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We come to the gym partly to detoxify. Our customers do the same. They deserve an environment that is as pristine as possible: So do we. If everyone cleaned up after themselves the entire gym would be a more welcoming, healthier place. Cleaning up after ourselves will make the gym more inviting for potential new customers, for existing customers, and for the staff. If we don't clean up after ourselves as a rule, we risk losing our jobs and we risk compromising the reputation of the entire company.
I know that we were not hired as cleaning staff. We were hired for our special skills either as teachers, personal trainers, sales, customer support, or reception. I know that our in-house cleaning staff is competent and well-trained. If an area is messy they will soon arrive to clean it up. That is their job.
At the same time, we can all…
Rogerian Argument Facebook
Rogerian Argument about Facebook
Social networking sites (SNS) are a rapidly growing segment of social interaction all over the world. (McCafferty 19)They serve as a source of information for individuals and groups as well as a source of relative connectivity between individuals who know one another in the real world and to allow connections between people who share common interests but might not know one another outside a SNS. (Houghton & Joinson 75) The interconnectivity of the sites, in this paper the focus will be on Facebook the most popular of the SNS service, can serve as a foundational support network for information and to build and/or maintain social connections, yet it also has the potential to leave individuals vulnerable to fraudulent and bad behaviors by others as well as a public arena for the exposition of one's own bad behaviors. Some people claim that the potential…
Carroll, Brian, and Katie Landry. "Logging On And Letting Out: Using Online Social Networks To Grieve And To Mourn." Bulletin Of Science, Technology & Society 30.5 (2010): 341-349. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.pcc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=53744338 & site=ehost-live
Chaulk, Kasey, and Tim Jones. "Online Obsessive Relational Intrusion: Further Concerns About Facebook." Journal Of Family Violence 26.4 (2011): 245-254. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.pcc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=60104316 & site=ehost-live
Houghton, David J. And Adam N. Joinson. "Privacy, Social Network Sites, and Social Relations"
Journal of Technology in Human Services 28. 1-2 (2010) 74-94. doi:
$7.9 billion "to create and save jobs" (National Telecommunications and Information Administration 2012). This does show that the Democratically led government is not completely ignoring the issue of unemployment. Moreover, the administration has focused on producing programs that help secure housing assistance for millions of Americans. The Democratic dominated government has been able to create some strategies trying to address the housing crisis, despite the handicap of being limited by those epublicans voting against potential solutions simply because they originated in a Democratic camp. The Making Home Affordable Program "is a critical part of the Obama Administration's broad strategy to help homeowners avoid foreclosure, stabilize the country's housing market, and improve the nation's economy" (Departments of the Treasury & Housing & Urban Development 2012). Efforts under the program aim to lower homeowner payments and get to more stable loan rates those current homeowners can deal with. The legislation is also…
Brock, William; Danforth, Jack; Lott, Trent; & Nickles, Don. "GOP Ideals Unite, Not Divide." Charlotte Observer. 25 Mar 2012. Web. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/2012/03/25/3124309/gop-ideals-unite-not-divide.html
Departments of the Treasury & Housing & Urban Development. "Explore Programs. Making Home Affordable. 2012. Web. http://www.makinghomeaffordable.gov/programs/Pages/default.aspx
Dingell, John D. "Congress Needs a Fresh, Bipartisan Start." Washington Post. 2011. Web. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/congress-needs-a-fresh-bipartisan-start/2011/09/08/gIQA4F8JDK_story.html
National Telecommunications and Information Administration. "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009." NTIA. 2012. Web. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/page/2011/american-recovery-and-reinvestment-act-2009
ogerian style arguing for the stand that reparation should be paid, or is owed by the United States Government for the African-Americans, the descendants of the African slaves. It has 5 sources.
Government should not pay or owe financial reparations to the descendants of African slaves for the impact of slavery. The stand taken by the writer is for the reparations that should be paid or are owed by the United States Government.
Taking only a brief glimpse on the painful history of the African slaves, a period spanning nearly two and half centuries from 1619 to 1865, more than 4 million people of the African descent were enslaved, bought and sold on the American continent similar to farm animals. Slavery thus was turned into an institution, and the beneficiaries were the white people of the same era, eventually making them millionaires and billionaires. Such was the practice of slavery…
Unknown author, 'Reconciliation Through Reparations: The Legacy, of Slavery, Exploitation and Terror Continues Today', accessed on 17.5.03 at http://www.uhurureparations.org/trr_broc.pdf
Highet, Alistair, "Slavery's Price" Cinjust Reparations, 2002 at http://www.cin.org/archives/cinjust/200203/0030.html
Austen, Ralph A. "The Slave Trade as History and Memory: Confrontations of Slaving Voyage Documents and Communal Traditions," William and Mary Quarterly 58, January 2001: 229-244.
Austen, Ralph A. "The Uncomfortable Relationship: African Enslavement in the Common History of Blacks and Jews," Tikkun 9, March/April 1994, 65.
In this case those supporting testing might proclaim there is no evidence suggesting the animal always suffers ill-effects, therefore testing is not always wrong.
This methodology however is flawed. Proponents of animal testing fail to consider the number of animals that experience reduced life span or reduced quality of life resulting in the confined environment in which they must live while testing. Further, proponents of testing fail to identify what types of tests are safe and which are not. The very fact that animals must be used to test something suggests that some danger is always imminent, thus the life or quality of life of animals tested is always at risk. It does not matter whether that risk is small or very large. All risk is worthy of consideration and notice.
Unfortunately those whose religious practices forbid the use of animals as experimental tools often go to extreme measures to…
Regan, T. (1938), Religion and animal rights,
HPV Vaccine GArDasil
HPV Vaccine Gardasil
HPV Vaccine Gardasil
HPV Vaccine Gardasil was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed in June 2006, prevent infection from four human papillomavirus (HPV) types, two of which case cervical cancer (Cox, Cox, Sturm, & Zimet, 29). Gardasil was prepared by Merck pharmaceutical company. The company started its campaign to make Gardasil mandatory after the introduction of the vaccine. "Papillomaviruses (PVs) make up a vast family that is comprised of hundreds of viruses that affect the epithelia in humans and animals and that can cause benign lesions known as warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to cancer. Cancer of the uterine is caused by HPV, primary types 16 and 18, as well as a dozen other "high risk" HPV types which infect the genital mucosa" (Campo & oden, p.1,214). The current essay is about the opposition and…
Brabin, L., Roberts, S.A., Farzaneh, F., & Kitchener, H.C. Future acceptance of adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination: A survey of parental attitudes. Vaccine, 24.16(2006): 3087-3094.
Brown, E.C., Little, P., & Leydon, G.M. Communication challenges of HPV vaccination. Family Practice, 27.2(2010): 224-229. Doi:10.1093/fampra/cmp087
Castle, P.E., Fetterman, B., Akhtar, I.Hussain, M., Gold, M.A., Guido, R., & #8230;Kinney, W. Age-appropriate use of human papillomavirus vaccines in the U.S. Gynecologic Oncology, 114.2(2009): 365-369. Doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.04.035.
Cox, D.S., A.D., Sturm, L., & Zimet, G. Behavioral interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptability among mothers of young girls. Health Psychology, 29.1(2010): 29-39
Procrastination: A coping mechanism
Procrastination is a human behavior that results when a person avoids or puts off a task, (generally) of high importance, in order to complete tasks (generally) of lower importance Burka & Yuen 2008; Fiore 2006; Hsin Chun Chu & Nam 2011; Schraw, Wadkins, & Olafson 2007). Human behaviors are the results of choices whether those choices are completely intentional or the result of subconscious intent. Without getting too much into the psychology of human choice and behavior, it is just important to note that procrastination is no different than most other human behaviors in that it can result from conscious intention, subconscious intent, or some combination of the two.
According to Schraw, Pinard, and Wadkins (2007), three conditions exist as part of a behavioral response to make that behavior labeled as procrastination, listed as follows:
Counterproductive: Problematic, thwarting achievement of a purpose; tending to hinder or…
Burka, Jane B, & Lenora M. Yuen. Procrastination: Why you do it, What to do about it now. New York: Da Capo Press, 2008.
Fiore, Neil A. The Now Habit: A Strategic Program for Overcoming Procrastination and Enjoying Guilt-free Play. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 2006.
Hsin Chun Chu, Angela, & Choi Jin Nam. "Rethinking Procrastination: Positive Effects of 'Active' Procrastination Behavior on Attitudes and Performance." Journal of Social Psychology, 145.3 (2005): 245-264. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOhost. Web. 3 Apr 2011.
Simpson, John & Edmund Weiner. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Super Highway 8: Rogerian Essay
The picture in question shows a pleasant-looking country road made up of both grass and dirt that has a rustic wooden fence that has fallen into chic disrepair over time. The path the road takes curves in a manner that give the viewer a sense of movement, and the trees on either side of the road are able to give a clear impression that this is a scene from springtime. Some might criticize this image as being derivative and banal. Another form of criticism that one might have for this image is that it’s very non-specific. It’s almost impossible to place where in the world the image occurs; even the trees are non-descript. Critics of this image might even point out that this picture can be connected to websites, businesses, blogs and books all over the world: it is an image which has been used…
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Goal of Christian Counseling
Dr. Larry Crabb sees human problems through two lenses: the first category involves problems that result from "…natural or physical causes" (things the individual has little or no control over). Examples of those kinds of problems include learning disabilities, a chemical imbalance within the person, and other issues that result from "perceptual dysfunctions." Crabb's goal is to fill the basic needs of a person, and under Christian counseling he feels the basic need is for "personal worth," which can be satisfied through two important inputs. One is a kind of "longing for significance" -- that is, the person longs for a purpose, for importance, for a meaningful job that has a positive impact. The other is to have security through being accepted (p. 2).
Part ONE: Goal of Rogerian Theory of Counseling (Client-centered therapy)
The client-centered approach by Rogers is designed to allow the…
Andrews, Linda Wasmer. (2010). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Encyclopedia of Depression.
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Client-Centered Therapy. About.com Psychology. Retrieved February
18, 2013, from http://psychology.about.com .
I know that a counselor must not be seen as an authority figure, but rather as a resource that can be tapped like a well; old fashioned water pumps need to have water put into them before they can dispense water, and counseling must be approached in this manner. A student (or parent or teacher or coworker) must feel comfortable with their counselor as a peer as well as a guide in order to develop trust and get the most out of the relationship.
These values have been deeply instilled in me through both positive and negative experiences in my life. As a child in the often overly repressive British school system, I was not offered many constructivist learning opportunities by anyone in the school or community. I wanted to believe that my appointed mentors did in fact have my best interests in mind, but it seemed that all of…
Likeability: A Factor in Managerial Success
A 2007 survey in which 90,000 employees from all over the world were interviewed revealed that only 20% of those questioned were attempting to perform to their utmost abilities in the workforce. The remaining 80% were reported to be disengaged (Bhargava). hat was the cause of the overwhelmingly lackluster workplace attitudes? A number of researchers have identified the root of the cause in a failure of leadership to personally interact and form bonds of human sympathy with subordinates (Bhargava; Pink; Holmes). Indeed, Daniel Pink has shown in his best-selling work Drive that leaders who demonstrate likeability in the workplace actually have a higher success rate in motivating teams in the long run. Likeable managers establish workplace cultures that provide a necessary foundation for attracting, forming and keeping autonomous, masterful and purpose-driven employees in their workplace environment. This paper will show how likeability is…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., Weber, T.J. "Leadership: Current Theories,
Research, and Future Directions." Annual Review of Psycholog, 60 (2009): 421-29. Print.
Bhargava, Rohit. Likeonomics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.
Elkind, Peter; McLean, Bethany. Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room. NY: Penguin,
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…
Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:
[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html
Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html
Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
Egan's skilled helper model is a 3-stage model that is designed to help people become self-empowered. Very similar to oger's famous counseling system, the model is client-oriented, refers to the client as individual who leads the process and structures his goals and is used on the context of the recent past and future. The ogerian guides, too, of empathic listening, unconditional judgment, and respect are its fundamentals.
The Egan model addresses three primary questions
What is going on?
What do I want instead?
How might I get to what I want?
Stage 1: What is going on Each person perceives his or her particular life narrative in her own specific way. Similarly, too, does one accord one's challenges a personal interpretation. Egan encourages the helper to allow the client to articulate his perspective of the account and to fully listen to that account. Articulation of the story frames the narrative…
Birmingham City Univ. Counseling skills: Egan's skilled helper model. Continuing Professional Development Unit.
Egan, G. & Cowan, M.A. (1979) People in systems: A model for development in the human services and professions. CA: Brooks.
Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016
Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817
Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983
Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353
Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…
Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995
Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html .(accessed 12-04-2003).
Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
Within these findings are many insights and differences in opinion as to the benefits and caveats of XBL adoption. In the a case of HMC, privacy issues are a key factor in the reason for their partial adoption of XBL, rather than the full adoption undertaken by CH. The interviewees were from varied backgrounds and included three from HMC and four from CH. They included persons from many different facets of the project. They included interviews from accountancy, the Manager of Online Services, a Technical Architect, and a Process Advisor. These interviewees represent technical personnel who are directly involved in the project implementation. The list of interviewees also included senior management, including the Head of Development, Senior Project Manager, and Business Systems Analyst.
The interviewees represent diversity in opinions among those in various phases of the project. They represent numerous disciplines that are involved as well. Each professional was concerned…
Keeling, D. (2009). HTML - XML - XBRL - iXBRL - what's it all about-AccountancyAge. August 17, 2009. http://keelinguncorked.accountancyage.com/2009/08/html-xml-xb.html
sales organization evaluates its sales team. The organization I am using is Carton Bros. Ireland it is a poultry distribution company. The question in more specific terms is intention to discover what are the different methods of performance appraisals this organization uses in order to evaluate how their sales team are performing?'
About the company
Carton Brothers is the name of the company that produce Manor Farm chicken. It dates back to 1775, when it was started in the Dublin market. It soon grew substantially as a company and gradually became one of the largest traders in the country diversifying and, in fact, one part of it becoming involved in the import, blending and selling of tea. The company also sold may other commodities such as rabbit, spirits & eggs amongst other things.
It was in 1956 that the company first turned to rearing the chickens and making them more…
The Angelo Celt ( 1 June, 2011) Case taken against Carton Bros, Shercock http://www.anglocelt.ie/news/courtreports/articles/2011/06/01/4004726-case-taken-against-carton-bros-shercock/
Carton Brothers About Us
Cooper, M., Watson, J.C., & Hoeldampf, D. (2010). Person-centered and experiential therapies work: A review of the research on counseling, psychotherapy and related practices. Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Tenet of the theory
2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.
Methodological assumptions of this model
. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.
Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…
3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.
One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.
A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."
Implicit in ogers' belief system was that clients must be in control of the therapy, and the therapist merely functioned as the guide.
Major School4: Cognitive-behavioral psychologists
Cognitive behavioral psychology is often a very time-sensitive type of therapy, with a specific goal, such as the elimination of a phobia or behavior. In contrast to humanistic or ogerian therapy, the cognitive-behaviorist directly challenges the client about his or her irrational belief systems.
The biology of psychology
The discipline of psychology has gradually shifted to a disease-based model, from Freud's psychoanalytic framework, reflecting the knowledge gained about how biological aspects of the brain affect learning, language memory, and behavior (Granek 2010). The more simplistic assumptions of the Freudian era, such as the idea that cold mothers produced autistic or schizophrenic children, or that sexual repression was the root of all diseases has fallen out of fashion. However, understanding how to heal individuals…
Beins, Bernard. (2010, February). Teaching measurement through historic sources. History of Psychology, 13(1): 89-94.
Granek, Leeat. (2010, February). Grief as pathology: The evolution of grief theory in psychology
from Freud to the present. History of Psychology, 13(1): 46-73.
Nyman, Lawrence. Documenting history: An interview with Kenneth Bancroft Clark. History of Psychology, 13(1): 74-88.
Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.
Q2: Integrationist point-of-view
No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.
Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…
The holistic view of the human being (i.e. The patient) and the environment is in some ways an echo of the holistic nature of the theory itself, which quite consciously and explicitly attempted to develop a theory appropriate to all aspects and situations of nursing. Because the Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed essentially from the ground up in such a conscious and comprehensive manner, it would be practically impossible for internal inconsistencies to exist.
Just as the scope of ogers' Science of Unitary Human Beings is difficult to overstate, it is equally difficult to overestimate the impact that this theory has had on the field of nursing. Its contributions to both nursing practice and scholarship have been enormous, and as the theory continues to evolve and develop under the guidance of new scholars and practitioners its significance only grows (Butcher 2008). ogers was not the first…
Butcher, H. (2008). "Progress in the explanatory power of the science of unitary human beings." Visions, 15(2), pp. 23-36.
Farren, a. (2009). "An oncology case study demonstrating the use of Roger's science of the unitary human being and standardized nursing language." International journal of nursing terminologies and classifications 20(1), pp. 34-9.
Kim, T. (2008). "Science of unitary human beings: An update on research." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 294-99.
Malinski, V. (2008). "Research diversity from the perspective of the science of unitary human beings." Nursing science quarterly21(4), pp. 291-3.
Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).
Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf
Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…
FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp
Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/
Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.
BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…
Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html .
Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.
Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
Has there been any parent contact at the school, prior to, during or after the bullying incident?
3. What are the school guidance counselor's clinical impressions as to the present problem? Underlying issue?
4. What are some of Beth's strengths?
5. Has she been willing to talk in the past about things that may be bothering her? Does she have suicidal ideations? Her response to friend leaving? Lack of friends at the school?
Process Issues for Consideration
The process issues that need to be considered if the child counselor has determined it is beneficial to engage Beth in services include presenting behaviors, attitude and affect. Beth may be much more willing to discuss these issues vs. beginning with something possibly more difficult such as addressing her parent's divorce. The child counselor will also need to address the comments Beth has made regarding herself to determine if there is a risk…
Allison, P. & Furstenberg, F, Jr. (1989). How marital dissolution affects children: Variations by age and sex. Developmental Psychology, 25, 540-549.
Amato, P. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990's: An update of the Amato and Keith
(1991) meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370.
Amato, P., & Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-
I tend to prefer eclectic counseling above all other modalities, generally scripting my practice towards particular individuals and directing my approach towards his or her personality. That is as it should be. Nonetheless, I myself have certain preferences and these are in order of rank: behaviorism (not excluding mentalism); most aspects of Rogerian counseling; a barely-known approach called 'focusing; and the essence of Beck's (1999) approach (not rational emotive therapy which I consider subjective and ethnocentric as well as time-bound).
The aspect that I like about behaviorism is its practical quality. Studies (e.g. Feldman & Kokinov, 2009) have shown that emotional regurgitation (or emoting) is detrimental to a person's peace of mind and diverts them from dealing with the problem. Life, it seems to me, is absorbed with 'doing'; rather than' being', and my observations of successful and content people shows that, oftentimes, the most emotionally and mentally…
Gendlin, ET (1978) Focusing Univ. Of Chicago, USA.
Milne, A. (200) Counseling. London: Hodder
Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: Themes and variations. USA: Thomson-Wadsworth.
My reasons for seeking a counseling degree are that I grew up with a desire to help others. I have myself been counseled, as a child, by therapists whom, I noted, attempted to streamline me according to particularistic beliefs. Wondering whether it were possible for psychotherapy to be objective, I read a lot on the subject and observed people who were therapists. At the time I naively thought counselors to be wonderful, and considered them almost as though they were God's second-in-command. I was later to read that psychotherapists do project that image, which is partially what renders the profession of psychotherapy to be somewhat controversial (e.g., Dawes,1994).
Gradually it dawned on me that these people were playing with people's lives: That I and presumably many other individuals are either compelled to 'visit' these deities of fate, or they 'visit' them out of their own volition. It was…
American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
American Counseling Association (ACA) (2005) ACA Code of Ethics.
Chater, N., & Oaksford, M. (2001). Human rationality and the psychology of reasoning: Where do we go from here? British Journal of Psychology, 92, 193-216.
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…
This skill will help am in all areas of his life.
The counseling protocol
I will introduce am to these ideas by using a mixture of Rogerain non-directive counseling with behavioral and cognitive techniques, as well as Gestalt by placing am in the other's shoes.
It seems to me that although am's confidence needs working on, the best route to rectify his self-esteem is by focusing on the problem and having am address it in a practical incremental way.
Discussion with team
My plan of action will be open-ended listening where I will encourage them to share their reactions about am. I will involve am in these meetings so am can discuss his concerns with his colleagues resulting in each gaining a perspective and understanding of the other's situation and feelings. I will encourage all participants to be as concrete and as open as possible so that all concerns get…
Callister, RR & Wall, JA Jr. (1995). Conflict and its management Journal of Management. 21.3 p515.
Chesler, M.A., Crowfoot, J.E. & Bryant, B.I. (1978). Power training: An alternative path to conflict management. California Management Review, 21(2): 84-90.
Derr, C.B. (1978). Managing organizational conflict: Collaboration, bargaining, power approaches. California Management Review, 21: 76-83.
Goleman, D.(1995) Emotional Intelligence, Bantam, USA
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Personal Model of Helping
Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.
The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…
Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf .
Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a
Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
If ape were legal
This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, EBT and Alderian.
Psychodynamic psychologists research human habits by trying to find the unseen meanings in things that individuals think, do or state. This needs them to collect huge quantities of qualitative information about individuals, which is typically done with using the specific case-study technique. The topic of the case history is typically an individual who is dealing with a mental ailment and who is being treated with psychoanalysis. The professional gathers details from things the individual states or finishes treatment…
Gergen, K.J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Korobov, N. (2000). Social constructionist 'theory hope': The impasse from theory to practice. Culture and Psychology, 6, 365-373.
Martin, J., & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology, 1, 375-378.
Sammons, A. (2007). Psychodynamic approach: the basics. Psychodynamic Psychology.
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…
Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance
Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th
ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…
Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)
Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all
Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case
Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com /2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will
The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (orrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs to be examined and revamped for an inclusion program to succeed (Stainback 144). Making certain that there is not an "overload" of special education students within one general education classroom takes much planning and effort on the part of teachers and counselors. Planning also includes making certain that special education students are provided with all appropriate services that they would have received had they not been placed in the inclusion classroom setting (orrell 53). This not only includes…
Anderson, David W. "Inclusion and Interdependence: Students with Special Needs in the Regular Classroom." Journal of Education & Christian Belief 10.1 (2006): 43-59. Print.
Carr, Margaret N. "A Mother's Thoughts on Inclusion." Journal of Learning Disabilities 26.9 (1993): 590-592. Print.
Connor, David J., and Beth a. Ferri. "The Conflict Within: Resistance to Inclusion and other Paradoxes in Special Education." Disability & Society 22.1 (2007): 63-77. Print.
Leyser, Yona, and Rea Kirk. "Evaluating Inclusion: An Examination of Parent Views and Factors Influencing their Perspectives." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51.3 (2004): 271-285. Print.
learning in schools. Schools must progress and advance in order to keep up with the ever changing and advancing workload. In order to do that, online learning is an option that can be incorporated. I hope the reader is able to realize the scope in the necessity for schools to have options that can include online learning as a means to better serve the student population at large.
What I learned from completing this assignment is the need for the school system to evolve to meet the needs of students presently. Things always to have to adapt and change for the requirements and demands of students are constantly growing and changing. The more options are presented to aid in resolving this issue, the better.
It was difficult to research successful strategies in adopting internet learning for schools. Children didn't seem to respond very well to internet learning. This counteracted my…
Repetto, J., C. Cavanaugh, N. Wayer, and F. Liu. "Virtual high schools: Improving outcomes for students with disabiltiies." N.p., 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.
To improve outcomes for students with disablities academically, one must increase contact and communication. Communication is key to their success.
Ogunleye, Ayodele. "Evaluating An Online Learning Programme from Students' Perspectives." The Clute Institute. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.
It is important to incorporate today's technology into the teaching regime. Keeping up-to-date is vital to the evolution of education.
imposition, abolition or return of the death penalty has been an unsettling issue among the world's peace-loving nations over the years in the universal desire to control criminality and promote maximum peace and security in human society. Although strictly imposed in ancient times, capital punishment has been, in recent years, openly and indignantly questioned and condemned by certain organizations and abolished in some countries for certain reasons. These reasons we will consider and attempt to reconcile, as far as possible, with those that favor it.
Those that oppose the death penalty contend that it is racist, anti-poor, condemns even innocent prisoners to death, does not deter serious crimes, and a cruel and unusual punishment. They maintain that more than 75% of those in the federal death row are non-whites (Campaign to End the Death Penalty 2002) and statistics conclusively show that the death penalty makes being lack a crime. More…
1. Haag, Ernest van den. The Ultimate Punishment: a Defense.
Harvard Law Review, Association, 1986
2. Hood, Roger. The Death Penalty: a Worldwide Perspective, a revised edition.
Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1996
There have been various definitions and views of terrorism that have beenfronted over the years. It has been described as a strategy and at other levels as a tactic, some have called it a crime and yet other refer to it as a holy/noble duty; some consider it an inexcusable abomination yet others consider it a systematic reaction to oppression. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point-of-view is being represented, be it theological, political or psychological. Also terrorism can be seen as willful destruction (killing) of people or destruction of property by people not acting on behalf of an established government to redress a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government. However it is important to note that not all cases of willful destruction of people or property are acts of terrorism (ed Cross Organization, 2007).
Some of the important definitive characteristics of terrorism include among others;…
Commonwealth of Kentucky, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Homeland Security, (2011). Preparedness, Response & Recovery. Retrieved November 20, 2011
This is, to me, a more egregious crime than the act of aborting.
Therefore, you and Pat make many valid points in supporting the right for the advertisement to be run on television -- and in supporting the content of the ad as well. There is nothing inherently harmful in the Tim Tebow ad.
or is there? eighing both sides, I have evaluated the controversy of the advertisement and came up with several reasons why some Americans might find it to be offensive. I won't generalize and call the opposition "the left," because I believe political beliefs are far too complex to be categorized easily. There are several issues at stake with the ad, which make the ad controversial.
First, the advertisement's greatest strength is its greatest weakness. In being subtle about its true purpose, the advertisement is sneaky. Sure, the ad is not controversial on the surface. That's why…
"Glenn Beck: Most 'controversial' Super Bowl ad." Glenn Beck.com. Feb 8, 2010. Accessed Feb 8, 2010 from http://www.glennbeck.com/content/articles/article/199/36078/
Therefore, the state is daily loosing important revenue that could help improve the financial situation of different Departments such as health care, social services, and even immigration policies. However, without this source of money, the federal budget would be forced to allocate funds from other destinations.
Thirdly, there is also the issue of workers' rights. In this sense, it is a rather well-known fact the idea that illegal workers are often exploited by employers by giving them wages that are below the normal tariffs. However, the inclusion of illegal workers as legal immigrants would grant them the rights each worker in the United States has. More precisely, "in past decades, labor unions often saw immigrant workers as the enemy, accusing them of depressing wages and breaking strikes. ut the executive council of the AFL-CIO adopted a more sympathetic approach, contending that too often U.S. immigration rules have enabled employers to…
Coalition for the future American worker. An Amnesty by Any Other Name is Still an Amnesty. N.d. 10 March 2008 http://www.americanworker.org/amnesty_handout2.htm
Greenhouse, Steven. "Unions Urge Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants Legalized workers would be easier for labor to organize." San Francisco Chronicle. 2000. 10 March 2008 http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/021700-02.htm
Isidore, Chris. Skilled worker shortage hurts U.S. Employers would be hiring more if they could just find the skilled workers they need. 2007. 10 March 2008. http://money.cnn.com/2007/01/04/news/economy/jobs_outlook/index.htm
ell, if the Bible is the word of God…why would you expect a Christian pastor to believe anything else?" (ABC News). He was reminded that candidate Barack Obama told him prior to the election that he (Obama) opposed same sex marriage. The ABC interviewer (Jake Tapper) asked arren if he is concerned that Obama might change his position. "I can't control what other people believe. I just know what the Bible says," he answered.
In author David E. Newton's book, Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook, the author points out that while many who oppose same-sex marriage based on the Bible, there are references in the Bible that mention "other types of marriage" (Newton, 2010, 35). Of the eight types of marriage, this paper will mention several. Jacob had two wives, Leah and Rachel (Genesis 29: 1030); Esau had three wives in the Bible, Adah, Aholibamah, and Bashemath (Genesis 36: 2-3).…
Barbaro, Michael. (2011). Bloomberg States Case, Emphatically and Personally, for Same-Sex
Marriage. The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Newton, David E. (2010). Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:
US Aid to Afghanistan
The issue of United States' aid to Afghanistan is a topic of interesting consideration given the current U.S. budget deficit and ongoing economic uncertainty. Over the years the United States has spent billions providing money and food aid to help build strength and confidence in Afghanistan's rising new government. Unfortunately, the results of this have not been entirely positive nor have they been driven by the purest of motives; there is some level of profiteering occurring using aid money, and there is also a practical U.S. interest in the stability and viability of the Afghan nation and people. If the United States were providing purely humanitarian aid without military or political involvement and requirements, the situation would be quite different. As it is, U.S. aid in the country is a complex and controversial issue.
Since Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban, the country has been…
Agnieszka, Flak. "INTERVIEW-Afghanistan Food Aid at Risk as Donors Trim Support |
Agricultural Commodities | Reuters." Reuters.com. 24 Dec. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2012.
Government Should Tax Spending Vice Income
A "sin tax" is a specific type of tax that is levied on certain types of goods and services that the government has deemed unnecessary for individual consumption or action, and that society as a whole considers undesirable, but is nevertheless popular with many citizens. Predominant examples of this are alcohol, tobacco, and gambling. Alcohol and tobacco, for instance, move from an economic to a social issue because of numerous health and behavioral issues that result from use, and have a cost to society. Because of this, it is valid that the government be able to tax certain substances or activities.
The idea of sin taxing is designed not to punish, but to suggest that certain activities are not best for society: alcohol because it causes traffic issues, crime, social ills; tobacco because of the medical and productivity costs; and gambling because of its…
Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. Ensuring Solutions. (2011). Web. http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/
Hoe, K. The Role of Excise as a Sin Tax. The Star Online. . (January 19, 2010). Web. http://biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/1/19/business/5496890&sec=business
Williams, R.; Christ, K. Taxing Sin. Mercatus Center at George Mason University. (July 2009). Web. http://mercatus.org/publication/taxing-sin
medicate kids with ADHD? Answer is Yes
Children with ADHD have basic behavioural problems and are uncontrollable. In such cases the care givers face a big problem and often are victims. Having an ADHD child at home is being tied up to the child, and to prevent the parent getting mental problems some methods have to be resorted to keep the balance. In 1991 the amount of children treated with medication was negligible because medication itself was not available and was in the test stage. But now the scenario is different. More and more children have been diagnosed with the symptoms of ADHD and they are also in schools. That today 6-9% of pre-school children have severe psychiatric disorders is a fact. (Barkley, 41)
The alarming situation therefore has called for research in the area and has produced some of the best solutions in the form of medication. It is…
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
The Living Essentials company claims it markets its high-powered beverage (which is sold in a 2-oz bottle as a "shot") to "…hardworking adults who need an extra boost of energy" (Meier, p. 2).
Another article in the respected New York Times reports that in addition to the 13 fatalities linked to 5-Hour Energy, another 5 deaths have been linked to "Monster Energy" (Meier, 2012). These data were released by the FDA in November, 2012, because, according to spokeswoman Shelly Burgess, the FDA is making "…an effort to be transparent" (Meier, p. 1). hile the FDA did not officially find the product at fault -- at this point there are linkages but no empirical proof that the deaths were a direct result of consuming the energy drinks -- Burgess added that if a "relationship between the consumption of the product and harm" can be proved, the FDA will take "appropriate action…
Huffpost. "Energy Drinks Hire Lobbyists to Fend Off Regulation." Retrieved March 6, 2013,
from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Meier, Barry. "Caffeinated Drink Cited in Reports of 13 Deaths." The New York Times.
Retrieved March 6, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2012.
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
Rogers saw all people as unique and basically good individuals. Everyone is trying to be the best for the society as a whole. It was only when they were unhealthy or mentally ill that these people did terrible things, such as criminal acts. Rogers thus assumed that all mentally healthy human beings, like all living beings, are motivated to develop and to put their efforts toward optimal health. This mandates that people have to be strong and resilient when confronted with challenges. Yet, Rogers admitted, such a resiliency typically develops from the nurturance of others. Thus, if someone is mentally ill, it is more than important to treat this person with kindness. This will help the person get better.
Therapists, therefore, need to value their clients in a positive manner, regardless of their behaviors, or what is called self-actualization. This self-actualization is strengthened by three important factors: Empathy, congruence and…
Animism is the concept that lies at the core of every ancient religion. The term first came forth in anthropological writings of Edward B. Tylor in 1873 and since then, numerous researchers and historians have studied the concept of animism to better understand the force that drives primitive cultures. Animism is apparently connected with religious beliefs but research in the field reveals that many ancient cultural beliefs are also animistic in nature. In his book, Primitive Cultures, Tylor defined animism "a minimum definition of religion" which underscores the significance of this concept in formation of ancient religious beliefs.
Animism is derived from Greek word anima, which means soul, and ancient religions like Santeria and Hoodoo are based on the concept that everything in this world has a soul. But in its advanced form, animism affects most ancient cultural beliefs, rituals and religious values. Worshipping of trees, fire and…
Tylor, Edward B. 1970b. Religion in Primitive Culture (Primitive Culture, Part 2) London: John Murray, 1958.
Santeria, Joseph M. Murphy. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.
Taylor, E.B. "Animism." Primative Cutlure, London: John Murray, 1873