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Rock n' Roll: A Reflection of American Culture
Music and art are products of the society from which they evolved. History tells us about events that happened in a certain time, but the events themselves do no tell the whole story. Behind these events are thoughts and feelings. Music and art tell us about the passions that drove the events that shaped historical events. Music is one of the oldest mediums of expression available to human beings (Cross, 2001). According to Cross, music and language developed simultaneously in our evolutionary past. e can learn much about a culture through the study of their music (Blacking, 1995).
In America, the 1940s were turbulent times. The 1950s reflected a return to normalcy. Society needed a break from the chaos of war and they constructed a society full of rigid rules about how one should live their life, dress, keep their house and…
Blacking, J. Music, Culture and Experience. University of Chicago Press. London. 1995.
Cross, Ian. Music, cognition, culture and evolution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol 9(30), 2001, p 28-42.
Lenahan, Jim. "Rock 101." Courier-Journal. April, 21, 2001. http://www.courier- journal.com/features/2001/04/feature20010421.html. Accessed November, 2002.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (CEE)."rock music: The Late 1960s and Early 70s:
Rock 'N Roll Music - the Diary of Youth
Rock n' roll is best described as a "hybrid of many musical styles: white country and western, black guitar blues and rhythm and blues, and both black and white gospel music." (De Curtis)
Rock ' roll began in the early 1950's as a dancing music strictly for teenagers and became known in the 1960's as simply rock music. This was because rock no longer stressed music to dance to.
Throughout the decades, rock 'n roll has become a way for young people to express their emotions and problems, such as love, school, peer pressure, cars and parents. It has also been used as a significant display of rebellion against general authority and adult values.
Since the 1950's, rock 'n roll and rock music has taken a stand against the American economic and political systems, as well as a general defiance against…
Allen, Bonnie. The 1980's. Essence, December 1989.
Daspin, Eileen. Davis Horowitz: I Want My MTV. Management Review October 1985.
Hamerlinck, John. MTV and Morality. The Humanist. January 1995.
Halberstram, David. The Fifties. Fawcett Columbine, 1993.
Rock 'n' Roll and Revolution
As a distinctly American form of cultural expression, Rock 'n Roll may be our nation's greatest global export. Its influence on popular, social and artistic mores on a global basis is incomparable. Indeed, one could make the argument that most modern forms of popular music derive from the basic components, if not the underlying attitude, or Rock ' Roll. However, this observation should not be at the expense of considering the yet more powerful influence that this musical form has had on our society as a whole. This is the premise driving Glenn C. Altschuler's 2003 text All Shook Up: How Rock 'N' Roll Changes America. According to the Altschuler text, Elvis Presley and his contemporaries would not just alter the musical landscape but would create a stark generation gap, a deconstruction of racial barriers and dismantling of sexual taboos. In this regard,…
Glenn C. Altschuler. All Shook Up: How Rock 'N' Roll Changed America. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Peterik, S. (2004). A Historical Book Review of Glenn C. Altschuler's All Shook Up: How Rock 'N' Roll Changed America. USD116.org.
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
Not surprising to see concerts by Dave Matthews, Green Day, and other top groups since Live Nation recently purchased Ticket Master.
A recent article in the LA Times reports that 48% of consumers are "eating out less often now than they did six months ago" (Hallock, 2009). John Self, a professor at Cal Poly Pomona in Los Angeles County, who has published a study of why restaurants fail, estimates that about 1,100 restaurants open in L.A. County annually; and among those, 24% close the first year and within three years 50% of those 1,100 have closed. But given the sluggish economy, Self asserts that up to 50% of new restaurants may be expected close in the first year, double the number that close in good economic times.
Data are not available as to how the recession has affected HRC, or Planet Hollywood, Johnny Rocket's or other theme-centered restaurants, but it…
Brand Strategy. (2008). Hard Rock: Not only rock 'n' roll. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.brandstrategy.co.uk .
Funding Universe. (2000). Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. Company History. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www.fundinguniverse.com .
Hallock, Betty. (2009). Recession takes big bite out of L.A. restaurant business. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.latimes.com .
Hard Rock. (2009). Corporate / History. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.hardrock.com .
As a whole, the piece is far more rhythmic and structured than many earlier Guns N' oses song, and its has definitely lost some of the rawness that made the band so popular in the first place. It has been replaced with contemplation that still raises a challenge to listeners and critics, however, as well as to former band mates. Slash's lack of presence on the guitar is evident, but what is played provides a support for Axl's voice in a way that Slash's playing never really did, if it was even attempted. It is true that the collaborative spirit of the group has diminished, and this is definitely evident in the isolation and emphasis of ose and his singing -- and lyrics, incidentally -- but the music still goes on. Ax ose continues to listen and to incorporate changes in the rock scene as well as the growing use…
Luukkonen, J. (2008). "The History of GN'R: The Shocking Truth." Accessed 23 September 2009. http://www.heretodaygonetohell.com/history/history06.php
Rose, a. (2008). "Open Letter from Axl." Accessed 23 September 2009. http://web.gunsnroses.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20081216&content_id=a1&vkey=news&fext=.jsp
And ock 'n' oll. Quite distant from the sounds of Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, and other groups that are firmly a part of the ock 'n' oll from the era, there is nonetheless a certain rhythm and feel to this song that makes it a peripheral form of ock 'n' oll, and of the more popular songs of the style and the era (Eder 2011). It is also somewhat unusual in its message, not simply because it reflects on a rather laid back and relaxed position rather than a specific event, emotion, interest, etc. -- other songs have accomplished this feat as well -- but because of the particular angle from which this position is presented.
The idea of just kicking back and relaxing has been the subject of many different songs, and at first listen The Drifters' hit doesn't seem to be much different. In "Up on the oof,"…
Eder, B. (2011). The Drifters. Accessed 11 August 2011. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/the-drifters-p4136/biography
Goffin, G. & King, C. (1963). Up on the Roof. Accessed 11 August 2011. http://www.lyricsmode.com/lyrics/t/the_drifters/up_on_the_roof.html
Lindinger, M. (2010). American Society in the '50s and '60s. Accessed 11 August 2011. http://sites.google.com/site/mrslindinger/Home/american-studies-ii-2/unit-vii-the-50s-and-60s
Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance
In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s compared to today.
The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society (Macionis, 2006).
In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality. Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly ("In God we Trust") principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise. If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…
Digital Dream Door. (2005). Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://www. digitaldreamdoor. com/pages/best_timeline-r1. html
Henslin, J.M. (1996). Essentials of Sociology. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from Needham
Heights:MA. Publishers Allyn & Bacon,
Macionis, J.J. (2006). The Basics of Society. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Edition 5.
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
Electric guitar [...] history of the invention of the electric guitar and of primary inventor/developer Les Paul. What were his contributions, as a designer, and as a musician? How have the technical developments in electric guitars and amplification affected the evolution of rock? The electric guitar electrified rock, literally. A distant cousin of the acoustic guitar, the electric guitar had power, presence, and an attitude, and it made a difference in the music we listen to today. Some believe the electric guitar is rock and roll music, and it exemplifies how a new instrument can create a sound, and a legend, all its' own.
Guitars have existed in history for thousands of years. elated to lutes, (which had only two strings), most guitars had six strings, and were designed to be strummed or plucked. It was not until the 20th century that the acoustic, hollow-bodied guitar metamorphosized into the solid-body,…
Butters, P. (1996, November 7). The power of guitars: Exhibition amplifies instrument's history. The Washington Times, p. 4.
DeCurtis, A. (Ed.). (1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Friedlander, P. (1996). Rock and Roll A Social History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gracyk, T. (1996). Rhythm and noise: An aesthetics of rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
The Federal Communications Commission assigns each station to its place on the band of frequencies, and personal radios can pick up these signals when they are tuned to the correct frequencies (Brain nd). FM radio differs from AM radio not only in the frequencies used, but also in clarity.
Because of this clarity, listeners soon began to realize that they could listen to music in a much more positive fashion. While it was AM radio that first revolutionized the communications industry by allowing mass communication, FM radio came about during the 1950s and 1960s, but finally made a large impact in the 1970s. Because this was also the era of a musical revolution known as ock and oll, the two could not have been more perfect for each other. In the words of Ahrens, FM radio was once "cool," making an impact the music culture (2001). Although it is still…
Ahrens, Frank. (November 2001). The Rise and Fall of Rock Radio: Don't Touch that Dial: Why FM Radio Sucks. Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from Find Articles database.
Bjerg, Greg. (2006) the Tragic Birth of FM Radio. Retrieved September 21, 2008, from Damn Interesting.com.
Web Site: http://www.damninteresting.com/?p=624
Brain, Marshall. (nd). How the Radio Spectrum Works. Retrieved September 21, 2006, from How Stuff Works.com.
Elvis Presley's Impact On Popular Music Culture
From the time Elvis recorded "That's All Right Mamma" for Sun Records in 1953, to his subsequent and astonishing rise to fame, he reinvented the concept of rock star and has made a bigger impact on popular music culture than any other act. That is saying a lot considering that the Beatles and Rolling Stones and others like Elton John have been huge superstars. But looking at Elvis's impact, as this paper does, one can clearly see that he influenced all of those acts. John Lennon said that "Before Elvis there was nothing…" and the Rolling Stones have indicated that they were hugely influenced by Elvis.
hen Elvis Started Out -- Launching his Career as a Musical Rebel and Icon
An article in the Public Broadcasting Service (KCET) website ("Culture Shock / Music and Dance) traces Elvis's early beginnings in terms of how…
History Today. (2007). Elvis: Rock 'n' Roll's reluctant rebel. Retrieved December 24, 2013,]
From http://www.historytoday.com .
Kemp, M. (2001). Elvis Presley Biography. Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from http://www.rollingstone.com .
Public Broadcast Service. (1956). Elvis Presley, 1956. KCET. Retrieved December 24, 2013,
Albini and in Utero
In the audio engineer's quest to produce ever more quality sounds in the studio, the question of authenticity arose. For some musicians who felt that in polishing their material through the use of modern equipment in technology -- through computers that could digitally edit out their mistakes -- the effect was like telling a musical lie. Steve Albini was one such artist and engineer. The moment -- the transitory feeling, even if off key or consisting of a wrong note, a mistake (such as in the tape deck recordings of a young Daniel Johnston playing songs on his piano in the basement of his parents' home) -- was really the only thing that mattered: music was not meant to be captured. And yet here was the technology to do so -- and as the technology advanced, the music was capable of being altered, the moment changed…
Azerrad M, 1994, Come as You Are, Broadway Books, New York NY USA.
Cunningham M, 1996, Good Vibrations: A History of Record Production, Sanctuary
Publishing Limited, London UK.
DeRogatis J, 2003, Milk It! Collected Musings on the Alternative Music Explosion of the
Society and Culture
The heirloom of the sixties era has been significant and decidedly pivotal for the advancement of culture and society in nations, an aspect that is referred to as civilization. These changes and modifications that the society went through made the 1960s decade to be one of the fundamental and vital periods of the twentieth century and a landmark that is forever etched. The 1960s era can be revered and given admiration as revolutionary. These changes had a major influence on not only nations in South America and Africa that were developing, but it also had a great influence in civilized nations and we choose to concentrate on Belgium (MacDonald, 2007).
The changes that the society experienced and went through at that time made the 1960s one of the fundamental transition periods of the twentieth century and significant to how culture had fashioned society to what we see…
Donnelly, M. (2014). Sixties Britain: culture, society and politics. Routledge.
Gammond, P. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grossberg, L. (1984). Another boring day in paradise: Rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music, 4, 225-258.
Helc, R. (2006). The Beatles and Their Influence on Culture. Brno: Masaryk University.
AC/DC does not take themselves seriously, except when discussing how seriously they rock.
Overall, Black Ice is not the sort of album that will stand the test of time. AC/DC has many albums that have done so already, and by this point in their career they have likely exhausted their best energy and ideas. That is not to say that Black Ice sounds tired, but it certainly is not a breakthrough record that will be long remembered in the way that, say, Back in Black, was.
In that way, Black Ice is no more or less than the sum of its parts. The album is solid, functional, and does everything the band and its fans need it to. Could the album have been made better? Probably not. AC/DC is not an innovative band, and they know how to maximize their abilities to deliver the hard rocking that their audience desires.…
Music and Society
Music has a profound influence on society. As with other forms of art, music has the ability to communicate messages that are both complex and oblique -- the message need not be specific, but may convey an emotion or ethos, external to the lyrical content of the songs. Music gives a voice to generations by allowing those who have the ability to convey their thoughts and feelings through the form, and others to convey theirs through the consumption of the media. Thus, while music can have significant influence over a generation, and reflect its values, likewise the music to which that generation is drawn to reflects its values outward to the world, allowing some of the music (and other art) consumed by that generation to be understood by any society that chooses to consume that music. One cannot replicate the 60s just by listening to the Doors…
Edmonson, J. (2013). How social media and streaming have influenced the music industry. Socialnomicsi. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.socialnomics.net/2013/12/02/how-social-media-and-streaming-have-influenced-the-music-industry/
Gordon, A. (2014). Subcultures, Popular Music and Social Change.: Subcultural practices in UK punk culture. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
How the Beatles Made History
Everyone knows their names, even if one never cared for their music: Ringo, John, Paul, and George. Just 15, 16 and 17 respectively, George Harrison, Paul McCartney and John Lennon came together in 1958—young but passionate musicians from Liverpool, England, who wanted to play jazz, blues and folk music on improvised instruments. By 1962, they had added Ringo Starr to the group. With Starr on drums, the group’s first single “Love Me Do” hit the airwaves and changed the face of pop music forever. Beatlemania became a thing and the Beatles themselves became “more popular than Jesus,” as Lennon put it four years later to a London journalist (Runtagh). The Beatles surely did make history (whether they were ever actually bigger than Jesus was a controversial point): they had more number one singles than any other British band or artist, and there 17 number…
American Cultural Products have an Impact on Other Cultures
About the American Culture
How the American Culture Affects Products Globally
Influences of Culture on One Another
American Culture in China
American Culture in Korea
Major American Cultural Values
Globalization has created a completely new way of life for billions of people. It has provided people with new technologies and alternative ways of consuming everything, from products to music and films to literature and even language. In other words, globalization has impacted entire cultures in various countries (Friedman, 2005). The trend has been aided by the creation of the ability to purchase life changing goods for consumers; providing many varieties of consumable items at reasonably low prices on an international market has spread different cultures.
Understanding the impact of globalization on the regional and national cultures requires the understanding of the process and the meaning of globalization. While the term…
Bhagwati, J. (2004). In defense of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cismas, S. (2015). The impact of American culture on other cultures: Language and cultural identity. http://www.wseas.us. Retrieved 26 March 2015, from http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2010/Cambridge/AIKED/AIKED-61.pdf
Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Haugen, D. (2009). American values. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Hannah Hoch was an artist most known for her work in between the wars—the Weimar period, in which the Dada Movement came to the fore to challenge the sensibilities and pretensions of the early 20th century. Dada was as much a protest against the bourgeois as it was a slap in the face of the rising Fascist Movement. Hitler despised the Dadaists and the Dadaists despised him. Hoch counted herself as one among the Dadaists during the Weimar period—a period in which art and life came into intense conflict, while the universal stage was being set for the final showdown between the new and the old in WWII. For that reason—and for the reason that Hoch’s art gets to the heart of the changes that society was undergoing during that time of upheaval—I have selected Hannah Hoch as the focus of this paper. She is important to our textbook…
Since the results of these efforts to date have been mixed, it is important to see if there may be some truth to these arguments concerning the harmful effects of technology-based activities such as social media on young people, and these issues are discussed further below.
The Internet and the Dumbing Down of Society
The adage that "the more things change, the more they stay the same" is no longer true according to Evgeny Morozov. riting in Prospect magazine, Morozov (2010) argues in his essay, "Losing our minds to the web" that, "The internet is damaging teenagers' brains and our ability to think. But the web's real dangers lurk elsewhere" (1). Like any other muscle, Morozov and like-minded critics of technology maintain that the Internet has caused young people's brains to weaken because they are not being "exercised" enough by traditional standards. In this regard, Morozov emphasizes that, "There's no…
Corry, G. "Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions." 2011. Cenage Learning. Electronic. February 2011. .
Morozov, E. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." 22 June 2010. Prospect Magazine. Electonirc. February 2012. .
Richtel, M. "Growing Up Digital, Wired for Distraction." 21 November 2010. The New York Times. Electronic. February 2012. .
"United Breaks Guitars." 2010. You Tube. Electronic. February 2012. .
Although not nearly as controversial as saxophones upon their introduction, acoustic guitars have nevertheless had a lasting impact on the world of music since their invention 400 years ago. Noted for their pleasant tonality and frequently beautiful appearance, acoustic guitars remain a mainstay of several music genres such as pop and folk, and provide many newcomers to music with their first experience playing an instrument. Given their increasing popularity in recent years, it is clear that acoustic guitars are here to stay, but many people may not appreciate their lengthy heritage and the craftsmanship required to build such an instrument. To this end, this paper provides an overview of the history of acoustic guitars, followed by a description of how they are made; a summary of the research and salient findings will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
History of Acoustic Guitars. In 1944, Muddy aters…
Brain, Marshall. (2005). How Stuff Works. [Online]. Available: http://entertainment.
Guitar. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
Bennett, Andy and Kevin Dawe. Guitar Cultures. New York: Berg, 2001.
Stephen Rushing (461-35-0813)
The five-years between 1997 and 2002 were a financial and emotional roller coaster for me - a true rags-to-riches-to-rags journey of self-discovery. Almost overnight, my life was transformed from that of a typical undergraduate to that of a celebrated Austin-area dot-com guru and millionaire. I fell from this gilded perch as the Internet industry's long winter of discontent began. I finally hit rock bottom in August 2002, when I briefly found myself homeless.
My journey began when I discovered the Wall Street Journal in my high school economics class. During college, I successfully interviewed for a Merrill Lynch internship. Initially, being around those serious business people was intimidating, but I was determined to make the most of the opportunity. I worked about twenty hours per week, in addition to my regular coursework. At first, I disliked cold calling strangers, but success required learning how to make a…
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
That the post modernists rejected the psychotherapy of the modernist era is by no means suggestive that the artists of the era have escaped psychological analysis. Because of the extreme nature of the pop culture, it has presented a psychological windfall for study in excessiveness. It is represented by an excess of economic affluence, drugs, sex, and expressions of behavior. The excessiveness is found not just in the music industry, but also in literature, film, and paintings and photography. It is all encompassing of all art expressions.
One important definition of the post-modern, as a radically sceptical and questioning attitude of mind, is that provided by the philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984), who wrote of it in terms of 'the death of grand narratives', with Marxism and Freudianism particularly in mind. Lyotard would see as futile attempts to consider the modern and post-modern in terms of historical periodisation. For him,…
Buchanan, Iain, Michael Dunn, Elizabeth Eastmond, and Frances Hodgkins. Frances Hodgkins: Paintings and Drawings. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press, 1994. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76905182.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116
Cantor, Norman F. Modernism to Deconstruction. New York: Peter Lang, 1988. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21033116.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008.
Del Loewenthal, and Robert Snell. Post-Modernism for Psychotherapists: A Critical Reader. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge, 2003. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107976699.Internet . Accessed 24 August 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99670131
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…
Bendure, G. & Friary, N. (1993). Hawaii. Berkeley: Lonely Planet.
Cook, F.H. (1994). Heian, Kamakura, and Tokugawa Periods in Japan in Buddhism: A Modern Perspective, C.S. Prebish (ed.), 223-228. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Ellwood, R.S. (1994). East Asian Religions in Today's America. In World Religions in America, J. Neusner (ed.), 219-242. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press.
Hammoind, P. & Machacek, D. (1999). Supply and Demand: The Appeal of Buddhism in America. In American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship, C.S. Queen & D.R. Williams (eds.), 100-114. Surrey, England: Curzon Press.
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Drug use patterns changed from soft and psychedelic drugs like cannabis and mushrooms to harder drugs like barbiturate pills and heroin. The focus on the hippie movement also dissolved. hat started as a relatively cohesive challenge to commercialism and corruption ended up being a fragmented array of debauch. The death of celebrity musicians like Jimi Hendrix and Janice Joplin triggered the end of the hippie heyday. In spite of its excesses, though, the hippie movement transformed American social values especially among youth culture.
Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587
CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/
Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/
Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of…
Binkley, Sam. "Hippies." St. James Encyclopedia. 2002. Retrieved Nov 14, 207 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419100587
CBC. "Hippie Society: The Youth Rebellion." 2006. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-580/life_society/hippies/
Erowid. "Hippies." 1996. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.erowid.org/culture/hippies/
Sayre, James K. "Late 60s and Early 70s anti-Vietnam war protests, social and political background notes and a short discussion of some of the best rock 'n roll music of the times." 2007. Retrieved Nov 14, 2007 at http://www.bottlebrushpress.com/antivietnamwarprotests.html
Although a gifted and musician and a good and generous human being, by the end of his life, Elvis had fallen into a state of decadence, drunkenness, drug abuse, and physical deterioration (Simon 1995). He had become bitterly disappointed with his life, and almost a desolate person, for celebrity had basically chewed up his creativity (Simon 1995). Guralnick writes that there were "fewer and fewer opportunities to withdraw from the spotlight, and with the ability to withdraw from the spotlight," he simply became consumed by it (Simon 1995). Ironically, his manager Colonel Tom Parker understood that one of the key elements of success is limited exposure of the artist to the public, otherwise, the public will consume the artist. However, Guralnick notes, "I think that it didn't work for Elvis because his creative outlet were not maintained at the same time...but some one like Bob Dylan, for instance, sought to…
All About Elvis. (2006). Retrieved November 06, 2006 at http://www.elvis.com/elvisology/bio/elvis_overview.asp
Doss, Erika. (2002 June 22). Believing in Elvis: popular piety in a material culture.
Business Perspectives. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
O'Meara, Kelly Patricia. (2002 August 05). The crown still fits: nearly a quarter after the untimely death of the King of Rock 'n' Roll, Elvis Presley still haunts Americans - including the new generation -- seeking roots in a genuine American culture.
Just as we can be sure that once we cross the border out of the United States the laws that we are governed by will not be our own; so, too, can we be sure that our cultural tastes in estern music will differ too amongst the people whose culture we enter as we leave the United States.
Like Byrne, Jeff Todd (ed., 1992), emphasizes the point that each culture will have its own music; Mexico and Latin America have Salsa, and other cultural music as we move south through South America, and into the Caribbean islands, like Cuba. In each of these places, we find folk and cultural variations of music that, in the context of their culture, are easy to enjoy, but not necessarily what we would choose to listen to at home instead of Bob Seger or Joe Cocker. Even the way in which music is referred…
Byrne, David. Crossing Music's Borders: 'I Hate World Music,' New York Times,
October 3, 1999.
Nettl, Bruno (ed). Excursions in World Music, Up Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2004.
Slobin, Mark, Titon, Jeff, Todd, Jeff (ed). Worlds of Music, Chapter I, the Music
The communication plan
Communication is the basic ordeal of operation within the company. The company will desire to embrace the new modes of social media as done in the fashion industries. The company has collaborated with radio stations and television broadcast houses that enable the company to create awareness over its perceived products. Furthermore, the company will involve online communication channels as Twitter, Facebook, and creation of blogs, which bears the company's new products.
Distribution will be done by the present sectors and corporations, which have been distributing the company's products. The modes of distributions will be carried through the trucks and trains. The other permissible methods will be through the air and water (Smith, 2012).
In order to launch and maintain the product in the market, the company will have to use an estimated $5 million within all the branches of expanse. This amount of money…
Anderson, P. (2002). CookSmart: Perfect recipes for every day. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Groeling, T.J. (2010). When politicians attack: Party cohesion in the media. Cambridge:
Heneberry, M., & Cavender, C. (2005). The little black book of burgers: A thoroughly modern guide to the American classic. White Plains, NY: Peter Pauper Press.
Jones, S. (2011). Brand like a rock star: Lessons from rock 'n' roll to make your business rich and famous. Austin, TX: Greenleaf Book Group.
The hippies also protested other forms of social and political injustice, such as communities tearing down buildings or removing parks and open space for development, and in modern innovations that resulted in harming the environment, such as smog and industrial pollution. Again, they brought attention to what was happening in cities and countries around the world, and the governments that were engaging in these practices. They planted flowers in vacant lots, urged people to love one another, and generally seemed to hate Richard Nixon and all the politics he stood for, from continuing the Vietnam War to hiding evidence he was behind the Watergate Burglaries. They wanted to be anything but mainstream and conservative, and so they dressed outrageously, lived outrageously, and fought for what they believed in.
The music and protests of the hippy era carried over long after most of the hippies themselves disappeared. Thirty years after Woodstock…
en & Jerry's:
A Strategic marketing plan
en & Jerry's the international leader in handcrafted ice cream with a social conscious is analyzed in this strategic marketing report. Developed on an integrated public-private business prospectus, the Company set the tone for trailblazing product and brand identity configurations with an ethic of social responsibility and global sustainability long before it was customary. Although now subsidiary to the products and services giant, Unilever, Ltd. In the United Kingdom, en & Jerry's retains its Vermont beginnings both in grassroots image and Americana flavor in ice cream. Well-known for instigating social change through commercial planning, situation analysis of the Company's early and unique marketing platform prior to the sea of new market concepts is long overdue.
Table of Contents
Objectives & Issues
ought by ritish conglomerate, Unilever, Ltd. In 2000,…
Ben & Jerry's (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.benjerry.com/
Ben & Jerry's Corporation (2010). Hoovers. Retrieved from: http://www.hoovers.com
SWOT/PESTLE (2010). RapidBi. Retrieved from: http://www.rapidbi.com
Rodney Graham -- ho ill he become next?
Rodney Graham is a Canadian artist, born in Vancouver in 1949. But he could be anyone -- or so his art suggests. In Fishing on the Jetty, 2000, the Rodney Graham renders himself into his on text as a filmed subject. In this film/performance art piece, the vieer is itness to the sight of Graham playing Cary Grant in his on nautical version of Alfred Hitchcock's 'To Catch a Thief.' Graham, ithin the context of the piece is himself, is the character of Grant, and is also the persona portrayed by 'Cary Grant,' the sublimely artificial romantic lead of the 1930's classical film in a ho-done-it about mistaken identity, a film here the actor portrays a constantly misleading man ith a shape-shifting identity.
In much of his ork, hich straddles the line beteen film and photography, Graham is both creator and subject,…
works cited in paper.
Hickey, Dave. "Rodney Graham." From About place: recent art of the Americas Edited by Madeleine Grynztejn, 2003.
Parkett. 2004 Edition for Rodney Graham Exhibition at MOCA, 2004.
Spira, Anthony. "Interview with the artist: Rodney Graham." 2003.
Reid (78) suggests that Sweetback's sexuality and his "controlled" violence are important elements when it comes to his escape. Prior to this film, Reid (78) points out that black male sexuality was portrayed as being "animalistic and instinctively violent," however, Van Peebles depiction of such a sexual being with "a controlled and motivated violence" was a "heroic idea" that certainly was different than anything the African-American community had seen before in its portrayal of sexual black men.
All three of the "road films" -- Easy Rider, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song -- are films about taking to the road in search of something or as a means to escape from something. All of the characters in the collective films -- Billy, yatt, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback -- are trying to escape some type of disillusionment, whether it is disillusionment with the government, disillusionment with life, or a disillusionment caused…
Hill, Lee. Easy Rider (BFI Modern Classics). British Film Institute, 1996.
Peuker, Brigitte. "Werner Herzog: In Quest of the Sublime." From Klaus Philips Ed.
New German Filmmakers. NY: Frederick Unger Co., 1984.
Reid, NAME, PUBLISHER, DATE?
1). This is a prime example of what made Morrissey so popular -- he is completely accessible without being shallow or repetitive, which many in the alternative rock genre took to heart (Flannagan, pp. 63).
A cursory examination of Morrissey's life might make it seem easy. But easy lives seldom lead to such complex and influential people, and part of Morrissey's popularity and influence exist because of his ability to deal with adversity. After experiencing the loss of three close friends in a short span of time, Morrissey felt he was finished, and wrote what he believed to be his last album -- now one of his greatest successes (Roberts, 379-80). Morrissey himself attributes his continued popularity and influence on other musicians at least in part to this same resilience and persistence that he has shown throughout his life (Morrissey).
It is impossible to say with any certainty exactly why…
Chriatian, Alex. "Review: The Smith's the Queen is Dead." 2007. Accessed 12 April 2009. http://www.sputnikmusic.com/album.php?reviewid=8449
Coleman, Mark. "Review: Morrissey's Viva Hate." May 19, 1988. Accessed 11 Paril 2009. http://www.rollingstone.com /reviews/album/233611/review/5943128/vivahate
DiCrescenzo, Brian. "Review: Morrissey's You Are the Quarry." Pitchfork. May 19, 2004. Accessed 12 April 2009. http://pitchfork.com/reviews/albums/5437-you-are-the-quarry/
Flannagan, Joe. "Morrissey: Ten Years After the Smiths." New Music Express. 1998.
After the success of these Biblical musicals, Lloyd ebber severed from Rice to explore different methods of conveying his musical vision, such as the more dance-inspired "Cats." In this musical, Lloyd ebber abandoned many of the rock elements of his former work "in favor of what critics found a pastiche style that borrowed from classical and opera sources. He had also become a brand name" and created his own a corporation, the Really Useful Company that attempted to bring commercialism, in a positive fashion, to the musical theater industry ("Andrew Lloyd ebber, Answers.com, 2007).
Cats" was not simply one of the most successful musicals of all time, it also spawned t-shirts, mugs, and yes, many jokes, as well as a soundtrack album and other, more conventional methods of generating interest in the show -- and revenue. Since "Cats," was created by Lloyd ebber, almost every other major musical has attempted…
Andrew Lloyd Webber: Official Biography." Andrew Lloyd Webber Official Website.
2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.andrewlloydwebber.com/sections/biog/index.php?section=biog#andrew
Andrew Lloyd Webber." Answers.com. 2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/andrew-lloyd-webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber." Internet Broadway Database. 2007. 26 Apr 2007. http://www.ibdb.com/person.asp?id=12073
Five Books for Children
Bernstein, Margery. (1999) Stop that noise! New York: Millbrook Press.
Best suited for young children, this book underlines how music is not something one should be intimidated when 'making' -- rather music is just wonderful noise, with rhythm, melody, and in sync with the noise of others. It tells the story of three children named Mark, Sara, and om who are noisy kids, not because they are bad, but because they love music. Mark plays drums. Sara sings. And om makes music with everything. Students can be encouraged to imitate this characters -- playing with a rubber band like Mark, singing along with Sarah, and even making their own 'drums' on their bodies, like Mark, or with drumsticks. (7)
Campbell, Don G. (2000) he Mozart effect for children: awakening your child's mind, health, and creativity with music. New York: Morrow.
his is a book…
This recording does not simply teach colors. It has a strong, dreamy quality. It may be too sleepy, however, for young children, to really be used as a teaching tool to energize them about learning, and too simple in both its musical form, sparse use of instrumentation, and content for older children. (4)
'Rock n' roll songs that teach." (1997) Learning Station Sound recording CD. Hug-a-chug records.
Any teacher with fond memories of "Schoolhouse Rock" will love using this rousing, drum and guitar heavy instrumentation that uses music as a vehicle of learning and reinforces memories of basic concepts for grades from kindergarten to fourth grades. This could be incorporated into any lesson plan, or simply used as a warm up exercise or introduction to a lesson plan. (9)
Minimalist Musical Culture, Techniques, And Composers
Minimalist music has its roots in the experimental decade of the 1960's. The musical culture of that time was a relatively avant-garde one. Artistic experimentation and exploring new methods of composition were encouraged, and fashionable. Popular music included much Rock 'n Roll (this was the decade of the "British Invasion," and the heyday of the Beatles; the Rolling Stones, and others). Classical minimalist composers, during the 1960's, included La Monte Young; Steve Reich; Philip Glass; Terry Riley; John Cage, and others. Young first pioneered minimalist composition. The first American minimalist composers were mostly "born between 1935 and 1937" ("Minimalism in Music and Painting").
Minimalism itself "is largely based on repetition and/or the use of very spare elements (tones held for a long time, etc.). The term was first used by Michael Nyman in 1968" ("Minimalism"). Minimalist composers were essentially rebelling against modernist compositional techniques…
'Minimalism." S21 New Music Wiki. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from:
'Minimalism in Music and Painting." Making Music. Retrieved October 7, 2005,
Sensory Indoor/Outdoor Environment
Plan for Outdoor Play Environment -- Age 5-8
ousseau and Pestalozzi, encouraged by the former, were predecessor theorists on outdoor play by familiarizing and sustaining the original idea as stated by which nature and the natural environment had a definite and positive role in the education of children (Evans, 2006). The primary plan is to enhance the performance of the Federal employee by offering the opportunity for quality Plan for Outdoor Play Environment -- Age 5-8-owned or controlled space. The center design must meet the needs of children, teachers, administrators, and parents according to the Australian Early Years Learning Framework by the following:
Supporting the staff's care of children by creating environments that allow them to focus their efforts on the care and nurture of children.
Will promote an environment with active play.
Will endorse an environment that involves collaboration.
Producing an environment that comfortably provide accommodations…
Barrows, A. (2005). "The Ecopsychology of Child Development." San Francisco,: Sierra Club Books.
Day, C. a. (2007). . Environment and Children. Oxford:: Architectural Press.
Dudek, M. e. (2005.). Children's Spaces. Oxford:: Architectural Press, .
Evans, G. (2006). Child Development and the Physical Environment. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 423-451.
Splashes of color like red and several shades of blue are added to the collage in a "dragonfly, wing-like" formation. A cutout photograph of a boy is pasted on the "wing" of a lighter shade of blue, perhaps to note a sense of calm to his surroundings.
The Hawkins' exhibit will consist of 80 objects, a retrospective of his nearly a quarter of a century career. The work is described as "at its core, about the pleasure of intense looking." Third mind is described as referring to another piece of Hawkins' work, "ichard Hawkins: Of two minds simultaneously," which means to be undecided, uncertain or unsure, the description states. Hawkins is aware of the duplicity that this body of work creates, which is stated to be intentional.
The Art Institute of Chicago was founded in 1879 as a school and museum. The museum holds art from African-American artists to silk…
1. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010 the Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
2. The Art Institute of Chicago. "The Art Institute of Chicago: Exhibitions." 2 December 2010. The Art Institute of Chicago 2010. .
3. George Eastman House. "Current Exhibitions • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
4. George Eastman House. "Photographs by Jessica Lange • George Eastman House." 2 December 2010. George Eastman House 2000-2010. .
Robinson's daughter. She has no dialogue of any depth...She agrees to marry a tall, blond jock...mostly because her parents will be furious with her if she doesn't. She is so witless that she misunderstands everything Benjamin says to her. hen she discovers Benjamin has slept with her mother, she is horrified, but before they have ever had a substantial conversation about the subject, she has forgiven him -- apparently because Mrs. Robinson is so hateful that it couldn't have been Benjamin's fault. She then escapes from the altar at her own wedding to flee with Benjamin on a bus, where they look at each other nervously, perhaps because they are still to have a meaningful conversation" (Ebert 1997). This seems unfair to Elaine to some degree, but it underlines the film's lack of interest in her character, as Elaine quickly switches alliances from parents to Benjamin, from one man to…
Ebert, Roger. "The Graduate." The Chicago Sun-Times. 1997. 8 Apr 2008. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19970328/REVIEWS/703280304/1023
The Graduate." Directed by Mike Nichols. 1967
However, in the film directed by Tina Fey that depicts the cruelty of an exclusive group of "Mean Girls," ordinary things for which there is already descriptive language is rendered into slang so adults do not understand the full cruelty of what is being said. Some adults may know that Regina and company are 'mean' but not to the extent which they rule the school and use exclusion as a way of enforcing their own mini-regime of terror. One of the strengths of the teacher played by Fey, Ms. Norbury, is that she is 'hip' to the language used by the mean girls, like when she tells them to stop using slang like "sluts" and "skanks."
The exclusive nature of the language of adolescents is underlined by the fact that the main character, named Cady Heron, in "Mean Girls" has grown up in South Africa, so she is initially uninitiated…
Mean Girls." Directed by Tina Fey. 2004.
As expected to prove H3, the fourth graders could recall a median of 6 items about the ad while the first graders recalled a median of 4 items.
The ultimate conclusion of the researchers was that children "can recall a reasonable amount of information from a single exposure to a television advertisement and are capable of sharing information accurately" (Maher et al., 2006, p. 30). The authors view their work here as a beginning point for further study. In the conclusion to the article, they suggest that the next step would be to see how much children recall if they were in an unstructured environment and perhaps not paying close attention to the advertisement as the children in this experiment did.
International food advertising, pester power and its effects"
In a British study directed by Laura McDrmott, Terry O'Sullivan, Martine Stead, and Gerard Hastings the power of pestering by children…
FTC not sweet on junk-food ads targeting children. (2006, Nov. 7). The Washington
Post, p. A1.
Maher, J, Hu, M. & Kolbe, R. (2006). Children's recall of television ad elements.
Journal of Advertising, 35(1), 23-33.
These assumptions encapsulate the notion of consumer sovereignty in neoclassical economics of consumption' (Jonathan Scheckter (2006). A Holistic Approach to Consumption Analysis in the Popular Music Market). While the concept is often criticized at an empirical level, or at an intuitive level, the origins of consumer sovereignty are seldom explored with reference to popular music.
The most important advancement of neoclassical economics arose as a sophisticated defense of this assumption of constant preferences. The argument asserts from the outset that, 'tastes neither change capriciously nor differ importantly between people'. (Becker and Stigler, 1977: 76) the starting point is the utilization of a reformulation of consumer theory, first expressed by Becker and Michael (1974). This new theory "transforms the family [consumer] from a passive maximizer of the utility from market purchases to an active maximizer also engaged in extensive production and investment activities," (Becker and Stigler, 1977).
The theory explained various…
Adorno, Theodor (1976). "Mediation." In Introduction to the Sociology of Music. New York: Seabury.
Berland, Jody. (1990). "Radio Space and Industrial Time: Music Formats, Local Narratives and Technological Mediation." Popular Music 9(2): 179-192.
Frith, Simon. (1981). "Making Records." In Sound Effects: Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. New York: Pantheon, 89-129.
Hall, Stuart. (1973). "Coding and Encoding in Television Discourse." In Culture, Media, Language. Edited by Stuart Hall et al. London: Hutchinson.
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
The roots of such music can be traced back still further to the gospel hymns, work songs, and field calls that developed amongst slave populations in the south during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Scholastic 2011). The Southern and decidedly African-American sounds of blues and early jazz were brought along with the Great migration, where New Orleans styles like Dixieland met with the calmer strains of the Mississippi blues and other styles (Scholastic 2011). In New York, with the greatest concentration of African-Americans, new collaborations and iterations sprang up quite rapidly.
The Harlem enaissance, named for the neighborhood in Manhattan where the African-American community was concentrated and centralized, was an explosion of artistic, literary, and musical expression largely because it represented the first major community of African-Americans located in a small geographical area (McDougal & Littell 2008). The jazz music that developed in New York as a part of this…
McDougall & Littell. (2008). Creating America. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Kw-WjacYGhEJ:www.quia.com/files/quia/users/nygardgeo/RoaringTwenties/The-Jazz-Age-and-the-Harlem-Renaissance+jazz+harlem+rennaissance&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiTwUV7ZR1UBvIK6Wk5zZj1K7s9dsOtMZZ6U19HXCPtpQ_GchKhK8HsMmQd0Ib5OHiIHJZ7qB5DfaCxk-krvFwwG8-j9-TKWEbF3mkOJwo4-Gn-nejkpsjMWjvQjS66vTchyieT&sig=AHIEtbRLiTwGmw1QGRN1drC4BnuJ9VD4bw
Mintz, S. (2006). The Great Migration. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
Scholastic. (2011). History of Jazz. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
Pranksters and Intersubjectivity
The Concept of Intersubjectivity in the Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters were led by a kind of nouveau-culture that had sprung out of the Beat movement like Athena out of the head of Zeus when struck by a hammer. The hammer that struck the Beat poets, of course, was LSD -- better known as acid -- an integral (and legal) ingredient in the search for intersubjectivity. Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is a chronicle of the Pranksters' attempt at intersubjective transcendence -- the melding of all minds into one, through drug-induced states. Wolfe's narrative style is an attempt to put into words the exact experience of the Pranksters' intersubjectivity -- yet, Wolfe, himself a master stylist and satirist, uses the narrative not only to chronicle but also to expose the absurdity at the core of the "transcendent" effort of this…
ERG and Herzberg's Motivational Theories:
The life of Steve Jobs
The response to the death of Steve Jobs can be described as nothing short of extraordinary. Mourners placed flowers at Apple stores all over the world. How can this be explained, given the fact that Apple was a commercial product that people bought, not a spiritual movement? The answer is that in his design philosophy Steve Jobs made use of ERG motivational theory, tapping into the potential for self-actualization in terms of how his machines were constructed. Instead of simply being functional, Apple products embodied a concept of sleekness, excellence in design, and belief in human potential. The ERG concept was likewise embodied in Jobs' own life -- Jobs was a businessman who strove to make a profit, yet he also sincerely loved his work and continued to work, long after he could have retired or delegated more of his…
Chapman, Allan. (2010). "Frederick Herzberg." 2010. 13 October 2011.
"ERG theory." Net MBA. 2010. 13 October 2011.
Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their TV dinners to watch such shows as " Gunsmoke," the Lone Ranger," the Rifleman," Have Gun, Will Travel," and " Maverick." You were not anybody unless you could sing the theme songs of each show.
Moviegoers were also being drawn into the theaters by the monster/science-fiction movies. About 500 film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the 1950s and early 1960s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. ne might argue convincingly that never in the history of motion pictures has any other genre developed and multiplied so rapidly in so brief a period. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the 1950s... has not been equaled in any…
Our American Century: The American Dream, the 1950s.. Editors of Time Life. Richmond-Virginia, Time Life, 1997.
Ross, Kelly. Existentialism. 2003. Retrieved from website April 19, 2005. http://www.friesian.com/existent.htm
Western Movie Encyclopedia. Western Movie. Retrieved from website April 18, 2005. http://www.localcolorart.com/search/encyclopedia/Western_movie
A&P and the Lesson
The short stories A&P and The Lesson John Updike and Toni Cade Bambara explore the perceptions of young people as they stand at the threshold of adulthood. Updike's story, set in a grocery store in a small New England town, is about Sammy, a young white male cashier. Bambara's takes place in New York City outside the famous F.A.O. Schwartz Department Store, and is told from the perspective of Sylvia, a young African-American female.
A&P was published in 1961 at a time when the beliefs and values of the status quo were beginning to be questioned by the next generation. Rock n Roll was relatively new and the beat generation was a precursor to the hippie movement. The counter culture was yet to go main stream.
Briefly, Sammy is working at the cash register when three young ladies came into the store in their bathing suits.…
1970, backstage of ?The Ed Sullivan Show?, a kid was wondering around, waiting to perform on stage with his band when Ed Sullivan approached him and said "Never forget where your talent came from, that your talent is a gift from God." Like most people who have been given a special gift and are expected to use it for the benefit of others, the same was expected of the twelve years old and he lived up to the expectations. The boy was, and never stoped being, what I call, a sensitive. It seems to me that some people in the world are more susceptible to suffering than most of us, they see different and feel much more; they all appear to have in common a special affection for art, in which ever form: poets, painters, musicians, writers are all more or less sensitives. On June 25th 2009, on a Thursday,…
Cloud, John. "With a Dramatic Pause, the World Mourned the Death of a Brilliant but Troubling Idol." In Special Commemorative Edition Time. July 2009. Print.
Jackson, Jermaine. "My Brother Michael." Interview with Andrew Billen. The Times Magazine (2011): 44-49. Print.
Jackson, Michael. Moonwalk. New York: Harmony Books, 2009. Print.
According to author Harlon L. Dalton, the Horatio Alger myth is not simply a myth because it is about a fictional character, but because people have dangerously believed it to be true as a sociological fact for far too many years. The myth suggests that demonstrating one's merit is enough to allow a person to attain success, and implies that people 'deserve' their position in life. African-Americans, of course, have long been painfully conscious that this is not the case, and institutionalized racism can thwart the ability of the individual to 'create his own opportunities' in the Alger model. Prejudices undoubtedly affect how people are perceived. Moreover, the very notion of 'merit' implies an objective standard of excellence, even though these standards were often created by the ruling classes. An excellent example of this is the SAT. Although the SAT was once viewed as a meritocratic device --…
Visual Media and Collective Memory
How visual media shape collective memory
Visual media: Shaping collective memory
According to Barbie Zelizer's review of the book ealms of memory, the simple question: "What does it mean to be French" is the focus of all three volumes of the massive cultural history of the nation (Zelizer 1999: 201). The artifacts chronicled by the author of the book are simple, yet complex enough to sustain the reader's attention. The work Zelizer is reviewing is divided into three sections: conflicts and divisions, traditions, and symbols. Certain visual themes, including food and competitive bicycling, run throughout all three works, given the significance they have in French culture. Within America, other visual themes in history have similar symbolic significance and embody all three aspects of visual history -- conflicts, traditions, and symbols. This can be seen in the treatment of the Vietnam War in the media.
Zelizer, Barbie. (1999). Realms of memory. Journal of Communication, 49 (4). 202-205.
Satellite Radio: The New Technology
Everyone is familiar with cable TV. To get TV signals sent to your TV via cable, the cable company runs wires to your home. It's similar to traditional phone services. Depending on where you live, the wires may be strung above ground or hidden below ground, but the signal to your TV arrives through a physical channel - a wire.
Some people have dropped cable TV in favor of satellite TV. With satellite TV, the viewers have satellite dishes attached to their homes. These dishes receive signals sent from satellites in space. While this seems like new technology, is it simply a major improvement on the first way TV signals were sent, from transmitting towers to each home's antenna. One of satellite TV's advantages is that because the satellite sending the signal is in outer space, it can receive TV signals from a much wider…
Newman, Heather. "Satellite radio is here, and it's looking for your business." Detroit Free Press: May 30, 2002. Accessed via the Internet July 8, 2002. http://www.freep.com/money/tech/newman30_20020530.htm
On first glance, it would seem that the poverty of rural China would be an ideal place for individuals to sow communist ideology. he individuals in question were oppressed by crushing poverty, and had been treated in an inequitable fashion by the city dwelling, educated and urban classes by decades. However, to Chen Yuan-tsung's autobiographical work historical fiction, he Dragon's Village, demonstrates that land reform was hardly welcomed with open arms by the Chinese peasantry. Rather than acceptance, the individuals who took to the fields and rice paddies of China to spread the doctrine of communism, found a peasantry largely hostile to the ideology they espoused. he reasons for this difficulty included the still present but invisible class tensions between the two groups in opposition. he educated children of the urban elite who had adopted communism as the slogans through which to proclaim their adolescent rebellion had a…
This initial image of her early life sets up a clear portrait of the China Guan later hopes to change by going to the countryside. This China is patriarchal, as the women sit, waiting quietly to hear a man speak in the removed language of poetry. This China is hierarchical, as members of the urban class dine comfortably upon fine food. This is the food that the heroine of the book will later dream about as she starves in rural areas. (Chen, 1980, 280) Clearly, change is necessary in such an environment, and the protagonist's rejection of the trappings of such a life at first seems independent and admirable. However, the change created by land reform is no less absurd than the portrait of life in ostensibly communist Shanghai, in all of its near-aristocratic excesses.
Guan Ling-Ling's choice of a theater group to change the Chinese countryside is perhaps the most appropriate metaphor for the experiment in land reform in China of 1951. Rather than a desire for enacting changes necessitated by lived reality, ultimately only surfaces were examined by members of the group. Guan's decision, however heart felt, is really a performance, rather than a true impact upon the lived nature of rural life. The groups' ideology is valid, and its desire to sow a shift in ideology and to modernize the area through education and a shift in sexual as well as class dynamics is not unfounded. However, the medium and the language through which these ideals are communicated is fundamentally alien to the immediate concerns of the peasantry, which largely center around getting enough to eat, and obeying the dictates of nature, of getting crops planted, of sowing, and of protecting themselves against the elements.
The book is a story of miscommunication, of an ideology that is too rigid to change rural life, and of a group of individuals who cannot communicate in an effective fashion to a class of people whom they hope to serve. The revolutionary teenagers such as Guan do have some good ideas regarding equality of genders, class, and even in regards to how to restructure agriculture. But because of the class tensions that cannot be erased over the course of a performance, or even the course eof a few years, ultimately the voices of these teenagers fall upon deaf ears.
establishment of the People's Democratic Republic in China in the late 1940's, the Chinese Communist Party actively re-engineered society to curb birthrates and bring the country's population down to manageable levels. Part of this idea was a process that would re-imagine the family, a concept first found in the work of Plato. However, this invention of an 'ideal family' as being a paradigmatic national goal of social reformers that has its origins in British Malthusianism and gave birth to the practice of eugenics in the United States. It complemented a long tradition of periodic moral reforms and religious revivals that have existed in the United States since the Great Awakening.
The modern American concept of 'family values' owes its existence to the progressives of the late 19th century, whose principal manifestation was in organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Society for the Prevention of Vice. The…
Labin, Suzanne. The Anthill The Human Condition in Communist China. Praeger, 1960
Robb, George. The Way of All Flesh: Degeneration, Eugenics, and the Gospel of Free Love. University of Texas Press, 1996.
Smith, Christopher J. China: People and Places in the Land of One Billion. Westview Press, 1991
1950s was a decade of change for the U.S. - cinema was no exception, as it modeled itself to accommodate the social changes U.S. society was going through. Films not only provide entertainment to masses but are also believed to express the general outlook of society by the way it sets and adopts trends. 50s was marked by postwar prosperity, rising consumerism, loosening up of stereotype families, baby boom and growing middle-class. It was the time of reaction to the aging cinema, especially by the freedom loving youth who were keyed up with fast food (Mc Donald's franchised in '54), credit card (first in 1950) and drive-in theaters (Filmsite.org). Young people were fed-up with the conventional illustration of men and women. With growing interest in ock-n-oll and break-free attitude prevailing, a social revolution was very much in the offering, and that was to transfer the cinema as well…
Smith, Geoffrey Nowell. (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Rafter, Nicole. (2000). Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Byars, Jackie. (1991). All That Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Wilinsky, Barbara. (1997). First and Finest: British Films on U.S. Television in the Late 1940s. Velvet Light Trap. Issue: 40. Pg 18.
Rap Music: The Result of Violence
Rap music is a phenomenon that is unparalleled in America, at no other time has a music form risen in such a way and gripped a nation as fully. While, rap music has its roots in the ghettos of the U.S.A. And black culture, it is now a full scale industry that caters to the disenfranchised youth of America and bridges all gaps of culture and social level. Indeed, one of the currently most famous rappers, and relevant to this topic, is white, as are most of the current buyers and listeners to rap music. Violence and rap music are interwoven in such a way that it is impossible to completely untwine them but looking at the cause and results of violence is a different topic that needs going into as it has far reaching implications, including the government control of the music industry.…
Villani, Susan. "Impact of Media on Children and Adolescents: A 10-year review of the research," Publication: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 1, 2001.
The National Media Violence Study, Federman, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1995 "Preventing and Producing Violence: A Critical Analysis of Responses to School Violence." Harvard Educational Review.
Bayles, Martha. Hole In Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music, by, New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Doherty, Brian. Listen up! Eminem gives a voice to his generation, February 18, 2001, issue of the Detroit News