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ut the Georgia statute outlaws virtually all such operations -- even in the earliest stages of pregnancy." Roe, et al. v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973)
In a dissenting opinion, Justice Rehnquist states that the decision handed down by the Court is one in which a state is disallowed the imposition of any restrictions whatsoever on abortions during the first trimester of the pregnancy. Justice Rehnquist specifically states that there is nothing in the opinion of the Court that "indicates that Texas might not constitutionally apply its proscription of abortion as written to a woman in that state of pregnancy." Roe, et al. v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973) Rehnquist further argues that "The Court eschews the history of the Fourteenth Amendment in its reliance on the 'compelling state interest test. ut the Court adds a new wrinkle to this test by transposing it from the…
Roe, et al. v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 Supreme Court of the United States January 22, 1973. Appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. No. 70-18. http://www.members.aol.com/abtrbng/410us113.htm
Roe v. Wade
12 (ubin, 1987, p. 5)
The ensuing demonstration of change in legal form is actually one of the best outlined examples of the way in which the evolving and almost living form of the legal and legislative system in the U.S. works. Each ensuing challenge must follow the line of the original legal stand of oe to either further restrict or unequivocally uphold the oe ruling. Yet, the ensuing change in political form is troubling for many, who see abortion legislation and platform development as a distraction to the varied and vast numbers of other issues that are essential to the governing of a local, region or even a nation. In the ensuing years there have been countless examples of "single issue" politicians running almost exclusively on the issue of abortion, and either the desire to completely overturn oe or uphold it, without restriction. One ensuing example is the candidacy…
Campbell, R. (2003). Gone to Texas: A History of the Lone Star State. New York: Oxford University Press.
Conway, K.S., & Butler, M.R. (1992). State Abortion Legislation as a Public Good -- Before and After Roe V. Wade. Economic Inquiry, 30(4), 609-626.
Rubin, E.R. (1987). Abortion, Politics, and the Courts: Roe v. Wade and Its Aftermath. New York: Greenwood Press.
Roe v. Wade & Texas: From District Court to the U.S. Supreme Court & Aftermath
Certainly, if a newborn baby is entitled to legal protection, then so is a fetus a day, week, and a month before delivery. The only difficulty is identifying the appropriate stage of gestation where medical ethicists define life apart from religious presuppositions.
Modern medical technology is better capable of doing so by reference to specific biological development and neural processes, but in objective principle, the distinction of viability" introduced by the oe Court makes logical sense.
Ethical Argument Supporting the oe Decision:
By far, the most relevant basis for evaluating the moral argument on abortion centers on the issue of viability, except that instead of focusing on the survivability of the fetus outside the womb, it emphasizes the ability of the fetus to sense discomfort and pain, and the sufficient degree of development to support the basic perceptual functions that constitute human consciousness.
Strictly objective ethical concern would militate against…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M.D. (1989) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Profession. Cambridge: MIT
Hall, K.L. (1992) the Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press
Miller, a.R. (1988) Miller's Court. New York: Houghton-Mifflin
Reiman, J.H. (1999) Abortion and the Ways We Value Human Life.
While I do believe a woman should have the right to choose, I am not necessarily convinced of that the Ninth and the Fourteenth Amendment allow for a so-called right to privacy to support the creation of a right in this instance. Admittedly, I am not a legal scholar, so to disagree with Justice Blackmun seems a bit of a stretch; however, what he did in oe v. Wade was likewise a "step" or, I should say, one giant leap. I simply do not see how the Fourteenth Amendment which is a procedural safeguard to protect against state intrusion upon its citizens' life, liberty, and property. The Fourteenth Amendment pertains to the state's notice requirement to give citizens notice upon the possibility of taking away of his/her life, liberty, or property. Additionally, I am concerned that we conferred a right to women based upon a privacy right that we may…
Bowers, J.R. (1997). Pro-Choice and Anti-Abortion Constitutional Theory and Public Policy.
Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from Questia database:
Cohen, S. (2005, July 17). Birth control pills helped empower women, changed the world. Retrieved from http://www.religiousconsultation.org
Rethinking Roe v. ade
Roe v. ade, the landmark decision made in 1973, legalized first-trimester abortion, and was a historic decision that changed the course of our country morally and spiritually. Many people still question whether the United States Supreme Court was right to make abortion legal, both legally and morally. This essay will show that the historical evidence does not support the conclusion that was drawn in the decision, and the legal reasoning, which relied heavily on a right to "privacy," the right's of the mother, and the idea that a fetus is not a person, was not correct as well. Finally, abortion goes against natural law, and God's law must be higher than man's law. Given that any abortion is the killing of an innocent, unborn child, it is a horrible evil in our society and should not be protected by law in any form.
In the Roe…
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, (1973) (republished by J.M.J. Seton Home Study School, July 23, 2007)
Rice, Charles. "The Human Life Amendment." http://www.all.org/article.php?id=10065 . 2005. (Accessed November 30, 2010).
Morriss, Frank. "Court Rulings Cannot Negate the Law of God." http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?id=3122 (accessed November 30, 2010).
Titus, Herbert W.. "Ending Legal Abortion," http://www.conservativeusa.org/titus100.htm . 1997. (Accessed November 30, 2010).
There is no need to try the case again.
Before oe vs. Wade, when abortion was illegal, hundreds of young women died every year due to botched illegal abortions. Many also traveled over the border into Mexico for unsafe and unsanitary abortions in that country. Illegal abortions are dangerous and can be deadly, and the country would return to that practice if the court's judgment were altered. In addition, states do have the right to enact laws to limit abortions in their state, and so, the state laws can be modified to reflect specific feeling and attitudes on abortion in certain areas. Many states require parental or spousal notification before any abortion can take place. All of this controversy has kept the ruling in the media every year since its' enacting in 1973. The ruling is still controversial and still debated, but the Court should not overturn it. It has…
Roe vs. Wade is the controversial Supreme Court ruling established in January 1973. In simple terms, the ruling allowed women to get abortions from their doctors or medical facilities during the first trimester (the first three months of pregnancy). The decision said denying abortions denied a constitutional guarantee to the right to privacy. It gave women the right to choose what to do with their own bodies, and it has been controversial ever since. The camps are divided into "pro-choice," who want the ruling upheld, and "pro-life," who want to see the ruling overturned on moral, religious, and the rights of the unborn child issues.
The Supreme Court should not overturn Roe vs. Wade, because women should be able to choose to have a child or not. The rights of the mother outweigh the rights of the unborn child. If the mother's health is an issue, the mother has the right to choose her health over the child, and to attempt another pregnancy at another time. In addition, from a legal standpoint, Roe vs. Wade has already been visited in the courts of the country, and they have made their decision. There is no need to try the case again.
Before Roe vs. Wade, when abortion was illegal, hundreds of young women died every year due to botched illegal abortions. Many also traveled over the border into Mexico for unsafe and unsanitary abortions in that country. Illegal abortions are dangerous and can be deadly, and the country would return to that practice if the court's judgment were altered. In addition, states do have the right to enact laws to limit abortions in their state, and so, the state laws can be modified to reflect specific feeling and attitudes on abortion in certain areas. Many states require parental or spousal notification before any abortion can take place. All of this controversy has kept the ruling in the media every year since its' enacting in 1973. The ruling is still controversial and still debated, but the Court should not overturn it. It has historical and judicial value, and it should remain as law in the United States.
Furthermore, the Supreme Court (and the Texas district court also) relied on a judicial invention introduced in the earlier Griswold and Eisenstadt decisions: namely, the penumbra of privacy that was said to "emanate" from the Fourteenth Amendment to give rise in a fundamental right of privacy despite the fact that the notion of personal privacy is not mentioned at all in the Constitution. Certainly, the Roe decision was justified on general principles of justice, equality, fairness, and ordinary definitions of private affairs; but from a technical legal argument perspective, many commentators have suggested that it was a case of the Court fitting the Constitution to the law rather than conforming the latter to the former.
Regardless of the any technical criticism in the legal analysis of the basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Roe, it remains the right and moral decision on the issue.
Certainly, room exists for…
Abrams, Natalie, Buckner, Michael, D. A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professions. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).
Dershowitz, Alan, M. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. (New York: Little Brown & Co, 2002).
Friedman, Laurence, M. A History of American Law. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005).
Hall, Kermit, L. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
He attacked the underlying premise of the decision, saying that, "A constitution is not intended to embody a particular economic theory… It is made for people of fundamentally differing views" (Paul 74). He viewed the Court's opinion in a dangerous light because it represented the infusion of a fundamental right into the Constitution.
Modern commentators who agree with Justice Holmes' dissenting position face a problem as it relates to more modern Supreme Court decisions, such as Roe v. ade. If the position is held that Holmes was correct in his opinion, then the same position must also be held that the Supreme Court's Roe v. ade decision is incorrect. In the Roe V. ade case, the Court ruled that a woman's right to have an abortion is based upon the development of the fetus in her womb. In the first trimester, the state cannot restrict a woman's right to have…
Paul, Kens. Lochner v. New York: Economic Regulations on Trial. Lawrence: University
of Kansas Press, 1998. Book.
This absolute right effectively means that the Court has determined that the fetus is not a human being prior to viability. Therefore, the effects on a fetus cannot be considered when deciding whether or not an abortion procedure is legal. The fact is that, pre-viability, even if a doctor where to completely deliver an intact fetus, it would be unable to survive outside of the womb. Therefore, a doctor performing a partial-birth abortion is not committing infanticide, as suggested by the dissent, because Roe has established that non-viable fetuses are not yet human beings.
Furthermore, while Roe and Casey recognize that states have an interest and protecting potential human life, a statute limiting partial-birth abortion does not further a state's interest in protecting potential human life. The statute in question does not proscribe abortion, but merely limits the methods by which a woman may have an abortion. Therefore, Nebraska cannot…
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Kennedy.
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Scalia.
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Scalia; dissent, Thomas.
" (Paul v. Davis)
The majority went on to argue that it is almost impossible to guess at any logical stopping place to the afore-prescribed theory of reasoning. Davis' interpretation of the law as set out in his briefs would seem almost necessarily to manifest itself in every legally cognizable injury which may have been inflicted by a state official - of any sort, not just a police officer -- acting under "color of law" establishing a violation of the Fifth Amendment as extended to the 50 states by the aforementioned Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
According to the majority, "We think it would come as a great surprise to those who drafted and shepherded the adoption of that Amendment to learn that it worked such a result, and a study of our decisions convinces us they do not support the construction urged by respondent."
Section 4: The Result
Paul v. Davis 424 U.S. 693 (1976).
Magna Carta, 1214 AD.
Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 325 (1937).
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
The so-called Bakke decision was the earliest in which the United States Supreme Court addressed affirmative action. The case certainly did not mean and end to the issues involved, and there have been several attempts to overturn the Bakke decision since. It has been referred to as a reverse discrimination case, and it was of great import when it was decided in the late 1970s after nearly a decade of affirmative action to bring more blacks and members of other minorities into the mainstream of work and academic life through programs of recruitment and special assistance to redress historical imbalances and discrimination. The issue of affirmative action remains a difficult one for Americans to this day. Affirmative action is often characterized as a quota system, though quotas need not be part of affirmative action at all. The Bakke case was an early…
Bresler, Robert J. "The Courts Close in on the Diversity Rationale." USA Today Magazine 130(2680)(January 2002), 13.
Burka, Paul. "Fight Bakke." Texas Monthly 24(5)(May 1996), 228.
Gose, Ben. "Supreme Court Rejects Appeal of a Decision That Cited 'Bakke' to Defend Affirmative Action." Chronicle of Higher Education 47(39)(6 June 2001), A24.
Gratz v. Bollinger (122 F. Supp.2d 811 [E.D. Mich. Dec. 13, 2000]).
owers v. Hardwick & Lawrence v. Texas:
A Comparison of the Supreme Court's Decisions
Two landmark cases, owers v. Hardwick and Lawrence v. Texas, have both set precedent and affected the state of relevant laws in their respective eras, as well as have had a substantial impact on our current laws. These decisions have assisted in shaping the laws of today, primarily in a positive way. owers v. Hardwick, decided in 1986, held constitutional a Georgia statute criminalizing sodomy between two consenting male adults. Seventeen years later, the owers decision was overruled by Lawrence v. Texas, in which the Supreme Court struck down a Texas state law banning private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. Lawrence has set the current precedent in a decision gay rights groups hailed as historic. This paper will analyze the Court's rulings in both cases, discuss the similarities and differences of the cases,…
CNN. "Supreme Court strikes down Texas sodomy law. Ruling establishes new legal ground in privacy." CNN.com. 2003. CNN.com. 23 July 2005.
Discuss the legal and ethical issues involved in Roe v. Wade
With the advent of 70's and particularly, aftermath of the decision of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade during 1973, abortion policy has become a controversial issue in the merican politics. (Levine; Staiger; Kane; Zimmerman, 1996) The decision in Roe v. Wade reinforced the right of women to privacy with regard to her own body, incorporating the termination of pregnancy. (Pozga, 2010) Roe v. Wade delineated more specifically the rights of fetus as well as the mother on the basis of the magnitude of viability. (Killion; Dempski, 2000)
The decision in Roe v. Wade which accorded constitutional protection to abortion, which voided the state laws which banned it, was a decision which had several legal and ethical concerns. This verdict in Roe v. Wade damaged the cornerstone of the ethical principles against the issue of killing. The…
An ultrasound neither informs legally nor medically -- irrespective of that, it notifies them aesthetically. Women are compelled to view at an image of a fetus; however, the woman who desire to abort already has prior knowledge of the ultrasound image of fetus. Additionally, there is the concern for ultrasound prices. As per the law the patient is expected to take the burden of the compelling procedure. The law entails a fine of $2,500 for not complying with the legal necessities. Such incorporation of ultrasound is visualized as a method to financially dissuade women for resorting to a legal medical procedure. Irrespective of the ethical issues of the abortion the government is not expected to emphasize moral issues on its citizen legally. This law on this ground is regarded as appalling & the offensive government encroachment that is framed to embarrass women desiring to avail legal healthcare. (Fox, 2012)
Such laws pertaining to necessities of ultrasound for abortion is lacking in significant arenas and is not the most successful methods to insure that an abortion thinking mother gets advantages from the powerful influence of ultrasound. Particularly, all of these laws need that some ultrasound information be accorded to the woman from the doctor who is attending the woman. The attending doctor definitely desires that the women must select the option for abortion since the doctor will be paid for abortion. It is pertinent that any need that this person offer ultrasound information would be distorted and skewed by the attending doctor to persuade the mother to abort her baby. Secondly the limitation of the law is that it compels a mother to attain information that she does not require. This imposes problematic public relations. (Glessner, 2012)
An analysis of several laws enacted reveal that they are insufficient in assuring that a woman desirous of undergoing abortion will really view an ultrasound image of her child. Some of these laws simply necessitate that woman be told of
On pages 88-89, right in the middle of a 1972 national debate of this issued, Greenhouse reports that Justice Blackmun was given the job by his colleagues of writing a draft opinion on Roe v. ade. How was a doctor to know if "death was imminent" should a mother not have an abortion? There were so many conflicting questions to be asked about the laws that had brought Roe v. ade before the Court. It was a struggle for Blackmun, and he was under intense pressure. He was influenced by public opinion; on page 91, Greenhouse explains that Blackmun saw a ashington Post story that said "two out of three Americans think that abortion should be a matter for decision solely between a woman and her physician." Sixty-four percent said it was up to a woman, in a poll in the newspaper that Blackmun read. Slowly Blackmun re-wrote his opinion,…
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. Becoming Justice Blackmun: Harry Blackmun's Supreme Court
Journey. New York: Times Books / Henry Holt & Company
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
ules of Law
It was January 23, 1973 and before the world knew, oe v. Wade would change the laws surrounding the issue of abortion eternally. The decision and choice to terminate a pregnancy was illegal in Texas at the time, which was then challenged by the pregnant Jane oe. She wanted to end her gestation in a safe and licit manner, and coincidentally the Supreme Court agreed in her favor. The ruling was the first time the court recognized the right to privacy incorporated a female's right, should she choose, an option to end her pregnancy or not. This landmark case not only validated and legalized the right to an abortion, but it interdicted prior laws regarding the act. Previously, abortion was only permissible when a woman's life was in danger and was necessary to save her life. Furthermore, the act of termination was acceptable if the female was…
Planned Parenthood v. Casey . (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planned_Parenthood_v._Casey#The_Court.27s_opinions
Roe v. Wade. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roe_v._Wade#Justiciability
Roe v. Wade: Its History and Impact . (n.d.). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://www.plannedparenthood.org /resources/research-papers/roe-v-wade-6578.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
U.S. And Supreme Court
Contrast the U.S. Circuit Courts with the U.S. Supreme Court in terms of their authority to strike down an act of congress or of the states?
The United State Supreme Court is the highest judicial body of the U.S. The Circuit Courts on the other hand are the intermediate courts which make rulings before an issue reaches the Supreme Court. There are nine circuits which divide the country. Each state belongs to one of those nine circuits.
hereas the United States Supreme Court has the ability to review any law brought before them, the circuits can only review laws which affect the states under their jurisdiction. A circuit court may rule a law unconstitutional-based either on the constitution of the state or based on the national constitution. Both bodies have the ability to review any legislation created to check its lawfulness.
However, a decision made by…
"Roe v. Wade" (1972). 410 U.S. 113.
The right of autonomy is also influenced by individualistic ideology of capitalism which other feminist point out is male-biased. Feminists seek to free themselves from perspectives that devalue women and deny them opportunities to explore their thoughts and experiences. For this reason, some feminists have joined the anti-abortion side because the issue of autonomy is not acceptable in a liberal society. According to olf-Devine, she argues that abortion is the response of men to deal with problems caused by unwanted pregnancy and will therefore be problematic for those trying to support feminist perspective as the moral response and that even the feminist perspective on abortion generates strong presumptions as a way of reacting towards unwanted pregnancy Moghadam 91()
The killing of an unborn baby can never be justified under any circumstance because it does not provide a solution to the situation that lead to conception. Illegalization of an abortion implies…
Work cited http://celiawolfdevine.com/pdf/Abortion-and-the-Feminine-Voice.pdf >Bernstein, Richard J, and Christopher J. Voparil. The Rorty Reader. 2010.
Wade, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa v. Casey; Stenberg v. Carhart, where the courts, with public concurrence, have debated the question of whether or not a partially birth child is indeed a person whose right to live should be challenged.
The separation of powers should have prevented the courts from taking on the moral question of abortion. The elected representatives should have been responsible for legislating laws that would govern the protection of human life. That the courts and the public has arrived at this point in time where the Supreme Court must decide the issue of whether or not it is acceptable to terminate a partially birthed life is unthinkable. Abortion is not a matter of Constitutionality, but a moral one, and one that does not belong before the Supreme Court.
Fields, Suzanne. "Barbie Gets Busted." The Washington Times 2 Dec. 1996: 17. Questia. 22 May 2007…
Norrander, Barbara, and Clyde Wilcox. "Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy." Policy Studies Journal 27.4 (1999): 707. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001889368 .
Randolph, a. Raymond. "Before Roe V. Wade: Judge Friendly's Draft Abortion Opinion." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 29.3 (2006): 1035+. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015545898 .
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…
Designed by 'RU486.com', "Abortion Procedures," Accessed on March 10th, 2003
BBC News, "Roe v Wade: Key U.S. abortion ruling" January 16, 2003 Accessed on March 12th, 2003
In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.
However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.
Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on…
Defense of Abortion
The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.
Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?
In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
Judicial review allows lawmakers to reflect changing morals and ideals when enacting legislation, but prevents them from allowing the hot-button topics of the moment to determine the laws of a nation. In fact, to really understand the success of judicial review, one need only look to the election in the Ukraine, where the Ukrainian Supreme Court may be the only body far-enough removed from party politics to ensure that Ukrainian voters have their say. If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, Justice Marshall should be very flattered.
The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar
Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.
Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery ebsite. 2004. Arlington National
Cemetery ebsite. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
Judicial review/Marbury v. Madison." National Legal Center for the Public Interest. 2002.
National Legal Center for the Public Interest 9 Dec. 2004 http://www.nlcpi.org/pdf/JudicialReviewMarburyvMadison.pdf#search='judicial%20review%20marbury'.
Linder, Doug. "Judicial…
The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar
Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.
Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery Website. 2004. Arlington National
Cemetery Website. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
M. Lin's release from MCF has had the effect of rendering his lawsuit moot. In this case, M. Lin was incarcerated at the time the lawsuit was filed, but not at the time it is being decided. Thus, M. Lin's cause of action fails on the issue of mootness. Additionally, of the six members whom were denied visitation privileges, five of them have had sons which whom were formerly incarcerated at MCF, but now have been released. The son of the sixth MOM member asserting denial of visitation privileges died after his release from MCF. Thus, all of the six members of MOM claims will fail as a result of mootness.
The controversy must be ripe for decision; ripeness bars consideration of claims before they have fully developed. A case may be dismissed as unripe where a statute has never been enforced and there is no real…
ethics of abortion. The writer takes one case of a requested abortion and explores its ethical possibilities. The writer uses several cases to argue that this case is ethically sound for the performance of an abortion. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Abortion has always been a very sensitive issue. Most of the nation is divided into two camps, pro-choice, and pro-life. Those who are in the pro-choice camp believe that abortion is the choice of the woman because it is her body and her life that will be forever altered by having a baby. Those that are pro-life believe it is the killing of a child and should never be done. Abortion has held its position as one of the most heated and emotional topics in the country for many years. For pro-choice and pro-life advocates most cases are clearly cut and dry as to their…
DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)
410 U.S. 179
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
The Impact of the Pro-Life Movement on Abortion Rates
The Impact of the Pro-Choice Movement on Abortion Rates
The Future of Roe v. Wade
When Does Life Begin?
A Comparison of Abortion Practices in Different Countries and the United States
The Current Status of the Abortion Debate in the United States
How Will the Trump Administrations Stance on Planned Parenthood Affect Abortion Rates in the U.S.?
How the Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Movements have Affected Americans Public Opinion about Abortion 
II. The Pro-Life Movement
III. The Pro-Choice Movement
Despite becoming the law of the land in 1973 when the U.S. Supreme Courts decision made abortion legal, pro-life advocates continue to hammer away at the laws concerning the status of human embryos and fetuses in an effort to eventually reverse this landmark decision. In response to the growth of pro-life organizations,…
Abortion and the Right to Privacy
It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click ord Count.
United States' law is descended from English common law. As it stands, the historical idea of a life beginning at "quickening" has been replaced by the idea of fetal "viability." Despite a brief historical hiatus, women maintain the right to an abortion, before life begins. Despite Georgia's best efforts, fetuses are not people, legally or otherwise. Naturally, states regulate abortions and even proscribe them, under specified circumstances. However, the historical right to privacy in the home includes the right to choose whether to procreate. The right to privacy is protected in the substantive due…
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616, 116 U.S. 630 (The Supreme Court December 11, 1886).
Bullough, V. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.: ABC-CLIO.
Coke, E. (2001). The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England: Concerning High Treason, and Other Pleas of the Crown and Criminal Causes. Clark, N.J.: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Garrow, D. (1998). Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade (2nd Edition ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.
It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.
The 1990s: The First Gulf War
The decade opened with a literal bang when…
About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/
Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
The question of whether or not abortion should be legal depends entirely on who is asked, and what type of moral reasoning is being used. Likewise, the question of whether abortion should be legal or not depends on the definition of abortion -- which stage the abortion can or should take place. Perhaps more importantly, the answer to the abortion question relates to one's definition of a fetus. The answer to the question also depends whether abortion legality is maintained at the state as well as the federal level. These are some of the many factors influencing the abortion debate in the United States. Abortion has become a central political topic, not just in the United States, but in other countries as well. In the United States is the added dimension of states' rights, and whether states should be allowed to determine their own abortion policies. The arguments presented…
British Pregnancy Advisory Service (2013). What is an abortion? Retrieved online: http://www.bpas.org/bpasyoungpeople/what-is-abortion
Faux, M. (2000). Roe v. Wade. Cooper Square Press.
Roe v. Wade, 1973. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Savage, D.G. (2013). Supreme Court vote upholds Texas abortion law. Los Angeles Times. 19 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-scotus-abortion-texas-20131120,0,3988621.story#axzz2lcd6QVfk
I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.
II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.
Roe v. Wade
From a constitutional perspective,…
political policy of interest and summarize that policy while contrasting it with my own position. In order to do this I have chosen ep. Nancy Pelosi of California and her position on the legality of abortion. Before contrasting Ms. Pelosi's comments with my own I will give background information about this policy and how it affects the citizens of our country.
oe v Wade was the Supreme Court decision that made abortion legal and women had a constitutional right to this practice. The decision was based on protecting the personal privacy of the pregnant woman and took their power from the 9th and 14th amendments of the Constitution. The court deemed that a fetus is not a person but merely a potential for life and therefore disqualifies that organism from having any rights of its own. There is some leeway within this law giving more potential rights to the potential…
Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi Webpage (2011). " Pelosi Statement on 38th Anniversary of Roe v Wade. " 21 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://pelosi.house.gov/news/press - releases/2011/01/pelosi-statement-on-the-38th-anniversary-of-roe-v-wade.shtml
"Roe v. Wade Case Brief Summary." Lawnix. Viewed 21 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.lawnix.com/cases/roe-wade.html
DEFENDING a OMEN'S RIGHT TO CHOOSE ABORTION
Abortion, or the elective termination of pregnancy likely predates recorded human history, being practiced within virtually every society throughout the world.(6)
In 1973, the United States Supreme Court very specifically decided that the United
States Constitution affords a fundamental right to individual privacy that absolutely prohibits governmental interference with a women's autonomous right to seek medical termination of unwanted pregnancy, except where deemed necessary to safeguard the woman's health paternalistically.(4) Ever since the legal issue was decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, a so-called pro-life lobby, spearheaded by religious opposition to any type of abortion has campaigned for and funded the proposition of legislation and policies designed to undermine the rights recognized and established under constitutional law in the United States.
Ultimately, the United States Constitution requires that the appropriate guidelines for defining legally permissible abortion rights and relative concern for the…
1. Abrams, Natalie and Buckner, Michael D. Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professionals.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983
2. Bronowski, Jacob. Science and Human Values.
New York: Harper & Row, 1965
Abortion refers to the termination of the pregnancy and most members of society tend to feel strongly and often myopically about their opinions of abortion. This paper will examine the complex and multi-faceted history that the United States has had with abortion as well as the pros and cons of this procedure. This essay will take a long look at the reasons that motivate those who support abortion and those who do not. It is hoped that this deep analysis will not only strengthen one’s ability to think critically, but allow compassion and common understanding to thrive in society.
Abortion: Nuances of the Issue
Abortion: Reasons for Support and Opposition
Abortion: Reasons for Approval and for Protest
Abortion: Exploring the Positive and Negative Complexities
Abortion in America: Examining both Sides of the Coin
Acceptable Circumstances: When is an abortion a non-controversial decision?
Tribe refers to what Ronald Dworkin says later in the book. Dworkin holds that everyone is an originalist now but that they are not seeking what the lawmakers expected but what they meant to say in their law, suggesting perhaps that they may not be writing laws as clearly as could be or that the vagaries of language often make it difficult to do so without some form of originalist mind set. Tribe points out that what both originalists and textual critics are doing is to try to determine what is intended over what is expected, meaning that a law could be written to say one thing but would have unintended consequences just the same. here Tribe differs is in the fact that he does not believe it is possible to discover which provisions are which by a close reading of the text or by legislative history. Tribe also does…
Brennan, William. "Construing the Constitution." 19 University of California-Davis Law Review 2 (1985).
Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court. New York: Vintage, 2001.
Scalia, Antonin. A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Statement of the Policy
The policy of the United States on abortion was one set forty years ago in a landmark decision, in the 1973 case oe v. Wade, which legalized abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Brief History of the Policy
In the case of oe v. Wade, a single woman by the name of oe brought class action that challenged the constitutionality of the criminal abortion laws in the state of Texas. In this case a licensed physician by the name of Hallford, who had state prosecutions against him pending was allowed to intervene. A childless couple, known as the Does, attacked the laws and based the alleged injury on the future possibilities of contraceptive failure, stating that were not prepared for becoming parents and the health of the wife. The court ordered the abortion statutes void "as vague and overbroadly infringing the plaintiff's…
Roe v. Wade (1973) SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 410 U.S. 113. APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS. No. 70-18 Argued: December 13, 1971 - Decided: January 22, 1973. Retrieved from:
Catholic Perspectives on Culture, Society and Politics (2007) Vox Nova. Retrieved from: http://vox-nova.com/2007/05/22/abortion-and-economics/
Dionisio, L. et al. (2006) A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. Retrieved from: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jackson/social.issues/papers/AbortGrI.html http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Norrander, B. And Wilcox, C. (1999) Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal, Vo. 27, No. 4, 1999. Retrieved from: http://academic.udayton.edu/grantneeley/Morality%20Policy/norranderandwilcox-psj.pdf
Changing Abortion Guidlines
Abortion and the constitution
Changing abortion guidelines
Abortion is the deliberate termination of human pregnancy; this process is performed the first 3 weeks of pregnancy. According to oe v. Wade it states that a woman is entitled to personal privacy protection, this is due to the fact that it includes the woman's determination of whether to bear a child or not. The judicial oversight of legislation was increased by the Courts under the privacy line of the cases; consideration was of abortion related laws in all the States of America (Sarah, K. 2010).
Looking at the historical review of medical and legal views concerning abortion, the Courts found out that the modern prohibitions were not in line with the recent vintage thus lacking historical foundation that would have played a fundamental role of preserving them constitutional review (Edward, L. 2002). The Courts also discovered that the word…
Edward, Lazarus. The Lingering Problems with Roe v. Wade, 2002. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/lazarus/20021003.html
Sarah Kliff, Remember Roe!, NEW SWEE K. MAGAZINE, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/04/15/remember-roe.html
This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.
Shortage of abortion providers
There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…
Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.
Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.
Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.
Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
The pro-choice group really does not have an argument other than the right to choose. It is, unfortunately, not much of a choice when it involves killing a living thing without reason. The political ramifications have reached such a point that the abortion is the only medical procedure that has no age restrictions (or require parental consent). Abortion also goes against the scientific laws of nature. In the creative scheme of things, after God, women occupy a very important place. Such power cannot be misused. Even atheists would concede the powerful natural forces at work here. A woman's body goes through significant changes as it readies it self to create a brand new human being. Abortion cuts this process short.
Then there are guilt feelings and burdens of society. Obviously, a woman who goes through abortion merely for convenience would be guilt ridden for a long time (if not for…
Callahan, Joan C. "The Fetus and Fundamental Rights." The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice. Eds. Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum. Rev. ed. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. 203-09.
ChristianAction. "Prolife: 10 Arguments against Abortion." 2009. Christian Action. org. April 11, 2009. .
Noonan, John Thomas. "The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives." The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives. Ed. John Thomas Noonan. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, 1970. 51-59.
Steyn, Mark. America Alone: The End of the World as We Know it. Washington, DC
An example of a powerful group that supports abortion is the National Organization of omen. They do not see a fetus as a life and do not define it as such. Conservatives have many supporters that respect life and believe that it begins at conception. Many religious organizations support those that are pro-life. Pro-life supporters often come to this conclusion because of their moral convictions. They cannot justify taking a life and many believe that life begins at conception. Many would only believe that abortion is acceptable only if the mother's life is in danger or in severe cases of rape.
The issue of choice could be radically changed if McCain wins the presidency and is successful in overturning Roe v. ade. Both sides of the political fence can look into the future and see something very good happening or something very bad happening. This is why the presidential candidate…
Barack Obama: Change We Can Believe in." Barack Obama Online. Site Accessed September 14, 2008. http://www.johnmccain.com
Bardes, Barbara. American Government and Politics Today. Belmot: Thomson/Wadsworth. 2004.
Charlie Gibson interview GOP vice Presidential Candidate Sarah Palin." Site Accessed September 14, 2008. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Vote2008/Story?id=5795641&page=7
McCain for President." John McCain Online. Site Accessed September 14, 2008.
In 1976, three years after Roe v. ade, the Court ruled that a married woman did not have to have her husband's permission to get an abortion, if she wanted one (Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth).
Do the policies of the executive branch of government - the hite House - go past just merely being "pro-life" - and into the realm of sexism? That is a good question because military women serving overseas, under the Bush administration, cannot receive safe hospital abortions, even if they pay with their own personal funds, according to NO. hy? To make the point that this administration opposes abortions, Bush restored a Reagan-era policy, and now military wives and women in the service must "travel long distances" to have abortions. They must also get the permission of their commanding officer, which is almost always a man.
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview.…
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://members.aol.com/abtrbng/
Medical News Today. (2006). Antiabortion Activists Refocusing Strategies After Election
Results; Washington Post Says Democratic-Controlled Congress Might Force Bush to Reconsider. (Nov. 14, 2006). Retrieved 20 Nov. 2008 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com .
National Organization for Women. (2007). Reproductive Rights Historical Highlights. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://www.now.org/issues/abortion/roe30/timeline.html .
Stare decisis, from the Latin meaning "to stand by that which is decided," is a judicial doctrine, which provides that precedent decisions are to be followed by the courts ('Lectric). The doctrine of stare decisis has developed in common-law legal systems, which enable judges to create law through judicial interpretation. In contrast, jurisdictions with a civil-law legal system reject the doctrine of stare decisis, because civil-law systems require a stricter separation between the legislative and judicial branches. The United States' legal system developed from a common-law base and embraces the doctrine of stare decisis.
Although the doctrine of stare decisis appears, at first blush, to give great power to the judicial branch, it is actually a judicial discretion constraining device. If the legislature is unhappy with a high court's interpretation of a law, it can change the law to reflect the actual legislative intent. However, if the legislature is content…
Amar, Akhil R., and Vikram Amar. "Precedent on the High Court: More On." FindLaw. 2002.
FindLaw. 28 Feb. 2005 .
Lessner, Richard. "Staring Down Stare Decisis." National Review. 2003. National Review. 28
Feb. 2005 .
Legal Precedent and the Legal System
The principle of stare decisis is a legal principle that suggests that courts rule consistently with case precedent or cases that have been previously decided. The doctrine originated from the common law in England and was purposed to promote uniformity in the justice system. Courts are not always bound to rule according to previous decisions, especially if these decisions are from districts outside of the sitting court, and increasingly many courts have declined to follow precedent in its rulings. However, the United States Supreme Court, as the highest Court in the land, sets the precedent for the courts of the country on constitutional issues. If a lower court fails to follow a Supreme Court decision, its decision will be overruled in the event of an appeal. Stare decisis, although instituted for a beneficial purpose, has not been without controversy. The Supreme Court…
Briggs v. Elliott, 342 U.S. 350 (1952).
Del Carmen, R. (2007). Criminal procedure: law and practice 7th Ed. Belmont, California:
Gonzales v. Carhart, 127 S. Ct. 1610 (2007).
The history of Planned Parenthood is voluminous and extensive. It has been filled with controversy, legal spats and struggles for acceptance and funding from the United States government. Even nowadays, the organization is threatened with budget changes or cuts from the federal government and many people have turned to violence against Planned Parenthood and similar groups over the years due to opposition to abortion or other birth control options that Planned Parenthood is known for providing or at least advocating for. What follows in this report is a history of Planned Parenthood as well as some of the pivotal events and outcomes that have occurred over the years. While Planned Parenthood is an organization with a lot of detractors, they also have a huge amount of support from some very loyal and entrenched groups around the country.
While the major decision that exists regarding abortion occurred with…
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…
The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Infoplease.com. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html
Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drug_war.html
Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1970s." The History of Film. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html
Halber, Deborah. Seventies oil crisis was a 'perfect storm' for U.S. MIT. March 23, 2007. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/jacobs.html
"What is the role of Congress in policy making process"?
Policy is a plan to identify goal or possible course of actions with administrative or management tools to accomplish these goals. n the other hand, policy is the authoritative decision made by the U.S. executive, legislative, judicial branch of government to influence the decision of others. Government is a key player in decision-making process and congress plays important roles in decision-making . In the United States, both House of Representatives and House of Senate fulfill the congressional policy responsibilities, and congress plays important role in health policy, which includes obesity prevention measures or health insurance program. Congress is an important arm of government that makes law. Important strategy that congress uses to make policy preference is by passing a bill into law. Typically, the congress could make a decision to pass or not to the policy of the…
Oregon Department of Human Services.(2008). The impact of federal policy on Oregon's health care reform efforts: Opportunities and barriers within Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Medical Assistance Programs.
Waller, M. (2005).Block Grants: Flexibility vs. Stability in Social Services. Brookings Institution Policy Brief.
Zuckert, M.P. (2002). Launching Liberalism: On Lockean Political Philosophy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).
Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.
In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…
Beckwith, F.J. Politically Correct Death: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.
CPN. "Topics." 6, May 2005. http://www.cpn.org/topics/families/prolife.html
Currie, Stephen. Abortion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Do No Harm. Coalition of Scientists for Research Ethics. 6, May 2005. http://www.stemcellresearch.org/
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
Even more than that, she should choose whether she bears a child or not, because she is the one who will have to raise it, take care of it, and support it, unless she gives it up for adoption. Thus, she should have the freedom to make her decision based on what is best for her, not according to laws that do not pertain to most of the people who create and legislate them. Politicians should not be able to make the decision for anyone; they should have the freedom to make that very difficult decision on their own.
Before oe vs. Wade, when abortions were illegal, it did not stop women from having them. They simply had them illegally, and suffered infection, internal damage, and even death as a result. To return to those days by outlawing abortion would be a return to "back-alley" abortions and death. Young women…
CDC. Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Data -- United States, 1994. MMWR 1997; 45:1123-7. Last Updated: 11/03/06. 28 Nov. 2008.
Doerr, E.. Roe V. Wade at Thirty. The Humanist, March/April, 2003, 63, 40+.
Roy, L.S. Roe and the new frontier. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2003. 27(1), 339+.
interview with President-elect Donald Trump shows how televised media creates negotiated codes within a hegemonic framework. In an attempt to convey objectivity, the interviewer, along with the editor as well as television producer, create a narrative that conveys hegemonic meaning or a "metacode," (Hall 3). The result is what Hall calls "systematically distorted communication," (Hall 3). The interviewer fails to acknowledge, recognize, or bring to the viewer's attention the discrepancies and logical fallacies in the substantive content of Trump's discourse. By refraining from reframing Trump's message, the interviewer perpetuates misinformation.
For example, Trump discusses his desired appointment to the Supreme Court of a conservative judge who will be decisively "pro-life" and affirms that overturning oe v. Wade is an embedded goal of his presidency. He later claims that the LGBTQ community has nothing to fear because "It's law. It was settled...it's done...these cases have gone to the Supreme Court." oe…
They also had the power to decide the merits of evidence and arguments. In the 19th century, judges gained greater control over juries and the role of juries became what it is currently; hearing evidence presented on both sides and determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.
The advantages of the jury system lie in the foundational elements articulated and supported by amendments and the Supreme Court. The Sixth Amendment provides that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial" (Landsman & Hastings 1992). A speedy trial was emphasized to avoid the accused languishing in prison for extended periods of time prior to a trial, or have the accused fate put off for an indeterminate amount of time. Further, the Sixth Amendment guarantees every citizens right to an impartial jury. The intent is that the prospective juries not enter into the…
Ackerman, B. (1993). Neo-federalism? Constitutionalism and Democracy, Cambridge:
Allan, T. (2001). Constitutional justice: A liberal theory of the rule of law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Decent, E. (2010). Democratizing common law constitutionalism, McGill Law Journal, 55(3), 511-535.
Hogue, A. (1986). Origins of the common law. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
It is difficult to say whom the Supremacy Clause affects in particular, and why, because it has the potential to impact all Americans. For example, many of the ground-breaking Supreme Court decisions in recent time are based in some way on the Supremacy Clause. For example, the famous Civil ights Supreme Court decisions such as Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967) and Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) base their decisions on the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. However, it is important to realize that they can only do so based on the fact that the states do not have the power to deprive citizens of their constitutionally protected rights. Those decisions have had a significant wide-ranging impact on all Americans; while the U.S. has yet to achieve full equality; it is fair to suggest that, without them, much of America would still be in Jim…
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).
McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819).
Roe v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
Conference votes are not chiseled in marble; they are subject to change after the justices read their colleagues' draft opinions. And read them they do, thoroughly and carefully. They write thoughtful (in both senses of the word) memos about these opinions. All this, of course, confirms what earlier studies have reported.
hat Courts, Judges, and Politics makes clear is that changes in outcome between conference vote and final decision are far from unusual. Equally impressive are the justices' conscientious (though not always successful) efforts to reach decisions by consensus rather than simple majority.
Though they are too few to prove, in a variety of cases, some justices have more collegial impact than others; Sandra Day O'Connor and Anthony Kennedy are frequent players, for instance, while Antonin Scalia is not.
But the most striking pattern is the absence of pattern; collegial consultation does not consistently move the Court to the…
Murphy, W., Pritchett, H, & Epstein, L. Courts, Judges, and Politics, 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill,
Women in the United States faced many difficulties before the legalization of abortion. The case of oe vs. Wade is famous as this case allowed for the legalization of abortion K. Jones & Chaloner, 2007.
Before the legalization of abortion, there were women who still aborted illegally, and all that legalization provided for was a safe environment for the women to perform abortion. Legalization of abortion provided women with a choice in regards to keeping the pregnancy to term or terminating the pregnancy. This choice is and has been a controversial one, which results in many debates for and against abortion. The debates regarding abortion have not favored women as it was earlier thought, since there are women who still cannot access abortion services. Women of color were mostly disadvantaged before abortion was legalized, but the situation did not change after abortion was legalized. Colored women…
Avalos, L.R. (2003). Abortion in the Web of Relationship. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(2).
Bartlett, L.A., Berg, C.J., Shulman, H.B., Zane, S.B., Green, C.A., Whitehead, S., & Atrash, H.K. (2004). Risk factors for legal induced abortion -- related mortality in the United States. Obstetrics & gynecology, 103(4), 729-737.
Cates, W., Grimes, D.A., & Schulz, K.F. (2003). The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 35(1), 25-28.
Fried, M.G. (2013). Reproductive rights activism in the post-Roe era. American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 10-14.
The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.
I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…
Different individuals may be capable of using the economic advantage accrued to them because of their superior knowledge with greater alacrity than others.
Another limit is the multicausal nature of behavior and shifts in the culture. The drop in crime can be attributed to so many factors, to draw an easy correlation between the abortion rate and a drop in crime is almost impossible, given that it was accompanied by an increase in material wealth during this period that spread to poorer segments of society, an increase in more effective policing, even a degrease in the prestige of criminal activity and a greater respect for authority in the culture. Human beings do not live in the laboratory, and the examples cited by Leavitt and Dubner tend to reduce most of human behavior to a singular causal framework. Regardless, the book is provoking and challenging in its analysis, although it is…
Dubner, Stephen & Steven Levitt. Freakonomics. New York: William Morrow, 2006.