partial knowledge of the different disciplines on culture can be combined in better interpreting the contradictions and the failure of modernization; and (3) what should be done with the mix of "heterogeneous memory and truncated innovations." He writes on his concept of Latin…
1. Canclini, Nestor Garcia. Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity. Christopher L. Ciappari and Silvia L. Lopez, translators. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995
2. Everett, Margaret. Latin America Online: the Internet, Development, and Democratization. Human Organization. Portland: Portland State University, 1998
3. Harvard Magazine. David Carrasco. Harvard Portrait. Harvard Magazine, Inc., 2002. http://www.harvard-magazine.com/online/010231.html
4. Keohane, Robert. Globalization:What's New? What's Old? (And So What?). Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Gale Group and LookSmart, 2000. (accessed 22:03:03). http://www.findarticles.com
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
The promotion for Johnson's Baby Shampoo will be extensive. The company traditionally advertises via a number of different media forms and this promotion will be no different. At the heart of the campaign will be a number of television spots. Typically, these will feature celebrities who are endorsing the product. Celebrity endorsement is a critical component of the promotional campaign for two reasons. First, celebrities raise the profile of the brand, and second their endorsement reflects positively through the power of association. Raising the profile is necessary -- while this is a widely known brand this campaign is about giving the brand a much higher profile among the target market of adults.
The spots will feature celebrity endorsement, combined with a message reflecting the high quality of the shampoo. The tagline "baby yourself, baby your hair" conveys the affordable luxury message, that this product is gentle on…
Global Economy and the Chemicals Industry
Growth of consumer pressures and changes in political situations and governmental policies are two factors in increased globalization that can impact the chemicals industry (Daniels et al., 2014, p. 7). The chemicals industry, like other sectors, is dependent upon both "economic growth overseas" and commodity prices that can impact "economic growth in the U.S." (Muir, 2016, p. 5). In addition, governmental policies and changes can impact the industry, as is seen in South America, where various "region's development policies that privilege industrialization as the route to economic growth" are currently being implemented, as in the Sinos Valley of Brazil (Schreiber et al., 2016, p. 58). This paper will describe how international challenges impact the chemicals industry and specifically discuss how consumer pressures and political situations/governmental policies are especially impactful on this sector.
International challenges that impact the chemicals industry are numerous: the threat of…
Daniels, J. et al. (2014). International Business. NY: Prentice Hall.
Muir, C. (2016). Industry Surveys: Chemicals. NY: S&P Capital IQ.
Schreiber, D. et al. (2016). Analysis of innovation and its environmental impacts on the chemical industry. BAR, Rio de Janeiro, 13(1): 56-75.