Roman Architecture Essays (Examples)

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Roman History Rome v Carthage

Words: 2986 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39014777



After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.

Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.

It…… [Read More]

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Architecture Naves During the Middle Ages --

Words: 416 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43017331

Architecture

Naves During the Middle Ages -- Architectural Analysis

Timber Roof

From a structural perspective, the basic timber roof possesses some problems, most notably its relatively flimsy structural integrity. It is easy to construct, requiring less manpower to lift it and to construct its support network, but provides relatively little resistance to the elements of snow and the wind. It is functional in the sense that it performs the sheltering function of shielding the building's inner dwellers, and encloses the building from the open air, but aesthetically is not satisfactory in providing the sense of 'reaching up to the sky' so important in Medieval cathedrals of the era, and of some import in castles and other symbolically significant structures.

Longitudinal barrel vault

This is the simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel that has been cut…… [Read More]

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Medieval Architecture Romanesque vs Gothic

Words: 788 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93002315

20,21). Romanesque structures tend to be dark and cave-like on the inside. Arches became pointed, rather than rounded as in Roman structures. Gothic architecture represents an advancement in engineering techniques, as builders found that they could do with thinner materials and that roofs could span greater distances. The roofs in Gothic architecture was supported by this new form of arch, rather than by the massive walls, as was done in Romanesque architecture ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21)

Gothic structures sported and increased number of towers, flying buttresses, and decorative designs ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21). Gothic architectures indow openings were adorned with either stained glass or the distinctive Gothic Rose indows. Adornments included human figures, animals, scenes of ordinary life, wars, important events, gargoyles and other mythological creatures. Gothic structures were highly ornate when compared to Romanesque Structures.

Conclusion

Visiting different structures on a trip through Europe can be an exciting adventure.…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

"Gothic Architecture." Athena Review. Vol. 4. No. 2.pp. 20,21. <  http://www.athenapub.com/14gothic-architecture.htm  >. Accessed October 6, 2010.

Gothic Art. "Worldly Famous Gothic Cathedrals and Key Characteristics of Gothic Cathedrals." < http://www.gothicart.org.uk/characteristics_of_gothic_cathedrals.htm >. Accessed October 6, 2010.

Sacred Destinations. "Romanesque Architecture." Sacred-Destinations.com. 2010. < http://www.sacred-destinations.com/reference/romanesque-architecture >. Accessed October 6, 2010.
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History of Architecture Not Only

Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98679220

An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.

Conclusions

Though our current architecture is derived…… [Read More]

Reference:

Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
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Karim Snoussi Christoph Korner Roman

Words: 2005 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65963980

The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.

The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.

Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association

of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.

Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
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Piranesi on Architecture Argument and Summary Giovanni

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54826677

Piranesi on Architecture:

Argument and Summary

Giovanni Battista Piranesi, a fantastic writer on Roman architecture, argues, against the contemporaries of his time, for this type of architecture. Such contemporaries would state, on Roman architecture, that "there is no composition that is not full of superfluous ornament, and absolutely hors d'oeuvre. Everything is sacrificed for luxury, and in the end one is left with style that quickly becomes ridiculous and barbarous."[footnoteRef:1] However, Piranesi sticks with his taste, and proves, through a dialogue written by the critic himself, the importance of Roman architecture. Thus, this paper will give a brief summary of the afore-mentioned dialogue and the argument presented. [1: Source given by customer -- Thoughts on Architecture by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Translation by Michaels Nonis and Mark Epstein) ]

The essay presented in this document is called Parere su l'architectura, and provide a clear exposition of the author's thoughts on "ornament…… [Read More]

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How Alberti Palladio and Perrault Changed the Face of Architecture

Words: 2940 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64184454

Architecture

Leon attista Alberti and Claude Perrault viewed the beauty and order of architectural in different terms. Alberti's perspective represented the High Renaissance's love of classicism and mathematical precision. Thus, Alberti viewed architectural order and beauty as being rooted in mathematical symmetry and harmony. Perrault, on the other hand, represented a worldview that came two hundred years later, after Europe had already been split apart by the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and now embarked upon the Age of Enlightenment (which would lead directly into the Romantic Era). Perrault's perspective was shaped less by the order and mathematical discipline that Alberti associated with architectural order and more by the perception of beauty and the impression of spatial dimension and order. Perrault understand how the Greeks played tricks on the eyes by adhering not to a formulaic structure but rather to a consideration for the viewer, placing columns, for instance, in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alberti, L.B. (1980) On the Art of Building in Ten Books. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Alberti, L.B., Rykwert, J. (1955) Ten Books on Architecture. UK: Tiranti.

Allais, L. (2005) Ordering the Orders, Future Anterior, 2(2): 53-74.

Ching, F., Jarzombek, M., Prakash, V. (2011) A Global History of Architecture. NY:
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Oif Columns in Architecture Extends

Words: 6600 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68072807



3. Curriculum or Method of the Study

The research methodology that was applied in this study was essentially an inclusive, extensive and comparative overview of the literature on the subject. Various sources were consulted, which included books and scholarly articles on the column in architectural history. Also included in the literature survey was information and data from online databases and verified websites.

The information gleaned about columns and their historical context was extrapolated and then entered into a free-from database for further analysis. This resulted in an overall survey of the progression and evolution of various forms and types of columns, from the Egyptian column to the present day. A comparative method of analysis was employed in order to ascertain the commonalities as well as the differences between the various types and forms of this architectural structure.

What should also be mentioned is that the focus of the research, and…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Roman Architecture. Retrieved from  http://www.crystalinks.com/romearchitecture.html 

Architecture of ancient Greece. Retrieved from  http://upge.wn.com/?t=ancientgreece/index12.txt 

Barry C. What Are the Types of Architectural Columns? Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5453707_types-architectural-columns.html

Column: New World Encyclopaedia. Retrieved from  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Column
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The Roman Colosseum an Engineering Masterpiece

Words: 3695 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28772408

Engineering the oman Colosseum

While the Colosseum stands, ome shall stand; when the Colosseum falls, ome shall fall; when ome falls, the world shall fall. -- The Venerable Bede quoting an Ancient Anglo-Saxon Peasant Prophecy

Perhaps the most enduring symbol of the greatness of the oman Empire can be seen today in the ruins of the Colosseum. This massive amphitheatre is situated in the middle of modern ome near the oman Forum and has become an iconic representation of the oman Empire at its zenith. Although estimates vary, analysts believe that at least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 80,000 spectators were accommodated in its capacious dimensions and the Colosseum has become the benchmark by which all subsequent stadia have been judged. Flush with the treasures and riches of Jerusalem, the builders of the Colosseum spared no expense in its design and construction, but despite its impressive seating capacity and…… [Read More]

References

Barbi, Gulomar, "The Colosseum," The World and I, 22(9) (2007, September), 37-40.

Burn, Robert, Roman Literature in Relation to Roman Art, London: MacMillan, 1888.

"Colosseum building materials," The Colosseum [online] available: http://www.the-colosseum.net/architecture / materials_en.htm.

"Description of the Colosseum," The Colosseum [online] available http://www.the-colosseum.net / architecture/descriptio_en.htm.
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architecture in columbus ohio churches

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45175657

Street in Columbus, Ohio, the humbly named Broad Street Presbyterian Church was built in 1887, but has had several additional architectural elements added since then, including structural and functional spaces beyond the main apse and nave, ranging from a large north side parking area to the multiple annexes and entryways. The Broad Street Presbyterian Church occupies a relatively large footprint, spanning about four acres of urban land. On the south side of the street, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church receives an ample amount of sunlight throughout the day, which gleams and glows as it reflects on its flagstone finish. On its centennial in 1987, the church was formally added to the National Register of Historic Places in spite of its numerous modern additions, solidifying the church in Columbus's urban landscape. In fact, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church shares the street with four other landmark churches in Columbus, all built within…… [Read More]

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History in Architecture Because They

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93403681

They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.

As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.

orks cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,

H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
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Bramante Architecture a Fact of History Is

Words: 1151 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011850

Bramante Architecture

A fact of history is that enaissance marked a new emerging base towards the already established architecture of antiquity that was rooted in thorough recovery of the past and new inventiveness, but it was because of this that the great cities of Europe gathered much of their form that is admired by the world today. The word renaissance has entered the minds of people with dominant positive connotations of pure genius and renewal. (Campbell, 2004)

enaissance architecture is the architecture of the early 15th to 17th centuries in different areas of Europe which demonstrated a revival of elements of the ancient Greek and oman thought and culture. First established in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, the renaissance spread like wild fire to other parts of Italy as well and from there the style was carried to France, England, ussia, Germany and other parts of Europe. (Gromort)

During the enaissance,…… [Read More]

References:

Campbell, G. (2004). Renaissance art and architecture . (1 ed., p. 318). Oxford University

Press, USA.

Gromort, G. Italian renaissance architecture: A short historical and descriptive account.

Hersey, G.L., &, F. (1993). High renaissance art in st. peter's and the vatican, an interpretive guide. University Of Chicago Press.
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Art Roman Islamic and Early

Words: 2205 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14381201



The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,

Figure 3.

(Source: http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html)

This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]

References

Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages 

Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html 

Middle Ages. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages 

Roman art. Retrieved from  http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html  Siddiqui E.
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Art History the Architecture of

Words: 757 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94162559

Patterned after the old cathedral at Reims, the abbey church displays a similar set of volumes with east and west transepts with crossing towers; an especially large western apse balancing a triple apse at the opposite end.

The massing of the towers around the main structure of the nave, and the rows of round arched windows set high in the walls are typical Romanesque features. The overall affect is one of fortress-like magnificence - a fitting setting for an abbey in a world that was still heavily plagued by violence, and in which the learned were as yet required to turn inward. Symbolically, too, it represents the introspection of religion, the commitment of the devout to purge themselves of sin, and to create a pure space within themselves, one that is walled off from all external temptations. The interior plan, as well, is simple and straightforward, a two-aisled nave that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53317567

Calkins, Robert G. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe: From a.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74414343

Horste, Kathryn. Cloister Design and Monastic Reform in Toulouse: The Romanesque Sculpture of La Daurade. Oxford: Oxford University, 1992.
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Ancient Roman History the Objective

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1078821

" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.

III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME

The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.

IV. RULE…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at  http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html .

Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.

Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm

Ancient Roman History
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Art Architecture History

Words: 1724 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89999144

Gothic Architecture

The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Peter. "A Dark Age Crisis." English Historical Review 88 (1973), 1-34.

Cameron, Averil. "The Virgin's Robe: An Episode in the History of Seventh-Century Constantinople." Byzantion 49 (1979), 42-56.

Croddy, S. "Gothic Architecture and Scholastic Philosophy." The British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3), 263-272.

Davis, Michael, Science, Technology, and Gothic Architecture. Avista 8 (2) (1994/95), 3-6. http://www.area.fi.cnr.it/bivi/eng/schede/Toscana/Firenze/17cattedrale.htm
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Byzantium and the Roman Empire

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95047836

Ancient Rome

Diocletion attempted to stabilize the Roman Empire by splitting it into two (and later four) regions with four rulers -- also known as the Tetrarchy, with each ruler picking a successor (Mathisen). Since the time of Caesar, it had essentially become too big to be governed by one ruler. Thus, Diocletian's re-ordering of the empire was a way to make governance more practical and possible (Khan Academy). He himself took over governance of the Eastern half with its base in Constantinople while appointing a co-ruler for the Western half. Later to keep out the Visigoths, Diocletian also appointed two more rulers to help keep the barbarians from invading. In doing so, Diocletian began the practice of subdividing provinces into dioceses -- and creating a hierarchy of governance from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic Church adopted its diocesan rule from.…… [Read More]

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Wealthy Roman a Villa a Retreat Stresses

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97155

wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.

The Roman Villa

Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Melmoth, William, "Elegant epistles, or, a copious collection of familiar and amusing letters: selected for the improvement of young persons, and for general entertainment, from Cicero, Pliny ... And many others," Printed for Charles Dilly, 1790, New York Public Library.

Rykwert, Joseph and Schezen, Roberto From Ancient to Modern, New York: Abrams Books, 2000

"Sketches of the domestic manners and institutions of the romans," Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821, Complutense University, Madrid.
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Passive Solar Architecture

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28775182

passive solar architecture is nothing new. Socrates observed, more than 2400 years ago, that when a house is facing to the south, the sun's rays penetrate through the windows of the house in the winter, giving heat to the inside, and shines right above the house in the summer, giving shade and cooling on the inside. At that time, this house probably lost heat as fast as it was collected, because of the convective and radiation losses. ut the idea was there, which the Romans built upon, by using windows, covered with glass, to trap the solar energy. This caused the internal temperature to stay constant throughout the night.

Passive solar architecture has come a long way since the time of Socrates. Most passive solar homes have the same characteristics in each that make them more energy efficient than they were back then. In the Northern Hemisphere, the windows are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Holloway, Dennis R. Architecture Solar Virtual Reality Native American Archaeology. 6 December 2002. www.taosnet.com/architectVRe/html/SolarDesignb.html

Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Page. Arizona Solar Center. 6 December 2002. www.azsolarcenter.com/technology/pas-2.html

Hodges, Laurent. The Hodges Passive Solar Home in Ames, Iowa. 6 December 2002. www.public.iastate.edu/'envr_stu_324/house.htm

Passive Solar Architecture and Energy Efficient Houses -- Renewable Energy in the Home. The Australian Greenhouse Office. 6 December 2002. www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/home/passive_solar.html
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Bust of Antinous the Piece of Roman

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53934166

Bust of Antinous

The piece of Roman art being discussed is the bust of Antinous Mondragone, which is now in the Louvre in Paris, and it came from the Mondragone villa, located in Frascati, Italy. The artist is unknown, but it is thought to have been sculpted around 130 AD. This beautiful sculpture represents much of Roman art at the time, and it represents a larger cultural context, as well.

The arts were becoming popular during this time in the Roman Republic, and sculpture was becoming increasingly popular after the Romans captured Syracuse during the Second Punic Wars and brought back much of the island's sculpture to display in Rome. Roman sculpture often copied classic Greek statutes, because the artists and people admired Greek art. The sculptures were often of Roman rulers, indicating how important they were to the culture, and how they were held up by the people as…… [Read More]

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Collaborative Consumption and Architecture

Words: 8536 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88518479

architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.

Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]

References

About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from http://www.ssdarchitecture.com/about/

Botsman, R. (2010). What's Mine is Yours: The Rise of Collaborative Consumption.

NY: HarperCollins.

Bovill, C. (2014). Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Design. NY: Routledge.
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Ohio Capitol Building Discuss the Overall Design

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73835563

Ohio Capitol Building

Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? hy is that significant?

According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gilkey, Elliott Howard et. al. (1901). The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Hand-book of the Public

Men and Public. Taylor: Columbus, OH.

"The Ohio Statehouse." (2012).

http://www.ohiostatehouse.org/Information/AboutTheStatehouse/Index.aspx
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History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
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Renaissance Building Projects Their Relationship

Words: 4215 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37559270



In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.

The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…… [Read More]

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Romanesque Church Art in the

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56096013



Churches represented the primary type of Romanesque architecture. Despite regional variations, Romanesque architecture shares a multitude of common characteristics such as harmonious proportions, stone barrel vault, round arches supporting the roof, thick and heavy walls and pillars, or small windows. Also, most Romanesque churches feature round arches used for exterior and interior decoration, a nave with side aisles though there is also a number of small, more modest churches which do not have an aisle), galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium, a transept, an apse and an ambulatory around the apse. Also, most Romanesque churches have multiples towers, as well as sculptured decorations on portals and capitals, and painted decorations throughout the interior. One of the most important structural developments of Romanesque architecture was the stone barrel vault which was intended as an alternative to wooden roofs which were prone to fires (Butt 162).…… [Read More]

Sources

Browne, Edith A. Romanesque Architecture. Kessinger Publishing, 2005.

Butt, John J. Daily life in the age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
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Construction Styles During the Middle Ages

Words: 1359 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23046810

Gothic vs. Romanesque Architecture

The Romanesque and Gothic styles of architecture are key to the artistic development of the Middle Ages. They are they result not only of an aesthetical development, a natural consequence of improving socioeconomic conditions and a growing interest of individuals and groups to showcase their wealth and power with churches and other constructions, but also a result of technological developments. Indeed, many of the components of these styles came about as architectural necessities: to support the new constructions, technical innovations needed to be implemented and this sometimes translated into stylistic expressions.

This paper will investigate each architectural style in part, focusing both on a separate, relevant description of the main elements and on a comparison between the Romanesque and Gothic styles. To the degree to which this is possible, the paper will aim to showcase the description and the comparison with concrete examples from the civic…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Rolf Toman, Romanesque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Konemann, (1997)

2. Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology.

3. Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004)

4. Pevsner, Nikolaus. An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books. (1964)
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
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History of Project Management at

Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055

Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]

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New Reference Is Not Required

Words: 5917 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7879314

It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.

Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…… [Read More]

References

O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 4755 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70233119

One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).

The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…… [Read More]

References

Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.

Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.

Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.

Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.
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Arch of Constantine

Words: 445 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45176740

Arch of Constantine

From a structural perspective, the "Arch of Constantine" is a form of late Roman architecture, dated around 315 C.E. It was constructed by unknown men and women, and designed by an unknown architect or architects for a military commemoration of Rome's glory. In these characteristics, it shares many of the characteristics of ancient masonry of the Roman era, although it is smaller in scope than the Coliseum, for instance, and has no utilitarian purpose unlike that structure. ("Arch of Constantine," Great Buildings Online) It takes the form a triumphal or traditional upside down "U" shaped arch faced by two smaller "U's and located on the grounds of the Coliseum in the Piazza del Colosseo. It was commissioned to be erected by the Roman Senate in honor of Constantine to commemorate his victory over Maxentius in 312 A.D. (Planter and Ashby, 1929)

Despite is relatively late date, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arch of Constantine." Great Buildings Online. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/glk-http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/299.html

Benton and DiYanni. Arts and Culture. New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Planter and Ashby. "The Arch of Constantine." From A Topological Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1929. Retrieved on March 6, 2004 at http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/Arch_of_Constantine/home.html
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Bohemia Art While There Are

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 788616

The image of Mary's fingers embedded into the flesh of the child almost appears as sculptured image, thanks to the use of color separation. In addition, the glossy enamel of the panel furthers the illusion of movement within the three-dimensional shape (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").

Still further representations of Bohemian influence of the architecture of Prague can be seen within the Church of Virgin Mary Victorious in Prague. The building, built in 1611 as the Holy Trinity Church, was reworked in 1636 as Mary Victorious. The church is a resounding example of Bohemian art within architecture. Originally based on oman architecture, the structure was renovated to represent a more Bohemian culture ambiance. Introducing a single-nave layout, typical of the Bohemian simplicity, the church brought a sense of anti-reformation. The rebuilding also included a paneling of the frontage of the structure with traditional Bohemian artworks of…… [Read More]

References

Kren, Emil. "Bohemia." The History of the Style. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. Prague National Gallery.  http://www.wga.hu/tours/gothic/history.html#bohemia .

Marx, Dan. "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague." Prague National Gallery. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003.  http://www.wga.hu/html/m/master/xunk_bo/madvitus.html .

Meilach, Dona. "Prague: The City is the Museum." Arts and Activities 129.2 (2001): 55-57.

Official Site for the Czech Republic. "Church of Virgin Mary Victorious." Bohemia and Moravia Baroque Architecture. 2003. Czech Republic. 19 April 2003. Official Site of the Czech Republic. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/BaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture.htm.
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Romanesque Style Regional Variations in

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29957043

In the region of Aquitania in southwest France, it became customary to "cover church roofs with domes which reflected the influence of yzantium or Armenia" (Williams, 223). Most of these Aquitanian churches contained a longitudinal, aisle-less nave which was covered by a sequence of domes which in turn were usually covered by a pitched wooden roof.

The end result of this style was quite practical since the pendentive-supported domes required far less buttressing than continuous barrel vaults, such as found in ancient Roman architecture. Although these churches and other similar structures "never aimed for the soaring heights of northern Romanesque structures" like those found in Germany, they do "represent an almost perfect fusion of geometric planning with elevation and clearly exhibit the functions of all their structural parts" (Williams, 225).

Yet despite these architectural differences, the Romanesque style from about 1050 onwards created a number of clear characteristics, such as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Smithson, Charles. The Architecture of Tuscany. New York: Abrams Publishing, 2003.

Williams, Kenneth a. The Architecture of Norman England. New York: Abrams Publishing, 2002.
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Dome of St Peters Basilica

Words: 2615 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75922421

Brunelleschi's Architecture

The religious architecture of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence in the early 1400s established a new Renaissance aesthetic by blending religious symbolism with mathematical and classical principles that he drew from visits to ancient ruins of Rome as well as from Vitruvius' De Architectura. This paper will describe how Brunelleschi's unique blend inspired a new movement in Renaissance architecture -- a movement that began with the Dome of the Florence Cathedral and stretched through to the production of the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica under Michelangelo, whose plan was a kind of compromise between the Brunelleschi-inspired plan of Bramante and the more crux-like design of Raphael (Johnson). The Basilica's dome was meant to rival that of the wonder of Florence, created by Brunelleschi, which had essentially pushed the boundaries of Italian architecture into the next phase of greatness.

The phase of grandeur that Brunelleschi heralded with his Dome of…… [Read More]

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Town Village Development in UK in the Medieval Ages

Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21897883

Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages

Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages

Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.

Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British

Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm

Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site:  http://www.canterburytales.org/ 

Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg

Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
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Byzantine Romanesque & Gothic Styles

Words: 1753 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42867742

Between 1225 and 1250 C.E., Notre Dame was extensively modified when the chapels were built into spaces between the buttresses and the transept arms were lengthened. Of course, it is Notre Dame's facade which draws the most attention, due to its verticality which makes Notre Dame one of the most satisfying and memorable structures in Gothic architecture.

In conclusion, the talented men who designed these churches and cathedrals which always towered over the towns and cities below symbolize a great confidence in their faith, for they regarded these structures as the "real image of the City of God" (Demus, 2004, p. 113), perhaps as a form of heavenly Jerusalem in which they felt very privileged to have worked on earth as representatives of God's own majesty.

EFEENCES

Demus, Otto. (2004). Byzantine art and the west. New York: New York University Press.

Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. (2006). Gothic art. New York: Abrams Academic…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Demus, Otto. (2004). Byzantine art and the west. New York: New York University Press.

Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. (2006). Gothic art. New York: Abrams Academic Press.

Kubach, Hans Erich. (2005). Romanesque architecture. New York: Electra/Rizzoli Publishing.

IMAGE LINKS:
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The Palace of the Emperor Titus

Words: 1228 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50212534

The Palace of the Emperor Titus was completed in 81 AD by the architect Rabirius.[footnoteRef:2] Located on the greater part of Esquiline Hill, the Baths of Titus (named the Palace of Titus by Pliny) extended from the “based of the Esquiline Hill near the Coliseum to one of its summits at the Church of SS. Martino e Silvestro, and to another at S. Pietro in Vincoli.”[footnoteRef:3] It is believed that the Palace was built rather quickly by converting an existing structure into the Baths.[footnoteRef:4] The Palace used the house of Mecenas and the Golden House of Nero which had come across from Palatine Hill as part of the construction that existed to make the Palace. There were “nine long corridors, converging together like the radii of the segment of a circle, divided from each other by dead walls, covered at the top and closed at the end” according to one…… [Read More]

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The Palace of the Emperor Titus

Words: 1173 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14095083

The Palace of the Emperor Titus was completed in 81 AD by the architect Rabirius.[footnoteRef:2] Located on the greater part of Esquiline Hill, the Baths of Titus (named the Palace of Titus by Pliny) extended from the “based of the Esquiline Hill near the Coliseum to one of its summits at the Church of SS. Martino e Silvestro, and to another at S. Pietro in Vincoli.”[footnoteRef:3] It is believed that the Palace was built rather quickly by converting an existing structure into the Baths.[footnoteRef:4] The Palace used the house of Mecenas and the Golden House of Nero which had come across from Palatine Hill as part of the construction that existed to make the Palace. There were “nine long corridors, converging together like the radii of the segment of a circle, divided from each other by dead walls, covered at the top and closed at the end” according to one…… [Read More]

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NYSE Revised There Is One

Words: 2589 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98761087

As if to say scientific achievement and technological advancement work together with agriculture and mining to produce. Each complements and supports the other with Integrity watching over all. There was a speech given by Ayn Rand about the New York Stock Exchange about money from Atlas Shrugged?

The interpretation was if you think money is the "root of all evil," think again. hy would someone make such a statement. hy not say "what is the root of money" instead. Money is nothing of itself, it is a tool used by men in exchange for goods and services. Money cannot exists without man. It is the principles of man that determine how money is traded. They give money power or value based on the decisions they apply to the tool. He further states that "Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Durante, Diane. "Integrity Protecting the Works of Man." < http://www.forgottendelights.com/NYCsculpture/salute/SalutesApril.htm#Integrity > April 2011.

Johnson, A. "Reviewing the Pediment of the NYSE." Reyte on Publishing. 2010.

"Museum Planet." NYSE. Federal Hall and Vicinity. < http://www.museumplanet.com/tour.php/nyc/fh/15 > 10 December 2011

"New York Stock Exchange." NYX.com. NYSE Euronext. Web. 5 Nov. 2011.
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High Renaissance Bramante and the

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4871289

The second stage was of the Ionic order and with windows, rising to the level of the first apartments of the papal palace and of those of the Belvedere; to form subsequently a loggia more than four hundred paces on the side towards ome and another towards the wood, with the valley between, so that it was necessary to bring all the water of the Belvedere and to erect a beautiful fountain" (Vasari, 2006, Donato Bramante).

The work combined elements of a variety of sacred and secular oman architecture in its inspiration and design. Its "axiality recalled the ancient temple complex at Palestrina, the symbolism of the Cortile del Belvedere (1507-7) combined overtones of oman villa and theatre" (Donato Bramante, 2011, Encyclopedia of Art). Unlike the anonymous artists of the Gothic era, Bramante proudly created a frieze on the front of the Belvedere which bore the name of his patron…… [Read More]

References

Catt, Kasey. (2011). Donato Bramante. PSU. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at http://www.personal.psu.edu/mrp5074/donato%20Bramante.html

Chilvers, Ian. (2004). Bramante, Donato. The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford University

Press. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at http://www.enotes.com/oxford-art-encyclopedia / bramante-donato

Donato Bramante. (2011). All About. Retrieved September 6, 2011 at http://www.allaboutrenaissancefaires.com/architecture/bramante.htm
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Human History the Concept of

Words: 5712 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60516710

Those who went took with them knowledge of Mesopotamian customs, ideas, and skills, but many chose to remain, having put down firm roots during the decades of exile (LeMiere 19). Mesopotamia itself became even more cosmopolitan than before, since not only did the Persian court at times visit and contribute to local administration, but also foreign levies and mercenaries did tours of military service there. Anti-Persian feeling in conquered lands led to scurrilous rumors, such as the tale that Xerxes destroyed the statue of Marduk-Bel in Babylon (LeMiere 20).

This story has proved to be a fabrication: the cult statue continued unscathed to embody the presence of the god in his undamaged temple in Babylon during subsequent centuries, and so Herodotos' description of the golden statue of Marduk-Bel in the time of Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) need not be doubted. Continuity of cult and architecture are thoroughly attested by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, R. Architecture of Ancient Samaria. New York: Prentice Hall, 1989. Print.

Akkermans, P. "Tell Sabi Abyad: Preliminary Report on the 1986 Excavations." Akkadica 52 (1987): 10-28. Print.

Blackham, M.. "Further Investigations as to the Relationship of Samarian and Ubaic Ceramic Assemblages." Iraq 53 (2006): 1-16. Print.

Boethius, a. The Golden House of Nero. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Print.
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History of Construction Technology Time

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51255638

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]

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Cultural and Construction History of

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2908770

Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.

The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]

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Building Projects Six Building Projects

Words: 4255 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38643592

66). St. Justinus' was influenced by St. Caster at Coblenz and churches Michaelstadt and Seligenstadt (Fegusson & Spiers p. 220). The columns and roofs are of cultural interest and the massive Gothic choir and its original seating still exist.

3.4. Significances

St. Justinus' has undergone changes over the years. In 1298 the relics of St. Justinus' were transferred to the mother church St. Margaret who in turn dedicated the church. In 1419 the Antoniter order made numerous altercations to the church including the building of the gothic chancel. In the early 18th century the church added an organ that is mostly intact today (The American Organist). In the 1930s and the 1980s St. Justinus' underwent restoration; today the church belongs to the parish of St. Josef in the Frankfurt district of Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg (aedekers Frankfurt).

Crusades:

4. Krak des Chevaliers, Syria (AD 1144 -- 1250) -- 950…… [Read More]

Bibliography Page

Albright, W.F. (1936), "Archaeological Exploration and Excavation in Palestine and Syria, 1935," American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 40 (1): 154 -- 167

Baedekers Frankford: a city guide series. Prentice Hall Press, 1987. Print.

Bennett, M. The Hutchinson dictionary of ancient and medieval warfare. Chicago, Il: Helicon Publishing, 1998. Print.

Billings, Malcolm. The Crusades: Five Centuries of Holy Wars. New York: Sterling
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Dome of the Rock the

Words: 2457 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33706034

According to the author, the elements of architecture found within the Dome, such as the interior double colonnades and the wooden dome are echoed in the Cathedral.

Gray concedes that one might argue for the Islamic nature of the mosaic decorations. However, even this element adheres more to the Hellenistic tradition before the Islamic synthesis than to Islam itself. Elements of Islam that are included are the fact that there is no representation of men or animals in the mosaic, as well as the syncretic vocabulary.

Myriam Rosen-Ayalon more closely examines both the iconography and the concomitant purpose of creating the Dome of the Rock. he appears to agree with Gray, that a number of non-Islam influences were at work when the Dome was created. More specifically, she addresses the interaction of the mosaic images with the text inscriptions of the Dome. In this way, the author attempts to find…… [Read More]

Sources

Associates for Scriptural Knowledge. The Secret key to the Dome of the Rock. Oct 1, 1999.  http://www.askelm.com/temple/t991001.htm 

Ettinghausen, Richard and Grabar, Oleg. Extract from the Art and Architecture of Islam 650-1250 (pp. 28-34). New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. http://www.thehope.org/domerock.htm

Garaudy, Roger. The Dome of the Rock. American Muslim Council, 1997.  http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/domerock.htm 

Gray, Martin. Places of Peace and Power: Jarusalem, Israel. 1983-2006. http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/jerusalem.html
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World During First Century CE

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82327653

political, social and economical processes of the first century AD, it's important to distinguish main superpower, which dictated its values and spread its influence on other nations and ethnic groups. If to look on the problem from these perspective the problems that arose from such interaction will become obvious and clear. That's why we have to describe the processes that took place in the oman Empire, the only super state on the world's map of that epoch.

At the beginning of the first century the power of oman empire had expended over the territories of Mediterranean region: omans had conquered Britain, Spain in the West and reached eastern borders of their possessions on the territories of modern Armenia, Northern Mesopotamia in the East, omania in the North and Sarah in the South. oman emperors starting from Julius Caesar expanded and empowered oman Empire, its territories, increased army and turned into…… [Read More]

Reference:

Craig, Albert M. Heritage of World Civilizations, Combined Volume (6th Edition) Prentice Hall; 6th edition 2002
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Domestic Interiors Is a Significant Part of

Words: 1092 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91407767

Domestic interiors is a significant part of our lives because we live and spend a good part of our time indoors. We may love the outdoors, but it also represents the freedom we get from staying indoors and the reality that a good part of our lives are confined within four walls. We sleep, eat and do other activities at home, work in buildings or factories, study in schools and colleges and entertain in restaurants, galleries and theaters. All this makes domestic interiors an important aspect of living.

Human beings are believed to have appeared on earth 1.7 million years ago and history shows that primitive shelters were used by our ancestors for comfort and protection. The earliest known dwellings have been caves or other homes made of materials that were readily available in the region like mud, stones, sticks, animal skins, tree barks and leaves. Since then, we have…… [Read More]

References

Pile, John. 2005. A History of Interior Design. London, UK: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

American Federation of Arts. 1912. Magazine of Art, Volume 3. Washington DC: American Federation of Arts.

Victorian Station, 2006. Interior Design. [online]. Available at: http://www.victorianstation.com/interiordesignmenu.htm [Accessed 20 October 2011].

Kaufmann, Edgar; MMA. 1970. Introductions to Modern Design. Ayer Publishing.
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REM Koolhaas Modern Architect

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9595040

Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy

The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.

One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Craven, Jackie. "Metabolism." About.com.7 Apr 2014.

http://architecture.about.com/od/M-Architecture-Terms/g/Metabolism.htm

"Interview with Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas: 'The World Needs Europe'." Spiegel Online.

30 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 Apr 2014.  http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/interview-with-dutch-architect-rem-koolhaas-the-world-needs-europe-a-587436.html
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Construction Documents Class Programming HW

Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54899298

building program: Using AutoCAD® Architecture

One commonly used program to draft plans for buildings using CAD software is AutoCAD® Architecture. Program capabilities include the ability to draw walls, to create a 'slope' to mimic the real-world conditions of a foundation, and the ability to annotate notes directly onto a plan. Creating structures such as doors with a 'swing' can also be superimposed upon the plan to ensure that they have enough room to maneuver. There are automatic scaling devices to include tags, texts, and other objects within the layout. One user noted that it is with such detailing that the program distinguishes itself from the competition. "For example, when entering column sizes they used to pick an approximate size for use throughout the entire building. Now, they can isolate particular columns and properly detail them out. e can save space, make room for drains, you name it. It's been a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Case studies." AutoCAD® Architecture. [3 Feb 2014].

http://usa.autodesk.com/autocad-architecture/customers/
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1th and 12th Century Romanesque

Words: 1978 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6069894

" This "unembellished sobriety," though, does not extend to the structure's west front. In this regard, Logerfo notes that the west front of Saint-Trophime features "a glorious tympanum describing the Last Judgement and statues of the apostles in nearby niches separated by small Corinthian columns in the style of decoration for a oman triumphal arch."

Conclusion

The research showed that the term omanesque architecture refers to an architectural style that emerged in Europe during the 10th century and reached its zenith during the 11th and 12th centuries. The highly ornate qualities of the omanesque style were shown to be supplemented by vaults and buttresses that added an aesthetic quality to the structures while serving important structural functions as well. While the authorities may not agree on the precise defining architectural elements that serve to define omanesque architecture, the research also showed that there are a sufficient number of commonalities among…… [Read More]

References

Calkins, R.G. 1998. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe: From a.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press.

Clapham, a.W. 1936. Romanesque Architecture in Western Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cotterill, H.B. 1915. Medieval Italy during a Thousand Years: A Brief Historical Narrative with Chapters on Great Episodes and Personalities and on Subjects Connected with Religion, Art and Literature. London: George G. Harrap.

Kimball, F. And G.H. Edgell. 1918. A History of Architecture. New York: Harper & Brothers.
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Art History the Lure of

Words: 1819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11054975

A romanticism that was rooted in the legendary European past served well to bring comfort and a sense of place in space and time to people who might otherwise have felt rootless and adrift. In its eclecticism the Richardsonian Romanesque house gave visible expression to the deepest needs and of an age.

orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883293

Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883726

Roth, Leland M., ed. America Builds: Source Docs in American Architecture and Planning. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91043982

Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1980.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26178642

Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History, and Meaning. 1st ed. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1993.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883482

Alan Gowans, Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression (New York: Icon Editions,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883293

Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883726

Roth, Leland M., ed. America Builds: Source Docs in American Architecture and Planning. New York: Harper & Row, 1983.
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Florence Babtisitry North Doors

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85689823

Florence aptistery North Doors

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).

In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blaser, Werner, and Stucky, Monica. Drawings of Great Buildings. Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1983.

Curl, James Stevens, Classical Architecture. New York W.W. Norton, 2002.

Fletcher, Sir Banister, Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture. 20th edn., London: RIBA/University of London, 1996.

Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
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Fillipo Brunelleschi Visionary

Words: 1505 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22317834

Fillipo Brunelleschi: Classical Architect and Visionary

Fillipo Brunelleschi might be known as a famous Italian architect, but in reality, the work that he does is so much more comprehensive than that. In reality, Brunelleschi is really more of a visionary than just an architect. "He was the first modern engineer and a problem-solver with unorthodox methods. He solved one of the greatest architectural puzzles and invented his way to success. Only now is he receiving deserved recognition as the greatest architect and engineer of the enaissance" (pbs.org, 2014). Scholars are aware of the indelible impact that he had on the Italian enaissance and how important it was, many seeing him as the father of the Italian enaissance.

Brief Background

A famous architect during his lifetime, Brunelleschi was born in Florence in 1377 and studied goldsmithing with Benincasa Lotti, an experience which taught him the essential skills of mounting, engraving and…… [Read More]

References

Harris, B., & Zucker, S. (2013). Brunelleschi and the Rediscovery of Linear Perspective. Retrieved from khanacademy.org: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/Brunelleschi.html

Kleiner, F. (2009). Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume 2. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Museumvictoria.au. (2013). The Building. Retrieved from museumvictoria.au: http://museumvictoria.com.au/reb/history/the-building/

Pbs.org. (2013). Fillipo Brunnelleschi. Retrieved from pbs.org:  http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/renaissance/brunelleschi.html
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Gothic Cathedrals

Words: 2032 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95706869

gothic cathedrals, with a few examples and comparisons of the cathedrals. Gothic cathedrals are some of the most beautiful and enduring buildings in Europe. They have survived for centuries as testaments to the workmen who created them and the architects who designed them. The ornate buildings are as impressive today as when they first grew on the skyline, and they represent a high point in the culture and society of the Middle Ages.

Gothic Cathedrals

Gothic architecture, perhaps one of the most famous and ornate forms of architecture of any period, began in northern Europe as early as the twelfth century, and spread throughout Europe. It gradually replaced the omanesque Style of architecture, which had grown in popularity throughout Europe beginning at about the millennium year of 1000. omanesque buildings offered many of the same intricate details as the Gothic cathedrals, because building practices had evolved, and better tools, such…… [Read More]

References

Calkins, Robert G. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe: From A.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Kaye, Nicholas. Gothic Cathedrals of France and Their Treasures. London: N. Kaye, 1959.

Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture Its Elements, History, and Meaning. 1st ed. New York: Westview Press, 1993.
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Influences of Gaudi's Works

Words: 3787 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73446654

Gaudi's Works

Antonio Gaudi was born 25th June 1852 and went on to be a known Spanish Catalan architect. Antonio Gaudi was a remarkable architect whose true value only came forward a while after he created the buildings. He has also been known as the Spanish Catalan and the symbol for Catalian Modernism. Just as the people of the city were attempting to make their own mark in science and art, Gaudi's exceptional and unique style came. His work and the buildings he made were criticized by most of the people at first, yet their unique production and architecture added the true beauty of Barcelona. It has also been stated that the works of Gaudi are actually inseparable from Barcelona city. (Sola-Morales 5). The buildings that Gaudi made like Casa Mila, Parque Giell, and Sagrada Familia changed the way architecture was done in Barcelona. The buildings added to the beauty…… [Read More]

References

Chandler, W. (2002). Antonio Gaudi: Telling a Story with Brick and Mortar. School Arts, Iss. 5.

Cline, E. (2011). The Lasting Relationship between Antonio Gaudi and Barcelona, Spain. Senior Honors Theses, 24 Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/honors/24 [Accessed: 2 December 2012].

Descharnes, R., Pre-vost, C., & Pujols, F. (1982). Gaudi?, the visionary. New York: Viking Press.

Duffy, J.H. (2003). Signs and designs: Art and architecture in the work of Michel Butor. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
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History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]