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The little boy confesses that his father "says he wasn't hungry, or he jus' et. Give methe food. Now he's too weak. Can't hardly move" (Steinbeck, 306). But Rose of Sharon, who has recently endured her own stillborn child, sacrifices her own dignity for the sake of this man. At the wordless behest of her mother, Rose of Sharon feeds breast milk to the starving man, thereby prolonging his life (Steinbeck).
Although women are no longer relegated to the household lives they were once essentially forced to live, the role of women in society continues to include some of the same duties it always has. omen are still mothers; in many cases they are still the keepers of the home; they still support the men who are closest to them. Literature contains many clear examples of the ways in which women provide a great contribution to societal progress.
Mellor, Anne K. Romanticism & Gender. New York: Routledge, 1993. Print.
Ozdemir, Erinc. "Two Poems by Dorothy Wordsworth in Dialogic Interaction with 'Tintern Abbey'." Studies in Romanticism 44.4 (2005): 551+. Web. 3 May 2010. .
Perkins, David. English Romantic Writers. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace & Company,
Women's Work Inside And Outside The Home
Women are expected to carry out household duties such as cooking, doing laundry, cleaning taking care of the children and so on. I can say that no other work compares to the stress that women have to go through daily in going about doing household chores. The subject of household labor is often seen as dull and is often ignored by even the progressive groups. Paid work always gets recognition since it is real work. Yet the most common, tedious and exhausting work is done for free and is invisible to those that fight against capitalism when it comes to social justice. The tradition that women are supposed to work for free at home and men are working for household wages has now changed. Women who provide all free labor I a capitalist system in which nothing else is free have to stop…
L'Hirondelle, C. (2004). Housework Under Capitalism. The unpaid Labor of mothers. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from http://www.kersplebedeb.com/mystuff/feminist/housework_capitalism.html
She is the engine which drives the family.
Her attitude influences the one of the others. eing aware of this she succeeds to control the manifestation of her emotions. Another proof of her wisdom is the fact that she does not want to impose herself in all the circumstances. She lets Pa manifest himself, although she makes it clear for everybody that she has a strong authority as well. She is aware of her own condition.
Another woman whom Steinbeck uses in order to communicate the new dynamics of the men-women relationships is Rose of Sharon. One of the most famous scenes in the book is the one in which she feeds the man, helping him to survive. Her role is fundamental. She is the strong one, the provider. The man on the other hand is weak and dependent. The symbolism is very strong. "The fact that Rose gave birth…
Baillargeon, D. (translator Klein, Y.) "Making do: women, family and home in Montreal during the Great Depression." Google Books. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=-x65yYBTDTIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=women+great+depression&hl=it&cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false
"Gender roles and sexual relations, impact of the great depression." http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/egd_01/egd_01_00217.html
"Power of Women in the Grapes of Wrath." ***.com. 01 May 2010
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& ; hl=en
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
Women's oles Then And Now:
Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
Biographic Information for Each…
Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley
Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm
Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html
"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…
Virgil. Aeneid. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2005.
Avery, Dorothy. Women in the Iliad. Copyright: D. Avery 2004. Retrieved: May 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/arts/tradition/tradavery1.html
Keith, A.M. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
omen's Roles in Early America (1700-1780)
hat were the roles of women in the early American period from roughly 1700-1780? Although a great portion of the history of families and people in early America during this period is about men and their roles, there are valid reports of women's activities in the literature, and this paper points out several roles that women played in that era.
The Roles of omen in Early America -- 1700 -- 1780
In the "Turns of the Centuries Exhibit" (TCE) relative to family life in the period 1680 to 1720, the author notes that colonial societies were organized around "…patriarchal, Biblically-ordained lines of authority." Males basically asserted the authority over their wives, their children, their servants and any other dependents that may have been in the household. One reason for the male dominance in this era was do to the fact that "…law did not…
Breneman, Judy Anne. (2002). The Not So Good Lives of New England's Goodwives. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.historyofquilts.com/earlylife.html.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. (2003). In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina. Journal of Southern History, 69(4), p. 873.
Letters of Abigail Adams. (2002). Letters Between Abigail Adams and her Husband, John
Adams. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm .
ole of Education in Society
Discrimination exists on many different levels and is both conscious and unconscious. It has also existed from the time the first colonists arrived in America and decided to make it their 'own'. They did so through conquering and oppression. The European culture of the colonists became the mainstream culture almost immediately. This included the 'Protestant ethic', which emphasizes hard work and the accumulation of property. It also includes the use of discipline and authority in child rearing (chapter one, page 9). This was in total disagreement to the Native American practices and became a focal point for change when the education system began to be concerned with the Natives. The need to 'force' the non-mainstream culture to conform to the established mainstream is the primary means by which education contributes to the development and preservation of bigotry and prejudice.
The education system in the United…
Friere, Paulo (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Trans M.B. Ramos; Ed. Valentine. New York, NY: Continuum.
Spring, Joel (2003). Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Did the role of women in the family change at all? If so, how?
There was a change in the role of women in the family. Women were no longer caregivers and house wives. Their roles changed, and they now were also providing for the family and not just dependent on their husbands. From the map and graph provided we see the number of single working women was more than that of married working women. This shows that women were not just interested in getting married and bearing children or raising families, but they wanted also to be providers.
A settlement house for women was founded in 1889 by Jane Addams. Hull House was the name for this settlement. It provided educational and social opportunities for the European Immigrants who were the majority residents of the house. This settlement house was used mostly by women. They were the teachers and…
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pcp_60053_long_americanhistory_coco/0,13885,4697993-content,00.htmlEducation , P. (2003). Atlas Map: Changing Lives of American Women, 1880-1930, from
The roles, ideals, views of men in the ancient civilization have been explored extensively in literature from the famous Kings of Israel to the mathematicians and philosophers of Greece. In contrast, the history entails limited literature of women in the ancient civilization. However, several masterpieces such as the Homeric poem, the Odyssey and the Iliad provides a glimpse of ideals, position, and role of women in the ancient civilization. Women play a fundamental role in life by taking multiple responsibilities as portrayed in the epic poem Odyssey. The epic poem presents the role of women in the facet of power, sexuality, and interaction with men.
An analysis of the women in the poem demonstrates a challenge of the space of women as traditionally defined by the patriarchal Greek society. The Homeric poem has a distinct feminist message of the struggle women endure as they try to extricate themselves from…
Deyo's commentary represents the type of attitude that forced women to conform to standards that while they are not demeaning, they are not for every female. Chopin knew that some women were not designed to be mothers and wives and she knew that there was absolutely nothing wrong with this assertion. Chopin and Edna were women out of time, living with others that could not accept the fact that a woman could be single and happy. Edna's death is seen as pathetic but what critics fail to understand about her death is that it proved to be the only acceptable way of life for Edna. All other options had been exhausted and the duty of wife and mother was simply unacceptable because it created more anxiety than anyone on the Pontellier family could bear. Edna knew that her future was bleak and she knew that a depressed, disassociated mother was…
Deyo, C.L. "The Newest Books." Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. 1996. GALE Resource
Database. Information Retrieved May 13, 2009.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Short Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
Parini, Jay, ed. American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Charles
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…
Rosetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." Loudlit. Loudlit.org, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011.
Swift, Jonathan. "The Lad'ys Dressing Room." Rutgers University. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 24 Oct
Nor could a man repudiate the oath made by any of his female relatives." (Azeem, 1995)
VI. The ROLE of the MOTHER
Part two of the work entitled: "Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and the Reality" states that in relation to 'mothers' from the viewpoint of the Old Testament, there are several commandments concerning the necessity for kind and considerate treatment of parents and a condemnation for those who dishonor their parents. In Islam, the mother holds a very special place and as described by the Prophet Muhammad as follows: "A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father'" (ukhari and Muslim;…
Hughson, G., Johnston, S.A., Bisman, D. (nd) Understanding the Three Abrahamic Faiths: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Dunedin Jewish, Christian and Muslim Community Liaison Group.
Q&a on Islam and Arab-Americans (2001) USA Today. 30 Sept 2001 Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/islam.htm
Azeem, Dr. Sherif Abdel (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part I. Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full.htm
Kingston, SM (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part II. Online available at: 10 Feb 1995 Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full2.htm
Mrs. Warrant's Profession: The Intellectual, the Victim, and the Conventional Woman
Mrs. Warren's Profession" by George ernard Shaw was a play written more than a hundred years ago in 1894
The roles that women play in this masterpiece show that Shaw was far ahead of his time in his thoughts about what women should do and be. He presented a new vision of an intellectual, entrepreneurial woman and challenged the conventional roles imposed by society. He also included accounts of women victimized by a capitalist society and defended their rights to take whatever actions they had to in order to changer their circumstances even if that meant prostitution. In fact, Shaw's beliefs are consistent with modern-day feminism with only one exception. Shaw seemed to fear that a woman's independence and choice of a career had to come at the expense of something else, namely love and family. Nonetheless, "Mrs. Warren's…
Goldman, Emma. "The Social Significance of the Modern Drama." International
Society of Political Psychology. 03 May 2003. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/socsig/warren.html
Lovinger, "Trinity Rep OffersCcrackling 'Mrs. Warren's Profession'" Standard-Times 30
Even more interesting is how oseanne was treated as if she were somehow an anti-feminist because she wished to push her own agenda on the show, creating conflict with one of the producers. Interestingly enough, Barr observed, "I made the mistake of thinking Marcy was a powerful woman in her own right. I've come to learn that there are none in TV. There aren't powerful men, for that matter, either- unless they work for an ad company or a market-study group. Those are the people who decide what gets on the air and what doesn't" (Barr, 2011). What her comment makes clear is that, even while perceived as social commentary by others, oseanne perceives her show as commercial, leading one to wonder if it is possible to have a truly feminist television series in a society that struggles for post-feminism and worships capitalism.
Barr, . (2011, May 15). "And…
Barr, R. (2011, May 15). "And I should know." New York Magazine. Retrieved September 20,
2011 from NYmag.com website: http://nymag.com/arts/tv/upfronts/2011/roseanne-barr-2011-5/
Negra, D. (2004). "Quality postfeminism? Sex and the single girl on HBO." Genders OnLine
Journal, 39. Retrieved December 4, 2011 from http://www.genders.org/g39/g39_negra.html
ole of Women in Paul's Church
The role of women in church as laid out by the Apostle Paul has always been controversial. There are those who say that Paul hated women and created restrictive, secondary roles for them in the church because of it. Others, however, maintain that Paul loved women and that the roles he created for them in the Christian church were very liberating for them. Still others acknowledge that the roles for women that Paul created for the Christian church are somewhat restrictive and secondary, but say that this is because of the status of women in society at that time, not because Paul hated women. The role of women in the Christian church as ordered by Paul continues to be controversial and a matter of scholarly interpretation and study today. This paper takes a look at the role of women in the Christian church as…
D'Angelo, Mary Rose and Ross Shepard Kraemer, Women & Christian Origins. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schussler, But She Said: Feminist Practices of Biblical Interpretation. (New York: Beacon Press, 1992).
Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill, Good News for Women: A Biblical Picture of Gender Equality. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997).
Massey, Lesly F., Women and the New Testament: An Analysis of Scripture in Light of New Testament Era Culture. (Jefferson, NC: McFar, 1989).
Ursula's daughter is also defined primarily in relation to gender, and her desire and her relationship, or lack thereof, with men. Unlike her life-sustaining mother, Amaranta never marries, and instead spends her entire life mourning her lost love. But Allende's main feminine romantic heroine, Alba, is not merely psychologically bruised by the loss of her love, but is physically tortured at the hands of Esteban Garcia, Esteban Trueba's illegitimate son. This occurred with great frequency in Chile during the time when this part of the novel is set. Although Alba is devoted to her husband Miguel, this devotion does not preclude Alba from having a strong voice and will and the ability to withstand disappointment, even torture. Unlike the perpetually forlorn Amaranta, Alba transcends all stereotypes and resolves to tell the story of her clan to the world to use her unhappiness in a productive manner, although she is also…
Allende, Isabel. The House of the Spirits. New York: Bantam, 1986.
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. One Hundred Years of Solitude. New York: Perennial, 1998.
Role of omen in the Dead
To be sure, James Joyce's The Dead is one of the best examples of the short story in English Literature. Indeed, the artistry, depth of feeling, and acute insights into the human psyche are all on striking display in the piece. However, although many note the remarkable internal angst of Gabriel, and the role of the obvious theme of death and "the dead" throughout the story, there remains a strong theme of women, and their role as "catalyst touchstones" grounding Gabriel as well as the reader in the realization of the inevitability of suffering and death.
One of the interesting aspects of interpreting any of the works of Joyce as feminist in nature, is the common criticism of Joyce's actual life. One typical example of this problem is touched on in the article "Banking on Joyce," in which he is described as despising intellectual…
Anspaugh, Kelly. "Three Mortal Hour (i)s'; Female Gothic in Joyce's 'The Dead'." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 1-12.
Brea, Jennifer. "Penelope: In Search of the Feminist in James Joyce." 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 3 March, 2001
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…
Carvalho, C. (2006). Encountering Ancient Voices. A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Second Edition. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.anselmacademic.org/Excerpts/EncounteringAncientVoicessampler.pdf
Willis, M. (1995). The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.truthmagazine.com/archives/volume39/GOT039034.html
" She could not give as much as she wanted to her art as the Emilys, "the whole that I possess / is still much less," because it was so difficult to balance a career and a family. omen are supposed to be able to achieve anything, but this is impossible to accomplish. The speaker wishes to join the three Emilys, but due to her children and her husband, "only [a] brief span" of time can be devoted to her poetry.
Born in 1943, Michael Ondaatje also participated in the 1960s transformation. The poem, "To a Sad Daughter," appears in his 11th collection of poetry, Secular Love, published in 1984. Similar to many fathers, this poem illustrates Ondaatje's love for his daughter and desire to lead her in the right direction for the future. He refers to the poem as his "first lecture" to a 16-year-old, but understands the difficulty:…
Dunn, Catherine M. "The Changing Image of Women in Renaissance Society and Literature." What Manner of Woman: Essays on English and American Life and Literature. Ed. Marlene Springer. New York: New York UP, 1977. 15-38.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963
Herrick, Robert. A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick. Charleston: Bibliobazaar, 2007.
Landrum, David, "Robert Herrick and the Ambiguities of Gender." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 49.2 (2007): 181-207
Family Law eform
Briefly describe major features of women's roles and positions in Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family.
The Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family had very limited roles for women. This occurred with them serving as second class citizens when it comes to their inheritance and overall place in the family. In other words, the male family members were first in line for power, authority, influence and assets. If something happened to them, is the when women would receive property and play a greater role. In many cases, they were less influential in their ritual responsibilities when it comes to their ancestors. Inside the kin group, they were subservient to males. This meant that they were not educated and served as the nurturer for raising the lineal heirs. While at the same time, they were expected to remain silent in public and perform various duties around the house. (Shin, 2006)…
Shin, K. (2006). The Politics of Family Law Reform Movement. Journal of Korean Studies, 11 (9), 93-125.
women's places through the writing of British fiction. Using three classic examples of women's fiction in British literature the writer examines the overt and underlying relationship women have in the world and with society throughout the evolvement of literature. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history authors have used their works to explore societal lessons. British literature is well-known for its ability to draw attention to moral, societal or other lessons by which the society reflects on the changes it experiences. The role of females has been a favorite topic of British authors for many years, perhaps spurred on by the various class elements that society has experienced along the way. Three classic works of British fiction provide a blueprint of women's changing role in society by allowing for a time span within their measurement. Charlotte Bronte's, "Jane Eyre"; Virginia Woolf's, "A oom of One's Own";…
Bronson, Charlotte. Jane Eyre
Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own
Fielding, Helen. Bridget Jones's Diary.
Jane Austen's Emma
Jane Austen's Gentleman Ideal in Emma
In her third novel, Jane Austen created a flawed but sympathetic heroine in the young Emma oodhouse. idely considered her finest work, Austen's Emma once again deals with social mores, particularly those dealing with ethical actions and social status.
This paper focuses on how Austen uses the figure of George Knightley to propose a new English Gentleman Ideal to criticize the strictures regarding the role of women and the skewed relationship between the sexes. In the first part, this paper looks at the social world of England in the early 19th century, in which Austen lived. It then compares the reality of these conditions with the seemingly idyllic settings Austen portrayed in novels like Emma.
The second part of the paper then examines Austen's redefinitions of the ideal English gentleman, as embodied by Mr. Knightley. Despite the expected happy ending, this…
Austen, Jane. Emma, vol. 4. Oxford Illustrated Jane Austen. R.W. Chapman, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
Johnson, Claudia. Jane Austen: Women, Politics and the Novel. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).
Weldon, Fay. "England in Austen's Time." Readings on Jane Austen. Clarice Swisher, ed. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1997)
Jane Austen, Emma, vol. 4, Oxford Illustrated Jane Austen. R.W. Chapman, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
Criminalization occurs when women are treated like offenders rather than victims when they defend themselves against abusive males. Criminalized women are made to feel like they are the ones responsible for situations such as damage to property, child exposure to violence, immigration status issues, reputational damage, homelessness, and poverty occurring as a direct result of male violence. We have heard of numerous cases -- for instance, where women living with abusive partners are accused of failing to protect their children, and are held responsible in the unfortunate event that the children fall victim to, or witness disturbing episodes of domestic violence. The situation is no different in the prison system, where these women are incarcerated upon conviction. ather than strive to address the social injustices such as poverty, sexual and domestic abuse, and psychological issues that drive such women to commit crime, we dedicate our attention to making their lives…
Balfour, G. (2006). Introduction to Part III. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 157-76). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
Canadian Prostitution Related Laws as of December, 2014 ( URL Link XXX)
Casavant, L. & Valiquet, D. (2014). Bill C-36: An Act to Amend the Criminal Code in Response to the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Attorney General of Canada vs. Benford and to make Consequential Amendments to Other Acts. Library of Parliament. (URL Link XXX)
Dell, C.A., Gardipy, J., Kirlin, N., Naytowhow, V. & Nicol, J.J. (2006). Enhancing the Well-Being of Criminalized, Indigenous Women. In E. Comack & G. Balfour (Eds.), Criminalizing Women: Gender and (In)Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (pp. 314 -329). Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing
They were not content to merely 'talk the talk', but were bound and determined to 'walk the walk' as well. They ended their declaration of independence by stating they would "circulate tracts, petition the State and national legislatures, and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and press on our behalf. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country" (Sochen, 1974, p. 127).
Not surprisingly, some people took these women seriously and others did not. Men were especially prone to making snide remarks about how only barren, lonely and 'misfit' women attended this convention. They essentially implied that if these women were able to land a husband and have some kids, they would stop this 'nonsense' (Sochen, 1974). But it was not nonsense. In fact, most of it made perfect sense. And as much as anti-feminists wanted the women's movement to just…
DuBois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2005) Through women's eyes: An American history with documents, Boston/New York: Beford/St. Martins.
Hurner, S. (2006, July) Discursive identity formation of suffrage women: reframing the "cult of true womanhood" through song, Western Journal of Communication, 70, 234-261
Kramarae, C. & Spender, D. (2000) Routledge international encyclopedia of women: Global women's issues and knowledge Vol. 1, New York: Routledge.
Leach, W. (1980) True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
ole of Women
Womens' ole Then and Now
Women's ole Then and Now
Women's ole Then and Now
Women have played an important role at different times in various fields. They have faced many challenges bravely and gave a new direction for the women to follow in later periods. The achievements are unprecedented and give an idea about the level of courage the women have. Their determination helped them elevate not only their name but they also motivated uncountable other women.
Women's ole Then and Now
The history of the world is but the biography of great men is an old quote which is as true today as it was centuries ago. History has witnessed uncountable great individuals who earned good name and fame because of their service to their country or mankind. It would be biased to attribute all historical achievements to men only. Women, being the partners of…
Chung, K. (2010). Women Pioneers of Medical Research. USA: McFarland & Company.
Robbins, T., Martin, C. And Timmons, A. (2006). Elizabeth Blackwell: American's First Woman Doctor. USA: Capstone Press.
Somervill, B. (2009). Elizabeth Blackwell: America's First Female Doctor. USA: Gareth Stevens Publishing.
Tieck, S. (2006). Florence Nightingale. USA: ABDO Publishing Company.
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
Women have, for a long time, been expected to fulfill certain roles. These roles varied through the ages but have remained rooted in their main objective, to have women raise children and assist and serve their husbands (Vishwanathan, 1994, p. 34). Women are seen as the ones who stay home, tend the hearth, and raise the young while men are the ones that earn the money, own the property, and control the household. In literature, women are depicted often as fulfilling these stereotypical roles and also rebelling against them. Karen Van Der Zee's "A Secret Sorrow" and Gail Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two works of literature that demonstrate the lives of women who belonged to a society that required them to conform to their selected role. Both narratives establish the anticipated place of women in society, but do so from dissimilar perspectives. "A Secret Sorrow" has a female character…
Foster, C.D., Siegel, M.A., & Jacobs, N.R. (1988). Women's changing role (1988 ed.). Wylie, Tex.: Information Aids.
Meyer, M. (2002). The Bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, writing (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Vishwanathan, M. (1994). Women & society. Jaipur: Printwell.
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York:
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…
Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co
Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution
Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press
Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
The women's work, therefore, continues to be arduous and tedious, potential productivity, unrealized and quality of life is substandard. According to Jehan, for example, solutions to bettering this situation include enhancing data on women's economic participation and increasing the proportion of women in education, rural incomes and productivity.
In India, for instance, a number of economic initiatives have been undertaken in regard to the role and status of women. These include the economic exposure and access to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), an entrepreneurship program that allows women to engage in home-based work. This allows them to continue to fulfill their domestic responsibilities at the same time as helping to financially support their family. Financial institutions, companies, and NGOs are discovering the impact that can be made by extending different forms of entrepreneurial assistance to women startup businesses, such as micro-credit, or small loans, Meerut Seva Samaj demonstrates the way that…
Jehan, Qamar "Role of women in economic development in Pakistan." PhD thesis, 2000
University of Balochistan, Quetta. 10/25/08 http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/442/
Nanu-Fabu, Stella. "An analysis of economic status of women in Cameroon." Journal of International Women's Studies 8.1(2006):148-162.
Roy, K.C., Tisdell, C.A., Blomqvist, H.C. Economic Development and Women in the World Community, Praeger, London, 1996
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Women comprise an essential part of the society; the role of women in the modern world is becoming more influential compared to the traditional days. The society is realizing the importance of women as leaders in the community and calling upon their ability to ensure that there is growth in the society. The rise of women in the society has been faced with stiff opposition from the male counterparts. In some developing countries, gender equality has not been achieved, but the pressure from developed is pushing many governments to recognize equality. Nations that have recognized the contributions of women have high economic growth compared to other countries that have ignored women.
Women empowerment refers to providing equal opportunities to women as men. Traditional organizational setting considers division of labor in the organization. Women are given roles that are not physically challenging while leadership roles are reserved for men.…
omen in Television
In the late 1960s to early 1970s, as women burned their bras and took to the streets for equality, the female labor force grew three times more than that their male peers (Toossi), increasing numbers of educational opportunities made themselves available to the "fairer sex,"
and a cultural shift was taking place for women within the household and in society as a whole. As is frequently the case, television seized the moment and looked for ways to capitalize on this women's lib movement. As Fiske wrote, "Television often acts like a relay station: It rarely originates topics of public interest (though it may repress them); rather, what it does is give them high visibility, energize them, and direct or redirect their general orientation before relaying them out again into public circulation." Thus, Turner's MTM Enterprises introduced "That Girl" and followed it by the seven-year hit "Mary Tyler…
Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "Where have you gone, Mary Richards? Feminism's rise and fall in primetime television." Iris: A Journal About Women 12.28 (2004). 5 November 2010 http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-127160507/have-you-gone-mary.html
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body. A New Look at Men at Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Douglas, Susan. Where the Girls Are. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1995.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime-Time Feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
omen's Social Role In Society
Gender, as opposed to the physical classification of sex, has always been based upon societal construct. The current psychology of the masses dictates what proper or improper behavior for the given genders is. This has always been the way of things. In the 1900s in the United States of America, a woman's place was in the home. She was supposed to be the Angel in the House. In this role, a woman's purpose was to cook and clean and take care of her family. She was not allowed to busy herself with what was called the Public Sphere, wherein the husband and other men were in control. The wife's role was in the Private Sphere. This scenario, called the "Cult of Domesticity," gave women very little power. In this era, women did not have the right to vote, so females had no voice either in…
Baier, A. (1988). "The Need for More than Justice." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential
Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Friedman, M (1987). "Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of Gender." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Noddings, N. (1984). "Caring." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist
Women and Islam
Do Muslim women eally need saving?
Stengths and weaknesses
Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.
Stengths and weaknesses
Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.
Topic oveview and famewok
The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…
references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
oman Identified oman by Radicalesbians
In the essay entitled, "oman identified woman," the organization Radicalesbians discusses the crucial issue of identifying women as reinforces of the perpetuation of oppression in human society. This means that prejudice and oppression against women cannot be eliminated nor gradually lessened, primarily because women will always act against the interest of their own sector. However, it is important to bear in mind that what makes women reinforce this oppression upon themselves is the result of a long history of living under the social structure of patriarchy.
Addressing these important issues in the essay, the argument of the Radicalesbians involves a three-pronged analysis of the social condition of women's oppression in the contemporary society. First, they talk about the nature of lesbianism and its challenges in a male-dominated society; second, they go further in their critique of acceptance of lesbianism in the society to include on…
Radicalesbians. (1970). "The woman identified woman." Available at: http://carnap.umd.edu/queer/radicalesbian.htm.
Dr. Hayden believes the reason for this change at the school level is due to greater recruitment efforts, financial and academic support, and more women role models to provide encouragement. Dr. Hayden sees a similar situation happening in the engineering field.
Dr. Lin, a male electrical engineer, on the other hand, somewhat ironically, seems to feel that women face a tougher challenge in engineering than Dr. Hayden stated. According to Dr. Lin, women can succeed as an electrical engineer if "they are determined." This is clearly a male-oriented view of how to succeed. According to typical male beliefs, success is an individual achievement. If you work hard you will succeed. If you do not succeed, it is because you did not work hard enough. However, Dr. Hayden emphasized in her response to the same question the role of peer mentors, academic support and other outside resources. This is typically a…
Baker, Wayne. Achieving Success Through Social Capital. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Dr. Hayden. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Dr. Lin. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Fuller, Georgina. "Recent Graduates Expect More from their Employers" Personnel
This brings us to the idea of ideal femininity. What is the ideal woman? What should we expect of the female gender in the new millennium? When comparing the two views above, I would say that Chan's ideal of the woman as one who is worthy of recognition for her efforts in any context is far more valid than that forwarded by Campbell, who creates an emotional victimhood for women. When combining these views, I would say the ideal woman is indeed emotional, but she is also capable of using her emotion to energize her efforts towards the life she desires. Emotion can translate into passion, and I believe that women have a possible advantage here. A woman's emotion for her family can create a passion for creating the perfect home. Her passion to contribute economically to her relationship with her partner or her family can lead to great excellence…
Campbell, S. (1994, Summer). Being Dismissed: The Politics of Emotional Expression. Hypatia, Vo. 9, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3810188
Chan, Z. (2002, Nov.) Cooking Soup to Writing Papers: A Journey Through Gender, Society and Self. Journal of International Women's Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://vc.bridgew.edu
Pretention was key because the women knew that the men's focus stayed on preventing race mixing between blacks and whites. To distract the men from the issues that the WKKK were fighting for, they would cleverly get the men to focus on black men trying to flirt or what have you with them. This was just a ploy for them so that they could fully pursue their interests with little or no interference from the men.
Auxiliary or Organization
Clearly, the intent of the KKK was for the women to establish an auxiliary in order to support them. The women had other ideas. The men were used to further the women's cause unknowingly. "Klanswomen embraced the mixture of individualism and deference to authority that characterized the male Klan." (p. 36). The women did not and would not be a support group for the men. They did feel that other races…
Blee, K.M. (2008). Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s (2 ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
The women whose husbands did serve the pro-Union cause (often Republicans) did not necessarily take over the farm work and other "male tasks" on the farm. Instead, the work was done with the "same kind of neighborhood and extended-kin support" that was in use prior to the Civil ar (Rodgers, 112).
Also, many soldiers wrote letters home "…virtually micromanaging their farms from the front," Rodgers continues (113). ives received a "steady flow of letters" with specific advice not only on how to run the farm, but on "how their children were to behave and be taught," Rodgers explained (113). And moreover, male farm laborers were available to harvest crops, and the women either paid them to harvest the wheat, or she gave them "a percentage of the crop" (Rodgers, 113). As for urban women in Indiana during the Civil ar, Rodgers explains that letters between wives and soldiers showed "gossip…
Brown, Alexis Girardin. "The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle,
1840-1880." The Historian. 62.4 (2000): 759-779.
Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front." Indiana Magazine of History, 97.2 (2001): 105-128.
Walker, Henry. "Power, Sex, and Gender Roles: The Transformation of an Alabama Planter
This report aims to present my views on the fact that wage work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries have more or less reinforced women's roles within their families or more accurately, have provided an extension to their familial roles. The objective of this work is to therefore present an argument that contradicts a belief held by many historians that wage work actually enabled women to develop a new sense of individualism as well as economic independence. These liberations are supposed to have liberated women from their roles in the traditional home. The report also attempts to incorporate how the effects of race and/or ethnicity come into play in this situation.
First and foremost, the idea of wage work and non-wage work must be explored to give credence to the topic at hand. Women have traditionally been unpaid for the bulk of their work while they…
Women Live in Ancient China
China is one of the world's oldest nations, being more than 4000 years old it shows no signs of decline. China has a rich history. It was ruled by several men and by various dynasties. Each ruler set standards for how the Chinese civilization was to be governed and every emperor and dynasty makes the history of China only more interesting.
The ancient Chinese society was predominantly male oriented. Women were considered to be unequal and inferior to men. Most women lived an oppressed life. Even women who belonged to rich and noble families could not always escape from the oppression; however, to an extent their lives were easier than the majority of the other females. (Waley)
The role of women in ancient China was defined by Confucius who was a philosopher, teacher and politician. He believed that women should spend most of their lives…
Brown, M. A brief history of Chinese civilization. Cengage Learning.
Buckley, P. Chinese civilization: A sourcebook . Simon and Schuster.
Falkenhausen, L. Chinese society in the age of confucius. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Harold, T. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Publishing.
omen's Experience of Globalization
One of the factors that have shaped women's experiences of globalization has been the international demand for labor in various international locations. Much of the globalization trend has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and other items that have allowed people to share different items across the globe. This trend has also shaped the manner in which labor demand can influence women. Before globalization labor was virtually static and immigration was sparsely used and there were a significant amount of resources required to migrate. However, there are many more opportunities for both migrant men and women.
The availability of options for men to work in migrant positions also places indirect pressures on women to do the same given the breakdown of the traditional family structure and relatively few domestic options. Many migrant women will leave a developing…
Parrenas, R. (2008). The Force of Domesticity: Filipina Migrants and Globalization. New York: NYU Press.
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. [Amazon
Kindle editions version.
Delmont, S. (1996). A woman's place in education. Great Britain: Avebury.
Edwards, M.E. (2001). Home ownership, affordability, and mothers' changing work and family roles. Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2), 369-383.
omen ith Authority in a Patriarchal orld
In the contemporary world, the cultural and literary spheres acknowledge female interests and activities. Females have overtly exerted their rights by demanding their due status in society, thereby being accepted as important societal members. But the scenario was vastly different about a hundred years ago. Females belonged at home, with the general society believing that raising children and taking care of domestic affairs sufficed as their emotional fulfillment. Between 1850 and 1900, societies were chiefly patriarchal and dependent women had to fight to enjoy equal social status. They were governed completely by a male-fashioned society, and had to be the image of the era's feminine ideal.[footnoteRef:1] In this paper, female authority within patriarchal societies will be addressed, with particular emphasis on the many restrictions when it came to them exerting power and what effective strategies they applied. [1: Pamela, Balanza. "The Role of…
Balanza, Pamela. "The Role of Women in the 19th and 20th Centuries." Aglaun. 2014. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.
Bobby, Chippy Susan. "Resisting Patriarchy-A Study of the Women in The God of Small Things." Language in India 12.10 (2012).
History World International. "Women in patriarchal societies." 1992. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.
Moghadam, Valentine M. "Patriarchy in transition: Women and the changing family in the Middle East." Journal of Comparative Family Studies (2004): 137-162.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
here is a clear sense that men and male children in particular were considered precious, and in many ways comparatively much more precious than women and girl children but this is in part because of women as the position of wife was subservient to the position of mother in law. he assurance that one day the wife would hold the household power of the mother in-law was only offered by a male child as female children when married left home for good and served their marriage family in direct orders of their new mother in-law. his is true of most classes but again was stricter in terms of the upper-class. (Mann 61) in other words if a female child is born she is expected in her lifetime to only contribute to her birth family for her childhood, and adolescence after this time the industry of her labour would…
Tamney, Joseph B. And Chiang Hsueh-Ling. Modernization, Globalization, and Confucian in Chinese Societies. Westpot, CT: Praeger Publisher, 2002.
Wasserlein, Frances. "Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on the History of Women's Work in British Columbia." Labour / Le Travail 17.(1986): 280-281. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 Feb. 2011.
Yao, Esther S. Lee. Chinese Women: Past & Present. Mesquite, TX: Ide House, 1993.
Women in Judaism: An Evolving Role in Religion and Society
Many laymen to Judaism look inward into the religion and view Jewish women as oppressed, their lives and choices dictated to them by the men who surround them. From rabbis to husbands to the ible itself, the belief has generally been that women have been essentially inferior to men since the dawn of the religion centuries ago. However, in taking a contemporary view toward women in Judaism, and in marking the significant strides that the sex has made throughout the centuries, one can immediately see that all it takes to understand the power and respect that Jewish women afford themselves is merely to take a closer look. In viewing the changes and struggles that Jewish women have been through throughout the centuries as well as taking a strictly-religious view in understanding the way Jewish people view God to have made…
Bernbaum, Tova. (2011). "The Curse of Eve." A Jewish Perspective on Women in Society. Web.
Retrieved from: http://www.chabad.org/theJewishWoman/article_cdo/aid/90765 / jewish/The-Curse-of-Eve.htm. [Accessed on 28 November 2012].
Fishelov, David. (2010). "Biblical Women in World and Hebrew Literature." Jewish Women's
Archive. Web. Retrieved from: http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/biblical-women-in-world-and-hebrew-literature [Accessed on 28 November 2012].
Room of One's Own," the author discussed how men continuously perpetuated the idea that men are superior than women. Woolf asserted this position through the "looking-glass vision," in which she posits that, "[w]omen have served all these centuries as looking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size." Thus, acting as looking-glasses of the society, women are then relegated to a lower status while men, having witnessed their superiority through their "perceived" 'frailty' of women, takes up a higher status superior than women. Audre Lorde in her work, "Age, Race, Class, and Sex," illustrates how different view their stratification in the society. Lorde shows how a difference of perspectives of people with different ages, classes, races, and sexes manifest the degree of his/her outlook about his/her standing or status in the society. Thus, just like what Lorde exemplifies in her essay,…
This public visibility had an extremely positive effect on the movement, reaching people their more passive campaign would never have touched.
Needless to say, the strategy of marching in the streets was not one typically associated with normal female behavior. Yet, through this brazen tactic, suffragists were able to elevate their public image to a position where they were seen as legitimate participants in the public political arena. Onlookers began to see suffragists as serious and dignified, and as individuals who had courage to make public appearances, presenting themselves to onlookers (McCammon). Much of the effectiveness of these parades was due to the manner in which they were held.
As McCammon notes, woman suffrage parades were neither festive nor frivolous. The women typically marched in formation. They wore white dresses and carried signs and banners stating reasons why women should have the right to vote. In eastern parades, primarily, a…
Beck, E., Dorsey, E., & Stutters, a. "The Women's Suffrage Movement: Lessons for Social Action." Journal of Community Practice 11(3) 2003: p. 13-33. Academic Search Premier database. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 9, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com .
Borda, J. "The Woman Suffrage Parades of 1910-1913." Western Journal of Communication 66(1) Winter 2002: p. 25-52. Academic Search Premier database. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 9, 2008
Examples of successful women abound in recent history, evidenced by the recognition of Oprah infrey as one of the wealthiest and most powerful individuals in the entertainment/news industries, Venus illiams as one of the highest paid tennis professionals-male or female-in the world, and the countless examples of prominent women in medicine, law, business and more. An interesting aside to the consideration of infrey and illiams, as well as Dr. Rice, however, is the fact that they are not only women, but they are also African-American women, a key distinction that deserves closer discussion. These women have blazed a trail for the advancement of the women's movement without a doubt, but also, they have opened many doors for minorities, which is perhaps an even larger tribute to them and more evidence of their exceptional abilities and talent to overcome adversity and excel. hether they are evaluated simply as successful women, or…
Biography of Dr. Condoleeza Rice." July, 2004, White House Online. Retrieved May 17, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/ricebio.html .
Feifer, Megan. "The History of Black Feminism and Womanism." University of Wisconsin at Madison, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://www.uwm.edu .
Secretary Rice's International Debut." Manila Bulletin 15 Feb. 2005: NA. Questia. 17 May 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008648125 .
Whitaker, Charles. "The Changing Role of Black Women." Ebony Mar. 2001: 108. Questia. 17 May 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000958776 .
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change
20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…