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However, this level of fear or force doesn't necessarily have to be great in order to meet the statutory threshold. Since robbery and armed robbery differ slightly, the essential elements for armed robbery include those of robbery though the use of a deadly weapon is included to take immediate control of the victim. On the other hand, the essential elements of carjacking are hijacking for the purpose of stealing a motor vehicle and armed assault on the vehicle's occupants.
In armed robbery offences, the main weapons that will suffice are deadly weapons which are either loaded or unloaded firearms. Notably, the weapons that can suffice in armed robbery offence are other weapons that can cause great bodily harm or death of the victim such as daggers, slingshots, sword canes, bludgeons, and sharp pointed canes ("Criminal Law," n.d.).
The mens rea for committing a robbery is theft of a valuable item…
"Criminal Law: Robbery -- Online Outline." (n.d.). New Mexico Department of Public Safety.
Retrieved September 26, 2011, from http://www.dps.nm.org/training/legal/documents/Robbery.pdf
"Robbery." (n.d.). Koehler Law: Jamison Koehler, Attorney at Law. Retrieved September 26,
2011, from http://koehlerlaw.net/assault-theft/robbery/
It was stated in the parameters that he was in a two-block radius. Units would be dispatched to roadblock the surroundings, one at each intersection and one at each alleyway entry/exit point. After the majority of the crowds have evacuated a clear directive would be made to officers, "No one gets in or out of hot zone until they've been questioned." A command station would be set up in front of the bank.
The sniper would be placed on the tallest building in the area, the three-story building across from the bank. He would be given the directive to shoot suspect on sight, as Don Coker says in his "Banking Security Principles and Issues" regarding the predilections of bank robbers, "Regardless of what anyone anywhere states, no criminal wants to get shot…" (Coker, 2010). Of course this is a rather serious directive, but assuming he is armed with the intent…
Coker, D (2010). Bank Security Principles and Issues. HG Experts Legal Experts
Directory. Retrieved from http://www.hgexperts.com/
Seibert, P (2011). SafeCatch: An Educational Partnership Offering More Customer
Development and Less Crime. The Police Chief. Retrieved from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org .
(2009). An Assessment of Scales Measuring Constructs in Tests of Criminological Theory Based on National
Youth Survey Data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(1), 73-105.
Blatt, Sidney J., & Auerbach, John S. (2000). Psychoanalytic Models of the Mind and their
Contributions to Personality Research. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 14, 429-
Brannigan, Augustine. (1997). Self-Control, social control and evolutionary psychology:
Towards an integrated perspective on crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 403-431.
Heimer, Karen, & Matsueda, Ross L. (1994). Role-Taking, Role Commitment, and
Delinquency: A Theory of Differential Social Control. American Sociological Review,
Hoffmann, John P., & Miller, Alan S. (1998). A Latent Variable Analysis of General
Strain Theory. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14(1), 83-105.
Isom, Margaret Delores. (1998). Theorist -- Albert Bandura: The Social Learning Theory.
Retrieved April 16, 2009, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm.
Klinteberg, Britt AF, Humble, Kristina, & Schalling, Daisy. (1992). Personality and Psychopathy of males…
Armstrong, Todd a., Lee, Daniel R., & Armstrong, Gaylene. (2009). An Assessment of Scales Measuring Constructs in Tests of Criminological Theory Based on National
Youth Survey Data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46(1), 73-105.
Blatt, Sidney J., & Auerbach, John S. (2000). Psychoanalytic Models of the Mind and their
Contributions to Personality Research. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 14, 429-
Burglary, obbery, Homicide
Burglary, robbery and homicide are all criminal activities directed against the average man. There is never a specific indication as to the person who is going to fall as the next victim, and thus every individual needs to know what precautions should be taken. Since we are discussing three different types of crimes, the analysis is also spread up in three different sub-sections -- Burglary, obbery and Homicide.
Burglary is a crime generally preventable if the person to whom this occurs takes adequate precautions. Yet there are a high number of these crimes that take place and all over United States there are an estimated 2,329,501 burglaries that take place during a year and the loss by victims is a staggering amount of $3.1 billion. In general, it has been seen that a burglary takes place every 12 seconds in the country and causes a loss of…
"Burglary is Everyone's Problem" Retrieved from http://www.statefarm.com/consumer/burgbroc.htm
Accessed 12 November, 2005
'Homicide trends in the U.S." Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/overview.htm Accessed 12 November, 2005
'Know the facts" Retrieved from http://www.superioralarms.com/html/facts.html Accessed 12 November, 2005
Cold Blood" case is very chilling and has been depicted by Truman Capote personally as well as by others in much the same or at least a slightly different way. Beyond that, while the Clutter case was bad enough, there is a major question as to whether the two assailants in the Clutter case also committed the Walker murders. While there is no "smoking gun" that links the two Clutter killers to the Walker case, there are a few common threads that are very intriguing. This report shall cover those common threads, the steps that an investigator would undertake when it comes so such an investigation and the steps a prosecutor would take at trial including what witnesses would be called. There will also be a discussion about interrogation techniques, whether a search warrant was needed to obtain the shotgun and the knife from the Hickok home and whether a…
Capote, T. (1995). In Cold Blood (pp. 1-343). New York: Vintage.
Crimes Committed Against Persons in the United States
The United States is one of the world's super powers. Like any other country, it experiences the challenge of crimes committed against people too. The FBI has shown that the rate of violent crimes committed in the US has been declining for the past two decades. Violent crimes can be classified into types that include rape, murder, aggravated assault, and robbery. Statistically, the rate of crimes committed to people in 2016 decreased by 1.1% when it is compared with those reported in 2015. The rates of crimes against people vary across regions. For example, the FBI reports that in 2016, there was a positive change in the rate of 2.0% in murder cases in Northeast region and 1.2% in Midwest (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Therefore, this research paper examines the different types of crimes committed against persons in the US, their characteristics,…
In this particular scenario, the police stopped a driver based upon the fact that the driver matched the description of the cashier who was the victim of the robbery and the driver had an Alabama student parking sticker (the store's robber was wearing a cap and a t-shirt from this university). The suspect was not speeding when the license was obtained, it should be noted. But the actions of the officer were consistent with stop-and-identify laws which permit police to ask suspects for licenses or other identification.
Supreme Court has generally not looked favorably upon stop-and-identify laws when they have been under its review. In the case of Kolender v. Lawson, 461 U.S. 352 (1983), one of the most recent stop-and-identify cases, the statute was deemed "unconstitutionally vague on its face within the meaning of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by failing to clarify what…
Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada. (2004). Retrieved from:
Kolender v. Lawson, 461 U.S. 352 (1983). Retrieved from:
Sneaky Pete Case
Answers to Jake Law's Questions
Jake Law is the prosecuting attorney in the armed robbery case of Sneaky Pete. In the current negotiation, Jake must resolve his issues with the defense attorney, Chris Vaughn and the Judge as well. It is important for Jake to remember his role as an officer of the court and do what is right for the jurisdiction he represents and not simply for his own personal benefit. Unfortunately for Pete, many of these attorneys are very unsympathetic to anything other than their career.
Prosecuting attorneys serve the public by representing local, state or federal governments in criminal court cases. They participate in the investigation of criminal activity and fight for justice and represents the court. They must also have an understanding of their communities' needs and the motivations driving law breakers. Successful prosecution can lead to an individual's loss of rights, and…
Sneaky Pete Case Study. Provided by customer.
The Legal Dictionary. "District and Prosecuting Attorneys." Viewed 11 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/District+and+Prosecuting+Attorneys
The Legal Dictionary. "Defense Attorney." Viewed 11 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://legal- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Defense+attorney
The rationale for integrating this unit is based on the fact that crimes -- like most of all other social problems -- are easier to prevent than to deal with afterwards. Within this unit, emphasis is placed on watching people and businesses for any indication of criminal behavior, ensuring the safety of children (providing the names of offenders), providing tips for safety and crime prevention and so on (Bloomington MN Government Site).
Aside from the departments to be included, the discussion at this level should also focus on the departments that will not be included in the new effort to fight violent crime. These four departments that will not be included in the task force include the following: training, traffic investigation unit, personnel unit and the records keeping unit. Al these units have some connection with crime fighting, but can collaborate with the task force, without needing to be included…
Crime prevention unit. Creative solutions to deter crime. Bloomington MN Government Site. http://www.ci.bloomington.mn.us/cityhall/dept/police/specops/crime_prevention/crime_prevention.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
LAPD organizational chart. LAPD Online. http://www.lapdonline.org/inside_the_lapd/content_basic_view/1063 accessed on January 24, 2013
Organizational chart. Town of Vestal New York. http://www.vestalny.com/DeptPage.aspx?pID=10 accessed on January 24, 2013
Structure of policing in London. Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
A warrant may or may not be required to arrest the defendant when the officer has probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed armed assault, and probable cause to believe that the defendant is hiding in a third person's garage. A warrant is not required to arrest a defendant for a felony that an officer has probable cause to believe the defendant committed. Additionally, a warrant is not required to enter a third person's garage if the officer has probable cause to believe that the defendant does not have the owner's consent to be in the garage, as his presence there for the purpose of evading the police constitutes burglary. The officer may enter the garage without a warrant if he believes the defendant's presence there is a threat to another person. A search warrant is required if the officer does not have probable cause to believe…
It is the meeting of two principles that makes the climactic fight between Hal and Hotspur so compelling, and at the same time there is a sense of righting a grievance and restoring to Hal the respect and hopes of the kingdom that Hotspur had robbed him of, along with his glory and celebrity. Hal tells his father that:
Percy is but my factor, good lord,
To engross up glorious deeds on my behalf.
And I will call him to so strict account
That he shall render every glory up
(III. ii. 147-50).
The language of commerce here suggests "a world in which practical cunning is the key to every triumph," but even this attitude of Hal's is seen to be a front when he allows the credit for his victory to be taken (Rubinstein 294). Through all of Hal's prticipation in robbery and symbolic language implying te same in…
Mabillard, Amanda. "1 Henry IV: Analysis." Shakespeare Online, 2006. Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.shakespeare-online.com/playanalysis/1henryIVcommentary.html
Over, William. "Review: Henry IV Parts I II." Theatre Journal 31(4), pp. 545-6.
Rubinstein, E. "1 Henry IV: The Metaphor of Liability." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 10(2), pp. 287-95.
Shakespeare, William. The First part of King Henry IV. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
3 for robbery, 244.0 for assault, 367.7 for burglary, 1,617.7 for larceny theft and 213.3 for vehicle theft
In 2005: 4.5 for murder, 18.9 for rape, 182.7 for robbery, 239.7 for assault, 351.3 for burglary, 1,569.6 for larceny theft and 185.6 for vehicle theft
Year Population Murder Rape Robbery Assault urglary Larceny-Theft Vehicle Theft 2003-19,212,425-934 3,775-35,790-48,987-75,453-311,422-45,204-2004 19,227,088-889 3,608-33,506-46,911-70,696-311,036-41,002-2005 19,254,630-874 3,636-35,179-46,150-68,034-302,220-35,736
FI, Uniform Crime Reports, (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm)
As the charts prove, there has been a decrease in the number of murders, larceny thefts, assaults, burglaries and vehicle thefts. As for rape and robbery we can notice that year 2005 has brought a slight increase in the percentage comparatively with the previous year, meaning 2004.
I believe that these drops in criminal activity are not due only to the better coordination of the police compared to the previous years. I must admit, though, that the greatest part may have been achieved by it.…
FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm (n.d.)
activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.
Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.
New York City crime statistics of the last three years
Difference in Percentage
2011 compared to 2010
Division of Criminal Justice Services (June 7, 2013). Crime, Arrest and Firearm Activity Report: Data Reported through April 30, 2013 (page 3001). New York City, NY: Office of Justice Research and Performance. Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/criment/ojsa/greenbook.pdf
Oppel, R.A. Jr. (2011). Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts, New York Times, May 24,-page A17.
That they were recognized as "America's most famous outlaws" ("Bonnie Parker Biography") would have been enough to encourage them to continue for the sake of popularity.
But Bonnie and Clyde did not commit their crimes for psychological reasons alone. Greed, and the desire for wealth, led them to commit their crimes for financial reasons as well. Bonnie's poetry seems to communicate this as well. In her "The Story of Suicide Sal," whose female protagonist can be read as the idealized image that Bonnie had of herself, Bonnie writes that "one year we were desperately happy; Our ill gotten gains we spent free" ("Bonnie Parker"). The association between money, happiness, and love in this stanza can be used to argue that this is what Bonnie, herself, felt towards the gaining of wealth. Further, it is noted that "their motivation was personal greed" ("Bonnie Parker").
Still, Hendley points out that Bonnie and…
"Bonnie and Clyde." The Biography Channel. n.d. 14 April 2009. <
"Bonnie Parker." The Internet Accuracy Project. n.d. 14 April 2009. <
http://www.accuracyproject.org/cbe-Parker , Bonnie.html>
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
That on June 5, 2005, Mr. A did willingly state that the robbery was perpetrated by Mr. A on June 3, 2005, and that Mr. A is in possession of the additional items taken as proceeds of the robbery. The proceeds are located in the bedroom at Mr. a's home, located at 678 Oak Street, Collingswood.
That based upon the above, I believe there exists probable cause to believe there are presently jewelry, and evidence of their possession, in the home of Mr. a, 678 Oak Street, Collingswood, which are evidence of the fruits and instrumentalities of violations of Texas Penal Code, Chapter 26, Section 29.03(2) and, Chapter 26, Section 31.03(5).
Collingswood Police Department
SUSCRIED & SWORN to before me on this ____ day of
Superior Court Judge
Hall, Kermit L. And David Scott Clark. (2002). Oxford Companion to American Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.…
Hall, Kermit L. And David Scott Clark. (2002). Oxford Companion to American Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Supreme Court of the United States. (June 10, 1968). John W. Terry, Petitioner, v. State of Ohio. 392 U.S. 1, 88 S.Ct. 1968.
Supreme Court of the United States. (June 21, 1990). Illinois v. Rodriguez. 497 U.S. 177, 110 S. Ct. 2793.
Supreme Court of the United States. (June 8, 1983). Illinois v. Gates. 462 U.S. 213 (1983).
instant case are typical of many criminal cases presented to the courts on a daily basis and the role and responsibilities of the principals remain essentially the same. The prosecutor in the case has the primary duty to ensure that justice is done. This duty applies not only to the victim, but also applies as to the defendant. In the instant case this requires that the prosecutor make every effort to make sure that all parties responsible for the crime are properly prosecuted and that such prosecution is conducted fairly (Graham, 2005). The fact that the defendants apparently used a gun in the commission of the crime presents the prosecutor with a considerable problem relative to any plea bargain. If the defendants are charged with a gun specification, the prosecutor must determine whether or not to drop such specification as part of the plea negotiation. In light of the recent…
Bibas, S. (2004). Plea Bargaining Outside the Shadow of Trial. Harvard Law Review, 2463-2547.
Graham, B.L. (2005). Prosecutorial Ethics and Victim's Rights: The Prosecutor's Duty of Neutrality. Lewis & Clark Law Review, 559-579.
O'Hear, M.M. (2008). Plea Bargaining and Procedural Justice. Georgia Law Review, 407- 469.
Smith, A. (2003). The Difference in Criminal Defense and the Difference it Makes. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy, 83-140.
Virginia Beach, VA: Crime ates and Trends
eviewing the rape, robbery and murder trends for Virginia Beach, VA is incredibly revelatory. According to the website city-data.com, Virginia Beach has a crime rate of 184.9 which is significantly lower than the entire U.S. average, which is at 301. In 2012, the number of murders which were committed in this city was at 21, which is the equivalent to 4.7 per 100,000 people. The total number of rapes was at 58, which was at 13 per 100,000 people. The total number of robberies was 326, which functioned at 72.8 per 100,000 people. The number of assaults was at 353, which functioned at 78.9 per 100,000 people. The number of burglaries was 1573, which functioned at 351.4 per 100,000 people. The number of thefts which occurred was 9,662 which totaled at 2,158 per thousand people. The number of auto thefts which occurred was…
City-data.com (2013). Virginia Beach Crime Rate: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Virginia-Beach-Virginia.html
Trelllo, J. (2013). How Income Inequality Affects Crime Rates. Retrieved from Financesonline.com, http://financesonline.com/how-income-inequality-affects-crime-rates/
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
Evidence that would be available to the police includes the documentation made in the case notes. (Pearson) explains that the information that would be available if the information is in fact present would include what has been observed at the crime scene. Had the suspects been seen, what crime was committed was there a motivation for committing this crime, who called the police, and were there any victims. The second question that would provide information is that of what crime was committed was stolen, what evidence exists, what statements have been made, what additional information would be needed. The scenario given gives light to some of the above questions that would be noted in the case notes. We know that three people were involved, it was a robbery in a computer store, the men were masked, and there was a third man whom was the driver. There was a…
(). The Crime Scene: Field Notes, Documentation and Reporting. In Pearson Learning Solutions (pp. 53-78).: .
S. 806 (1996), in which police in a high drug area sopped a defendant's car after observing him wait a long time at an intersection, abruptly turn without signaling and speed of at an unreasonable speed. While the vehicle is stopped for this pretextual purpose, the cops may search the car even after the business of the traffic violation is taken care of.
In this case, there was no traffic violation per se, but there was a potential crime - i.e., loitering, so the pretextual rules would still apply.
Once the car is stopped for reasonable suspicion, road block or pretextual purposes, the police officers may search any part of the car where they reasonably believe contraband may be hidden.
For instance, if they are searching for a body, they may not search in the glove compartment, but if they are searching for weapons, they may. In this case, with…
Barbri Multistate Review. (2004) Criminal Procedure. New York: Barbri.
Reward and Punishment
The American system of justice is designed to ensure that criminal activity is punished and those responsible for crime are made to serve retribution for their choices. The system is based on the idea that it is better for 100 criminals to get away with crime than for one innocent man to go to prison. However, miscarriages of justice still take place in the American justice system. Innocent people go to prison and guilty people go free. Those unsatisfied with the situation have been known to take matters into their own hands. This vigilantism has been a major topic of debate with regard to ethics and the determination of what is morally right or wrong. The system is designed so that the regular everyday citizen does not have to perform the punishment on the criminals. The severity of a crime is supposed to have a direct correlation…
Thiroux, Jacques P. And Keith W. Krasemann (2008). Ethics: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
1921 and 1927, the trial and appeals of two individuals, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti,, dominated the news and were the inspirational source for many political movements throughout the world (Frankfurter). The profound and wide ranging effect that these two Italian immigrants had on society in the 1920 is remarkable and provides an excellent topic for discussion.
The incident giving rise to the Sacco and Vanzetti controversy occurred on April 15, 1920. The payroll of a South Braintree, Massachusetts factory was being carried by the company's paymaster and a guard for disbursement when the two men were suddenly robbed and killed by two men who retrieved the payroll and escaped in a waiting automobile. At first, the crime received only minimal attention on the local level around Boston but this would soon change as the two Italian immigrants, Sacco and Vanzetti, were arrested for an unrelated crime and eventually charged…
Alba, Richard. "Sacco and Vanzetti and the Immigrant Threat." Contexts (2011): 30-35.
Frankfurter, Felix. The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen. Buffalo: William S. Hein & Co., 2003.
McGirr, Lisa. "The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Global History." The Journal of American History (2007): 1085-1115.
Roschwalb, Susanne A. "Litigation Public Relations." Communications and the Law (1992): 3-24.
Justifications and Excuses
As Adam leaves the bank and approaches his car, he sees his wife behind the wheel of the car with an unknown man seated next to her holding an object to her side. Another man approaches Adam and informs him that he and his partner will kill Adam's wife unless Adam robs the bank and returns to the parking lot within five minutes. He hands Adam a stick-up note and a fake gun. Adam robs the bank and delivers the money to the men. Adam is arrested for bank robbery.
In the past there have been cases where innocent individuals have been forced to rob banks. Either they were threatened with guns or their family members were; others have been hooked up to explosives and told that if they do not rob the bank, then the bomb will detonate. In 2012, a woman was forced to rob…
Jones, D. (2013). Anthony Senatore charged after son, 4, fatally shoots friend Brandon Holt.
Reuters. Huffington Post.
Loewy, A. (1975). Criminal Law in a Nutshell. 2nd Edition. West Publishing Company.
Velasquez, A. (2012). Woman forced to rob was dating gunman, investigators say. KOAT
Every day, our police officers put their lives on the line to defend law-abiding citizens. It is imperative that a police officer's judgment is trusted, so officers can with full confidence perform their duties and know that they will not be 'second-guessed' when they act in good faith. In this instance, the officer was pursuing a suspect who was apparently armed and dangerous. Given the circumstances of the situation, it was reasonable for him to believe that the suspect was holding a gun. The suspect was behaving in an aggressive and threatening manner. The officer in question did not 'shoot to kill,' but shot to disarm the suspect instead. He had a responsibility not only to his own safety but to preserve the safety of his fellow officers and the safety of the community, as part of his duties.
In this instance, it was fortunate that the officer…
Deadly force. (1998). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Retrieved:
Managing Risks Associated With Stress
Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress
Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.
Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.
If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.
The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.
Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…
Criminal Law Lawyer Source. (2009). Search Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? Supreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme S. (1998, Dec 1). Moving and touching stowed or checked luggage: Fourth Amendment considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-53590199.html
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
Crips. (1995). What we celieve in. Nationwide Rip Ridaz. Quality Records.
Davis, Mike. (1992). City of Quartz. Vintage Books.
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence (2006). Gangs. Find Articles Retrieved April 2, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000260
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
Gun Control Legislation
The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…
Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html
Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).
Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-
236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
Souls by Michael Patrick MacDonald
To Whom it May Concern,
My name is Michael Patrick Macdonald and before I begin attending therapy sessions with you, I thought it best to introduce myself in hopes of explaining where I come from. My story begins in a housing project known as Old Colony, in the Lower End, which was an especially crime-ridden and impoverished area of the South Boston neighborhood affectionately known by residents as "Southie." Despite the regular occurrence of murder, robbery and other violent crime, and no matter how badly my family and our neighbors struggled to make ends meet, Southie was always supposed to be "the best place in the world, as Ma used to say before the kids died." But my four brothers did die and they are still dead, just like the hundreds of other young people for whom the crowds still gather at the old Gate…
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
The right to use force in self-defense an important civil liberty and right, ensconced in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. Because of Second Amendment assurances, all Americans technically have the right to bear arms in self-defense. Some states have attempted to restrict Second Amendment rights, but the vast majority of states have implemented “some statutory version” of the Castle Doctrine (“What is the Castle Doctrine,” n.d.). In fact, some states like Florida have taken the Castle Doctrine a step further to invoke what are commonly called “stand your ground laws.” Whereas the Castle Doctrine only applies to a person’s “castle,” or home and private property, stand your ground laws can be invoked in any situation requiring self-defense. There is no real reason, evidence-based or otherwise, why Americans who are protected by the provisions of the Constitution should not be able to defend themselves if and when faced with a…
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
crime of burglaries within the locality, the following investigation strategy has been devised, on the basis of community concerns and questions:
What technological aid is required for carrying out this operation?
Geographic Information System or computer-based crime mapping has been adopted on an extensive scale by a number of police forces across the globe. GIS aids law enforcement agencies in locating and keeping an eye on problematic sites (Watkins, et.al, 2002). CCTV (closed-circuit TV) helps them in detecting, preventing, and reducing chaos and crime in the streets. This form of technology may be applied to identify problem points where future robberies may possibly take place.
What course would you assume for examining robbery patterns?
Mapping of crime scenes will be heavily relied on (Writer Thoughts). Sites where robberies have occurred previously will be recorded in the police force's computer database, for enabling us to identify possible sites where robberies might…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Psychology: Theories, Experiments, and Quizzes. Examining Data and Drawing Conclusions. Retrieved January 6, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/a/drawing-conclusions.htm
(n.d.). NIJ Home Page NIJ Home. Why Crimes Occur in Hot Spots -- National Institute of Justice. Retrieved January 6, 2015, from http://nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/strategies/hot-spot-policing/pages/why-hot-spots-occur.aspx
Watkins, C., Mazerolle, L., Rogan, D., & Frank, J. (2002). Technological approaches to controlling random gunfire: Results of a gunshot detection system field test. Policing, 25(2), 345. Retrieved, from http://cjonline.uc.edu/resources/criminal-justice-research/technological-approaches-to-controlling-random-gunfire-results-of-a-gunshot-detection-system-field-test/
(n.d.). WikiHow - How to do anything. How to Prevent a Robbery (with Pictures) - wikiHow. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://www.wikihow.com/Prevent-a-Robbery
Criminal Procedure Law
This document outlines the proposed criminal justice system. Its aim is to prevent and control crime and criminal acts through punitive measures and penalties to those who violate the set laws. The paper is a suggested criminal justice system for a national jurisdiction, at the federal level. The jurisdiction has a population of about one million people who are equally dispersed in the urban cities and rural areas of the nation. The social and economic status of the residents in this jurisdiction ranges from the very poor to the very rich. The country has its fair share of illegal immigrants and the criminal acts perpetrated in the country do compare throughout all the regions of the country.
Murder is the termination of the life of a human being. The life of a human being starts at the point of conception. Murder is an act committed…
Adlerstein, Jo Anne C. "Felony-Murder in the New Criminal Codes." Am. J. Crim. L. 4 (1975): 249. Web.
Bubany, Charles P. "Texas Penal Code of 1974, The." Sw. LJ 28 (1974): 292. Web.
HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE, § CHAPTER 481-Sec. 481.001.-Sec. 481.354. (2013). Web.
Miller, Emily L. "(Wo) manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter, Gender, and the Model Penal Code." Emory LJ 50 (2001): 665. Web.
They set a plan for a train robbery which happened to be in July 11, 1899 but were unsuccessful as Cassidy partner Lay was killed in a shootout led by the local enforces including a sheriff and posse man were killed. Wild unch used to split up but than later they used to reunite on their secret hide out such as Hole-in-the-Wall, Robbers Roost, Porter's brothel and Madame Fannie which were located in San Antonio, Texas. Again in 1900, Cassidy and another partner Longabaugh robbed a bank namely First National ank of $32,640. In the same year they also robbed a train and took over $60,000 in cash. After this train robbery, the gang split up except Cassidy and Longabaugh, they remained together. In 1901, Cassidy and his friend Longabaugh fled towards New York where he changed his name as James Ryan and settled in a four room cabin on…
Kelly, Charles. The Outlaw Trail: A History of Butch Cassidy and His Wild Bunch. United States: Nebraska Press, 1996.
Wikipedia. Butch Cassidy. 15 November. 2007. Wikipedia Foundation Inc. 22 November. 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butch_Cassidy
5. They finally track the car to the O'Brien Furniture Company, who had a boxcar present at five robbery locations, and then they find that the car always returned to San Francisco after the robberies were completed. Cussler says, "Boxcar serial number 15758 was present in Virginia City and Bisbee during the robberies. In Virginia City, its cargo manifest was listed as fifty bales of barbed wire to be transported to a ranch in Southern California" (Cussler 150).
6. San Francisco turns up again when the man who tries to murder Bell turns out to be from San Francisco, too. They now know that the Bandit is probably based somewhere in San Francisco, and that his family and friends have no idea he is the Butcher Bandit, so they go to San Francisco to check out leads. Another tie-in to the Bay Area is that thanks to some serial numbers…
Cussler, Clive. The Chase. New York: Putnam's and Sons, 2007.
While it is true that American prisons and jails are overcrowded the answer is not to let out the violent offenders. These offenders need to receive nationally standardized sentencing and the sentences need to be longer than they currently are.
This five point plan proposes that the nation take the average sentence for each violent offense and double it. If the average sentence across the nation for robbery is three to six years, it will be changed to six to 12 years.
Third -- the third part of this five point plan to combat the emerging problem of violent crime in America will be to refuse early release. There is not a problem with allowing inmates to achieve the status of trustee however they should not be able to receive two for one days of jail credit with that status.
Jail and prison are boring. The time moves very slowly…
Barrios, Jarrett, (2006)Mass. voters give mandate for smart-on-crime policies.(Editorial)
The Boston Herald
Brack, Andy (2006) State looking at ways to take bites out of crime (accessed 6-26-07) http://www.statehousereport.com/columns/06.1015.crime.htm
____(2007) EDITORIAL: U.S. Statistics Show Violent Crime Making a Comeback
Author Negr n notes, "Hundreds of FBI agents sealed off the town of Hormigueros, Puerto ico, where Ojeda lived with his wife. The FBI surrounded his house and opened fire, killing him. He was 72 years old" (Negr n, 2005). Ojeda had been a fugitive since he jumped bond after the Wells Fargo obbery, and he had still been active in independence organizations, including the Macheteros, and his death helped bring some of the former members closer together in a more cohesive unit, as their continued existence even today indicates.
In conclusion, this terrorist organization did not threaten the United States mainland as much as it threatened Puerto ico, but they targeted American servicemen and government officials, and Puerto icans that supported the U.S. Government, so they seemed to pose a threat to the country. The FBI weeded most of the group out in the 1980s, but the independence movement…
Atkins, S.E. (2002). Encyclopedia of modern American extremists and extremist groups. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Editors. (2008). Puerto Rican Macheteros warn of FBI onslaught. Retrieved 13 Sept. 2008 from the New York City Independent Media Center Web site: http://nyc.indymedia.org/en/2008/05/97509.html.
Hewitt, C. (2002). Understanding terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda. New York: Routledge.
Negr n, a.C. (2005). The Macheteros and the Puerto Rican independence struggle. Retrieved 13 Sept. 2008 from the Socialism and liberation Web site: http://socialismandliberation.org/mag/index.php?aid=503 .
Dominik's Killing Them Softly
Andrew Dominik's 2012 American film Killing Them Softly is a screen-adaptation of George Higgins' 1974 crime novel Cogan's Trade. Dominik's screenplay sets the action in modern America during the 2008 election campaign, which serves as a backdrop to the action of the film and allows both director/screenwriter Dominik and his cast of characters to ironically and wittily juxtapose their own agendas, ends and pursuits with those of the political world. Indeed, the film's subtext or undertone is really as pronounced as the main drama, paralleling the narrative in the final race to the showdown: the execution of the robbers of the card game and the election of a new ring leader (aka President of the United States). This paper will show how Dominik uses the underground world of organized crime to parallel and criticize the state of American politics and economics.
Storytelling, Editing, Style and Directing…
Bradshaw, P. (2012). Killing Them Softly -- review. Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2012/sep/20/killing-them-softly-review
Ebert, R. (2012). Killing Them Softly. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved from http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20121128/REVIEWS/121129985
Kirk, J. (2012). Review: Dominik's 'Killing Them Softly' Drives Message Hard and Well. First Showing. Retrieved from http://www.firstshowing.net/2012/review-dominiks-killing-them-softly-drives-message-hard-and-well/
Pezzotta, E. (2010). Film Analysis: A Comparison Among Criticism, Interpretation,
United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.
Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).
The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the rady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…
Box, G.E.P. And G.M. Jenkins. (1976). Time-series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. San Francisco: Holden-Day.
Campbell, R.E., Tour, O., Palmer, A.E., Steinbach, P.A., Baird, G.S., Zacharias, D.A. And Tsien, R.Y. (2002) A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 7877- 7882.
Cook, P.J. (1983). The Influence of Gun Availability on Violent Crime Patterns. In N. Morris and M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, Vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cook, P.J. (1980) Reducing Injury and Death Rates in Robbery, Policy Analysis 6: 21-45
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…
Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy
Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy
Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy
Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (http://www.streetgangs.com/laws/stepact.html)," as well as any community that has a disproportionate juvenile arrest rate, or a high percentage of gang related criminal activity or a high number of gang affiliated acts of violence.
The Act hopes to reduce crimes of violence committed by gang members by alerting local law enforcement to their identity thereby reducing their feelings of anonymity in committing those crimes.
The Act also supports funding for the purpose of education and offering counseling and other services to current and past gang members in the hopes they will decide to leave the gang and become a productive member of society.
The gang problem is a serious one in which the dynamics create a cycle of feeling alone, finding a "family" in the gang membership, committing acts of violence for the gang and becoming incarcerated. The legislative…
California 186.20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (Accessed 11-04-06)
California 213. Punishment for Robbery (accessed 11-04-06)
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
International Crime Rates
International Crime Rates: Germany, France, and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia & the United States of America
The legal systems in the United States, Germany, France, and Saudi Arabia are different due to the differences in the U.S. crime rate and due as well to the differences in the Criminal Justice systems of Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. What factors can be said to cause the difference in crime rates? Does the integration of culture and religion in Saudi Arabia really result in reduced crime rates?
The basic of structure in court systems throughout the world or the universal structure is characterized by courts being divided by lower, mid, and higher levels of courts. There are evident and not so evident differences and variations with this basic structure of organization. There are four types of criminal justice structures of organization. Those are:
Cummings, Milton C., Jr. & Wise, David (1982) Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. CAT. 81-80036. I.S.B.N. 0-25-5273434. Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, Inc.
New Standard Encyclopedia (1984) Vol. IV, VII, XI, XVI. Standard Education Corporation. Chicago (1984)
The U.S. Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. IV, VII, XI, XVI. Curtis Pub Co Philadelphia -- New York. (1959)
American Heritage Collection (1959) American Heritage Publishing Company.
Gun control is a law or policy passed with the aim of limiting the possession and use of guns or firearms by private citizens. Gun and firearm control have been a subject of extensive debate in the U.S. The establishment of a balance between the personal rights of individuals to own and the government's commitment to maintain law and order has proved a tricky affair. The ownership of firearms and guns is an integral part in the culture and identity of the American people. The origin of gun possession can be traced to the west where the locals had to arm themselves to protect themselves from the Indians, enemies and wild animals. Consequently, the American citizens armed themselves for personal defense and as part of their culture. Additionally, guns are common in hunting, both leisure and for food and have since become a sport in the…
"Would Guns Control Reduce Suicides?." CQ Researcher 14.6 (2004): 131. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Cook, Philip J., and Jens Ludwig. "Fact-Free Gun Policy." University Of Pennsylvania Law Review 151.4 (2003): 1329. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Gorman, Linda, and David B. Kopel. "Self-defense: The Equalizer." Forum For Applied Research & Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 92. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Grier, Peter. "Elementary school shooting: What gun control laws might U.S. voters support? (+video)." Christian Science Monitor 14 Dec. 2012: N.PAG. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
This firm's client, Franklin Olsen ("Olsen") was arrested and subsequently charged with burglary of the home of Lindsay Young ("Young"). Young informed the police that she had found Olsen in her home on October 15, 2010, at dusk and observed Olsen for approximately one minute prior to his leaving the property. Young described Olsen as being dark haired, wearing all black clothing and being extremely tall. At that time that Olsen was taken into custody.
Young was asked to make identification of the suspect to the burglary in a police lineup. Olsen was one of six white males in the police lineup and had an attorney present to represent him. All the participants in the lineup other than Olsen were between 5'8: to 5'10" in height and all wore clothing that was light in color however, Olsen was instructed to wear all black clothing. Olsen was additionally the only…
Prison Term Policy ecommendation
Bills are passed or rejected all the time, and some that are passed do not provide any real benefit. The goal is to lower the number of bills that are not beneficial, and raise the number of bills that actually make a difference in society. One of the ways to pass better bills is to carefully consider criminology and the statistics regarding it (Barak, 1998). When a bill offers exactly what it claims to, and when that offering is needed by society, the bill can have a higher degree of expected success and can provide more of what society needs. Addressed here is a bill that is focused on armed robbery and prison terms. The objectives and goals of the bill will be discussed, along with possible solutions for the bill and whether it should or should not be approved in its current form.
Barak, G. (ed.). (1998). Integrative criminology (International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice & Penology.). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate/Dartmouth.
Deflem, M. (ed.) (2006). Sociological theory and criminological research: Views from Europe and the United States. NY: Elsevier.
Security Management: The 1968 Bank Protection Act
In the 1960s, all banking was primarily done in person and in-house—i.e., a customer had to literally walk into a bank to make a transaction. This was well before the era of digital cash, when money could be moved from one place to another with the click of a few buttons on a keyboard. In the 60s, cash had to be on hand at the bank in sufficient quantities to meet demand—and that meant banks were a big target for robbers.
The 1968 Bank Protection Act was created to protect banks from robberies by establishing minimum security regulations for all banks. The Act came in response to a string of bank robberies that had occurred in the United States in the years prior—robberies that were easily being committed because banks at the time lacked basic security infrastructure, such as monitoring cameras, automatic locks…
New Hampshire (1971) had mandated such.
This case had tremendous effect on our criminal justice system in that it removed the inadvertence requirement from one of the exceptions to the Fourth Amendment. This requirement had called for a search warrant to specify the items that were to be searched for and seized, and anything else that was discovered had to be done inadvertently. Previously, the U.S. Supreme Court had held that in order for the police to seize evidence not mentioned in a warrant, they must find it inadvertently and it must be in plain view, which is required by the plain view doctrine. The plain view doctrine is the rule that says a law enforcement officer may make a search and seizure without obtaining a search warrant if evidence of criminal activity or the product of a crime can be seen without entry or search. However, in Horton v.…
Horton v. California, 496 U.S. 128. Supreme Court of the U.S. 4 June 1990.
"Plainview Doctrine." The Free Legal Dictionary. n.d. 26 March 2009 <
Tracing these developments in the novel, the succeeding discussion illustrates the character transition of the protagonist through his relationships and interaction with other characters in the novel.
As a discriminated individual, Bigger had learned not to expect more from his community and society, limiting his dreams in life by earning just enough money to allow him and his family to eat for a day, as well as provide for some basic needs. right provides a glimpse of Bigger's psyche, which explained why his behavior and attitude towards life was full of bitterness and limitations (13):
He hated his family because he knew that they were suffering and that he was powerless to help them. He knew that the moment he allowed himself to feel to its fullness how they lived, the shame and misery of their lives, he would be swept out of himself with fear and despair. So he…
Wright, R. (1966). Native Son. NY: Harper & Row.
UC vs NIBS
Data gathering in criminal justice research
Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).
The UC and NIBS
NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…
Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519
Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
"Men, when they receive good from whence they expect evil, feel the more indebted to their benefactor." ~ Niccolo Machiavelli
Stockholm syndrome is a psychological condition in which those who are held captive learn to sympathize with their captors. Instead of trying to escape the conditions that they are in, they become a part of the twisted psychology of those in control (Kocsis 266). It was named for the first reported incidence of the phenomena after a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. Captives were held for six days, during which time they became emotionally attached to their captors, even defending them after the ordeal was over. It is a very serious condition affecting approximately 25-30% of all hostage situation victims. People affected by Stockholm syndrome can have serious psychological repercussions for years to come, even affecting the individual for the rest of their life if not properly treated.…
Bejerot, Nils. "The Six Day War in Stockholm." New Scientist. 61: 886. 1974. 486-487. Print.
Doctor, Ronald M., and Frank N. Shiromoto. The Encyclopedia of Trauma and Traumatic Stress
Disorders. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2010. Print.
Fabrique, Nathalie. "FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin." 76:7. 2007. 10-17. Print.
Crime and Violence in Mexico
Introduction recent study by the orld Bank reveals that Mexico has become one of the most violent and crime-ridden regions in the world (Hart). After a slight decrease in the 1960's, the report shows that the murder rate has increased again in the 1990's to more than 16,000 murders per year (p. 111-113). The country's homicide rate was double that of the United States, with 18 killings for every 100,000 people.
Over the past few decades, Mexico's population has increased and urban poverty levels have risen. As a result of these two factors, Mexico has seen a significant increase in crime and violence. Residents have resorted to illegal means of making money, including drug rings and street crime, as the country struggled to incorporate a capitalist system.
A recent study from the Citizen's Institute for the Study of Insecurity reveals that 4.2 million Mexicans were…
Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.
Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.
Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.
University of California Press, 2002.
Community Treasure Hunt: Pleasant Grove, Texas
In Pleasant Gove news coverage has stopped depicting violent crimes in its articles because it's old news. People die here every day, it's nothin'.
Pleasant Grove, Texas resident c. 2015
I was born and raised here and have traveled the world, but I could never imagine any place lovelier to call home.
Norma Davis, Chair, Pleasant Grove Historical Society, 2015
Introduction, Demographic Information, and Community Immersion (suggested length: 3 pages)
There are a number of ways to conceptualize a community, with its geographic boundaries being among the most straightforward (Knowing your community). The geographic boundaries of Pleasant Grove, located in the southeast section of the Dallas, are shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Location of Pleasant Grove
Geographic boundaries alone, however, reveal little about the people that comprise a community and this is certainly the case with the working-class community of…
Davis, N. (2017, April 5). The Pleasant Grove Historical Society. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/groups/156970454468433/ .
Davis, N. (2015, June 25). Why I love Pleasant Grove. D Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.dmagazine.com/neighborhood-guides/2015/06/why-i-love-pleasant-grove/ .
Hallman, T. & Martin, N. (2015, March). Fear, fights, crime thrive at Pleasant Grove intersection. The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved from https://www.dallasnews.com/news/crime/2015/03/01/fear-fights-crime-thrive-at-pleasant-grove-intersection .
Humphrey, J. P. (2017, May 28). The Pleasant Grove Historical Society. Retrieved from