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Rite Of Passage Essays (Examples)

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Rites of Passage Traditional and
Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80608543
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It is believed among these people that young girls form romantic attachments to water spirits. Before they are considered marriageable and allowed to receive mortal suitors, they must first free themselves from these attachments. This is accomplished by the coming together of the girls at the river on successive dawns to sing the songs they have learned. On the final day, the initiates return to the riverbank and the water spirits are expected to attempt to seize the girls by force. This can be prevented by the Osokolo, a member of owuper society (the male counterpart of the egbelereme). He strikes the girls with sticks, driving them back to the village, ensuring both their safety and future fertility." (Delaney)

These rites of passages play an important role in the life of adolescents. Sadly in our modern society, such rites have lost their significance and these important phases of life are…


Cassandra Halleh Delaney. Rites of Passage. author. Journal Title: Adolescence. Volume: 30. Issue: 120. 1995. 891+.

Eliade, M. (Ed. In Chief), Adams, C., Kitagawa, J., Marty, M., McBrien, R., Needleman, J., Schimmel, a., Seltzer, R., Turner, V. (Eds.), (1987). The encyclopedia of religion. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Rites of Passage -- Scholastic
Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53317077
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Such periods often involve long stretches of intense play. The play harkens back to the games of very young childhood. The games take place in the educational environment, where one's prowess as a student will be tested so there is always an atmosphere of lurking tension in the air. Moreover, because one is interacting with one's fellow students, there is a sense that one's future social skills and mettle is being tested as well, and one must reveal facts about one's self and future goals in conversation. But rather than immediately thrusting someone into classes and a hectic work and extracurricular schedule, freshman, high school and college age, as well as young children are encouraged to go to parties, play at noncompetitive games, and reveal facts about themselves in ice-breaking games and forums, so that the immediate associations of a potentially tension-packed environment are not as stressful as they might…

Rites of Passage' the Poem 'Rites of
Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35489257
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The poem 'Rites of passage' says a lot about the way society conditions young girls and boys to behave in a manner befitting their gender. This is not exactly a poem celebrating a young boy's birthday party, but it actually focuses on the way society and environment conditions people in a gender specific manner. The poem appeared in Sharon Olds' collection titled The Dead and the Living published in 1984. Olds is basically concerned with various stages and phases of life. Apart from celebrating various important milestones in one's life journey, the poet also goes a little deeper into these stages to find out how society trains young girls and boys to behave in gender-appropriate manner.

In this poem for example, Olds is surprised to see that boys from a very young age are aggressive in nature and therefore love playing generals and soldiers. This clearly shows…

Works Cited

1) Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage, The Dead and the Living, (1984)

Rites of Passages of Puberty Followed by
Words: 1862 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98250052
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ites of Passages of puberty followed by Eskimo and Australian Aborigines.

The indigenous cultures of the past have always held a great regard for the traditional and superstitious. Elaborate rituals are associated with each aspect of life and the people celebrate these rituals as a community. The community being patriarchal in most circumstances the dominance of the male hierarchy is clearly seen and that the rituals are associated then with the male gender is no surprise. Yet, today, we are fascinated with what to the generations of the past was a common issue. esearchers have taken the time to separately understand the ceremonies associated with the cultures and none is as elaborate as the rites of passage as the adolescents-especially the male-enters adulthood. Around the world the transition is celebrated with fervor amongst the different cultures, and though today forgotten, its importance is still acknowledged amongst the remaining indigenous communities…


Australian Aboriginal Religion available at

Charlesworth, M, Religion in Aboriginal Australia. (ed.). University of QLD Press. 1984. available at 

Eliade, Mircea Rites and Symbols of Initiation, (page ix - x) taken from Rites of Passage Frank Herbert 2000 available at

Eskimo-Aleut Religion Available at

Ritual Magic of Rites of
Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76384013
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Neither of the above rites of passages, though both are important and definitely bound by rules of magic, are especially ritualistic in a participatory sense. In this regard, the many layers of security that Harry and his friends must get through in order to arrive at the Sorcerer's Stone is the most clear example in the book. Each trial on the way to the room that contains the Stone tests some of the skills and knowledge that Harry, Ron, and Hermione have begun to acquire on their journey through adolescence and to adulthood, making the journey past each obstacle a very literal interpretation of a rite of passage. Each of these obstacles ends up requiring some literal form of the world's magic, usually in the form of a spell, in order to be overcome, tying magic to the rites of passage in a manner that is at once quite explicit…

Eleusinian Cult of Demeter and Magical Initiation Rites
Words: 1731 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49888753
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Eleusinian Cult of Demeter and the Magical Initiation ites that are part of each of those groups. The writer explores the groups and explains many of their beliefs and ways while focusing on the differences and similarities of them. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

Throughout history there have been mysterious groups, rituals and events that have only served to enhance the historic records of mankind. As the world continues to evolve it is interesting to look back and see where humans have been. One of the most interesting time periods in history involved the Eleusinian Mysteries and their magical initiation rites.

Before one can begin to understand the impact and importance of the initiation rites that were performed and endured by those in the cult of Demeter it is vital that one understand a little bit about the cult itself and its "life."

The Eleusinian Mysteries…


The Eleusinian Mysteries

Stephanus Byzantios, "Agra," in Stephanus Byzantinus cum annotationibus L. Holstenii et al. Lipsiae: Libraria Kuehnia, 1825. Vol. 1.

Stoabeus, Joannes, Anthologium, ed. A. Meineke. Lipsiae: Teubner, 1860-64. Vol. 4.

Ventris, Michael and Chadwick, John, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, 2nd. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Jonah the Passages Found in
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38256916
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The second section of the Jonah story is that which is contained in the third chapter, where Jonah preaches to the people of Nineveh and they quickly turn back to God and away from their errant behaviors. The main subject of this section is God's compassion, which is willingly bestowed upon the deserving. Whereas the previous section contained immediately present and observable threats to the very lives of the people involved, in this section it is merely Jonah's admonition that is required to turn the people of Nineveh back on to the path of righteousness. Upon hearing his words, even the king reduces himself to fasting and sackcloth, and requires the same turning to God of all the citizens and even the livestock that live within the city. This total devotion to God from a mere reminder of his due is enough to restore God's compassion and dissuade him from…

Sacred Pipe Black Elk's Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux
Words: 2474 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1362039
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Sacred Pipe

Black Elk, or Hehaka Sapa, was a medicine man of the Oglala Sioux tribe. He lived during the final conflict with the native peoples, from 1863 to 1950 and was able to merge the gap between American Indian spirituality and many modern scholars of myth, including Joseph Campbell. Some European authors praised him as being one of the greatest spiritual thinkers of the Native North Americans, particularly because he created an authentic Lakota Christianity by finding commonality with the Lakota spiritual teachings. Black Elk, in fact, believed that the Sioux could continue to celebrate their own cultural identity while embracing the essence of Christianity. To Black Elk, and to many scholars of mythology and religion, the essence of most of the Amerindian traditions -- celebration of the earth, respect for each other and nature, a code of conduct from which to live, and a striving for peace and…


Brown, J. The Sacred Pipe: Black Elk's Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.

Cambpell, J., et al. The Hero's Journey. New York: New World Library, 2003.

Stampoulos, L. The Redemption of Black Elk: An Ancient Path to Inner Strength. British Columbia, Canada: CBC Publications, 2010, retrieved from

Music Appreciation Stravinsky the Rite
Words: 1420 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 13021578
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The piano plays quick octaves and the urgent bass motive portrays an intense wild ride. This strong galloping is also being formulated by the piano's triplet rhythm which allows for the development of the dramatic storyline's urgency.

5. ) There are four different characters in this piece: the Narrator, the father, the son, and the Erlkonig. Although Schubert uses one singer to portray and sing all of the four parts of the characters, the listener is able to quite clearly differentiate them from one another. The son is sung in the high register in a minor key with dissonant harmonies. On the other hand, the father is sung in low register while the Erlkonig is sung in a coy with pleasant and soft melodies in the major key.

6. ) There are two ways that Schubert builds momentum in his piece. The first way is by using the bass as…


Kamien, R. (2010). Music: An appreciation, brief edition. (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.

Social Contracts Media Articulation of the Rites
Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 46858953
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Social Contracts:

Media Articulation Of The ites Of


In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting adults should be accorded the same level of societal respect and legality under federal and state laws. It was just a few decades ago when the Gay ights Movement was born in a raucous Greenwich Village bar, but homosexuals have become increasingly accepted in mainstream American society in the years since and a growing number of states are legalizing same-sex marriage in response to this trend. Unfortunately, the path to equal rights for all American citizens has been hampered by negative media coverage of homosexuals in the United States in recent years in ways that are frequently subtle but which are discernible through careful analysis. This type of analysis is important because prejudicial public information or notice of the…


Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://

Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.

Fools Crow by James Welch
Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96423535
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These rites could weed out the weak from the strong, and eventually pointed to the best and wisest leaders among the people.

The second raid against the Crow is another step on White Man's Dog's path toward manhood. He is chosen to "count the first honor" (Welch 139) of the battle, and this shows his stature has risen in the band. He is wounded, but he kills and scalps the leader of the Crows, and his father acknowledges he is a brave. However, he finds he does not enjoy the killing, and this makes him an even greater man, because he understands the evil of fighting amongst each other, when the Natives should all be banding together to ward of the white man's advances. After the second raid, he is renamed "Fools Crow" because the tribe believes he tricked the entire Crow village, and that helped in their victory. This…


Welch, James. Fools Crow. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.

Female Circumcision Why Are Female
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92481007
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What is the role of the family in the continuing process of female circumcisions?

One of the difficulties in trying to stop the practice of female circumcisions is the central role of the family, particularly women, in perpetuating the practice. Because the girls' mothers have had the procedure performed upon themselves, they assume it is normal, and feel that their girls should have to endure what they endured. Also, even if a family might not want their daughters to suffer a circumcision, the family may go along with it, for fear of damaging her marriage prospects or the reputation of the family. They use the excuse that for the girl to function in her society, 'normally' they must obey this societal convention, regardless of its morality. This is compounded by a fear of unchecked, young female sexuality in general.

Seasons of Life That Are Characteristic of
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42354102
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seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.

Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.

Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.

Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?

Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…

Reckoning Life Has Some Form of Development
Words: 1395 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7220126
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Life has some form of development through a range of events that could be considered rites of passages for every person. These experience that individuals face during their lives is substantial different yet contains many similarities at the same time. This essay will look at two accounts of different experiences by two famous authors that tackle aspects of what it means to face different stages in one's life. Both stories offer insights as to how our identity is shaped by our memory and our memory can be shaped by a plethora of individual and cultural experiences. Memory certainly serves as a "catch-all" term that encompasses a widespread range of factors that occur in the human experience.

Eva Hoffman's memoir, Lost in Translation, illustrates events from her life as she emigrated from Cracow, Poland to Vancouver, Canada. N. Scott Momaday's, The ay to Rainy Mountain is also about a journey…

Works Cited

Hoffman, E. Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language. New York: Penguin, 1990. Print.

Kensinger, E. And D. Schacter. "Memory and Emotion." N.d. Boston College. Web. 28 October 2012.

Lanigan, J. "All Stories So Far." 1 Septiember 2009. English. Web. 28 October 2012.

Momaday, S. The Way to Rainy Mountain. University of New Mexico Press, 1976. Print.

Impressions of War the Most
Words: 6472 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55535844
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" There is a more calm feeling to his description. This is not to say that the author was portraying war as being a patriotic act, but the author was not as graphical in his describing what the soldiers were seeing and going through. The reader is more connected to the actions of the poem and not the fact that someone is dying. He ends his poem by referencing "hell" and the reader is left wondering whether the hell that he is referring to the war that is being left behind, or to dying itself.

3) Rites of Passage Activity

In speaking to my grandmother, I was able to find out what it was that she took when she first left her home. At the age of sixteen, she was married to my grandfather and was getting ready to start her knew life as a wife and very soon, as…

Technology of Modern Warfare the
Words: 1894 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47503149
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The terrifying fear of living with the constant threat of instant annihilation from artillery shells and the soul-shaking noise and thunderous impacts of nearby strikes sent many veterans of trench warfare home with what was then called "shell shock" and which was so severe that some veterans suffered severe lifelong symptoms of what we refer to today as post traumatic stress disorder. emarque also explores the theme of the tendency of trench war survivors to experience survivor's guilt and a general disillusionment with life after witnessing how quickly and easily the lives of so many of their comrades were snuffed out by explosive artillery, often without any trace of their existence besides a fine red mist. emarque also relates the difficulty that returning combat veterans had readapting to the normal peacetime psychological orientation of ordinary civilian life after their wartime experiences.

Meanwhile, Isaac Babel's short story My first Goose relates…


Esposito, V. (1964). A Concise History of World War I. New York: Praeger.

Faragher, J.M. (2006) Out of Many: A History of the American People since 1865.

Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson/Prentice.

Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century

Emotional Expression
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55365212
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American culture of interest and select another culture of interest to you (Japanese). Think about the emotional expressions that you might observe in the two cultures during rites of passage, such as births, wedding ceremonies, and funerals. n addition, consider the similarities and differences of the expressions of the emotions that you might observe.

With these thoughts in mind:

Write a brief description of the two cultures you selected. Then describe how each culture typically expresses two emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, fear, and anger). Finally explain how these cultures influence the expression of these emotions.

Confucianism has been the most powerful influence shaping Japanese conception for the past thousands of years, and it has had an impact too on influencing emotion. Contrary to Western ideology that perceives each person's life as being distinct and unique and therefore each person responsible for him or herself, Confucianism sees interconnectedness with each individual…

In comparison Western values accord significance to only one category: that of hard work and frugality (although this is more in theory than in practice). The Western person is told to think for himself and to be 'his own individual'. He is told to question norms and adopt his own values -- the more deviant the better. He may be told to practice self-control -- as means to accumulate wealth and Western success -- but is certainly not required to acquire humility or austerity. Western culture, in other words, is the precise opposite of Confucian values, and, accordingly, Western conception of happiness differs too.

Western happiness as we well know comes through 'independence, 'success', the ability to stand alone, be unique, obtain a sense of self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-reliance (note the reiterate term' self') and, an accordingly, accumulation of money and power in order to achieve survival in a world where each is attempting to torpedoes the other. Families are splintered in the Western world. Many are unaware of their ancestors; others seek to serrate themselves form them. Attention is on the self and on augmenting this self, whilst success - erroneously as positive psychology has shown -- is equated with happiness. And success in Western terms means: Wealth.

That cultural values influence emotion is evident in at least one qualitative study conducted by sociologists that found that in Japan the internalization of Eastern values that included harmony of interpersonal relationships, achievement at work, and contentment with life presented happiness (Lu & Shih, 1997). Meanwhile, as Diener and colleagues (1995) discovered obtainment of individuality gave

Personal Childhood Story From Cuba it Is
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17886861
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Personal Childhood Story From Cuba

It is a night I will likely never forget. My sister and I had flown in to Cuba for a Quinceanara, which is the 15th birthday party for a young woman of Latina descent. We were very excited because the girl whose party it was a close friend of both my sister and I as well as of our extended family in Cuba. I remember my sister looked really pretty that night. She wore purple polka dotted dress with a lace frock that flared at the bottom. Her hair was pinned up in a bun and, at 14 years of age at the time, I thought she looked like it could have been her rite of passage/coming to womanhood birthday party instead of my friend's.

Quite possibly my sister had the same thought because, for some reason, she decided to drink alcohol for the first…

Definition of Organizational Culture
Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12050431
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Organizational Culture

While reading the Cheney (2011) text, there are many themes and ideas relevant to organizational culture that are very important to absorb and consider. As noted by the assignment, the best and most relevant portion of the book comes in the fourth chapter, which starts on the 75th page. Within that sliver of the book, there is a wealth of information that could not and should not be missed by anyone that reviews it properly and fully. The important topics of that portion of the book and how they apply to real-word examples and concepts shall be explained in this brief report.


One concept that is explained and defined straight off the top in the fourth chapter is the most important, and that would be the definition of organizational culture in general. The book notes that culture was first defined and formulated a term when it comes…

Medusa the Myth of Perseus and His
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12044934
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The myth of Perseus and his beheading of Medusa tells an adventurous tale that presents many meanings and interpretations. One interpretation deals with the hero Perseus conquering his inner female psyche on his way to understanding the ways of wisdom as represented by Athena. The purpose of this essay is to examine Perseus' quest in these terms of a rite of passage through the feminine mindset. This essay will describe his relationship with his mother, Athena, the Gray Sisters and finally Medusa as he Perseus finally realizes his lesson.

The story of Perseus must be understood in terms of the feminine mind. Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom, provides the hero with ample challenges to meet her standards. The Greeks understood their myths to help them live and learn important lessons during their journey. Perseus' story has great practical value because it identifies the unique circumstances that the…

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79442395
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Chapter 10 of Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is entitled “A Perilous Passage in the Slave Girl’s Life.” This title is significant because it does not merely refer to Jacobs’s passage through girlhood into womanhood, which would be regarded as a perilous passage for any women during the 19th century, but also the infamous middle passage of African Americans from freedom to slavery. Jacobs’s passage is doubly perilous, both as a slave who runs the risk of being sold further down the river, or to a cruel master, and also as a woman living in constant fear of rape. Eventually, Jacobs feels compelled to submit to Dr. Flint against her will, as a kind of rite of passage of enslaved womanhood, where women have to sacrifice their chastity and dignity to survive.
Jacob paints a poignant portrait of herself striving to uphold her family’s values…

Works Cited
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, 1861. Web. 7 Oct 2020. 

Women Men Communication it Has
Words: 3644 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 88560099
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The possibility that such attention was paid to these event in earlier times in European cultures is obvious but absent from modern representations of rites of passage. What can be interesting is the correlation between the two rites of passage discussed here, the "sweet 16" party and the Quinceanera and their similarities to weddings. Because weddings are expected to be delayed, more so in U.S. culture but also in Mexican and other cultures, as a mark of good judgment some rites of passage and especially those for girls seem to have become mirrors or proxy weddings, where massive expenses are sometimes incurred and dress is decidedly formal.

It must first be understood that the quinceaneras is actually a religious rite performed in conjunction with a special mass in the oman Catholic Church as well a blessing and a group of ceremonies for the 15-year-old girl, 15 of her friends and/or…


Arriagada, I. (2006). Changes and Inequality in Latin American Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 37(4), 511.

Baker, V.J. (2000). 4 Ritual Practice in a Sinhalese Village: Coping with Uncertainty. In the Nature and Function of Rituals: Fire from Heaven, Heinze, R. (Ed.) (pp. 59-79).

Fay, T.J. (2005). From the Tropics to the Freezer: Filipino Catholics Acclimatize to Canada, 1972-2002. 29.

Grimes, R.L. (2000). Deeply into the Bone: Re-Inventing Rites of Passage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

nursing home anthropology of aging
Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45153596
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Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes

Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.

The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…


Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.

Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.

Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: 

Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online:

Art Renaissance Artists the First
Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24797306
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Van Gennep maintains that rites of passage and rituals are intertwined, and thus, many of them can be related back to the religious rites celebrated in the other article. In fact, the artist in question created many religious items used in religious rituals in addition to his religious singing performances.

Not only do these pieces indicate the importance of religion in enaissance society, they indicate that rites, and rites of passage are common throughout the world, even in uncivilized countries, which indicates this is a very common social form of worship and custom. We still observe many rites of passage in society today, from "sweet 16" birthday parties to graduation from high school and college, which indicates we still have many roots in enaissance society, including our appreciation of rites and rites of passage.


Barr, C. A enaissance Artist in the service of a singing confraternity.

Van Gennep, a.…


Barr, C. A Renaissance Artist in the service of a singing confraternity.

Van Gennep, a. (1996). Territorial passage and the classification of rites.

Niger River Delta Tribe Anthropology of Gender
Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81865084
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Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: the world of old customs and traditions, and the world of globalized culture and its customs, values, and norms. However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant. The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki.

Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…

Dante's Journey Through His 'Mid-Life' Crisis It
Words: 2502 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79400731
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Dante's journey through his 'mid-life' crisis. It uses 7 sources in MLA format and it has a list of bibliography.

Mid-life is a period in life in which adults take on new responsibilities, in the family, and at work and changes are often wrought within, not only in the physical but also in their spiritual self. The realities of life often stare them in the face, a very real possibility of death begins to strike them, their faith or lack of it is in doubt, very often there are crises in personal or work life, there is a general need to "reappraise previous life structures with an eye to making revisions while there is still time" (Huyck, 1997).

The term of "mid-life crisis" was originally coined by Jaques (1965) who claimed that people encounter a crisis as they realize their own mortality and a change in time frame from "time…


Gardiner, Eileen, Ed. Visions of Heaven & Hell Before Dante. N.Y.: Italica Press, 1989.

Himmelfarb, Martha. Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature. Philadelphia: U. Of Penn. Press, 1983.

Le Goff, Jacques. The Birth of Purgatory. Chicago: U. Of Chicago Press, 1984.

Tierney, Brian. The Crisis of the Church & State: 1050-1300. A Spectrum Book. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1964.

Amadou Hampate Ba's Cultural and
Words: 8023 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 19553480
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" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.

The Narrative & the Symbolic

The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…


Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.

Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. 30 Sep, 2009. . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:

Art Renaissance Art Each of
Words: 434 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29069071
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itual and pageantry also surround the architecture and buildings of the time, as the article on the Medici indicates. The architecture of the enaissance is rich in art and tradition, making it some of the most memorable architecture in the world. Without art, this would not be the case, as the buildings celebrate the beauty of design and balance as well as form and function. Clearly, art permeates every aspect of the enaissance world, from the pageants and rituals that were so common, to the pageantry of the buildings that represent the time.

Not only do these pieces indicate the importance of religion in enaissance society, they indicate that rites, and rites of passage are common throughout the world, even in uncivilized countries, which indicates this is a very common social form of worship and custom. We still observe many rites of passage in society today, from "sweet 16" birthday…


Kertzer, D.I. Ritual, politics, and power.

Platius, a.J. Emblems of the city: Civic Pageantry and the rhetoric of urbanism.

Terry. Benchmarks of kings.

The festival of San Giovanni.

Ancient Art Sarcophagi
Words: 2774 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54746192
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Roman Sarcophagi sculptures, one sarcophagus of portraying Roman deity as portrayed on the Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus' triumphal return from India, contrasted with the other the Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazon made for a military leader.

During the second and 3rd centuries, inhumation became more and more used than cremation, and this created a push for a greater need for sarcophagi, as the departed were placed inside these vessels. "Sarcophagi are of eminent importance for the study of Roman art, for they provide the largest single body of sculptural material in which we may study both the style and subject matter of the art of the tumultuous years of the later Roman empire, when there are few other monuments with pictorial relief to which we can turn… through sarcophagus reliefs we can trace and re-experience the profound shift in pagan religious thought, away from…

Works Cited

Awan, H.T.. "Roman Sarcophagi." The Metropolitan Museum, n.d.

Web. 1 Apr 2014.

Koortbojian, Michael Myth, Meaning, and Memory on Roman Sarcophagi. Berkeley:

University of California Press, 1995.

Starting Point Carol Delaney's Dictum
Words: 1872 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79725256
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The Jewish naming in Istanbul was foreign to the local people.)

It is for that reason too that we are so apt to see communication or transmission of language as a 'simple' ordinary activity and expect the other to understand us. We forget (as Delaney for one pointed out) that language is a string of interpretations that symbols into verbal form. The symbols -- the way that we see the phenomena -- are engineered by our own particular experiences. Ipso facto, it therefore makes sense that each interprets these phenomena differently and that each imposes a different lens as symbol. It follows, therefore, that we are bound to fail in catching the drift of the person's message (or communication) as the sender intends it.

This was the insight that came to me through the project of watching two people communicate to one another in the cafeteria. It was as though…


Boas, F (1982) Race, language, and culture Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Delaney, C (2011) Investigating Culture: An Experiential Introduction to Anthropology John Wiley & Sons

Korzybski, A. (1994). Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics Institute of GS: UK.

Alan Dundes (1972) Seeing is Believing Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

History of Medical Technology
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Technology and the Development of Modern Medicine
The 20th century saw a seismic change in the perception of the human body, and the relationship of patients to physicians and other aspects of modern medicine. With the recent coronavirus pandemic, of course, the focus upon technology and medical developments has become a matter of global importance. Vaccines and innovative drugs were not solely innovations of the past century, but they extent to which they were proven safe and effective is relatively new. The relationship between providers and patients has likewise changed, as well as expectations about treatment.
Vaccination and Immunization Technology
Infectious disease was once an accepted part of modern life. However, the first smallpox vaccines were developed as early as the late 18th century. Safety of vaccines could not always be guaranteed, however. Inactivation of bacteria via heat or chemical treatment to confer immunity status was developed by the very…

Works Cited
Earl, Leslie. “How Sulfa Drugs Work.” National Institute of Health. March 12, 2012. Web. December 20, 2020. drugs-work
Gaynes, Robert. “The Discovery of Penicillin—New Insights After More Than 75 Years of Clinical Use.” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 23, 5 (2017): 849–853. Web. December 20, 2020. 
Palca, Joe. “The Race For A Polio Vaccine Differed From The Quest To Prevent Coronavirus.” NPR. May 22, 2020. Web. December 20, 2020. - shots/2020/05/22/860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to- prevent-coronavirus
Plotkin, Stanley. “History of vaccination.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 111, 34 (2014): 12283-7. December 20, 2020. Web. 
Quianzon, Celeste C, and Issam Cheikh. “History of Insulin.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, vol. 2, 2 10.3402/jchimp.v2i2.18701. July 16, 2012. Web. December 2020. 

the hypothetical case of the nacirema
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The Nacirema occupy a broad and diverse geographic zone between Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Their highly developed market economy belies, or perhaps informs, the evolution of elaborate body rituals. The body rituals of the Nacirema are diverse and usually gendered. The underlying assumptions of the Nacirema body rituals are that the human form in its natural, unadulterated or unadorned state, is inherently profane, impure, and aesthetically unpleasing. Therefore, the Nacirema set up shrines in their home. The shrines contain magical serums, lotions, and potions with mysterious properties. Wealthy Nacirema may have several shrines, elaborately designed, and many set aside special shrines for individual members of the family. Less well-to-do Nacirema may have only one body ritual shrine in the home, shared among all family members. Nacirema also have public body ritual shrines located in important areas of social or political importance, including the places in the hubs of their…

Idf or Israel Defense Forces
Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 40463026
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It is emphasized that military service has become an intimate part of the culture and that the demise of this rite of passage must be considered in terms of its societal impact. On the other hand there are also signs that new immigrants to the county are less enthusiastic or concerned about compulsory military service; therefore there may be change within the society with regard to the perceived social importance of this rite of passage -- which in turn would augur well for a move to a more professional and independent defense force.

Another related and important factor is that the structural relationship between the society and the military is changing. In the modern international, political and military environment there is less need for semi-skilled and skilled input from the civilian sections of the society. As the military becomes more specialized in response to new and more sophisticated defense threats,…

Music & Skimmington Riots an
Words: 8558 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34158478
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In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).

In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…

Works Cited

Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Ceremonies in Samoa Coming of Age
Words: 2294 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32785578
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Margaret Mead and Coming of Age in Samoa

Different aspects of culture define people over a period of time. It is only human nature that we see differences in culture and ourselves when thrown into a melting pot, a mix of multi-cultures in which we live today. One can only imagine what it must have been like for Margaret Mead as she traveled half way around the world in search of understanding aspects of other cultures, very foreign from our own. In this respect, she was a trail blazer, breaking with convention and expectation of her own role in society by becoming an anthropologist. It is the quest of the anthropologist to observe, discover culture and document aspects of that culture that are unique. ith this mind, it is important for one to have a working definition of culture, in order for one to explore rituals embedded within society that…

Works Cited

Coming of Age. 9 Nov. 2005

Dillon, W.S. "Margaret Mead (1901-1978)." The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education

31 (2001): 447-61.

Freeman, Derek. "Evolving Margaret Mead." New York Times Review of Books 32 (1985):

Magolda Peter Nov Dec 2003 Saying Good-Bye an
Words: 1540 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71007216
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Magolda, Pete. (Nov/Dec 2003) "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual." Jounal of College Student Development. Pp.1-6. Retived fom Find Aticles database of jounal aticles on 26 Oct 2005 at

Conveying Citizenship though Commencement Ritual via a Desciptive Anthopology

Anthopologists can use desciptive, longitudinal, compaative, and multiscale eseach when studying human societies aound the wold -- and also deploy these same methods quite close to home, even in the scholastic envionment that suounds them -- and suounds thei students. The 2003 aticle by Pete Magolda, entitled "Saying Good-Bye, an Anthopological Examination of a Commencement Ritual," attempts to conduct a desciptive anthopology of a specific gaduation commencement that will become pat the autho's lage study of exit ituals in highe education. The gaduation event descibed in the aticle is a singula one, howeve. It occued in "May 2001 at a medium-size public, 4-yea esidential campus in the Midwest,…

references of good citizenship and advice. (Magdola, 2003, p.3) The president's speech is analyzed on a rhetorical scaffold of advice, humor, and finally a call to improve the future. The high physical place of the president, his authority in giving diplomas, the uniform costumes of the once-diverse graduates have both a nostalgic and in a way a chilling aspect -- once, the individuality of this particular group of students dominated the college, now they have been shorn of their identity. They wear the same clothes and head off into an uncertain future in America, but have the comfort of their common university participation to shield them from the common demands of adulthood. The article, although one could argue with specific generalizations made from a limited study, provides an important window into one's own cultural, civic participation in a future ritual.

Evolution of Civilizations as a
Words: 4219 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37397855
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, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.

When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.

Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.

Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…

Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4

Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4

Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29

Where Are You Going Where Have Been
Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 21076538
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here Are You Going, here Have Been?

Joyce Carol Oates's short story "here Are You Going, here Have You Been?" was first published in the literary journal Epoch in 1966. The story is about beginnings and the rites of passage. This work is an illustration of a coming of age story, also known as an initiation story. In such stories, the protagonist undergoes an important rite of passage, transformation, an experience of transition, usually from childhood to adulthood, or from innocence to experience. The story focuses on that turning point, that trial, or the passage from one state to the other.

The story is about a fifteen-year-old girl named Connie, a pretty girl who is in the middle of a rebellious adolescence. She alienates herself from her family, preferring to spend her time with her friends at the local restaurant looking for boys. She enjoys the popular music of the…

Works Cited

Dylan, Bob. "It's All Over Now, Baby Blue," "Blown' in the Wind," "A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall," "The Times They Are A-Changin'," "Like A Rolling Stone." Bob Dylan Lyrics. (2011). 5 May 2011.

Marsden, Christina. "Where are You Going, Where Have You Been?": Seduction, Space, and a Fictional Mode." Studies in Short Fiction. Vol. 18, Issue 1 (Winter, 1981): p. 65-70. 5 May 2011. <>

Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" The Wheel of Love. New York: The Vannguard Press, Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., 1970.

Mandatory Civil Service at 18 for Everyone
Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53324753
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Civil Service

The war in Iraq has spawned a debate over whether or not all persons should have to spend some time in the civil service when they reach the age of eighteen. There are huge sacrifices that are being made in Iraq and Afghanistan but they only really affecting working class Americans. Not everyone can be in the military but everyone can participate in various aspects of the civil service. The purpose of this paper is to provide definitive proof that civil service should be mandatory at the age of eighteen.

Mandatory service

Many veterans and ordinary Americans believe that a grave mistake was made in 1973 when the draft was abolished. Many felt that military service should be mandatory.

An article in Washington Monthly explains,

Such a system should be mandatory not voluntary. It should be broad, not narrow, with exceptions based on inability rather than personal inconvenience.…


Civil Service." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.

You will volunteer / National-service schemes ultimately are a self- contradiction. Gazette Feb 7, 2002. April 1, 2004

Bridgeland, John M., Stephen Goldsmith, and Leslie Lenkowsky. "New Direction: Service and the Bush Administration's Civic Agenda." Brookings Review Fall 2002: 18+. 

Just, Richard. "Suddenly Serviceable: Is This the Moment for National Service." The American Prospect 1 Jan. 2002: 15+.

Leadership as a Montage of
Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41831117
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Like the passages model, the leadership as a point of view model focuses on
developing one extraordinary leader its end result. The process of
achieving that end result is similar to the servant leadership process, in
that it requires the leader to focus not on levels or situations, but
instead on a formula for success, namely "seeing what needs to be done,
understanding all the underlying forces play in a situation, [and] having
the courage to initiate action to make things better" (Clawson, 2006,
chapt. 1). Still, the model's process contains facets similar to the
situational model by asking leaders to look at underlying forces, as well
as facets similar to passages model by suggesting that leadership is a
function of a person's own qualities, which must be developed over time.
By focusing on the leadership as point of view model, organizations can
solve problems relating to the confusion of…

Charan, R., Drotter S., & Noel, J. (2003). Six Leadership Passages. In J.
M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Business Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 12).
Clawson, J. (2006). Level Three Leadership, Getting Below The Surface, 3e.
Greenleaf, R.K. (2003). The Servant as Leader. In J. M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 9)
Hersey, P. & Blachard, K.H. (2003). Situational Leadership. In J.M. Kouzes

Mormons' Upward the Lds Church
Words: 2396 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99211366
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For example, to attend the temple, advance in the Priesthood, or serve a mission, individuals must adhere to the Law of Chastity (e.g., no premarital or extramarital sexual intimacy) and abstain from alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs. They are also required to promise to care for others, including both family and other church members. Similarly, all physically and emotionally capable young men between the ages of 18 and 27 are expected to serve missions and young women are invited to do so as well. While serving a mission, young people leave all individualistic pursuits (i.e., jobs, scholarships, dating relationships, etc.) behind for an extended period of time (i.e., 2 years or 18 months, for men and women, respectively). During this time they are engaged full time (all day, every day with no trips home to see family) in sharing their beliefs with others and engaging in service projects.

The mission…


Barry, Carolyn Mcnamara, and Larry J. Nelson. "The Role of Religion in the Transition to Adulthood for Young Emerging Adults." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34, no. 3 (2005): 245. .

Coates, James. In Mormon Circles: Gentiles, Jack Mormons, and Latter-Day Saints. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. .

Mangum, Garth, and Bruce Blumell. The Mormons' War on Poverty: A History of LDS Welfare, 1830-1990. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993. .

Riley, Naomi. "God on the Quad: At Religious Colleges-Which Are Growing Fast-Student Life Is Different." The American Enterprise, March 2005, 22. .

Spiritual Experiences According to Ariel
Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77477430
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Today, self-inflicted pain is generally interpreted as a form of psychopathology, but within the mystical context, "pain unmakes the profane world with its corporeal attachments and leads the mystics away from the body to self-transcendence," thus pain and discipline elevates the individual into a world of deeper human community (Post). According to Glucklich, pain is even blotted out via a process in the brain known as gate-control that significantly alters biochemistry and consciousness, therefore "intentionally painful manipulations of the body could lead to states of self-transcendence or effacement" (Post).

Glucklich believes that today's society has lost the capacity to understand why and how pain could be valuable for mystics and members of religious communities, and even for humanity as a whole (Post). Historians of religion have long acknowledged the ubiquitous presence of intentionally painful rituals and practices, and have used this awareness as a key to understanding religious experiences (Post).…

Works Cited

Hansen, Suzy. "Sacred Pain." Retrieved December 12, 2006 at

Pazola, Ron. "Sacred ground: what Native Americans believe." U.S. Catholic.

February 1, 1994. Retrieved December 12, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Post, Stephen G. "Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul." First Things:

Mbuti Unmovable The Mbuti of the Ituri
Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58776139
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Unmovable: The Mbuti of the Ituri Forest

For more than 2,000 years, the world has been aware of the Mbuti (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers that reside in the Ituri Forest of northern Zaire. References have been made to Pygmies that date as far back as Ancient Egypt, with mentions made by Herodotus, Aristotle and Homer (McDonald, 2004). Little however, was known about the daily lives of the Mbuti Pygmies until the 1950's. In an effort to find the values of goodness in the world post World War II, the public became interested in an isolated people who seemed far freer and more egalitarian than most self described "civilized societies (McDonald, 2004).The Mbuti are part of a larger group of forest dwellers referred to as the ambuti. According to the most recent statistics, there are reportedly less than 20,000 pure blood ambuti remaining in the world (Turnbull, 1998).

The Mbuti are described…


Adovasio, J., Soffer, O., & Klima, b. (1996). Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced

Woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago, Antiquity 70,


Driver, J. (1990). Meat in due season: The timing of communal hunts. In L. Davis, and M. Reeves, (Eds.), Hunters of the recent past. London: Unwin Hyman.

Orthodox Jew
Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28968605
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Orthodox Judaism

There is great variation in the ways orthodox Jews practice their religion, and in what they believe. Many of the variations depend on cultural factors, as Jews are scattered all over the world. However, the basic tenets of the religion are all rooted in monotheism (belief in only one supreme God). The principles of the religion also include a firm belief in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) as being the word of God. This means interpreting the Torah in a manner that impacts daily life choices and lifestyle, including the observance of Kosher dietary habits and the Sabbath day. The practice of Orthodox Judaism emphasizes ritual and tradition, family and community life.

Life is sacred, but there are no hard rules about when life begins. egarding abortion, "even among Orthodox Jews it may be construed as 'a personal matter," ("What do Orthodox Jews think about abortion and why?" 2000).…


Baeke, G., Wils, J.P. & Broeckaert, B. (2011). There is a time to be born and a time to die. Journal of Religious Health 50(4): 778-795.

Donin, H.H. (1991). To Be a Jew. Basic.

Moss, A. (n.d.). Organ donation. Chabad. Retrieved online: 

Rich, T.R. (2011). Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife. Retrieved online:

Effects of Gender Related Bullying and Harassment
Words: 2121 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20873531
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Bullying and Conflict in Relation to Learning About Gender and Other Forms of Equity

One of the harsh realities of life in the United States is the potential for bullying behaviors to adversely affect the learning environment for young victims, transforming the school environment from a place of learning into one that is dreaded and feared. Moreover, bullying behaviors can have a profound effect on the manner in which young people are socialized concerning gender roles as well as their perspectives concerning equity later in life. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper provides a review of the literature to develop a discussion concerning the issues of bullying and conflict in relation to learning about gender and other forms of equity and the implications these have for students and teachers. Finally, following this discussion, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in…

Rise of Ricers in the Car Culture Scene
Words: 3417 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77672853
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Car Culture: How and Why "Ricers" Came into The Scene

Since the advent of cars, people have always wanted to play around with them and make modifications of their own preferences. Car modification has been taking place ever since we started manufacturing vehicles and the reason has been varied. There are some who did it for prowess or just for some mischief. For example, NASCAR evolved from the building of super-fast cars that were mostly a result of bootlegging. The initial modifications that people would perform on their vehicles were mainly conducted due to criminal activities. In the old cars, there was no matching of cars to engine numbers, transmission, or body frame. This made it possible for thieves to change engines and repaint a vehicle, which in turn meant they have a new car. This car modification was referred to as hot rodding. However, all this changed when the…

Sociology the Impact of Baby
Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 65934210
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Traditional Twentieth Century funeral services focused heavily on heavenly rewards and made little of the earthly grief of survivors. (Bregman, 2001, p. 331) it was as if life was nothing but a long and complicated prelude to death. Numerous individuals; however, have challenged this approach, preferring instead to recognize that human life is something of value. The deceased is someone to be remembered for their unique contributions to the lives of those around them. "To celebrate the uniqueness of an individual life at a funeral is more true to the character of God as creator of nature and persons, than to disallow particularities and focus exclusively on a universal, theocentric but excessively abstract message." (Bregman, 2001, p. 331) by humanizing the experience of death, baby boomers try to make sense out of an essentially incomprehensible process. Traditional religion appears alien to many baby boomers, their own human achievements are what…


Bregman, L. (2001). 17 the Death Awareness Movement. In Religion and Psychology: Mapping the Terrain; Contemporary Dialogues, Future Prospects, Jonte-Pace, D. & Parsons, W.B.

Eds.) (pp. 319-331). London: Routledge.

Hayslip, B., & Peveto, C.A. (2005). Cultural Changes in Attitudes toward Death, Dying, and Bereavement. New York: Springer.

Kopp, S.W., & Kemp, E. (2007). The Death Care Industry: A Review of Regulatory and Consumer Issues. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 41(1), 150+.

Indian Camp and The Garden
Words: 2729 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 35052430
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The scene is full of hope and joy, and the use of light helps to illuminate this mood.

Once Laura crosses the road, the scene is described quite differently. At first it is "smoky and dark," however Laura does manage to see in some of the cottages flickers of light in the shadows. These flickers of light represent flickers of hope, but they are far less luminous than those which were presented during the garden party.

"The Indian Camp" also makes use of light and dark imagery as a means of signifying elements of the initiation process. Nick and his father start off their journey in the dark of night, which signifies the lack of knowledge that surrounds Nick, and his blindness to the events that are about to take place in the shanty in the Indian camp. Like Laura's experience in the village, Nick too is able to see…

Works Cited

Hemingway, Ernest. "Indian Camp." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 7-12..

Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 46-64.

Mordecai, Marcus. "What is an Initiation Story?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter, 1960), pp. 221-228

Italian Feminism and Masculinity
Words: 8053 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81769165
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Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.

Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…


Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.

Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.

Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.

Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.

Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes
Words: 28549 Length: 95 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 64807002
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Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.

In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.

A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…

works cited:

Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5

Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)

Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received

Gray highlight means writer found this source

Natures Healing Powers the Power of Nature
Words: 1933 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40272370
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Natures Healing Powers

The Power of Nature in the healing process has been known for centuries by the various civilizations of the world. The process of engaging nature in the healing process is done in a variety of way. It can be through the action of some herbs, performing meditation on mountains, relaxing in a windflower terrain/field or even by strolling by a slow flowing stream.

In this paper however, we are going to critically focus on the psychological, emotional and culturally healing power of nature as seen by indigenous peoples of the world-including Native Americans, Inuit, and Inughuit, African, Aboriginal, Asian cultures

The Native American nature healing process comprises of several beliefs and practices which make part of the life of the native tribesmen, women and children. The process is made up of several elements. These elements include religion, herbal medicines, spirituality and several other rituals that are all…


Durkheim, E. (1912) The Elementary Forms Of The Religious Life.

Gateley.E in God's Womb: A Spiritual Memoir

Gennep, A. (1960) The Rites of Passage. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Grimes, R (1994) The Beginnings of Ritual Studies. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina

Aztecs Published IN1887 the Aztecs
Words: 1458 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7286378
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" The author continues, "Anger, love, and jealousy may trouble them, but these passions rarely make them commit the extravagances so common among Europeans," (Biart p. 48). Here the author demonstrates a serious bias in the work: repeatedly glorifying the Aztecs. The Aztecs sometimes seems to be about the author's impressions of Aztec culture more so than about the culture itself. Sometimes the book seems like an account of encounter between the civilized Europeans and the primitive indigenous people of Mexico. The author compares Aztec society with European society at several times in the book.

Throughout the Aztecs Biart broadcasts a deep admiration for the culture. The author's palpable admiration of the Aztecs usually works in the book's favor by providing a post-colonial examination of a pre-Columbian society. Except for the stereotypes and generalizations that occasionally creep into the historiography, Biart uses his personal respect to bolster the book. For…

College Is a Huge Transition
Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70959101
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Therefore, my friendships became deeper and more meaningful after college than before college. I also met people from around the world in college, which expanded my mind and my awareness of other cultures. In high school I mostly had friends from similar backgrounds as me, whereas after college I mostly have friends from diverse cultural and religious backgrounds.

Finally, I am a different person psychologically since entering college: whereas I was dependent, egocentric, and lacked a clear sense of identity before university, now I have a strong sense of self and a clear vision of my future. My pre-college self was more self-absorbed than I am now that I am in university. Whereas I thought mostly of myself before, now I think a lot about worldly issues and matters of global importance like pollution and war. I am also more interested in other people on a personal level than I…

Western Religions Given the Remarkable
Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86307427
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Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.

Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…


Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at 

Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at

Self-Injurious Behavior
Words: 5019 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41574937
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Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.

DSH is also often called parasuicide,…


Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.

Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.

Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.

Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.

Main Characteristics of Hinduism
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Hindu Festivals: Manifestation of the Hindu Society and Culture

Throughout history, human civilization were influenced by numerous religions that carry with it a specific set of beliefs and customs, and philosophy that guided people how to live their lives on earth. Early world religions are characteristically Eastern or traditionalist, in their approach, such as uddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. These old world religions have bee influential in changing and developing many facets of human civilization, particularly in developing social interaction among people and cultivation of culture that is unique and characteristically derived from the dominant and prevailing religion in a society.

Hinduism, as an old world religion, is considered as the cradle of civilization for most South Asian countries, particularly India, where Hinduism was born as early as 1500 .C. It is evident that India as a nation is greatly influenced by Hindu philosophy and culture. The way of life among…


Klostermaier, K. (1994). A Survey of Hinduism. NY: New York Press.

Hinduism." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002.

Shattuck, C. (1999). Hinduism. London: Taylor & Francis.

Zelliot, E. (1988). The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra. NY: New York Press.

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
Words: 23454 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 67540801
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 99740327
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

The Tattoo Experience Regrets and Memories
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Janes used humor to describe her "failed" tattoo as a Rorschach inkblot. This was a light-hearted, comedic way of showing how what she wanted (something delicate but strong -- like an iron-wrought fence) could turn out so wrong. Dolgoff's humor is more situational -- popping Vicodin to get through a tattooing. The humor works for both pieces, because it lightens the mood: Janes refers to herself as a "badass" in a playful but serious way and Dolgoff shows a softer, more sensitive side to getting a tattoo.

I don't think they would need to be forgiven anymore. Today, so many people have tattoos that it just seems like something that is accepted. Especially as the younger generation grows up, the tattoo taboo will recede into the past like an ancient memory. It is almost like a rite of passage today -- or an expression of creative genius, as Dolgoff notes.…