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isk Analysis Capital Budgeting
isk Analysis in Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting entails making various decisions in the management of an organization with the aim of determining expenditures on assets. In most cases, these particular expenditures are those that the management expects that their cash flow might extend within a period of about one year. Capital budgeting is a significant process in the management of an organization because it acts a control tool. This is because all capital expenditures that an organization expects to inquire within a certain period require large investments. However, most of these expenditures tend to be limited by availability of funds. Capital budgeting plays a significant role in influencing an organization's ability to achieve the set financial goals.
Capital budgeting and isks
There is always a possibility of an organization to experience various uncertainties especially if the management fails to recognize the outcome of an event when…
Baker, H.K., & English, P. (2011). Capital budgeting valuation: Financial analysis for today's investment projects. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Brigham, E.F., Garpenski, L.C., & Daves, P.R. (2010). Intermediate financial management. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Ehrhardt, M.C., & Brigham, E.F. (2010). Corporate finance: A focus approach. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Jackson, J. (2008). Energy Budgets at Risk (EBaR): A risk management approach to energy purchase and efficiency choices. Hoboken: J. Wiley & Sons.
isk Assessment is an integral aspect on any business irrespective of industry. Every business has some form of inherent risk embedded within its underlying business operations. This risk, through proper assessment can be minimized and practically prevented under certain conditions. Through proper risk assessments, businesses can abate the influences of danger that ultimately erodes both profitability, and reputation. In addition, risk assessments allow the company to reduce the prevalence of incidents that are within its span of control. In many instances, the risks of doing business are often beyond the corporation's control. isks such as political risk, macro economic uncertainty, consumer sentiments, market turmoil, terrorism, and war are often beyond a corporation's span of control. As indicated in this document, proper steps can be taken to help alleviate many of the above mentioned risks associated with conducting business in the United States. Factors affecting international corporations such as exchange rate…
1) Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council (1994), Science and judgment in risk assessment, Washington, D.C: National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04894-
2) Flaherty, Jordan. "Crime and Corruption in New Orleans." Crime and Corruption. Alter.net, 17 Oct. 2005. Web. 16 May 2012. .
3) Gardner, Martin R. "Executions and Indignities -- An Eighth Amendment Assessment of Methods of Inflicting Capital Punishment;" Ohio State Law Journal 96th ser. 39 (1978): 15-23. Print.
4) Hugo Adam Bedau, Death Is Different: Studies in the Morality, Law, and Politics of Capital Punishment (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1987).
isk and vulnerability analysis
isk can be defined as a prediction of future events and their outcomes and consequences. Initially, as these predictions are being made, there is no guarantee that these event will actually occur. At this point, it becomes vital to apply probabilities in order to determine the likelihood of the event occurring. isk analysis, therefore, is a process of describing risks involved in any situation or organization. Vulnerability on the other hand, tends to focus more on the consequence an event will have on the organization if it occurs. It combines, therefore, the aspects of uncertainty of the event and the consequences that come with it (Lewis, 2006).
Process used to analyze threats
US-VISIT is a department within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that enhances the department's mandate of providing security to the citizens of U.S.. U.S.-Visit's main objective is to provide biometric services…
Aven, T. (2008) Risk Analysis: Assessing Uncertainties Beyond Expected Values and Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Department of Homeland Security (2004) Privacy Impact Assessment: In Conjunction with the Interim Final Rule of August 31, 2004. Visitor and Immigration States Indicator Technology, September 14, 2004. Retrieved from http://epic.org/privacy/us-visit/us-visit_pia2.pdf
Homeland Security (2012) U.S.-Visit. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/files/programs/usv.shtm
Johansson, J. (2007) Risk and Vulnerability Analysis of Large-scale Technical Infrastructure: Electrical Distribution Systems. Department of Industrial, Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lund University. Vol.1(2)
Applications in Hospitals
The concept, usage and learning of risk management phenomenon are important for all institutions in healthcare industry. The most important purpose of risk management in healthcare industry is learning from errors, it is these human errors that pave the way for us to learn prepare and not repeat these errors again. These errors can lead to a medical incident and the learning from them occurs when these incidents are discussed within teams. Most of these incidents are not discussed as individuals and teams tend to suppress these incidents mainly due to the seriousness it carries for the patient and their loved ones, for medical staff and for the hospital. The medical practice demands perfection in analysis and cure, admitting and dealing with human errors becomes difficult for the medical staff. In order to build confidence in staff to come forth and discuss these incidents there…
Allnutt, M.F. (1987). Human factors in accidents. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 59:856 -- 864.
Baram, M. (2000). "Medical Error And Responsibility In Managed Healthcare," Safety In Medicine, pp. 231-245
Duckers et al. (2009). Safety and risk management in hospitals. Retrieved 3rd September, 2012 from http://www.health.org.uk/public/cms/75/76/313/578/Safety%20and%20risk%20management%20in%20hospitals.pdf?realName=a1pE7U.pdf
Wallace L. et al. (2009). "Feedback from incident reporting: Information and action to improve patient safety," Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 18, pp 11 -- 21.
In a capitalistic society, risk is often associated with reward. In many instances, it takes risk to garner the large profits and wealth that many entrepreneurs amass over time. It is through this risk that society overall benefits. The vast ecosystem embedded within a capitalistic society requires innovations to better compete in a global environment. Technology, energy, and banking all require new and unique products to cater to a growing international dynamic. Inherently, these activities can be risky. New product launches, for instance, must cater to changing consumer sentiments. The forecast of these changes could have been in error resulting in a monetary loss as oppose to a profit for the company. By taking the risk however society improves by having new and innovative products available when they are demanded. It is therefore my contention that risk, when controlled, is good for society overall. There are however, negative aspects…
Unfortunately, it has become necessary to address the issue of falls at the healthcare facility by whom I am employed (Facility A). ecently, there has been a rash of accidents all relating to patients falling. The healthcare facility is concerned not only about the injuries to the patients, but, also about the liability issues. For this reason, the facility has taken steps to assess the risks which pertain to falling and address those issues. For the purposes here, those steps will be discussed and the way in which the facility intends to remedy the situation. Further, a review of the existing literature will be conducted to identify methods used by other healthcare facilities to address the extremely common risk of falling in a healthcare facility. Finally, the steps being taken by the healthcare facility at which I am employed (Facility A) will be compared with the valid methods…
Akyol, A. (2007). Falls in the elderly: what can be done? International Nursing Review, 54,
191-196. Retrieved December 14, 2012 from:
To ensure that this project will not overrun the set budget, there is a need to plan properly before the project starts. Planning will minimize the risk of the project extending its set budget Glickman & Khamooshi, 2005.
isk management is vital for this project as it identifies any problems that might occur as the project is ongoing. Identifying potential problems allows the project managers to be prepared for any eventuality. Having a laid out plan in terms of the potential risks would also ensure that when those risks occur all stakeholders are prepared, and they know how to handle the risk oyer, 2001.
Majority of projects fall behind schedule, and this is very risky for any project. A project that fails to maintain its timeline would result in increased costs and resources would be strained.
The towers that need to be upgraded would demand that…
Glickman, T.S., & Khamooshi, H. (2005). Using Hazard Networks to Determine Risk Reduction Strategies. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 56(11), 1265-1272. doi: 10.2307/4102079
Grabowski, M., & Roberts, K.H. (1999). Risk Mitigation in Virtual Organizations. Organization Science, 10(6), 704-721. doi: 10.2307/2640237
Menoni, S., & Margottini, C. (2011). Inside Risk: A Strategy for Sustainable Risk Mitigation. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.
Royer, P.S. (2001). Project Risk Management: A Proactive Approach. 8230 Leesburg Pike: Management Concepts.
isk Management in Hedge Funds
A research of how dissimilar hedge fund managers identify and achieve risk
The most vital lesson in expressions of Hedge Fund Management comes from the inadequate name of this kind of alternative investment that is an alternative: The notion that all methodical risks are differentiated away is not really applicable here, with the Hedge Fund returns, in realism, representing a mixture of superior administration of market inadequacies and cognizant contact to some exact systematic risks. Simply the methodical risks that are "unwanted" from a strategic standpoint are expanded away. So, hedge funds, in actual fact, are not completely hedged.
Furthermore, the right measure that is in expressions of risk management contact moves from the jurisdiction of additional risk in contrast to a standard to a total risk method. Having the total return here is what really matters for administrators and depositors and not a contrast…
Grinblatt, M., Titman, S. (2001). Financial markets and corporate strategy, (2nd ed). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Grynbaum, M. (2007). Bear stearns profit plunges 61% on subprime woes. Retrieved March 16, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/21/business/20cnd-wall.html?_r=2
Gupta, A., Liang, B. (2005). Do hedge funds have enough capital? A Value-at-Risk approach. Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 77, 2005, pp. 219-53
Hedgecock, A., Loving, K. (2011). Private Investment Advisers Registration Act of 2010 Heralds Important Changes for Private Fund Managers. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www.rbh.com/private-fund-investment-advisers-registration-act-of-2010 - heralds-important-changes-for-private-fund-managers-07-21-2010/
Background- In general terms, risk management is a way to identify, assess and prioritize risks that are associated with a project or organization. The purpose of risk management is to be proactive in improving places or processes within an organization that may have risks that can be mitigated or controlled -- and to do something to minimize those risks and the financial exposure to them. In almost any organization, there are potentials for risk -- within a construction project there may be supply or labor issues; within a small business stock, weather or employee issues; or in other organizations uncertainty in markets, legal issues, credit risks, accidents, natural causes or disasters, deliberate competitive attacks, and a host of other unpredictable cases. So rife are risks for organizations, that standard and have been developed by national and international bodies, insurance agencies, and regulatory agencies to help organizations identify and…
Crockford, N. (1986). An Introduction to Risk Management. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead-Faulkner.
Frenkel, M., Hommel, U., & Rudolf, M. (Eds.). (2005). Risk Management - Challenge and Opportunity. New York: Springer.
Gorrod, M. (2004). Risk Management Systems: Technology Trends. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
International Organization for Standardization. (2009, January). Risk Management - Principles and Guidelines. Retrieved from iso.org: http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=43170
isk Management in Corporate Governance:
Corporate governance can be described as the control system that is designed for the purpose of evaluating the company's operations and the potential conflicts of interests between various stakeholders of the organization. The achievement of the significant goals of corporate governance requires the use of a board of directors as one of the vital mechanisms. The board of directors plays a critical role in corporate governance because their main role is to represent the interests of the stakeholders of the organization. Moreover, the main objective of the board of directors is to capitalize on the value of the company or the value of the company's shares. For these board directors, effective risk management is crucial regardless of whether the company is in the main market, second tier market, or other markets. Therefore, risk management is regarded as a relevant aspect for all parties in the…
Adamson, R. (2011, March 22). Corporate Governance, Risk Management and Corporate Social
Responsibility in Emerging Markets: A Symbiotic Relationship. Retrieved from Simon Fraser University website: http://business.sfu.ca/corporate-governance-blog/2011/03/corporate-governance-risk-management-and-corporate-social-responsibility-in-emerging-markets-a-symbiotic-relationship/
Blanchard, D. & Dionne, G. (2003, September). Risk Management and Corporate Governance.
Retrieved March 14, 2012, from http://neumann.hec.ca/gestiondesrisques/03-04.pdf
isk in Business
Every business faces risks, and when appropriately handled, risks typically prove advantageous to businesses for both growth and profit. isks are an ever-changing, fluid element to any businesses, so the constant evaluation and application of risk management methods is critical to the success of businesses. According to Douglas Hubbard, risk management is, "the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events." (2009). In other words, risk management is the practice of identifying risks and deciding how to handle, or whether to handle the risk at all.
There are five common types of risks that businesses face, each of which requires specialized evaluation and decision making. The first category of risk for businesses is strategic risks. Strategic risks are risks associated with operating in a specific line of businesses and…
Ballou, Brian, Heitger, Dan L., and Schultz, Thomas D., (2009). Measuring the costs of responding to business risks. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved July 26, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_2_10/ai_n31641694/?tag= rbxcra.2.a.44
Collier, Paul, Berry, Nathony, Burke, Gary (2006). Risk and Magement Accouting. CIMA Publishing, Burlington.
Dai, Zhonglan, (2005). What matters more for CEO turnover: Performance or risk? Ph.D. dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States -- North Carolina. Retrieved July 26, 2010, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=997887091&sid=3&Fmt=6&clientId=29440 & RQT=309&VName=PQD
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). From Nobel Prize to Project Management: Getting Risks Right. Project Management Journal, 37.3, 5-15.
Risk and Quality Management Assessment
This analysis focuses on three different types of risks that are commonly associated with a nursing facility.
Risk and quality management is an important aspect to many health care organizations. This is especially true in nursing facilities because of the level of direct patient interactions that occur on a daily basis. There are many potential risks that can emerge and a nursing facility. Three common risks were identified and introduced. One common risk deals with inadequate or ineffective communication and the problems associated with it such as medication errors. Another risk identified was the spread of infections in a hospital setting. The third risk identified was the risk associated with patient falls that are common and especially damaging to elderly patients. Organizations who properly plan for this risks can effectively improve their quality of care and provide an enriched healthcare experience to their patients.
Chami, K., Carrat, G., Lejeune, B., & Rothan-Tondeur, M. (2011). Burden of infections among 44,869 elderly in nursing homes: a cross-sectional cluster nationwide survey. Journal of Hospital Infection, 254-259.
Colon-Emeric, C., Schenck, A., Gorospe, J., McArdle, J., Dobson, L., Deporter, C., & McConnell, E. (2006). Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1414-1418.
Federwisch, A. (2007, October 8). Bedside Shift Report Ensures Quality Handoff. Retrieved from Nurse: http://news.nurse.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2007710080354
Semin-Goossens, A., van der Helm, J., & Bossuyt, P. (2003). A failed model-based attempt to implement an evidence-based nursing guidelines for fall prevention. Journal of Nursing Care, 217-226.
An organization is considered successful when it places goal commitment as the essential variable. One of the most important advantage that communication has as a risk mitigation tool is that it helps in the execution of safety measures and prevention of accidents as the employees are already been communicated about any problems they could face in the completion of tasks assigned to them. When the managers and authoritative figures workers gain the understanding of the ways that could be used for the organizational support improvement, they strive to make communication about risk management as a major tool for the risk mitigation. Hence, whichever organization makes use of the mentioned tool; it surely gets improved outcomes as a consequence. Other advantages that the discussed mitigation tool of communication has are that "the employee will exhibit support of organizational goals, demonstrate quality job performance, experience reduced strain, have an increased desire to…
McCune, S.S., Hsiao, R., & Kostelnik, R. (2012). Organizational Support and Communication: A Case Study of a New Risk Management Tool for University Aquatic Supervision. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 6, 215-225.
Stokes, D. (2010). Credit Policy: A Strategic Risic Mitigation Tool. Business Credit, 1, 18-20.
A., MD, and Mermin, J. (2012). HIV infection and older Americans: The public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), 1516-1526.
Cooperman, N.A., Arnsten, J.H., and Klein, .S. (2007). Current sexual activity and risky sexual behavior in older men with or at risk for HIV infection. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(4), 321-33.
Hutton, H.E., Lyketsos, C.G., Zenilman, J.M., Thompson, .E., and Erbelding, E.J. (2004). Depression and HIV risk behaviors among patients in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(5), 912-4.
Illa, L., Echenique, M., Saint Jean, G., Bustamante-Avellaneda, V., Metsch, L., Mendez-Mulet, L., . . . Sanchez-Martinez, M. (2010). Project roadmap: eeducating older adults in maintaining aids prevention: A secondary intervention for older HIV-positive adults. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(2), 138-47.
Linley, L., Prejean, J., an, Q., Chen, M., and Hall, H.I., (2012). acial/Ethnic disparities in HIV diagnoses among persons aged 50 years and older…
Adekeye, O.A., Heiman, H.J., Onyeabor, O.S., and Hyacinth, H.I. (2012). The new invincibles: HIV screening among older adults in the U.S. PLoS One, 7(8), n/a. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fgcu.edu/10.1371/journal.pone.0043618
Brooks, J.T., MD, Buchacz, K., Gebo, K.A., MD, and Mermin, J. (2012). HIV infection and older Americans: The public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(8), 1516-1526.
Cooperman, N.A., Arnsten, J.H., and Klein, R.S. (2007). Current sexual activity and risky sexual behavior in older men with or at risk for HIV infection. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(4), 321-33.
Hutton, H.E., Lyketsos, C.G., Zenilman, J.M., Thompson, R.E., and Erbelding, E.J. (2004). Depression and HIV risk behaviors among patients in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(5), 912-4.
Risk and Leadership
Risk-taking is somewhat different from the perspective of project manager, rather than that of a leader. A leader is dealing with things like vision and strategy; a project manager deals with work breakdown structures and critical pathways. The strategic leader has leeway to take risks, because the details will be sorted out later. The project manager has no such leeway -- the details are critical to the job. The project itself can certainly be based on risks, but the risks inherent in the implementation of a project need to be minimal and calculated.
A project manager does need to exhibit some leadership in the role, but not nearly as much as the strategic leaders in Heifetz, Grashow and Linsky (2009). They discuss leadership in general, and argue that "executives need to set the tone for candor and risk-taking," which again highlights the distinction between the strategic leaders…
Dinsmore, P. & Cabanis-Brewin (no date). The AMA handbook of project management. In possession of the author.
Heifetz, R., Grashow, A. & Linsky, M. (2009). Leadership in a permanent crisis. Harvard Business Review. Jul-Aug 2009. 62-69.
Williams, M. (2006). Mastering leadership. In possession of the author.
Risk Crisis Disaster Management
Managing the problems related to global warming is quite different than responding to a damaging earthquake albeit both strategies require careful planning and coordination. This paper points to the contrasts between the two ways of management and response, and offers suggestions from the literature on pre-planning for both eventualities.
Managing Strategies for Serious Earthquakes
To say that a major earthquake that hits in an urban area is an acute crisis understates the problem, especially when an enormous amount of damage has been done. In Japan, one year after the calamity of a 9.0 earthquake and a devastating tsunami, some 300,000 people remain homeless and are living in temporary shelters. No amount of earthquake planning could have prepared Japanese officials for this kind of disaster. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies reports that some 50,000 prefabricated homes have been built by the Japanese…
Beatley, Timothy, and Berke, Philip R. 1993. Time to Shake UP Earthquake Planning. Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 9, 82-90.
Delladestsima, Pavlos Marinos, Dandoulaki, Miranda, and Soulakellis, Nikos. 2006. An Aegean island earthquake protection strategy: an integrated analysis and policy methodology. Disasters, vol. 30, 469-502.
FactCheck. 2012. Rick Santorum's Global Warming Views Not Shared By Many Scientists. Huffington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2012. IPCC releases full special report on "Managing the Risks of Extreme Weather Events." Retrieved March 25, 2012, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
Hence, we decided to take differnet bank groups and companies (previously highlighted in the pie-charts) and compared the net growth of these selected bank groups in the finanical years of 2006 and 2007. Note that these net profits were claculated with the number of increase or decrease in the overall loans investments in these bank groups.
An important thing to note here is that while bank credit is increasing in India, the overall impact that its has on the GDP and the economy is still not at the extent that some of the other countries experience. India's current bank credit holds to 80% of the GDP of the country, in fact the entire Asian block with Thailand and China does not record higher than 100% of the GDP. When comparing that to Hong Kong (with 180% of the GDP and rising), it becomes obvious that the bank creidt management needs…
Agarwal, a. & Sirohy, S. (2010). Future of Risk Management in Indian Banking Industry. MBA Journal of Finance. Retrieved on November 30, 2010 from: http://www.coolavenues.com/mba-journal/finance/future-risk-management-indian-banking-industry
Bhandari, a. (2010). How Companies Use Derivatives for Hedging & Risk Management. MBA Journal of Finance. Retrieved on December 1, 2010 from: http://www.coolavenues.com/mba-journal/finance/how-companies-use-derivatives-hedging-risk-management
Cool Avenues Knowledge Management Team. (2010). Credit Risk Management: Policy Framework for Indian Banks. MBA Journal of Finance. Retrieved on December 1, 2010 from: http://www.coolavenues.com/mba-journal/finance/credit-risk-management-policy-framework-indian-banks
Mukherjee, a., Nath, P. And Pal, M.N.(2002). Performance benchmarking and strategic homogeneity of Indian banks. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 20 (3)
Some of the older employees will however retire in the near future and they will have to be replaced. This will not only generate financial investments with the recruitment and training of new staff members, but it could also materialize in a failure to integrate and attract newer employees. To better explain, the process is difficult and tedious and a young candidate may not feel at ease with working with it. Consequently then, this would lead to two possible situations. The first one refers to Tetra Tech's inability to hire news staff members to replace the retiring ones, and the second one relates to the organization's difficulties in retaining the newly hired employees, meaning then increased employee turnover and high costs of continually replacing the human resource.
Generically, the human resource risks can be divided into six categories (PK-RH, 2008), all with high chances of becoming present within Tetra Tech.…
Davenport, T.H., 1993, Process Innovation: Reengineering Work through Information Technology, Harvard Business Press
Easterby-Smith, M., Araujo, L., Burgoyne, J., 1999, Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Developments in Theory and Practice, SAGE, ISBN 0761959165
Fletcher, D., Newel, S., 2007, Tetra Tech EC and Risk Management, Richard Ivey School of Business
Hammer, M., Champy, J., 1993, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution, Harper Collins
It provides timely solution to employees and users.
Category- Product isk
oot Cause- Increase usage rates and familiarity with the product offering
Triggers- Familiarity and interconnectedness of the intranet
isk Owner- Employees, PM
Impact -- HIGH (10)
Status -- PM schedule a trial period in which employees become familiar with the overall product and its benefits
isk-Increased collaboration and productivity
Description-Due to increased adoption of the intranet, employees become efficient with its use. They also find solution and uses for the intranet that were not originally thought of. The intranet can also be used as a work social network which may increase collaboration and teamwork
Category- Product isk
oot Cause- Familiarity with the product
Triggers- Familiarity and interconnectedness of the intranet
isk esponse- Facilitate a culture and forum that allows employees to exchange ideas and notions that could benefit the project implementation
1) Johns, Boles: Information Technology Project Management, Revised, 6th Edition, Chapter 11 (2000), page 456
isk Factors to the Onset of Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is one of the subjects whose importance can never be underestimated. Even though this issue is discussed at every forum, the problem persists in the society and needs to be sorted out. It should be noted here that there are always some factors that are common among the people who resort to drug addiction. Some of these factors will be sought in this paper. Apart from that, some ethical issues pertaining to the risk factors associated with drug addiction will also be discussed in this study.
Drug addiction is not only the problem of the individual who is the drug addict, but is the problem of the whole society. The friends and family of the addict get affected because of the addiction directly since they have to deal with the devastated personality of the person. Moreover, they also have to…
Cohen, L. Manion, L. And Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. 6th ed.. London: Routledge Falmer
Commonly abused drugs (2011). National Institutes of Health.
Ivandi? Zimi?, J., & Juki?, V. (2012). Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(2), 173-185
Nicholls, C. (2011) The Advantages of using Qualitative Research Methods. Alexander Technique College. 1-9. E-book.
isks in Export Market
There is need for companies to develop a professional approach before venturing into the exporting business. The management of the company is supposed to be committed extremely as well as devoting time and money in commencing the campaigns of export. A company is supposed to be ready to face greater competition as well as more stringent rules and regulations concerning products and packaging due to the variance in rules to which or across which the company will be exporting.
In the process of exportation, there are a number of risks that the company will face. These elements of risks are encountered in every commercial transactions as well as the complexity of the environments that exporters operate in. The content of this paper will analyze risks that a company can face while entering the field of exporting as well as discussing the roles of intermediaries in the…
Aaby, N. & S. Slater. (1989). Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6: 7-26.
Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, (2007). "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.1997. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Reading, MA: Addison.
Cornelius Bothma (2012). Managing your export risk. EXPORTHELP. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.exporthelp.co.za/modules/10_risk/intro.html
As the percentage of older Americans continues to increase, the need for timely and accurate assessment screens and the formulation of effective clinical interventions will become even more pronounced. Fortunately, the research also showed that there are a number of assessment tools that are available to facilitate the process, including sophisticated multifactor instruments with proven validity and reliability. One of the more important issues to emerge from the research concerned the need for individualized interventions that draw on strengths and interests in order to minimize the risk factors that are involved.
Faber, M., Bosscher, .J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. etrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older…
Faber, M., Bosscher, R.J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. Retrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(8), 1105-1113.
isk, eturn and Their Evaluation
isk & Performance Indicators
Since this is a small business, therefore raising equity capital through public stock issue is less likely than debt or whatever form of paper issued to angel or venture investors. Therefore while a larger, publicly traded firm would consider the return on equity version of the short form DuPont equation, a small, more closely-held concern would focus on return on assets (OA). If OA is net income over sales times sales over total assets, i.e. net income over total assets, then any action that could increase the numerator, total income, or shrink the denominator(s) should increase OA compared to past performance within the firm and the competition outside it. If competitors all use the same (best) plant, then maximizing efficiency of the same assets through process or brand innovation; input cost reductions, and also financial performance like minimizing payables days over…
Investopedia (2011). How to calculate required rate of return. Forex. 25 Feb. 2011. Retrieved
from http://www.investopedia.com /articles/fundamental-analysis/11/calculating-required-rate-of-return.asp#axzz1wxIzjR6l
In addition, it is not apparent whether the injections may relieve pain, but for those without surgical lesions the injections may delay requisite surgery and result to permanent neurological deficits. It is evident that some risks associated with infectious epidural steroid injections result to fatal meningitis, but those performing epidural do not make pregnant women opting for epidural aware. I feel that such risks are matters of life and death and women must know them before considering epidurals. In addition, there are common risks of these injections. They include; increased neurological deterioration, paralysis, and quadriplegia Epstein (2013, p. 74-93).
All these researches provide information on the risks of epidurals in different aspects. The epidural procedure may also affect the child. The drugs administered to the mother directly enter the child. The levels may be as high as those of the mother may, and because of the immature liver of the…
Akbas, Mert and Akcan, a Baris, "Epidural analgesia and lactation," Eurasian Journal of Medicine 43, (2010): 45-49.
Wilson, M. J, MacArthur, C, and Shennan, a. "Catheterization in labor with high dose vs. mobile Epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled trial." British Journal of Anesthesia 102, no. 2 (2009): 97-103.
Epstein, Nancy, "The risks of epidural and transforominal steroid injections in the spine: commentary and a comprehensive review of literature," Surgical Neurology International 4, (2013): 74-93.
Gwen Lewis, "Epidurals and child cancer," Journal of Childbirth and Medical Research, (2010): 30.
isk Management Plan
A&D High Tech
Introduction to the Plan
Charter, Scope, Plan, and WBS
Scope of the isk Management Plan
102.2 isk Management Plan Components
112.4 Expected Monetary Value Analysis
isk Management Identification
123.1 Determine the isks
133.2 Evaluate and Access the isks
133.3 Qualitative and Quantitative Processes
143.4 Compare and Contrast Techniques
144.1 Major and Minor isks for the isk Matrix
144.2 isk Matrix Template
Corrective Action and Monitoring
155.1 Type of Corrective isk Management
155.2 Corrective Plan
155.3 Corrective Action for isks
Section 6 -- esults, Conclusion, and Follow-Up
Section 7 - eferences
Section 1 -- Introduction
Introduction to the Plan
This project involves a company named A&D High Tech which operates within the computer products industry and sells computer products, accessories, and services to consumers and small businesses. The…
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
isk Management in Family Owned Businesses
A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).
Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).
The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…
Barrese, J., & Scordis, N. (2003). Corporate Risk Management. Review of Business, 24 (3), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-111508707/corporate-risk-management
Bodine, S.W., Anthony, P., & Walker, P.L. (2001). A Road Map to Risk Management: CPAs Can Help Companies Manage Risk to Create Value. (Consulting). Journal of Accountancy, 192 (6), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-80750205/a-road-map-to-risk-management-cpas-can-help-companies
Bowman-Upton, N. (1991). Transferring Management in the Family-Owned Business. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://archive.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/serv_sbp_exit.pdf
Caspar, C., Dias, A.K., & Elstrodt, H. (2010, January).The Five Attributes of Enduring Family Businesses. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.businessfamily.ca/cert_register_files/Web Downloads/McKinsey Quarterly - Jan 2010.pdf
isk and Insurance Management
isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).
So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…
Douglas, M. And Wildavsky, A. (1982) Risk and Culture. An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Evers, A. And Nowotny, H. (1987) Uber den Umgang mit Unsicherheit. Die Entdeckung der Gestaltbarkeit von Gesellschaft. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp.
Ewald, F. (1991) 'Insurance and Risk' in Burchell, G., Gordon, C. And Miller, P. (eds.) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality . London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Gratt, L.B. (1987) 'Risk Analysis or Risk Assessment: a proposal for consistent definitions' in Covello, V. And Lave, L. (eds.) Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management and Decision Making, Advances in Risk Analysis (4). New York: Plenum Press.
Part of the overall calculation of uncertainty according to iskMetrics recommendations, however, should include a calculation of correlative uncertainty (Finger 2007). The rationale for including this specific uncertainty in calculations is that it helps to account for inaccuracies and inadequacies in the model, determining the level of risk associated with incorrectly defined or changing correlations used by the model in other calculations and definitions (Finger 2007). An accurate calculation of uncertainty and risk will necessarily include a calculation of the correlative uncertainties attendant upon the model and the situation to which it is applied, providing not a necessarily more accurate view of direct risk, but a useful evaluation of the risk prediction's efficacy.
iskMetrics Calculations: Exposure and Uncertainty
An accurate and well-developed combined understanding of the exposure and uncertainty of a various investment venture or portfolio contributes a nearly complete understanding and assessment of the risks presented by that investment…
Andren, N.; Jankensgard, H. & Oxelheim, L. (2005). "Exposure-Based Cash-Flow-At-Risk under Macroeconomic Uncertainty." Journal of applied corporate finance 17(3), pp. 21-31.
Argentin, P. (2010). "Two-sided counterparty risk." RiskMetrics Group: On the Whiteboard. Accessed 24 September 2010. http://www.riskmetrics.com/on_the_whiteboard/20100615
Finger, C. (2007). "We identify two main versions of correlation risk -- parameter uncertainty and new financial products -- and examine the modeling challenges implied by each." RiskMetrics Group: Research Monthly. Accessed 24 September 2010. http://www.riskmetrics.com/publications/research_monthly/20070400
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…
Travelers, Citigroup Unite. (1998). CNN. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/1998/04/06/deals/travelers/
US saw 13 Bank Failures Every Month in 2010. (2011). Economic Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-01-02/news/28424370_1_medium-banks-bank-failures-problem-banks
Baum, C. (2009). The Impact of Macro Economic Uncertainty. Boston College, Boston, MA.
Byoun, S. (2007). Financial Flexibility. Baylor University, Waco, TX.
Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.
A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…
The risk of default in U.S. government bonds, aside from political shenanigans like the debt ceiling debacle in the summer of 2011, lies largely with the federal budget. This is known as sovereign risk. The sovereign risk of the United States, and several other developed nations, is very low. With other countries, however, there are genuine budget issues that make default a possibility. In the Eurozone, for example, nations like Greece are struggling to meet their debt payments. With Greece, there is no ability for the government to print more money in order to cover its obligations, and that increases the sovereign risk. Nations that have their own currencies do not have this type of risk, but still have sovereign risk to the extent that they could find themselves one day without enough cash to pay their obligations.
It should be noted that part of the reason that government bonds give a return is not related as much to risk as it is to providing the incentive to invest. Governments issue debt because they need to raise funds. If there was no return given on that debt, nobody would invest. Therefore, there must be some sort of return offered, in order to entice investors. The rate is typically set in regard to the opportunity cost of capital, and the market yield will reflect the market's views about the sovereign risk associated with debt.
Thus, risk free securities are not truly risk free. There is the risk of default, although this risk is very minor. There is the risk as well that the value of the investment will not be much. In the event of hyperinflation, for example, the value of the money might be very low. However, the value will always be paid out because the Treasury can print that money. The interest rate reflects, in addition to an enticement to invest, the combined risk of default and the risk associated with expected future interest rate moves.
isk-Taking Behavior and isk Management
isk Management Article eview
Dominic Cooper (2003) reviews the various factors that influence risk outcomes, with a focus on how personality can have a significant effect on risk-taking behavior. The first half of the article dives into the admittedly murky waters of the associations between personality types, group dynamics, and risk-taking behavior, while the second half discusses risk management and control strategies. Importantly, Cooper states explicitly that individual and group factors are hard to control or change. Despite this attitude, he puts considerable effort into describing the different personality types, their propensity for risk-taking behavior, and the likelihood of harm. In the final analysis, personality, task experience, promise of a reward, and group dynamics seem to have the greatest influence on risk-taking behavior. If the first half of the article were to have a summary, it would be that the sources of risk amenable to…
Baker, Dorothy I., Gottschalk, Margaret, and Bianco, Luann M. (2007). Step-by-step: Integrating evidence-based fall-risk management into senior centers. Gerontologist, 47(4), 548-554
Cooper, Dominic. (2003). Psychology, risk & safety: Understanding how personality & perception can influence risk taking. Professional Safety, November, p. 39-46.
There are discrepancies encountered in conducting the valuation and risk of a private company. There arises these factors that if investigated can impact the process accordingly. The first research question that I suggest is investigating if the tax risk and equity market value exhibit a concave association, which is consistent with the optimal tax risk level from a valuation of equity standpoint. The second topic that can be researched upon is the changes facing the risk and value valuation service area for businesses and how they impact the practice. Finally, a study on how the Merger and Acquisitions revised standards are impacting business deals.
Chandra, U., & o, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. eview of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Chandra, U., & Ro, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. Review of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Bernier, G., & Ridha, M.M. (2010). On the economics of postassessments in insurance guaranty funds: A stakeholders' perspective. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 77(4), 857-892.
This is equity risk. Equity risk can be measured -- either with standard deviation or more typically with the beta coefficient. This risk must be addressed, because the upside movement of the stock was something that was paid for with the lower rate of interest payments.
Diversification of any equity portfolio can be done on a number of other variables. The diversified portfolio will contain exposure to a wide range of firms and industries, and preferably a high level of geographic diversification as well. Modern portfolio theory holds that as few as three companies can result in a diversified portfolio but ideally the portfolio would have at least thirty. The portfolio should include a wide range of types of instruments as well, so that the risk inherent in the convertible is offset by the performance of other instruments, companies and products in the portfolio. ith the market, the CAPM beta…
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of convertible bond. Investopedia. Retrieved April 10, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com /terms/c/convertiblebond.asp' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
Risk workshops allow for a strong modeling process of any project management problem. Risk workshops, when conducted effectively produce a prioritized list of risks that has an assigned action and stakeholders attached to that risk. As a project manager all risks rely on the details of the project. I would always expect to be briefed on any changes in budget, deadline or change in objective. Identifying risks that address these issues is important in assessing the value of risk workshops.
Prioritization of key principles and objectives is imperative in the project management way of business. Understanding the difference between a threat and a priority is essential for success. High-priority opportunities should always be addressed first since they compose the main objectives and goals for that project. Threats are important but should not cause the project to come off the tracks.
When disaster strikes in the middle of a…
This can cloud your judgment, which as a trader or investor it is imperative to think with a clear head. When you are placing the hedge, it is set at a logical point that is determined without emotions. This increases the chances that you have reduced your risks by eliminating the emotionalism that accompanies the markets. (Carr, 2002)
Another reason why hedging is effective, is it allows you to protect your downside using as little working capital as possible. ecause hedging involves using options, means that the overall amounts of upfront costs are low. This means, that going into the hedge you know what your maximum down side will be (the premium). You can also reduce the amounts of risk by purchasing the options with expirations that are coming up, within the next 30 to 60 days. This is important, because the closer the option moves to the expiration date,…
Carr, P. (2002, October 1). Static Hedging of Standard Options. Retrieved February 27, 2010 from Fordham
University website: http://www.bnet.fordham.edu/crif/WorkingPapers/crifwp02010.pdf
Maynard, M (2008, October 1). Southwest Has First Loss in 17 Years. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from New York
Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/business/17air.html?_r=1
To rebuild their image, the company would try a number of different strategies, none of which would prove to be successful. This would hurt the market share of Gap to the point that many analysts now believe that it may be advantageous to spin off the company's: Old Navy, anana Republic and Gap stores. What this shows, is how a company can begin to lose its way when it is not focused on adjusting to changes in consumer tastes and trends. In the case of Ann Taylor, they need to be aware of this hazard, as it can have an adverse impact on the long-term viability of their business. (Reingold)
A second challenge that Ann Taylor can be wrestling with is a lack of focus on the part of management. In this case, managers must understand the role that their decisions will have on their organization. Where, executives must clearly…
10Q. Ann Taylor, 2010. Print.
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…
Ghemawat (2001) - Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global
Expansion. Harvard Business Review. Pankaj Ghemawat. Harvard Business
School Press. Cambridge, MA September, 2001.
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved
Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632
"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html
Risk Management Events
In reflection of the Exxon Valdez spill, the National Transportation Safety Board and the Coast Guard would both take a direct interest in improvement regulatory considerations relating to the alertness and suitability of an oil tanker's crew. This would be in 1989 following the massive oil spill off the coast of Alaska. According to the text, "Since 1989, much effort has been made by the Coast Guard and by companies like Exxon to ensure better business process and better risk management. Both the public and private sectors added new procedures and new controls in the transporting of oil around Alaska, reducing the likelihood of a repeat incident in that region." (p. 20)
American's Express's Authorizer's Assistant would be implemented in the 1980s to create an automated way of fielding purchase authorization requests with a credit card. This would help to reduce the necessary labor to provide…
Dickstein, D.I., & Flast, R.H. (2009). No excuses: A business approach to managing operational risk. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…
Dampsey, J.S. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Wells, G. (1996). Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment. Rugby, Warwickshire: Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Risk Management 
If you believe a stock will appreciate and want to risk little to speculate that the stock will rise what are your option?
Holding a call option is fairly low risk because it would allow me to buy future stocks at a current price. An increase in stock value would limit my losses and allow me to profit by means of leveraged speculation. As a holder exercising a call option, I would be able to benefit from the same profit in underlying stock by paying only a minimal amount of money. By risking only a small percentage of my capital towards an insurance premium, I am potentially able to benefit from trends and hedge away risks within the call-option deadline.
Potential losses can be offset against either long-or-short stock portfolios by means of trading call strategies. A Fiduciary call would allow for a reduced capital outlay by…
They were just so intense, so focused, so transaction-driven, there literally wasn't time for people to put ideas out and discuss and debate them."
These constraints to effective management oversight and innovation were further exacerbated when the company went private in 2001. According to Stopper, "ARAMARK went from a leveraged buyout situation in 1984, with only some 50 people having equity in the company, to an initial public offering (IPO) in 2001 with 97% ownership by employees. It was a huge cultural shift. Many employees incurred debt in order to have ownership in the company. In his view, HR's power and influence came from performance and creating value, not from advancing or acceding to personal agendas."
To their credit, though, Hayes reports that the company finally took action to remedy this situation by creating an action project team to assess the potential threats involved in retaining the status quo and…
About ARAMARK." (2007). ARAMARK Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.aramark.com/MainLanding.aspx?PostingID=336&ChannelID=187 .
Alleyne, Sonia (2007, July). "40 Best Companies for Diversity: In Our Third Annual Survey, We Focus on Supplier Diversity and Senior Management Representation-How Much Companies Spend with Black Suppliers and Who They Let into the Corporate Suite." Black Enterprise 37(12): 106
Caddell, Cathy L. (2004, October). "Taste of Chicago." Corrections Today 66(6): 46
Goldberg, Karen (1996, July 18). "How to Feed 10,800 Athletes." The Washington Times 13.
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…
isks and Vulnerability Factors
The two counties I selected were Shelby County in Tennessee and Orleans County in Vermont. In 2011, Shelby County experienced $2,000,000,000 in property damage due to flooding on May 1, 2,470,000 in property damage due to severe storms and thunderstorms beginning on April 19, 150,000 due to flooding beginning on April 27, and $20,000 in property damage beginning April 26. During all of these disasters there were no injuries, fatalities, or crop damage.
In 2011, Orleans county incurred $500,000,000 in property damage from flooding beginning on August 28, $150,000 in property damage due to lightening beginning July 6, and $50,000 in property damage due to wind on August 28. There was also flooding on April 26 that accumulated $50,000 in property damage. Significantly, none of these hazards produced any injuries or fatalities. The only crop damage incurred was $250,000 attributed to flooding on August…
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute (2012). "The Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States, Version 10.0 [Online Database]." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.sheldus.org
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute. (2012). "Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI®) for the United States - 2006-10 Data." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/products/sovi.aspx
isks of Using Computer-Based Procurement
Every complex project requiring the collaborative effort of an organization involves the use of materials, goods, and services that are integrated within the overall project design. The procurement process used to obtain these vital resources is central to the successful accomplishment of project objectives, because every aspect of the management process, from sourcing supplies to shipping products to customers is contingent on procuring the most productive third-party partnerships. The vendor selection process is used to aid project managers in the effective procurement of essential items and services, with a rigorous screening methodology used to identify the most competent and qualified shipping companies, manufacturers, distributors, and equipment suppliers. Another way project managers have refined the procurement process is through the implementation of computer-based tools, with advances in technology enabling researchers to identify a project's critical path through a complex series of algorithms, software programs, and other…
Morris, P. And Pinto, J. (2007) The Wiley guide to project technology, supply chain, & procurement management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Sollish, F. And Semanik, J. (2011) Strategic Global Sourcing Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..
Risk Sales Forecast
Budgeting, Sales Forecasts, and Ethical Consideration
Sales forecasts and the budget preparation process in general, serves as a cornerstone for effective operations management. hen this practice is performed with strict adherence to good business ethics it is one of the key components of the entire business planning process. ith reliable estimates the organization can plan appropriates. Financial planning and estimation includes forecasted sales and revenues, expenses, and required cash flow to operate the business.
The budget will then combine all of the different estimates into a comprehensive document that can be used to plan for the future and to make business decision. The first activity in the budgeting process is usually a sales forecast. Once an organization determines what their projected levels of sales will be for any period, they can then estimate the other expenses based on this forecast. Accuracy of the sales forecast therefore is…
Decker, R., & Gnibba-Yukawa, K. (2010). Sales Forecasting in High-Technology Markets: A Utility-Based Approach. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 115-129.
Todd, S., Crook, T., & Lachowetz, T. (2013). Agency Theory Explanations of Self-Serving Sales Forecast Inaccuracies. Sciedu Press, 13.
The connection with such tactics is that the company's own product are not good enough to sell themselves, and that underhanded means are resorted to. In terms of rivalry, I would emphasize that good neighborliness entails an adherence to the principles of humanity as found in society today. In society, a friendly attitude is often more effective in achieving one's goals than an openly hostile disposition. Hence, even in terms of one's rivals, neighborliness means that more can be gained from a rival by means of a friendly and open attitude.
In this way, neighborliness correlates strongly with business ethics. It is for example unethical to investigate a rival company without their consent, with the purpose of finding undesirable information for use in negative advertising. Instead, neighborly negotiations can result in good relations, which in turn may bring about a mutual learning experience from which both companies can benefit.
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…
Christofferson, Peter F. Elements of Financial Risk Management. San Diego: Elsevier Sciences, 2003.
Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks. Interest Rate Risks. 1997. Accessed 19 March 2010. http://www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/irr.pdf
Cusatis, Patrick and Martin R. Thomas. Hedging Instruments and Risk Management. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Dun & Bradstreet. Financial Risk Management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2008.
The more knowledge of a market an entrepreneur has the better. This includes the litigious side of the market. When an entrepreneur sets up a business, even employing the proper employee dynamics, financial decisions and logistical moves, legal issues can doom the entire operation. Entrepreneurs can avoid much of this type of risk by fully understanding their business, and by having prior experience with the product or industry. It is important to understand as well that overseas markets are not the same as domestic ones, and many issues are likely to arise out of unique and different legal environments, exclusive to overseas markets and products. Entrepreneurship is a veritable minefield when it comes to risks. These risks are inherent, and without them there would not be the same kinds of satisfaction and payoff that occurs with them intact. When entrepreneurs are made fully aware of these risks and how to…
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…
references the CISA Review Manual, 2006.
Thompson, S.C. (2006). Phight Phraud: Steps to Protect against Phishing. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2).
This study by Thompson provides some significant aspects that the business owner and customers in online commerce should pay attention to. These include basic but important aspect that should include in e-training; for example, never e-mail personal or financial information or never to respond to requests for personal information in e-mails. This provides useful background to the issue of risk identification and is also related management of this threat.
Wetzel R. ( 2005) Tackling Phishing: It's a Never-Ending Struggle, but the Anti-Fraud Arsenal Continues to Grow. Business Communications Review, 35, 46+.
This study A sheds light on the implications in term of the costs of identity fraud to financial institutions. The study underscores the severity of the vulnerabilities faced by today's organizations in the online world. The author refers to the obvious cost to intuitions like banks and also discusses hidden costs that relate to the erosion of customer confidence as a result of ID theft.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…
Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X
Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558
Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990
Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
Barnes & Noble: New York
Rennie, R. (2003) the Facts on File Dictionary of Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
Checkmark Books: New York
isk of Committing Violence Among Individuals Suffering From Bipolar Disorder
Several studies argue that most psychiatric symptoms are closely correlated with criminality, since such symptoms impair judgment and violate societal norms. In this regard, several studies have been conducted regarding the risk of violence among individuals suffering from mental illnesses but few have highlighted the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior. The common disorders known to be highly related to criminality include antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, voyeurism and schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is meant to examine the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior.
This paper aims at analyzing the likelihood of committing violence among individuals suffering from bipolar disorder as well as the factors that are likely to influence the degree to which these individuals are likely to commit violent acts.
Past studies have hinted that individuals suffering from bipolar disorder have…
Belfrage, H. (1998). A ten-year follow-up of criminality in Stockholm mental patients. British Journal of Criminology, 38, 145-155.
Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., Grann, M., Goodwin, G.M., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Bipolar Disorder and Violent CrimeNew Evidence From Population-Based Longitudinal Studies and Systematic Review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(9), 931-938.
Feldmann, T.B. (2001). Bipolar Disorder and Violence. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(2), 119-129.
Link, B.G., Monahan, J., Ann, S., & Cullen, F.T. (1999). Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence. American Sociological Review, 64(2), 316-332.
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…
Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. "Relation Between Traumatic
Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.
Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. "Early Child
Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model." Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.
isk management is the greatest benefit offered by a strategic, forward-thinking approach to management. In an uncertain economic environment, companies must constantly 'hedge their bets' as to what is the superior choice between mutually exclusive alternatives. Strategic management promotes the efficient use of resources by forcing companies to constantly anticipate the future, plan ahead, and make the best economic choices possible, given the company's current framework of knowledge. No company can predict everything that may happen but the consistent data-gathering that is required in a strategic management approach and trend-monitoring allows the company to be more flexible and responsive.
As well as avoiding bad decisions, effective strategic management also means knowing when to take advantage of possible opportunities and invest in good decisions. isk management entails knowing when to take calculated risks, even if this means a major allocation of organizational resources, such as for a new form of technology…
Wade, Mike. (2005). Resource-based view of the firm. York University: Theories used in research. Retrieved January 20, 2011 at http://www.istheory.yorku.ca/rbv.htm
From the historic standpoint, as well as from a scientific standpoint, the hill's ability to protect against tornados is once again promoted as a myth. Originated from the Native Americans, the myth argued that there were specific areas protected against tornados by land features, such as hills, rivers, mountains or ridges. The legends were passed on from one generation to the other and created a false sense of protection. Until the tornados hit almost all region in the ocky Mountains, to kill tens of people (Scavuzzo, 2004).
And aside from history and science, the third means of convincing the population would be through the use of the common sense. Considering a situation in which the hills did indeed reduce the risks of tornados in the region, it is impossible for them to entirely eliminate the threat. This virtually means that when the tornado hits, it will create loses. If the…
Scavuzzo, W., 2004, Tornado alert, Crabtree Publishing Company, ISBN 077871571X
1999, Myths, The Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com/myths/myths.htm last accessed on October 7, 2010