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oman eligion in Antiquity
There are few topics today as hotly debated and as historically violent as religion. In ancient times the shift from polytheism to monotheism in terms of the way in which the world worshiped gave rise to events such as the Inquisition and the Crusades in the name of converting the world to a single religion. In the name of other monotheistic religions, people have imposed upon themselves stoic deprivations of food, drink, comfort, and the like. Great masses have been murdered and tortured in the name of religious ideals or a god. This is the nature of the world in which monotheism requires a type of perpetual and stoic purity that requires adherence to a single god form, precluding all others. The general perception today is that the polytheistic religions, like the one in ome, were vastly different from the three monotheistic world religions in the…… [Read More]
The overall affect the facial configuration gives the gazer is of wise man in repose of thought. But the piece is not beautiful in the conventional sense. It is realistic in its slightly unbalanced facial formulation. The emperor Marcus Aurelius is slightly bearded, with unruly, curly hair. His small and slightly bulbous nose is not the idealized, hawk like profile favored by the elites in their portraiture. His thick, curly hair also stands up from the forehead, making the subject look more ordinary than domineering, as might a more prominent and protruding skull shape. If the gazer did not know the subject's identity, the depicted emperor would seem like an ordinary, rather unattractive man.
Thus, despite the fact he was an emperor, evidently the Stoic Aurelius eschewed idealism in his official stone portrait. He had no need to lionize himself in image -- his face was already on every coin…… [Read More]
The history of the Roman Empire has long been a topic of discussion amongst those who are interested in ancient political and social structures. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the subject of the Roman Empire and the impact of this empire on historic events in the world. More specifically the essay will focus on the development of Roman religious and family values and how they were impacted by the introduction of Greek culture and philosophy into Roman society after 200 C. The research will also explain the factors that lead to the Roman Revolution of 133-31 C. In addition, the causes, conduct and results of the Second Punic War will be investigated. Lastly, the research will focus on the development of the Roman Army from its early days as a citizen militia to the professional armies of the 1st century C.
Greek Influence on Roman…… [Read More]
In a number of letters written by Caesar to Roman writer and historian Cicero, one finds that Caesar admitted "no hope of delivering booty except slaves" from ritannia and confirms "his failure to acquire booty and reports that he is only returning home" to Rome with hostages and the promise of tribute (Arnott, 232). Therefore, Caesar's two excursions into ritannia were miserable economic failures and did not live up to Rome's financial expectations which before the excursions were seen as being a matter of fact.
In essence, Caesar's excursions into ritannia in the early years of the 1st century .C.E. And all subsequent excursions in the early years of the 1st century a.D. were based upon one simple quest -- that ritannia could be heavily exploited by the Roman Empire and thus result in the acquisition of many natural resources which Rome required for its citizens in order to maintain…… [Read More]
Massive and long Roman road leading directly through the center of cities according to Zaker, forms the core of the identity of these outposts, as they then felt connected and a fundamental part of the whole of the empire, as it grew. (p. 29)
In addition to Capitolium, road centralization and city planning new public buildings, often sanctuaries or temples and tomb monuments served to centralize the minds of the people with their substantial visual representation garnering immediate respect for the public entities who developed them and the city itself and an entity. (pp. 29-33) Even the most lowly individuals on the food chain, at least living in the city or even visiting it had an idea in mind of the planned web of building that connected everything and everyone to the center of the city and the empire. "This close linking, or rather intertwining, of sacred and political space…… [Read More]
Also, a son could marry, for Roman law had never recognized monogamous sexual relationships between slaves. Sons could also inherit property, and this possibility of inheritance was another instrument of power used by fathers against their sons. A son who had been emancipated could marry without the consent of his father. The relationship between father and son was known as "patria potestas" or the rights given to a father by virtue of his paternity. "The foundation of the patria potestas was a Roman marriage, and the birth of a child gave it full effect." (Smith, 1875)
Although the Patria Potestas not viewed equivalent to a dominica potestas, or the ownership of the child analogous to the master slave relationship, the father had the power of life and death and liberty over his son as a member of his family, could sell the son and so bring him to a state…… [Read More]
oman Civilization: The Pre-Christian Centuries
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze oman Civilization. Specifically it will discuss the pre-Christian centuries of oman civilization, including personal impressions, supported by cited research. The Pre-Christian centuries built the foundations of ome and oman civilization, and clearly show just how a major civilization develops, grows, and moves on from its roots.
Early oman civilization was complex, extremely modern for its time, and legendary in some of its opulence and excesses. The early omans valued their agrarian roots, their families, and showed the world what a complex civilization could grow to and accomplish. Ancient ome was a marvel of architecture, engineering, government, and society, and the people lived good lives, filled with leisure activities and artistic pursuits. ome and the surrounding areas developed some of the mores and ideas that would lead them into the modern world and that would…… [Read More]
The tribes had finally become a threat for the Roman Empire.
Fights between tribes had passed over the borders with the Romans and large numbers of barbarians were crossing the border. Romans could not resist the waves of immigrants entering the empire, nor could they control them. Tribesmen could not be educated or civilized, and, thus, they brought chaos with them. All that the Roman Emperors could do at the moment had been to break the revolts and arrange a peace treaty with the tribes.
The fall or Rome is considered to be a tragic event and most people relate to a picture of barbarians coming into a civilized environment and destroying all that cultured people had built in thousands of years. The period following the invasion of Rome is referred to as the "Dark Age," with savage people ruling over Europe. One of the reasons for which it has…… [Read More]
The Romans continued their contributions into the political and government sector, as well. The constitutions of various European countries have been influenced by the Romans, and the framers of the United States constitution remarked, when they were working on creating the Presidency, that they were desirous of an 'Augustan Age' (Taagepera, 1979). The legal thinking that most of the modern world has also came from the Roman law, which was full codified in what was called late antiquity (Goldsworthy, 2003). The Romans governed such a vast and impressive territory that they had to have a good way that they could rule over it safely and securely (Taagepera, 1979). They did that through a form of public administration that had never before been seen and they also created a civil service and a formal method of collecting taxes (Starr, 1974). The Romans were busy people and they were very serious about…… [Read More]
Pulished in 1962, Roman Women y J.P.V.D. Baldson chronicles the "history and haits" of women in ancient Rome from the Repulic to the Christian era. Touted on the ook jacket as "the first time that a ook has een pulished in any language" that portrays the individuality and lifestyle of Roman women of all classes, Baldson's work is oth scholarly and seminal. Because history is too often told y and for males, this ook, although penned y a man itself, is nevertheless invaluale in completing the historiography of one of the most important empires in world history. Baldson's ook encompasses the time period from the legendary founding of Rome until Constantine's transformation of Rome into the Holy Roman Empire. This work picks up where other histories leave off: at depicting the common, political, and spiritual lives of the other half of the human race. To complete his study,…… [Read More]
The Greek god which was considered to rule over all the other gods was Zeus. Along with several other gods, he lived on Mount Olympus. Greeks believed that each god was assigned to hold a certain position on one of the three existing places: heaven, earth, and sea. In contrast, Romans believed that their gods were everywhere, executing the tasks that they had to do. The Roman counterpart of Zeus was Jupiter, and, similar to Zeus, he had been superior to all the other gods.
The mother-god of the Greeks was Hera, a ruthless and revenging god that punished anyone that dared to confront or disturb her. Juno is Hera's equivalent in the Roman mythology, and, like Hera, she had been notorious for playing with her inferiors and preventing them from accomplishing their dreams.
Hades, the Greek god of the underworld and of precious metals, was considered to be the…… [Read More]
The newly emerging Persian Empire emerged as a great threat and later before ome fell their attacks on the oman Empire played a very significant role in the downfall of oman Empire. The most alarming part of this battle was that during these encounter many experienced legions of ome were either captured or killed and with they no longer available uncertainty and fear prevailed in the oman Army camps. Slowly and gradually vast areas of oman Empire were lost which resulted in humiliation and demoralized the army and the people living in ome (Burrell 1991).
The things that omans took as their pride and strength like their political system and their well-established army ultimately became their weaknesses. Their army which has posed fear into the hearts of so many for so many years but were no longer that strong and had weakened to alarming extent inviting others to take over…… [Read More]
He notes that the word used is "metamorphoustai," a Greek word, and it contains the word "morphe," whihyc means "essence." The process involves the aforementioned sacrifice of the body, and it also involves a renewal of the mind, meaning that the inner self is changed by the process to become like Christ. This is discussed elsewhere in the scriptures, notably in Philippians chapter four.
John Piper writes that the aim of the passage cited is to make all life become "spiritual worship." The second verse offers Paul's answer to how we can accomplish this, and to do it we must be transformed, changing not just external behavior but how we think, a change effected by the renewal of the mind. Paul says this transformation will come about by testing whazt the individual believes is the will of God, menaing what is good and acceptable and perfect. Piper notes that there…… [Read More]
When Diocletian became the emperor of ome in 284 AD, the oman Empire was beset with enormous military and social problems and was on the verge of collapse. Complete anarchy prevailed in the oman army which was no longer controllable under a single command and it was common practice for a succession of generals to declare themselves as emperor. In the fifty years before Diocletian came to power, a similar number of emperors and pretenders to the throne had come and gone, only one of them dying of natural causes. As a result, civil wars and unrest erupted throughout the empire. oving armies seized whatever goods and food supplies they could find in the countryside and cities while the imperial tax collectors made increasingly harsh demands on the farmers to generate funds for the large armies and a bloated bureaucracy. When the farmers could no longer afford to…… [Read More]
omans and Law
The oman law is considered as the greatest legacy of ancient ome to the Western Civilization, as several existing civil and common laws in most Western countries are based on the laws introduced and developed by the omans.
ome's laws were first codified around 450 BC when a group of ten magistrates wrote ome's laws on 12 wooden tablets that became known as the Twelve Tables. The legal system that evolved around these laws (known as the jus civile) applied equally to all oman citizens and was the source of all public and private laws for a considerable period. As the oman conquests spread far and wide, the need for a different legal system that applied to all subjects was felt. The praetor (magistrate) was given powers to define and interpret the law applicable to non-oman citizens. A new legal system known as jus gentium thus evolved.…… [Read More]
Roman Catholicism is the oldest of the Christian faiths. It is a direct descendent of the institutions put in place by the disciples of Jesus. The first leaders of what later became Catholicism were the twelve apostles. Originally, these men set-up organizations in various towns and cities across the Roman Empire to spread the word of their God, and in so doing, became the first bishops and saints. Roman Catholic bishops, cardinals, and popes of today can still trace their succession back to the apostles.
Christianity itself grew out of the Jewish faith. "Christianity was one form of the faith of the Jews, and not only in its first years. Jesus was a Jew." (Chadwick 10). The God of the Jews also the God of the Christians but the interpretations of the nature of the Lord, and most particularly, the divinity of Christ are where these two religions first split.…… [Read More]
"[footnoteef:5] [5: Peter Stuhlmacher, (1994). Paul's Letter to the omans: A Commentary. Westminster Press, 1994,p. 116.]
Man's Inability to Know Christ Materially
Paul's revelation contained in this chapter of oman's is one of intense discovery and the lack of man's abilities to truly understand the omniscient and ever-present spirit and power that is Jesus Christ. Paul is speaking out of both sides of his mouth and realizes that this confusion and inner trapping with the ideas of law and sin are meant to be as such. In lines 10 and 11 this hypocrisy is detailed: " I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death. For sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, deceived me, and through the commandment put me to death."
The miraculous physical events that manifested within Jesus' short and powerful life perhaps mad Paul and the other apostles look…… [Read More]
Romans 1 -- 8 teaches natural world, human identity, human relationships, culture, civilization. Furthermore, explain teaching topics affects worldview. Make address topics essay.
Romans 1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.
Romans 1:8 makes it possible for readers to gain a more complex understanding of the power of religious ideas. In addition to this, the phrase promotes the belief that St. Paul was greatly concerned about putting across the word of God to people who actually had the ability to understand it and to take it further. Paul does not hesitate to thank God as a result of seeing the gathering of people before him and goes as far as to emphasize the strong connection between him and his congregation by claiming that he is determined to interact with God through Jesus Christ in order…… [Read More]
Perhaps the greatest difficulty the conquered faced, however, was the loss of autonomy -- but even this was not too terrible. The Romans did not set out to crush the conquered, but to unite them; thus, a certain amount of autonomy was still permitted.
The conquerors/generals, of course, differed. Julius Caesar, perhaps the greatest Roman general (and the one who opened the door to a succession of emperors), gave back to the citizens of Rome what he won in conquest. For this he was greatly loved. One of the difficulties of being a general, on the other hand, was knowing when to check your ambition. Caesar crossed the Rubicon and changed the course of history because he preferred to rule rather than take orders. Others like Marius and Sulla caused much bloodshed because their ambition got in the way of their better sense.
As for Emperors, they had perhaps the…… [Read More]
Romans 12: 19-21 says, "... Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord...if thine enemy hunger, feed him, if he thirst, give him drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good" (Romans 12: 19-21).
The verse literally means that man should not repay evil with evil, that man should not live by 'an eye for an eye' ideal. One should offer love and peace to those who do harm. It serves no one to seek vengeance, for only God can issue a just vengeance. Therefore, by kindly acts, evil is overcome.
The meaning of this verse is similar to the adage, "two wrongs don't make a right." It is also echoing the commandment, "thou shalt not kill." (Exodus 20: 13). The Romans' passage clearly states that man must not seek vengeance himself but…… [Read More]
omans 3: is part of a letter by St. Paul to the oman Christians attempting to explain to them why the Mosaic Law of Judaism was not the means to salvation. (Campbell 2101) Paul first discussed the origin and the nature of sin through an examination of some Old Testament texts, he then discussed the nature of God's forgiveness and how simply obeying the Mosaic Law was an attempt at saving oneself through acts, instead of through faith. Paul went on to discuss how in the act of being crucified, Jesus changed the relationship between God and humans; Jesus' sacrifice washed away original sin. But Paul was careful to remind people that only those who accepted Jesus, maintained faith in Christ, would be cleansed of sin. Finally Paul concluded by asserting obeying the Mosaic Law was akin to self boasting and his "Law of Faith" was the deciding factor in…… [Read More]
Epistle to the Romans
Paul's Epistle to the Romans is one of the most extensive statements of theology in the entire ible, because in it he attempts to outline and describe the entire process by which mankind is initially condemned for its sinful nature, and thus doomed for a final judgment according to the actions taken in life, but is offered the chance for redemption through faith in Jesus Christ. Paul simultaneously confronts some of the most pressing theological issues at the time of the epistle's writing, such as the relationship between God and Israel as well as the redemption of Gentiles, but he also provides more general insights into how the beliefs expressed in Romans should influence and inform the everyday life of a Christian.
y examining the process of condemnation, justification, sanctification, and preservation described in Paul's Epistle to the Romans, one can begin to appreciate the enormity…… [Read More]
Historical Purpose of Romans 11
Exegesis of Romans 11
Israel Not rejected
A Remnant is Left
Warning to the Gentiles
The Eventual lessing of Israel
The Epistle to the Romans: Chapter 11
It seems that there is more writing about Romans than there is any other book outside of the actual Gospels themselves. The reason for this can be explained in the fact that most regard Romans as a fifth inspired Gospel tract. Even though there are other versions of gospels that were supposedly written by the apostles (Thomas, James, and others), they were not authenticated or endorsed by God as worthy of inclusion into the final tome. Some even believe that some of the later writings of people who knew Jesus, but were not considered apostles deserved to be accepted as books of the New Testament. ut, ultimately, it was not up to any person what books were…… [Read More]
Christian Worldview in Romans
Paul's Epistle to the Romans is perhaps the most extensive discussion of Christian doctrine in the New Testament. This fact is probably due to the circumstances of Paul's composition of the letter: written at a time of tension between Jews and Gentiles in the church at Rome, the letter addresses specifically the doctrine of salvation and its availability to all. Additionally, John Murray notes that Paul "had not founded nor had he yet visited the church at Rome." [footnoteRef:0] As a result, the letter provides a more painstaking approach to laying out doctrinal concepts that matches Paul's establishment of his own good faith in the letter's opening, while its ultimate purpose is to express Gospel truth with a specific focus (as noted) on salvation. [0: John Murray. The Epistle to the Romans. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997. p.1.]
Paul's view of Creation in the epistle is familiar…… [Read More]
They operated in a unit called a comitatus. This meant that they were a war band, which was attached to their leaders by personal loyalty. This system now became apparent with the native oman troops, largely due to the system that allowed for distinguished officers to train their own soldiers (during the course of imperial service)."
This is illustrating how non-omans influenced the army. In the case of the Germanic tribes, they reorganized what tools and tactics were embraced by military units. This was supposed to address the immediate threats they were facing. Yet, as time went by these individuals began to become more important strategically. When this occurred, they could use these ideas to overthrow the government in the West (leading to the downfall of the oman Empire).
While many of the troops for Asia Minor, were more loyal and used their tactics to create hybrid units (between themselves…… [Read More]
The two religions still exist, and they still cause tensions between each other, and between the other religions of the world. The omans understood Judaism, but they did not understand Christianity until it was too late for their Empire.
In conclusion, the omans had lived with Jews far longer than they had lived with Christians in their domain. However well they understood the Jews, they still did not accept them or their religious beliefs, and they were not above using Judaism against Christianity in an attempt to keep their own pagan beliefs intact. They may have thought they understood the Jews and their "different" beliefs, but in reality, they simply used them as another excuse to fight change and new beliefs. Christianity was sweeping the world, and the omans did not want to accept it, so they would do just about anything to discredit it, even pit religion against religion…… [Read More]
e. from egg to apples. The first course consisted of an appetizer made of eggs, fish, shellfish, and raw vegetables which was referred to as 'gustatio' or 'promulsis.' The main course was called 'prima mensa' and was made up of cooked vegetables and different types of meat depending on the social status of the family in question. The final course was called 'secunda mensa' and represented a dessert consisting of fruit, or sweet pastries (Davis 1961, 115). Good eating and drinking was very important to ancient Rome. Huge fortunes were ruined because their possessors wanted to surpass their rivals as far as the extravagant culinary refinements they could find. Although the staples of early Roman diet were meat - in the case of the rich - wild fruits and nuts, as well as grapes, grain and olives (the main products of early Roman agriculture) thanks to geographical expansion and the…… [Read More]
If it has not been deemed and declared wrong, it would not be wrong therefore could not be called a sin.
The purpose of verse seven is to illuminate the fact that the law simply exposes the sins committed by man.
The chapter explores exactly how the laws and commandments of the Lord provide sin to be exposed. " But sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, wrought in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law sin lies dead (omans, 7:8). I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died (omans, 7:9).
This passage provides strength for the argument that until man has an understanding of God and the commandments, man is not breaking them however once the commandments have been outlined and spoken they are law and sin becomes alive dwelling within man.
The battle is founded in the…… [Read More]
Paul's Use Of The Old Testament In The Book Of Romans
Paul's main intention in writing the letter to the Romans was to emphasize that it was essential for society to comprehend that Jesus was the promised Jewish Messiah. He considered that the Old Testament predicted the Messiah's coming and that he needed to relate to this document in order to provide more information concerning the importance of Jewish traditions. Much of the Book of Romans is concentrated on the connection between the Old Testament and the New Testament. Even with the fact that he wanted to highlight the role Jews played in the general scheme of things, he did not want to paint a distorted people of the Jewish community and he practically considered it to be similar to any other community.
The Book of Romans in general
The Book of Romans is filled with accounts that are especially…… [Read More]
As such, we can never use our bodies for sinful purposes because doing so would equal death. "Serving sin produces death," whereas serving God produces the fruit of holiness, and in the end, eternal life," (Copeland 2009). As Paul puts it in the book of omans, "But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness, and the result is eternal life. For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord," (omans 6:22-3).
Putting this new way of life into practice is not easy, because the temptations of the flesh are everywhere around us. We live in a consumer society, driven by constant acquiring of material goods and the satisfaction of worldly pleasures. To withstand such social pressures requires absolute faith and trust in God. The…… [Read More]
An army's best use is not in battle against waves of invaders, but as a deterrent against invasion by its value to strike fear into the heart of a potential enemy. With its ranks swollen by Christians, the army is larger than ever and gives foreign princes and peoples the strongest disincentive to attack Rome or what shelters beneath the Roman eagle's wings. Thus, even though Christians can be counted upon to fight shoulder to shoulder with pagan soldiers, even if they would not fight the very fact that they march in the legions lessens the chance of their ever actually needing to.
If there remains any doubt that a Christian would serve with honor in the army, let my most honorable emperor hear the words of Christ himself who said that no man has greater love than he who lays down his life for his friends. Since the measure…… [Read More]
"Our sin separates us from God who is perfect holiness (righteousness and justice) and God must therefore judge sinful man," (Keathley n.d.). It is absolutely impossible for a human being to work his or her way to God. All human acts are born of sin, whereas all acts of grace are born of righteousness.
The sacrifice of Jesus on the Cross was the ultimate sign of grace, as God sent his only Son to die so that we may also die to our sin. The process by which a person becomes reborn in Christ is expressed as follows. First we come to God "as a sinner who recognizes his sinfulness," (Keathley n.d.). We become willing to leave beside our old life and die to it. Following that we rely "totally on Christ alone by faith alone for our salvation," (Keathley n.d.). Once we receive Christ, we receive the Grace of…… [Read More]
Justification by Faith in Romans
Paul's Epistle to the Romans is not the only treatment of the concept of justification in the New Testament -- Paul discusses the concept in other letters as well -- but it is perhaps the most extensive. That is because the concept of justification by faith is central to Paul's overall argument in the Epistle to the Romans, and is thus introduced early in the letter, and discussed throughout the text. But for the more crucial question of justification by faith, larger doctrinal questions hinge upon one single verse of Romans, 3:28. In the New International Version, this reads "For we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the law" (Rom 3:28). hat would a full exegesis of this single verse entail? I hope by demonstrating the context of Paul's statement here within the larger argument of the Epistle…… [Read More]
Paul's message in the second half of Chapter 5 seeks to portray to the church in Rome the nature of man's redemption and the sins that lead to the need for such a redemption. It seeks to answer the basic question of how Jesus has changed man's relationship with God, and how man's accountability regarding the nature of sin has changed. Paul describes redemption as a free gift and portrays sin in the context of Jewish law. Paul's answer, based on his experiences, is that God has introduced a new order of existence. He has created a new creation, a new mankind. Paul wishes to tell the Romans that they once belonged to the old humanity, which God created in Adam that was fallen in nature due to its own disobedience to the law of its Creator. Man's nature had become a defaced and distorted thing with Adam's sin. God,…… [Read More]
This allowed the landowner to have more land worked by more people for less since it was not his responsibility to provide for these people as he would have to in order to maintain a slave, now would they have to invest in the initial purchase of such laborers as he would a slave. Once this trend started many farmers preferred not to invest into slavery because they saw it as a declining market. Naturally the slaves themselves were considered eligible for liquidation of assets, so if a farmer were to invest a large sum to purchase a slave and yet not have the potential to sell this same slave for a higher price (because of the skills and training they had received while working in their household) at a later date then this would logically be seen as a bad investment. Eventually the laws of supply and demand took…… [Read More]
The people under the rule of the Roman constitution were not themselves certain if they were living in an aristocracy, a despot, or a democracy. The rules of the legislature would indicate that the people were in control of the government, however only those with money or familial power were able to take part in that government. Polybius illustrates that the Consul and Senate which are responsible for administration and were in charge of the state's coffers. However, at the same time, he tries to underscore the importance of the average person in Rome. He shows several ways in which the people have power, such as in honoring heroic acts and punishing evil ones. He also claims that the people are responsible for war and peace because the other branches would need the consent of the people in order to act. In his writing, Polybius seems adamant that…… [Read More]
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]
The rule of law is essential to commerce, and commerce is essential to wealth. To longer shall local chieftains and would-be kings rule over the Empire - they are all subject to me, no different from anybody else.
A call upon the soldiers. Military might is the key to our success, in establishing rule of law and expanding our borders. Your support is required for this endeavor and for it you will be rewarded handsomely. I call upon the administrators. You are the ones who will do my work, and ensure that our country is filled with peace and prosperity. I call upon the merchants and the traders. My reforms will give you the opportunity to become wealthy beyond belief. Support me, go forth and trade. Bring us the goods of the orient.
My subjects, all I ask of you is for your help. I need your support. Be peaceful,…… [Read More]
2. What were the military, social, and economic events that led to the Gracchan land reforms (discuss one event each of military, social, and economic)? How did the Gracchi attempt to resolve these problems (discuss three)? How effective were they?
When Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune, the social structures that had nourished the Republic as it developed from an independent city-state were already breaking down. The consolidation of public land under the emerging latifundia system had turned roughly 7% of the population (Last, 1932a, p. 9) into indigents as displaced peasant farmers flooded Rome and other cities, only to find demand for their labor limited at best. Meanwhile, the army was starving for recruits as the traditional citizen military class proved too small to police the vast Roman frontier and quell slave revolts closer to home. Finally, relations with the Italian and even the Latin allies had become increasingly strained.…… [Read More]
After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.
Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.
It…… [Read More]
Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.
Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…… [Read More]
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…… [Read More]
And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.
Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.
Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…… [Read More]
Roman view of Christianity
Early Christianity did not develop in isolation, but within a complex landscape already occupied by belief systems, social networks, systems of identity, and political institutions, and it is essential not to regard it 'as somehow independent, as if the church were an entity existing apart from Christians living in particular times and places. Such a treatment neglects how the history of Christianity was influenced and shaped by its cultural environment.'
Foremost among the factors making up that environment was the Roman Empire, itself an amalgam of peoples, creeds and societies. The relationship between Christianity and pagan Rome was a complex and evolving one. This paper will examine Roman hostility to Christianity during this period, and aspects of Roman criticism of Christian belief.
In the earliest period of the Christian church's existence within the Roman Empire, Christians were commonly referred to as troublemakers, offending against Roman order…… [Read More]
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…… [Read More]
That is the beauty of the successful and rising platform established through successful investments; it all becomes quite circular. Then, by reinvesting and refinancing earnings, everything becomes stronger. Just as easily, however, this corporation could have been buried.
1. What is a franchising arrangement? And how is this reflective of business expansion? Moreover, how does this support business growth? From HighBeam Business, these key-terms set the stage from here on out:
MLA: Pondent, Corr S. "About eacquired Franchise ights" (29 December 2010). Highbeam Business: Money. eHow. Demand Media, Inc. Web. 18 March 2011.
About eacquired Franchise ights
A franchising arrangement is a way to expand a company's business without investing a lot of additional money. The franchisee gets the use of an existing business model, or franchise rights, as well as business support, and pays the franchisor a franchise fee in return.
The franchisor could decide to buyback…… [Read More]
The public library in the baths of Caracalla was no exception to this (DeLaine, 1997).
Inside the bathing area itself, there were several components (DeLaine, 1997). One of these was a 183X79-foot cold room located under three 108-foot high groin vaults. There was also a double pool which was tepid, and a 115-foot diameter hot room (DeLaine, 1997). There were also two separate gyms where people could box and wrestle with one another. There was also a standard swimming pool in the north end of the complex. It was a roofless structure and had mirrors made of bronze mounted over it (DeLaine, 1997). This helped to direct sunlight into the area surrounding the pool for both beauty and warmth. The whole building was on a platform that was raised up twenty feet off of the ground. This was done in order to allow for the furnaces underneath the building and…… [Read More]
Persecution of the Early Church (pick a specific outbreak caused by a Roman emperor, the reasons for the outbreak, and the results).
The article that was written by De Ste. Croix (1963) is talking about how Christians were persecuted after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64 AD. At the time, Nero believed that they were responsible for these events in order to challenge the Emperor Nero's leadership. He was paranoid and felt that Christians were a threat to his rule. As he believed, that they intentionally started the fire to draw attention to his incompetence and encourage others to embrace their faith. This meant abandoning state sponsored religions and engaging in acts of disobedience. While at the same time, they wanted to challenge many of the large public works projects and the polices of the government. However, De Ste. Croix thinks that Nero did not use the fire…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]
The ordeal could have been avoided if Rosemary would have taken more responsibility for her own health and started to act upon her inner doubts. Individual inner doubts and other impulses are also very occult in nature as they seem to appear out of nowhere in many instances. This type of hidden information is very valuable for individuals to notice and eventually master in their own practices of living life. The world is subjective in nature and if one is willing to forfeit this gift, there are others, much like Roman and Millie, who have no problem taking you and your self-hood for their own personal purposes.
The occult means hidden, not scary or creepy. Occult knowledge is creepy and scary if we are not prepared to handle the unknown. Masters of occult knowledge will certainly try to confuse others to prevent them from attaining the knowledge contained in the…… [Read More]
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]
Claude Mulvihill could also be a major subplot character. His confrontation with Gittes leads to Gittes getting his nose slashed.
Ida Sessions, the woman who was hired to play Evelyn in the beginning of the film, would be considered a supporting character in Chinatown. She does not play a major role in the narrative, but she is there at key moments (it is her clues, for example, that allow Gittes to pursue the water scandal.) Walsh and Duffy, Gittes's partners, are also "helping characters" in this respect.
With a film as complex in its plot as Chinatown, it certainly helps to reconstruct events chronologically when evaluating the plot of the movie.
As Chinatown is essentially a detective movie, there are numerous clues dropped throughout the movie that the viewer is expected to pick up on and draw inferences out of. One example is the fact that Gittes, who…… [Read More]
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…… [Read More]
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]
wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.
The Roman Villa
Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…… [Read More]
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
IV. RULE…… [Read More]
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]
Diocletion attempted to stabilize the Roman Empire by splitting it into two (and later four) regions with four rulers -- also known as the Tetrarchy, with each ruler picking a successor (Mathisen). Since the time of Caesar, it had essentially become too big to be governed by one ruler. Thus, Diocletian's re-ordering of the empire was a way to make governance more practical and possible (Khan Academy). He himself took over governance of the Eastern half with its base in Constantinople while appointing a co-ruler for the Western half. Later to keep out the Visigoths, Diocletian also appointed two more rulers to help keep the barbarians from invading. In doing so, Diocletian began the practice of subdividing provinces into dioceses -- and creating a hierarchy of governance from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic Church adopted its diocesan rule from.…… [Read More]
Fall of the Roman Empire
Towards the 5th century, the Roman Empire scrambled to ruins as one of the greatest world super powers. Since then, the reasons for the fall of the empire remain a controversial topic prompting the rise of various popular explanations for its decline. Historians have blamed the collapse of this great empire on differing factors such as social complexity, natural disasters, climate change and military failures just to mention a few. Even as of now, other historians still contend that the Roman Empire did not actually fail because part of it later continued to exist but in the form of Byzantine Empire. In this essay, I present the strongest historical theory used to explain the collapse of this most legendary Empire.
Joseph Tainter (1990) pioneered the explanation and theorization of the Roman Empire collapse (Tainter 11). This American anthropologist holds that given technological levels yield implicit…… [Read More]