Roman Essays (Examples)

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Religions of Rome

Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32311497

Roman Religions

(Chicago Citation)

Chapter six is a detailed examination of the iconography of the Roman god Sol, particularly the depiction of the rays, or radiant energy associated with the sun god. Many historians automatically assume that any artwork that contains a depiction of symbolic light must be associated with Sol, but the author, Steven Hijman, explained how the only acceptable forms of symbolic light that are associated with Sol are rays, radiate nimbi, and radiate crowns without lemnisci. ut while depictions of Sol will have one of these forms of symbolic light, they were not used exclusive in relation to Sol. And this is the central theme of the chapter, whether or not "rays alone always constituted a 'solar quote' in Roman Imperial art."[footnoteRef:1] To demonstrate how solar allusions are not always necessary when depicting an image of Sol, there were three examples of Roman Imperial artwork presented to…… [Read More]


Hijmans, Steven, (2009). "Sol: The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome." PhD diss., University of Groningen.
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Form Part of a Book

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89480479

Roman Law Concerning the Jews

Time Period: Circa early 300s AD

Location: Roman Empire, Mediterranean Era, Realm of Constantine

Constantine was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. As a reformer, he enacted a number of laws to restructure the empire and solidify power. He was the first Christian Emperor and moved his residence to Byzantium/Constantinople. His Edict of Milan degreed religious tolerance throughout the Roman Empire, but also a number of laws and rules that specifically affected Jews during the time. cholars now think that the idea of religious tolerance was primarily pointed at tolerance of Christianity by Romans.

The Jews and Rome: Constantine's Christianity resulted in his being the first Roman Empire to severely limit the rights of the Jews in the Empire. As Christianity grew in power in the Empire, more and more civil authorities tried to reduce Jewish privilege. Many scholars believe that the important significance…… [Read More]

Sources Used and Consulted:

Cohen, S. (2009). Legitimization Under Constantine. Frontline. Retrieved from: 

Hallo, W., et al. (1984). Civilization and the Jews: Source Reader. Westport, CT:

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The Cannonization of Early Christian Church

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59008431

oman eligions

Christianity has obviously made its make on mankind. However, the early Christians, coming from different religions, cults, and worldviews before the emperor Constantine converted the empire, would have experienced this transitions at varying levels from revolutionary to marginally different. This analysis proposes that a member of the oman society such as the Vestal Virgins saw a dramatic and revolutionary change in their daily lives. However, by contrast, not all members would have perceived the transformation as dramatically. For example, a devotee of the cult of the sun might have found rituals such as Christmas entirely familiar and consistent with previously held beliefs. This analysis proposes that although the introduction of Christianity was a dramatic change for the whole of oman, the differences were not felt by all demographics equally.


Of all the different groups that would have taken a welcoming to the conversion to Christianity in the…… [Read More]


Kahlos, M. (2012). Pagan-Christian Debates Over the Interpretation of Texts in Late Antiquity. The Classical World, 525-545.

Nothaft, C. (2012). The Origins of the Christmas Date: Some Recent Trends in Historical Research. Church History, 903-911.

Parker, H. (2004). Why Were the Vestals Virgins? Or the Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State. American Journal of Philology, 563-601.

Pedroni, L. (2011). The Sun without Rays and the Eclipse of 272. Journal of Late Antiquity, 116-123.
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Comparison of Rome and Athens

Words: 1861 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54289158

Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…… [Read More]


Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.

This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.

Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
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Rise and Fall of the

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81953602

Some of the issues that made Liu a favorite of many were the fact that he lowered taxes, he reduced the demand for labor from the state and the origin being from the peasants.

Liu appointed rich land owners as governors because of the distrust he had against merchants, he as well appointed officials that were loyal to him ensuring that he controlled all the powers within the dynasty. Liu died in 195 B.C and left a stable Han dynasty. Though there were power struggles within the dynasty after the death of Liu, they were resolved by capable leadership. The rule of Jingdi, Wendi and Wudi were predominantly peaceful, prosperous for peasants, expansion of China, art and trade thrived as well under Confucianism. The expansion saw northern Vietnam, Korean peninsula come under the Han dynasty. Trade routes to Asia were open including the famous Silk oad.

However, the wars of…… [Read More]


Cultural China, (2012). The Collapse of the Han Dynasty. 

Rit Nosotro, (2010). The Decline of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire.

Socyberty, (2009). The Fall of the Roman and Han Empires.
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Ancient Art Flora Goddess Mother

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44473440

According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.

Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)

Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon. Originally created 1999. Last updated 2005. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. 

Flora and Pomona." Ancient Roman Mythology. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. 

Ovid. Fasti. Translated by a.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000.

Pliny. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1938.
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Biblical Worldview

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55930355


Paul's epistle to the omans offers a thorough framework for what would become the Christian worldview. In omans, Paul outlines core themes related to the natural world, human identity, human relationships, and culture. The way Paul delivers the message that became the heart of Christian doctrine was to present not a systematic theology, but a reasoned outline of why the teachings of Christ offered something new and potentially meaningful.

One of the themes in omans, and particularly in the first several chapters, is Paul's view of the natural world. In omans, Paul spends a good deal of time on the nature of creation and the human relation to it. As of omans 1:3, at the start of the letter, Paul is already referring to Jesus's "earthly life," thus focusing on the physicality of Christ and linking Jesus to the natural world. Paul understands that much of his audience will…… [Read More]


Bible: NIV

Ellis, J. (2012). The Christian worldview and Romans. The Power of Grace. Retrieved online:

Frank, B. (2013). Christian worldview. Retrieved online:

West, C. (2013). Biblical worldview essay. Retrieved online:
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Satyricon Litterae Thesaurum Est the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14510414


As a result of their religious beliefs, even though not routinely practiced, the Romans, by contemporary standards, were highly superstitious. ri-malchio routinely took extreme precautions to attempt to ward away bad luck. On the other hand, Encolpius appears less superstitious, in fact, sarcastic in regard to the posting of a slave to ensure no one trips over the dining room threshold (sec. 30) (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). Animal sacrifice, another religious practice in/or Roman religion, reportedly helped secure divine favor in exchange of a gift. he animal sacrifice was generally an inedible piece of the animal. Sometimes the religious person would withhold his gift until he was assured he had his gift or that it was on the way. Encolpius, for example, does not automatically make a sacrifice, but names animals he will sacrifice to Priapus "once he gets his virility back (sec. 133)" (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). When…… [Read More]

The traditional Roman religion did not provide an-swers to life questions for the ancients, while the philosophical religions, reportedly did provide some answers. During Petronius' time, Stoicism and Epicureanism rivaled each other for the hearts and minds of men. Sto-icism would win. Stoicism, founded in Athens about 300 B.C.E. By Zeno of Citium, constituted the practice of being enduring, Those who were stoic mastered suffering, as well as their emotions for what they perceived as higher cause.

This practical prescription of the ancient belief system included the following logic: "To be virtuous is to live according to the will of God (a monotheistic lan-guage was used), which is manifested in nature. If one observes nature, it is plain that God decrees constant change" (Ruden, 2000, p. 185). The Romans perceived that to harmonize with na-ture, one became compliant with change, yet did not seek positive change. This religious practice, in turn fostered numbness; permitting a myriad of things to be sought, including "health, material well-being, human relationships, honor) and avoided (illness, poverty, loneliness, shame) but purists insisted that the only really important attainment was controlling one's attachments (Ibid, p. 186).

Controlling ones attachments contributed to the "perfect" Stoic. Their detachment reportedly mimicked the detachment some perceived God to possess. In the afterlife, they claimed one who had become the perfect Stoic sage could achieve unity with God. Suicide to stoics served as a religious act, in which the person signified the human will's ultimate transcendence over circumstance. In general, due to various be-liefs about the person's soul and the value placed on honor, Ro-mans were somewhat tolerant of suicide. They considered it a great evil to defend themselves. In doing
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Who Are the Early British People

Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35168663


The Celts

Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.

However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…… [Read More]


"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."

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