Rogerian Essays (Examples)

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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 1541 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13288052

Psychoanalysis

The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…… [Read More]

References

Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.

Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
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Analyzing Yalom's if Rape Were Legal

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37312645

Yalom Analysis

The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.

Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper

Collins.
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Compare and Contrast Dr Larry Crabb's Book Effective Biblical Counseling

Words: 2215 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11541346

Bible Counseling

Goal of Christian Counseling

Dr. Larry Crabb sees human problems through two lenses: the first category involves problems that result from "…natural or physical causes" (things the individual has little or no control over). Examples of those kinds of problems include learning disabilities, a chemical imbalance within the person, and other issues that result from "perceptual dysfunctions." Crabb's goal is to fill the basic needs of a person, and under Christian counseling he feels the basic need is for "personal worth," which can be satisfied through two important inputs. One is a kind of "longing for significance" -- that is, the person longs for a purpose, for importance, for a meaningful job that has a positive impact. The other is to have security through being accepted (p. 2).

Part ONE: Goal of Rogerian Theory of Counseling (Client-centered therapy)

The client-centered approach by Rogers is designed to allow the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, Linda Wasmer. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Encyclopedia of Depression.

Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.

Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Client-Centered Therapy. About.com Psychology. Retrieved February

18, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com.
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Counselor Vision in Our Lives

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70537065

I know that a counselor must not be seen as an authority figure, but rather as a resource that can be tapped like a well; old fashioned water pumps need to have water put into them before they can dispense water, and counseling must be approached in this manner. A student (or parent or teacher or coworker) must feel comfortable with their counselor as a peer as well as a guide in order to develop trust and get the most out of the relationship.

These values have been deeply instilled in me through both positive and negative experiences in my life. As a child in the often overly repressive British school system, I was not offered many constructivist learning opportunities by anyone in the school or community. I wanted to believe that my appointed mentors did in fact have my best interests in mind, but it seemed that all of…… [Read More]

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Why Likeability Is Essential for Success

Words: 2862 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55458176

Management

Likeability: A Factor in Managerial Success

A 2007 survey in which 90,000 employees from all over the world were interviewed revealed that only 20% of those questioned were attempting to perform to their utmost abilities in the workforce. The remaining 80% were reported to be disengaged (Bhargava). hat was the cause of the overwhelmingly lackluster workplace attitudes? A number of researchers have identified the root of the cause in a failure of leadership to personally interact and form bonds of human sympathy with subordinates (Bhargava; Pink; Holmes). Indeed, Daniel Pink has shown in his best-selling work Drive that leaders who demonstrate likeability in the workplace actually have a higher success rate in motivating teams in the long run. Likeable managers establish workplace cultures that provide a necessary foundation for attracting, forming and keeping autonomous, masterful and purpose-driven employees in their workplace environment. This paper will show how likeability is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., Weber, T.J. "Leadership: Current Theories,

Research, and Future Directions." Annual Review of Psycholog, 60 (2009): 421-29. Print.

Bhargava, Rohit. Likeonomics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.

Elkind, Peter; McLean, Bethany. Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room. NY: Penguin,
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Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Client Centered Therapy

Words: 2861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88201580

personality and psychotherapy theories, namely, client-centered therapy (CCT) and cognitive therapy. The first section of the paper takes up CCT (or ogerian therapy), giving a brief overview of the theory's key points, including its founder and the views of the founder. Sub-sections under this section explore, in brief, the areas of personality structure under the theory, theory architecture, and an approach to intervention using the theory (or in other words, how the client is dealt with using the CCT model).

The second section of the paper follows a similar exploration of the theory of cognitive therapy (CT), developed by A.T. Beck. Sub-sections follow similar lines, concisely dealing withpersonality structure under CT, architecture of the theory, as well as interventions for helping out clients under this model, supported by literature in the field.

Finally, the paper takes up a comparative discussion, in the last section, highlighting the key elements that are…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy: A 30-year retrospective. American Psychologist, 46(4), 368-375. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.368. (Saybrook University library: PsycARTICLES database.)

Bozarth, J. D. (1997). Empathy from the framework of client-cantered theory and the Rogerian hypothesis. In A. C. Bohart, L. S. Greenberg, A. C. Bohart, L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Empathy reconsidered: New directions in psychotherapy (pp. 81-102). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10226-003

Cahill, J., Barkham, M., Hardy, G., Rees, A., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., & Macaskill, N. (2003).Outcomes of patients completing and not completing cognitive therapy for depression. British Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 133.

Dattilio, F. M., & Hanna, M. A. (2012).Collaboration in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 146-158. doi:10.1002/jclp.21831
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Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Compared to

Words: 2886 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005352

Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?

Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Carl ogers

Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…… [Read More]

References

Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging

Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.

DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.

Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
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Diagnosis of S Johnson Diagnosis

Words: 1526 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52374485

Therefore, she should be assessed for any possible medication that may help her depression or anxiety. But she also needs a therapeutic approach that addresses her isolation and her needs for healthy and appropriate attachment.

A excellent therapeutic for this need is a ogerian approach that incorporates the positive regard of Carl ogers. The following describes the approach that such a therapist would take:

ogers' strong belief in the positive nature of human beings is based on his many years of clinical experience, working with a wide variety of individuals & #8230; the theory of person-centered therapy suggests any client, no matter what the problem, can improve without being taught anything specific by the therapist, once he/she accepts and respects themselves & #8230;.the resources all lie within the client. (Pescitelli, n.d.)

While critics argue that ogerian therapy is not sufficiently rigorous, it remains extremely effective as a long-term approach for…… [Read More]

References

Anorexia nervosa. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/anorexia-nervosa/anorexia-nervosa-topic-overview?page=2

Pescitelli, D. Rogerian therapy. Retrieved from http://www.pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogers&page=rogerian_therapy
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Psychology Counseling

Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25105508

However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session

2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…… [Read More]

Reference

Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,

CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at  http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
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Non-Directive Communication Theories of Communication

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38946940



The Rogerian Model

This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).

Motivational Interview

This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:

[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html

Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html

Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
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Egan's Skilled Helper Model Is a 3-Stage

Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33689585

Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.

The Egan model addresses three primary questions

What is going on?

What do I want instead?

How might I get to what I want?

Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…… [Read More]

Reference

Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.

Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
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Psychology Is a Multifaceted Field

Words: 1705 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85096253



eferences

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101936297

Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016

Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817

Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983

Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353

Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101936297

Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235

Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016

Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
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Constructive Therapy Constructivism Is a Theoretical Perspective

Words: 3489 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13177749

Constructive Therapy

Constructivism is a theoretical perspective that asserts that people attempt to make sense of the world by developing their own set of personal individualized constructs. Personal experience, interpretation, social context, and linguistic factors define a person's subjective reality. Constructive psychotherapy focuses on individual experience, personal resilience, change, and the therapeutic relationship to assist people with change. The current article asserts that constructivism and constructive psychotherapies heavily draw from principles of past theorists such as George Kelly and Kurt Lewin, and constructivism and constructive psychotherapies do not represent facets of a new paradigm. In this sense constructive psychotherapy is not a unified form of psychotherapy but instead a form of integrated psychotherapy. Finally the article applies five basic principles of constructivism: activity, order, the self, social-symbolic relations, and lifespan development in the proposed psychotherapy of Sam, a man who is experiencing frustration and anger-management issues at his work and…… [Read More]

References

Arkowitz, H. (1992). Integrative theories of therapy. In D.K. Freedheim, H.J. Freudenberger, J.W. Kessler, S.B. Messer, D.R. Peterson, H.H. Strupp, & E.L. Wachtel (Eds.), History of psychotherapy: A century of change (pp. 261-304). Washington, DC: APA Press.

Chiari, G., & Nuzzo, M.L. (1996). Psychological constructivisms: A metatheoretical differentiation. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 9, 163-184.

Dollard, J. & Miller, N.E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vols. I & II). New York: Norton.
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Roger's Theory of the Development of Personality

Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82734154

Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development

In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995

Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html.(accessed 12-04-2003).

Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic

Psychology. http://www.ahpweb.org/articles/rogers.html
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Rogers Case Study Using Person

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5572398

As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.

In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…… [Read More]

References

Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
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XBRL Adoption at Hmrc and

Words: 17839 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52024391

Within these findings are many insights and differences in opinion as to the benefits and caveats of XBL adoption. In the a case of HMC, privacy issues are a key factor in the reason for their partial adoption of XBL, rather than the full adoption undertaken by CH. The interviewees were from varied backgrounds and included three from HMC and four from CH. They included persons from many different facets of the project. They included interviews from accountancy, the Manager of Online Services, a Technical Architect, and a Process Advisor. These interviewees represent technical personnel who are directly involved in the project implementation. The list of interviewees also included senior management, including the Head of Development, Senior Project Manager, and Business Systems Analyst.

The interviewees represent diversity in opinions among those in various phases of the project. They represent numerous disciplines that are involved as well. Each professional was concerned…… [Read More]

References

Keeling, D. (2009). HTML - XML - XBRL - iXBRL - what's it all about-AccountancyAge. August 17, 2009. http://keelinguncorked.accountancyage.com/2009/08/html-xml-xb.html
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Focuses on

Words: 843 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49308699

By acknowledging the validity of his emotions, Jake would learn not to be afraid of them and learn that he could express anger and embrace conflict without losing close relationships. He could be intimate with other people and express anger without the anger leading to violence.

Q5: Cognitive behavioral therapy questions the client's false assumptions about himself and the world, such as Herb's feeling that his divorce was his fault. Herb is living in the past, and dwelling on things he cannot change. The behavioral therapist would focus on Herb's core assumptions: "why was the divorce your fault? Why would things be better if she returned?" Cognitive behavioral therapy's focus on the present would make it extremely useful for Herb's inability to move his life forward. It focuses on actions and setting goals for behavior, which is useful if a client is mired in too much self-examination.

Q6.1: There is…… [Read More]

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Sales Organization Evaluates Its Sales Team The

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97007709

sales organization evaluates its sales team. The organization I am using is Carton Bros. Ireland it is a poultry distribution company. The question in more specific terms is intention to discover what are the different methods of performance appraisals this organization uses in order to evaluate how their sales team are performing?'

About the company

Carton Brothers is the name of the company that produce Manor Farm chicken. It dates back to 1775, when it was started in the Dublin market. It soon grew substantially as a company and gradually became one of the largest traders in the country diversifying and, in fact, one part of it becoming involved in the import, blending and selling of tea. The company also sold may other commodities such as rabbit, spirits & eggs amongst other things.

It was in 1956 that the company first turned to rearing the chickens and making them more…… [Read More]

References

The Angelo Celt ( 1 June, 2011) Case taken against Carton Bros, Shercock  http://www.anglocelt.ie/news/courtreports/articles/2011/06/01/4004726-case-taken-against-carton-bros-shercock/ 

Carton Brothers About Us

 http://www.chicken.ie/carton-brothers-manor-farm-about-us.82.html 

Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
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Counseling and Therapy

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85569529

Person-Centered Therapy

I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).

In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
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Free Will & Determinism Define

Words: 932 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20355918



Q3: Define free will and determinism. Discuss how free will and determinism are relevant to the following theories:

Free will may be defined as the ability to make decisions independent of social, biological, and cognitive shaping mechanisms; determinism is the idea one is subject to such forces at cannot fundamentally alter one's future trajectory in a meaningful manner.

Freud's psychoanalytic theory

Freud took a highly deterministic view of how the human psyche was constructed. He viewed such complexes as the Oedipus Complex and the Electra Complex as part of universal human development patterns. A girl would inevitably suffer penis envy, even if she was raised by a feminist mother and father in a socially empowering environment. She could not choose to ignore negative internal forces that were hard-wired into her psyche. Similarly, boys all over the world were determined to wish to murder their father and marry their mother. The…… [Read More]

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Perceived Diversity and Organizational Performance

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8331338

Diversity at this level may help expand market share by making minorities more visible to customers and by enhancing the firm's collective understanding of the market. Perceived diversity at this level correlated to communication problems and negative impacted decision-making time and task completion time. As for the findings regarding the second hypothesis, the authors suggest that diversity at the middle management level might contribute to the perception of tokenism a company and negatively affect employee morale, identification with the firm, and perceptions of performance (Allen et al., 2008).

The authors acknowledge the limitations of their study. Qualitative research cannot show causality. Convenience sampling is not as robust as random sampling. Moreover, the sample was overwhelming composed of Caucasians and management level employees. Geographical and cultural limitations reduce the generalizability of the study's findings. Since they interviewed only 3 workers per firm on average, they did not plumb very deeply into…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R.S., Dawson, G., Wheatley, K., & White, C.S. (2008). Perceived diversity and organizational performance. Employee Relations, 30(1), 20-33.

Bierema, L.L. (2010). Resisting HRD's resistance to diversity. Journal of European Industrial

Training, 34(6), 565-576.

Carson, C.M., Mosley, D.C., & Boyar, S.L. (2004). Performance gains through diverse top management teams. Team Performance Management, 10 (5/6),121-126.
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Levinson Part Two Examination of

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18172594



Tenet of the theory

2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.

Methodological assumptions of this model

. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.

Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…… [Read More]

3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.

One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.

A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."
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Psychology A Brief History of

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33848317

Implicit in ogers' belief system was that clients must be in control of the therapy, and the therapist merely functioned as the guide.

Major School4: Cognitive-behavioral psychologists

Cognitive behavioral psychology is often a very time-sensitive type of therapy, with a specific goal, such as the elimination of a phobia or behavior. In contrast to humanistic or ogerian therapy, the cognitive-behaviorist directly challenges the client about his or her irrational belief systems.

The biology of psychology

The discipline of psychology has gradually shifted to a disease-based model, from Freud's psychoanalytic framework, reflecting the knowledge gained about how biological aspects of the brain affect learning, language memory, and behavior (Granek 2010). The more simplistic assumptions of the Freudian era, such as the idea that cold mothers produced autistic or schizophrenic children, or that sexual repression was the root of all diseases has fallen out of fashion. However, understanding how to heal individuals…… [Read More]

References

Beins, Bernard. (2010, February). Teaching measurement through historic sources. History of Psychology, 13(1): 89-94.

Granek, Leeat. (2010, February). Grief as pathology: The evolution of grief theory in psychology

from Freud to the present. History of Psychology, 13(1): 46-73.

Nyman, Lawrence. Documenting history: An interview with Kenneth Bancroft Clark. History of Psychology, 13(1): 74-88.
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Frank Seems Like an Ideal

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16195102

Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.

Q2: Integrationist point-of-view

No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.

Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…… [Read More]

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Unitary Human Beings an Examination

Words: 2710 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76639135

The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.

Theoretical Significance

Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…… [Read More]

References

Butcher, H. (2008). "Progress in the explanatory power of the science of unitary human beings." Visions, 15(2), pp. 23-36.

Farren, a. (2009). "An oncology case study demonstrating the use of Roger's science of the unitary human being and standardized nursing language." International journal of nursing terminologies and classifications 20(1), pp. 34-9.

Kim, T. (2008). "Science of unitary human beings: An update on research." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 294-99.

Malinski, V. (2008). "Research diversity from the perspective of the science of unitary human beings." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 291-3.
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Postmodern Therapy Strengths and Weaknesses

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39232831

Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).

Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf

Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at  http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
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Clinical Psychology Psychodynamic Cognitive-Behavioral Humanistic

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71685561

Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).

Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp

Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/

Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.

BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
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Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. rief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at http://www.fadavis.com/related_resources/1_2042_618.pdf

Watson, J. (2005b) What, May I Ask is Happening to Nursing Knowledge and Professional Practices? What is Nursing Thinking at this Turn in Human History? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14.

Palmer, P. (1987). Community, conflict and ways of knowing. Magazine for Higher Learning, 19, 20-25.
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Computer Assisted Writing Learning Applied

Words: 6823 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52847352

" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html.

Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.

Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
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Client Presentation Year-Old Beth Presented

Words: 2146 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67363771

Has there been any parent contact at the school, prior to, during or after the bullying incident?

3. What are the school guidance counselor's clinical impressions as to the present problem? Underlying issue?

4. What are some of Beth's strengths?

5. Has she been willing to talk in the past about things that may be bothering her? Does she have suicidal ideations? Her response to friend leaving? Lack of friends at the school?

Process Issues for Consideration

The process issues that need to be considered if the child counselor has determined it is beneficial to engage Beth in services include presenting behaviors, attitude and affect. Beth may be much more willing to discuss these issues vs. beginning with something possibly more difficult such as addressing her parent's divorce. The child counselor will also need to address the comments Beth has made regarding herself to determine if there is a risk…… [Read More]

References

Allison, P. & Furstenberg, F, Jr. (1989). How marital dissolution affects children: Variations by age and sex. Developmental Psychology, 25, 540-549.

Amato, P. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990's: An update of the Amato and Keith

(1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370.

Amato, P., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-
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Counselor Self-Assessment Project

Words: 1865 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22265636

Value Orientation

I tend to prefer eclectic counseling above all other modalities, generally scripting my practice towards particular individuals and directing my approach towards his or her personality. That is as it should be. Nonetheless, I myself have certain preferences and these are in order of rank: behaviorism (not excluding mentalism); most aspects of Rogerian counseling; a barely-known approach called 'focusing; and the essence of Beck's (1999) approach (not rational emotive therapy which I consider subjective and ethnocentric as well as time-bound).

The aspect that I like about behaviorism is its practical quality. Studies (e.g. Feldman & Kokinov, 2009) have shown that emotional regurgitation (or emoting) is detrimental to a person's peace of mind and diverts them from dealing with the problem. Life, it seems to me, is absorbed with 'doing'; rather than' being', and my observations of successful and content people shows that, oftentimes, the most emotionally and mentally…… [Read More]

Gendlin, ET (1978) Focusing Univ. Of Chicago, USA.

Milne, A. (200) Counseling. London: Hodder

Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: Themes and variations. USA: Thomson-Wadsworth.
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Change Model and Addiction in Our Society

Words: 2104 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12201052

Change Model and Addiction

In our society physicians fill the roles of diagnostician and healer but another role equally important is that of aiding patients to understand and take ownership of their own health and guide them in making decisions and any necessary changes to improve that health. Dietary restrictions, stress management, and exercise programs are common interventions prescribed by physicians but none of these will be successful without a change in the patient's behavior. Without that relapses are common and consistent, life-long behavioral changes are difficult to implement.

We need only to look at the rows of books in stores or the numerous resolutions made at the beginning of every year to know that change is a popular topic, but it is often easier said than done. Physicians can promise a patient improvement in health and back it with scientific evidence but that does not guarantee patients will be…… [Read More]

References

Arkowitz, H, & Lilienfeld, S 2007, 'Why Don't People Change?', Scientific American Mind, 18, 3, pp. 82-83, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.

Arkowitz, H, & Westra, H 2009, 'Introduction to the special series on motivational interviewing and psychotherapy', Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 11, pp. 1149-1155, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.

Feldstein, S, & Forcehimes, A 2007, 'Motivational Interviewing with Underage College Drinkers: A Preliminary Look at the Role of Empathy and Alliance', American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 33, 5, pp. 737-746, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.

Heather, N 2005, 'Motivational interviewing: Is it all our clients need?', Addiction Research & Theory, 13, 1, pp. 1-18, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 December 2010.
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Counseling Degree My Reasons for Seeking a

Words: 3074 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3063819

counseling degree.

My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).

Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

American Counseling Association (ACA) (2005) ACA Code of Ethics.

http://www.ilcounseling.org/associations/6183/files/ACA_2005_Ethical_Code.pdf

Chater, N., & Oaksford, M. (2001). Human rationality and the psychology of reasoning: Where do we go from here? British Journal of Psychology, 92, 193-216.
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Psychology Take-Home Alan Alan's Quote Clearly Illustrates

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22326837

Psychology take-Home

Alan

Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.

Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]

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Small but Successful Systems Integrator

Words: 2180 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97773921

This skill will help am in all areas of his life.

The counseling protocol

I will introduce am to these ideas by using a mixture of Rogerain non-directive counseling with behavioral and cognitive techniques, as well as Gestalt by placing am in the other's shoes.

It seems to me that although am's confidence needs working on, the best route to rectify his self-esteem is by focusing on the problem and having am address it in a practical incremental way.

Discussion with team

My plan of action will be open-ended listening where I will encourage them to share their reactions about am. I will involve am in these meetings so am can discuss his concerns with his colleagues resulting in each gaining a perspective and understanding of the other's situation and feelings. I will encourage all participants to be as concrete and as open as possible so that all concerns get…… [Read More]

Sources

Callister, RR & Wall, JA Jr. (1995). Conflict and its management Journal of Management. 21.3 p515.

Chesler, M.A., Crowfoot, J.E. & Bryant, B.I. (1978). Power training: An alternative path to conflict management. California Management Review, 21(2): 84-90.

Derr, C.B. (1978). Managing organizational conflict: Collaboration, bargaining, power approaches. California Management Review, 21: 76-83.

Goleman, D.(1995) Emotional Intelligence, Bantam, USA
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Family Theory Application the Purpose

Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6216315

Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.

Summary and Conclusion

While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.

The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm

The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm

Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
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American Media Representation of Islam

Words: 3949 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4285978

" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)

The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
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Who's Controlling Our Emotions Emotional Literacy as a Mechanism for Social Control

Words: 8437 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90031219

CONTROLLING OUR EMOTIONS?

EMOTIONAL LITERACY:

MECHANISM FOR SOCIAL CONTROL?

At the core of becoming an activist educator

Is identifying the regimes of truth that govern us the ideas that govern how we think, act and feel as educators because it is within regimes of truth that inequity is produced and reproduced. (MacNaughton 2005, 20)

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...."

Disorder, addictions, vulnerability and dysfunction...." These terns, according to Nolan (1998; Furedi 2003; cited by Ecclestone N.d., 135), denote a therapeutic ethos prevalent in American culture that some consider to be seeping into ritish media, popular culture and politics. Currently, in England, "Personalised learning," according to Ecclestone (2005, 456), includes an increasing number of initiatives, which constitute a powerful discourse to respond to varied, frequently contradictory public, political and professional concerns relating to a person's emotional needs. Her article debates critical policy research and evaluates the subtle ways policy initiatives strive…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014543540

Benninga, Jacques S., Marvin W. Berkowitz, Phyllis Kuehn, and Karen Smith. "Character andAcademics: What Good Schools Do Though There Has Been Increasing Interest in Character Education among Policy Makers and Education Professionals, Many Schools Hesitate to Do Anything That Might Detract from Their Focus on Increasing Academic Performance. The Authors Present Evidence Indicating That This May Be Misguided." Phi Delta Kappan 87.6 (2006): 448. Questia. 24 June 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014543540.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022190711

Buckingham, David, and Andrew Burn. "Game Literacy in Theory and Practice." Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 16.3 (2007): 323+. Questia. 24 June 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022190711.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010848471
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Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community

Words: 3151 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47156589

Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)

The Case History

"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…… [Read More]

Sources

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575

Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
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Personal Model of Helping Therapists Do Whatever

Words: 2318 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78225831

Personal Model of Helping

Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.

The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf.

Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a

Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
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Henderson a Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven

Words: 3439 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12843400

Henderson

A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan

Theories of Counseling

Coun510_D04

This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.

New York: The Guilford Press.

Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
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Psychotherapies if Rape Were Legal This Is

Words: 1296 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10364136

Psychotherapies

If ape were legal

This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, EBT and Alderian.

Dynamic

Psychodynamic psychologists research human habits by trying to find the unseen meanings in things that individuals think, do or state. This needs them to collect huge quantities of qualitative information about individuals, which is typically done with using the specific case-study technique. The topic of the case history is typically an individual who is dealing with a mental ailment and who is being treated with psychoanalysis. The professional gathers details from things the individual states or finishes treatment…… [Read More]

References

Gergen, K.J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Korobov, N. (2000). Social constructionist 'theory hope': The impasse from theory to practice. Culture and Psychology, 6, 365-373.

Martin, J., & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology, 1, 375-378.

Sammons, A. (2007). Psychodynamic approach: the basics. Psychodynamic Psychology.
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Counseling Theories

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525156

Counseling Theory

Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…… [Read More]

References

Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484

Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.

Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.

Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Clinical Supervision

Words: 3503 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79384338

Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.

Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance

Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.

Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th

ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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Freedom Speech Guarantees Freedom Extend Disturbing Funeral

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72756779

Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .

There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)

Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website:  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all 

Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case

Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website:    http://www.nytimes.com   /2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
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Inclusion Over the Past Few

Words: 2832 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45941239

Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will

6

inevitably arise.

The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (orrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs to be examined and revamped for an inclusion program to succeed (Stainback 144). Making certain that there is not an "overload" of special education students within one general education classroom takes much planning and effort on the part of teachers and counselors. Planning also includes making certain that special education students are provided with all appropriate services that they would have received had they not been placed in the inclusion classroom setting (orrell 53). This not only includes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, David W. "Inclusion and Interdependence: Students with Special Needs in the Regular Classroom." Journal of Education & Christian Belief 10.1 (2006): 43-59. Print.

Carr, Margaret N. "A Mother's Thoughts on Inclusion." Journal of Learning Disabilities 26.9 (1993): 590-592. Print.

Connor, David J., and Beth a. Ferri. "The Conflict Within: Resistance to Inclusion and other Paradoxes in Special Education." Disability & Society 22.1 (2007): 63-77. Print.

Leyser, Yona, and Rea Kirk. "Evaluating Inclusion: An Examination of Parent Views and Factors Influencing their Perspectives." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51.3 (2004): 271-285. Print.
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E-Learning or Internet Learning Should Be a Required Part of School Curriculum

Words: 1285 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1463480

learning in schools. Schools must progress and advance in order to keep up with the ever changing and advancing workload. In order to do that, online learning is an option that can be incorporated. I hope the reader is able to realize the scope in the necessity for schools to have options that can include online learning as a means to better serve the student population at large.

What I learned from completing this assignment is the need for the school system to evolve to meet the needs of students presently. Things always to have to adapt and change for the requirements and demands of students are constantly growing and changing. The more options are presented to aid in resolving this issue, the better.

It was difficult to research successful strategies in adopting internet learning for schools. Children didn't seem to respond very well to internet learning. This counteracted my…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Repetto, J., C. Cavanaugh, N. Wayer, and F. Liu. "Virtual high schools: Improving outcomes for students with disabiltiies." N.p., 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.

To improve outcomes for students with disablities academically, one must increase contact and communication. Communication is key to their success.

Ogunleye, Ayodele. "Evaluating An Online Learning Programme from Students' Perspectives." The Clute Institute. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.

It is important to incorporate today's technology into the teaching regime. Keeping up-to-date is vital to the evolution of education.
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Imposition Abolition or Return of the Death

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57969027

imposition, abolition or return of the death penalty has been an unsettling issue among the world's peace-loving nations over the years in the universal desire to control criminality and promote maximum peace and security in human society. Although strictly imposed in ancient times, capital punishment has been, in recent years, openly and indignantly questioned and condemned by certain organizations and abolished in some countries for certain reasons. These reasons we will consider and attempt to reconcile, as far as possible, with those that favor it.

Those that oppose the death penalty contend that it is racist, anti-poor, condemns even innocent prisoners to death, does not deter serious crimes, and a cruel and unusual punishment. They maintain that more than 75% of those in the federal death row are non-whites (Campaign to End the Death Penalty 2002) and statistics conclusively show that the death penalty makes being lack a crime. More…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Haag, Ernest van den. The Ultimate Punishment: a Defense.

Harvard Law Review, Association, 1986

2. Hood, Roger. The Death Penalty: a Worldwide Perspective, a revised edition.

Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1996
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Terrorism There Have Been Various Definitions and

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14223558

Terrorism

There have been various definitions and views of terrorism that have beenfronted over the years. It has been described as a strategy and at other levels as a tactic, some have called it a crime and yet other refer to it as a holy/noble duty; some consider it an inexcusable abomination yet others consider it a systematic reaction to oppression. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point-of-view is being represented, be it theological, political or psychological. Also terrorism can be seen as willful destruction (killing) of people or destruction of property by people not acting on behalf of an established government to redress a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government. However it is important to note that not all cases of willful destruction of people or property are acts of terrorism (ed Cross Organization, 2007).

Some of the important definitive characteristics of terrorism include among others;…… [Read More]

References

Commonwealth of Kentucky, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011

from http://homelandsecurity.ky.gov/community/

Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html

Homeland Security, (2011). Preparedness, Response & Recovery. Retrieved November 20, 2011
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Glenn Beck Glenn Beck Most

Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52094421

This is, to me, a more egregious crime than the act of aborting.

Therefore, you and Pat make many valid points in supporting the right for the advertisement to be run on television -- and in supporting the content of the ad as well. There is nothing inherently harmful in the Tim Tebow ad.

or is there? eighing both sides, I have evaluated the controversy of the advertisement and came up with several reasons why some Americans might find it to be offensive. I won't generalize and call the opposition "the left," because I believe political beliefs are far too complex to be categorized easily. There are several issues at stake with the ad, which make the ad controversial.

First, the advertisement's greatest strength is its greatest weakness. In being subtle about its true purpose, the advertisement is sneaky. Sure, the ad is not controversial on the surface. That's why…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Glenn Beck: Most 'controversial' Super Bowl ad." Glenn Beck.com. Feb 8, 2010. Accessed Feb 8, 2010 from   http://www.glennbeck.com/content/articles/article/199/36078/
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Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants the

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49478214

Therefore, the state is daily loosing important revenue that could help improve the financial situation of different Departments such as health care, social services, and even immigration policies. However, without this source of money, the federal budget would be forced to allocate funds from other destinations.

Thirdly, there is also the issue of workers' rights. In this sense, it is a rather well-known fact the idea that illegal workers are often exploited by employers by giving them wages that are below the normal tariffs. However, the inclusion of illegal workers as legal immigrants would grant them the rights each worker in the United States has. More precisely, "in past decades, labor unions often saw immigrant workers as the enemy, accusing them of depressing wages and breaking strikes. ut the executive council of the AFL-CIO adopted a more sympathetic approach, contending that too often U.S. immigration rules have enabled employers to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coalition for the future American worker. An Amnesty by Any Other Name is Still an Amnesty. N.d. 10 March 2008  http://www.americanworker.org/amnesty_handout2.htm 

Greenhouse, Steven. "Unions Urge Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants Legalized workers would be easier for labor to organize." San Francisco Chronicle. 2000. 10 March 2008  http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/021700-02.htm 

Isidore, Chris. Skilled worker shortage hurts U.S. Employers would be hiring more if they could just find the skilled workers they need. 2007. 10 March 2008.  http://money.cnn.com/2007/01/04/news/economy/jobs_outlook/index.htm
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Embryo Ovum Donation Embryo and

Words: 2884 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14958180

A range of side effects has been reported in donors undergoing all of the above. Donation also makes demands on a donor's time, energy, and emotions. (Burfoot, 1999, p. 269)

For women who are receiving IVF, with their own Ova these side effects and ensuing risks are likely to be palatable, as the lasting effect if all goes well is a full term healthy child. For Ova donors the incentive of a pure, altruistic act might not be enough to allow her to make a discernible decision of sacrifice vs. reward, and this would likely be particularly true in the case of young women, who are less likely to have experience with infertility and who relatively recently experienced the hormonal turmoil of puberty, which is comparatively minor, as noted by some, to the artificial hormonal syncing and stimulating that occurs prior to Ovum retrieval. Ehrensaft stresses throughout her work that…… [Read More]

References

Bender, L. (2003). Genes, Parents, and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Arts, Mistakes, Sex, Race, & Law. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 12(1), 1.

Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Embryo Adoption on Increase; Donors Help Other Infertile Couples Build Families. (2006, November 29). The Washington Times, p. A03.

Ehrensaft, D. (2005) Mommies, daddies, donors, surrogates: answering tough questions and building strong families. New York: Guilford Press.
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Same Sex Marriage There Are

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34865547

ell, if the Bible is the word of God…why would you expect a Christian pastor to believe anything else?" (ABC News). He was reminded that candidate Barack Obama told him prior to the election that he (Obama) opposed same sex marriage. The ABC interviewer (Jake Tapper) asked arren if he is concerned that Obama might change his position. "I can't control what other people believe. I just know what the Bible says," he answered.

In author David E. Newton's book, Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook, the author points out that while many who oppose same-sex marriage based on the Bible, there are references in the Bible that mention "other types of marriage" (Newton, 2010, 35). Of the eight types of marriage, this paper will mention several. Jacob had two wives, Leah and Rachel (Genesis 29: 1030); Esau had three wives in the Bible, Adah, Aholibamah, and Bashemath (Genesis 36: 2-3).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbaro, Michael. (2011). Bloomberg States Case, Emphatically and Personally, for Same-Sex

Marriage. The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from    http://www.nytimes.com   .

Newton, David E. (2010). Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:

ABC-CLIO Books.
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US Aid to Afghanistan the Issue of

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 759177

US Aid to Afghanistan

The issue of United States' aid to Afghanistan is a topic of interesting consideration given the current U.S. budget deficit and ongoing economic uncertainty. Over the years the United States has spent billions providing money and food aid to help build strength and confidence in Afghanistan's rising new government. Unfortunately, the results of this have not been entirely positive nor have they been driven by the purest of motives; there is some level of profiteering occurring using aid money, and there is also a practical U.S. interest in the stability and viability of the Afghan nation and people. If the United States were providing purely humanitarian aid without military or political involvement and requirements, the situation would be quite different. As it is, U.S. aid in the country is a complex and controversial issue.

Since Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban, the country has been…… [Read More]

References

Agnieszka, Flak. "INTERVIEW-Afghanistan Food Aid at Risk as Donors Trim Support |

Agricultural Commodities | Reuters." Reuters.com. 24 Dec. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2012.


pageNumber=2
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Government Should Tax Spending Vice Income a

Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15963901

Government Should Tax Spending Vice Income

A "sin tax" is a specific type of tax that is levied on certain types of goods and services that the government has deemed unnecessary for individual consumption or action, and that society as a whole considers undesirable, but is nevertheless popular with many citizens. Predominant examples of this are alcohol, tobacco, and gambling. Alcohol and tobacco, for instance, move from an economic to a social issue because of numerous health and behavioral issues that result from use, and have a cost to society. Because of this, it is valid that the government be able to tax certain substances or activities.

The idea of sin taxing is designed not to punish, but to suggest that certain activities are not best for society: alcohol because it causes traffic issues, crime, social ills; tobacco because of the medical and productivity costs; and gambling because of its…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. Ensuring Solutions. (2011). Web. http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/

Hoe, K. The Role of Excise as a Sin Tax. The Star Online. . (January 19, 2010). Web. http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/1/19/business/5496890&sec=business

Williams, R.; Christ, K. Taxing Sin. Mercatus Center at George Mason University. (July 2009). Web.  http://mercatus.org/publication/taxing-sin
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Medicate Kids With ADHD Answer Is Yes

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66347654

medicate kids with ADHD? Answer is Yes

Children with ADHD have basic behavioural problems and are uncontrollable. In such cases the care givers face a big problem and often are victims. Having an ADHD child at home is being tied up to the child, and to prevent the parent getting mental problems some methods have to be resorted to keep the balance. In 1991 the amount of children treated with medication was negligible because medication itself was not available and was in the test stage. But now the scenario is different. More and more children have been diagnosed with the symptoms of ADHD and they are also in schools. That today 6-9% of pre-school children have severe psychiatric disorders is a fact. (Barkley, 41)

The alarming situation therefore has called for research in the area and has produced some of the best solutions in the form of medication. It is…… [Read More]

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Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]

References

BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf

Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley

Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme

Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Nursing Can Be

Words: 4161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25325887

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:

Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.

Grand Nursing Theory:

There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]

References:

American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.

Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes

Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.

"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
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Energy Drinks Should the Powerful

Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28675408

The Living Essentials company claims it markets its high-powered beverage (which is sold in a 2-oz bottle as a "shot") to "…hardworking adults who need an extra boost of energy" (Meier, p. 2).

Another article in the respected New York Times reports that in addition to the 13 fatalities linked to 5-Hour Energy, another 5 deaths have been linked to "Monster Energy" (Meier, 2012). These data were released by the FDA in November, 2012, because, according to spokeswoman Shelly Burgess, the FDA is making "…an effort to be transparent" (Meier, p. 1). hile the FDA did not officially find the product at fault -- at this point there are linkages but no empirical proof that the deaths were a direct result of consuming the energy drinks -- Burgess added that if a "relationship between the consumption of the product and harm" can be proved, the FDA will take "appropriate action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Huffpost. "Energy Drinks Hire Lobbyists to Fend Off Regulation." Retrieved March 6, 2013,

from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com .

Meier, Barry. "Caffeinated Drink Cited in Reports of 13 Deaths." The New York Times.

Retrieved March 6, 2013, from    http://www.nytimes.com   . 2012.
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Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.

Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.

Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.

Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
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Rogers Saw All People as Unique and

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60922086

Rogers saw all people as unique and basically good individuals. Everyone is trying to be the best for the society as a whole. It was only when they were unhealthy or mentally ill that these people did terrible things, such as criminal acts. Rogers thus assumed that all mentally healthy human beings, like all living beings, are motivated to develop and to put their efforts toward optimal health. This mandates that people have to be strong and resilient when confronted with challenges. Yet, Rogers admitted, such a resiliency typically develops from the nurturance of others. Thus, if someone is mentally ill, it is more than important to treat this person with kindness. This will help the person get better.

Therapists, therefore, need to value their clients in a positive manner, regardless of their behaviors, or what is called self-actualization. This self-actualization is strengthened by three important factors: Empathy, congruence and…… [Read More]

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Specialized Research Animism Is the Concept That

Words: 762 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1268512

Specialized esearch

Animism is the concept that lies at the core of every ancient religion. The term first came forth in anthropological writings of Edward B. Tylor in 1873 and since then, numerous researchers and historians have studied the concept of animism to better understand the force that drives primitive cultures. Animism is apparently connected with religious beliefs but research in the field reveals that many ancient cultural beliefs are also animistic in nature. In his book, Primitive Cultures, Tylor defined animism "a minimum definition of religion" which underscores the significance of this concept in formation of ancient religious beliefs.

Animism is derived from Greek word anima, which means soul, and ancient religions like Santeria and Hoodoo are based on the concept that everything in this world has a soul. But in its advanced form, animism affects most ancient cultural beliefs, rituals and religious values. Worshipping of trees, fire and…… [Read More]

References

Tylor, Edward B. 1970b. Religion in Primitive Culture (Primitive Culture, Part 2) London: John Murray, 1958.

Santeria, Joseph M. Murphy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.

Taylor, E.B. "Animism." Primative Cutlure, London: John Murray, 1873