1000+ documents containing “roman”.
oman eligion in Antiquity
There are few topics today as hotly debated and as historically violent as religion. In ancient times the shift from polytheism to monotheism in terms of the way in which the world worshiped gave rise to events such as the Inquisition and the Crusades in the name of converting the world to a single religion. In the name of other monotheistic religions, people have imposed upon themselves stoic deprivations of food, drink, comfort, and the like. Great masses have been murdered and tortured in the name of religious ideals or a god. This is the nature of the world in which monotheism requires a type of perpetual and stoic purity that requires adherence to a single god form, precluding all others. The general perception today is that the polytheistic religions, like the one in ome, were vastly different from the three monotheistic world religions in the world….
Asman, J. 2007. Monotheism and Polytheism. Ancient Religions edited by Sarah Iles Johnson. Retrieved from: http://www.evolbiol.ru/large_files/ancient.pdf#page=146
Beard, M. North, J. And Prince, S. 1998. Religions of Rome, Vol.1
Beard, M. North, J. And Prince, S. 1998. Religions of Rome, Vol.2.
Hijmans, S. 2009. Sol: the Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome. Retrieved from: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/faculties/arts/2009/s.e.hijmans/vol1/
The overall affect the facial configuration gives the gazer is of wise man in repose of thought. But the piece is not beautiful in the conventional sense. It is realistic in its slightly unbalanced facial formulation. The emperor Marcus Aurelius is slightly bearded, with unruly, curly hair. His small and slightly bulbous nose is not the idealized, hawk like profile favored by the elites in their portraiture. His thick, curly hair also stands up from the forehead, making the subject look more ordinary than domineering, as might a more prominent and protruding skull shape. If the gazer did not know the subject's identity, the depicted emperor would seem like an ordinary, rather unattractive man.
Thus, despite the fact he was an emperor, evidently the Stoic Aurelius eschewed idealism in his official stone portrait. He had no need to lionize himself in image -- his face was already on every coin….
D'Ambra, Eve. Roman Art. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998. "Marcus Aurelius." Rome, Italy. Anonymous sculptor. a.D. 144-145. http://www.artic.edu/aic/exhibitions/aurelius.html
Portrait Bust of a Woman." Rome, Italy, Anonymous sculptor. a.D. 138-192. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/ancient/classicalsociety.html
The history of the Roman Empire has long been a topic of discussion amongst those who are interested in ancient political and social structures. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the subject of the Roman Empire and the impact of this empire on historic events in the world. More specifically the essay will focus on the development of Roman religious and family values and how they were impacted by the introduction of Greek culture and philosophy into Roman society after 200 C. The research will also explain the factors that lead to the Roman Revolution of 133-31 C. In addition, the causes, conduct and results of the Second Punic War will be investigated. Lastly, the research will focus on the development of the Roman Army from its early days as a citizen militia to the professional armies of the 1st century C.
Greek Influence on Roman Religious and….
Atchity, K ed. 1998. Classical Roman Reader: New Encounters with Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press: New York, NY
Goldsworthy, A. 2002. Roman Warfare. Sterling Publishing
Le Glay, M., Voisin J.L. & Le Bohec 2005. A History of Rome. 3rd Edition. Blackwell: Malden, MA
Massive and long Roman road leading directly through the center of cities according to Zaker, forms the core of the identity of these outposts, as they then felt connected and a fundamental part of the whole of the empire, as it grew. (p. 29)
In addition to Capitolium, road centralization and city planning new public buildings, often sanctuaries or temples and tomb monuments served to centralize the minds of the people with their substantial visual representation garnering immediate respect for the public entities who developed them and the city itself and an entity. (pp. 29-33) Even the most lowly individuals on the food chain, at least living in the city or even visiting it had an idea in mind of the planned web of building that connected everything and everyone to the center of the city and the empire. "This close linking, or rather intertwining, of sacred and political space….
Laurence, R. (2007) (2nd ed). Roman Pompeii: Space and Society. New York: Routledge, 20-38.
Perkins, P & Nevett, L. (2000). Urbanism and Urbanization in the Roman World: Huskinson, J. (ed) Experiencing Rome, Huskinson, J. Ed. New York: Routledge, 213-244.
Woolf, G. (2003) Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilizations in Gaul. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.
Zanker, P. (2000). The City as Symbol. in: Fentress, E & Alcock (eds). Romanization and the City. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series #38, 25-41
In a number of letters written by Caesar to Roman writer and historian Cicero, one finds that Caesar admitted "no hope of delivering booty except slaves" from ritannia and confirms "his failure to acquire booty and reports that he is only returning home" to Rome with hostages and the promise of tribute (Arnott, 232). Therefore, Caesar's two excursions into ritannia were miserable economic failures and did not live up to Rome's financial expectations which before the excursions were seen as being a matter of fact.
In essence, Caesar's excursions into ritannia in the early years of the 1st century .C.E. And all subsequent excursions in the early years of the 1st century a.D. were based upon one simple quest -- that ritannia could be heavily exploited by the Roman Empire and thus result in the acquisition of many natural resources which Rome required for its citizens in order to maintain their….
Arnott, Peter. The Romans and Their World. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970.
Frere, Steven S. Britannia: A History of Roman Britain. London: Constable Press,
History of Roman Britain." History World. 2008. Internet. Accessed October 11, 2008 at http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac71 .
Potter, T.W. Roman Britain. London: The British Museum, 1997.
Also, a son could marry, for Roman law had never recognized monogamous sexual relationships between slaves. Sons could also inherit property, and this possibility of inheritance was another instrument of power used by fathers against their sons. A son who had been emancipated could marry without the consent of his father. The relationship between father and son was known as "patria potestas" or the rights given to a father by virtue of his paternity. "The foundation of the patria potestas was a Roman marriage, and the birth of a child gave it full effect." (Smith, 1875)
Although the Patria Potestas not viewed equivalent to a dominica potestas, or the ownership of the child analogous to the master slave relationship, the father had the power of life and death and liberty over his son as a member of his family, could sell the son and so bring him to a state….
oman Civilization: The Pre-Christian Centuries
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze oman Civilization. Specifically it will discuss the pre-Christian centuries of oman civilization, including personal impressions, supported by cited research. The Pre-Christian centuries built the foundations of ome and oman civilization, and clearly show just how a major civilization develops, grows, and moves on from its roots.
Early oman civilization was complex, extremely modern for its time, and legendary in some of its opulence and excesses. The early omans valued their agrarian roots, their families, and showed the world what a complex civilization could grow to and accomplish. Ancient ome was a marvel of architecture, engineering, government, and society, and the people lived good lives, filled with leisure activities and artistic pursuits. ome and the surrounding areas developed some of the mores and ideas that would lead them into the modern world and that would influence many….
Chapot, Victor. The Roman World. Cheshire, CT: Biblo-Tannen, n.d.
Jenkyns, Richard, ed. The Legacy of Rome: A New Appraisal. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Matthews, Roy T. And Platt, Dewitt. The Western Humanities Volume I: Beginnings Through the Renaissance. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2004.
The tribes had finally become a threat for the Roman Empire.
Fights between tribes had passed over the borders with the Romans and large numbers of barbarians were crossing the border. Romans could not resist the waves of immigrants entering the empire, nor could they control them. Tribesmen could not be educated or civilized, and, thus, they brought chaos with them. All that the Roman Emperors could do at the moment had been to break the revolts and arrange a peace treaty with the tribes.
The fall or Rome is considered to be a tragic event and most people relate to a picture of barbarians coming into a civilized environment and destroying all that cultured people had built in thousands of years. The period following the invasion of Rome is referred to as the "Dark Age," with savage people ruling over Europe. One of the reasons for which it has that….
Pulished in 1962, Roman Women y J.P.V.D. Baldson chronicles the "history and haits" of women in ancient Rome from the Repulic to the Christian era. Touted on the ook jacket as "the first time that a ook has een pulished in any language" that portrays the individuality and lifestyle of Roman women of all classes, Baldson's work is oth scholarly and seminal. Because history is too often told y and for males, this ook, although penned y a man itself, is nevertheless invaluale in completing the historiography of one of the most important empires in world history. Baldson's ook encompasses the time period from the legendary founding of Rome until Constantine's transformation of Rome into the Holy Roman Empire. This work picks up where other histories leave off: at depicting the common, political, and spiritual lives of the other half of the human race. To complete his study, Baldson….
bibliography consists mainly of secondary, albeit respectable sources from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fortunately, this does not weaken Baldson's work, given the difficulty in presenting a comprehensive study on Roman women. Roman Women is a seminal work that is indispensable to any scholar willing to examine the other half of human history.
The Greek god which was considered to rule over all the other gods was Zeus. Along with several other gods, he lived on Mount Olympus. Greeks believed that each god was assigned to hold a certain position on one of the three existing places: heaven, earth, and sea. In contrast, Romans believed that their gods were everywhere, executing the tasks that they had to do. The Roman counterpart of Zeus was Jupiter, and, similar to Zeus, he had been superior to all the other gods.
The mother-god of the Greeks was Hera, a ruthless and revenging god that punished anyone that dared to confront or disturb her. Juno is Hera's equivalent in the Roman mythology, and, like Hera, she had been notorious for playing with her inferiors and preventing them from accomplishing their dreams.
Hades, the Greek god of the underworld and of precious metals, was considered to be the guardian of….
The Romans continued their contributions into the political and government sector, as well. The constitutions of various European countries have been influenced by the Romans, and the framers of the United States constitution remarked, when they were working on creating the Presidency, that they were desirous of an 'Augustan Age' (Taagepera, 1979). The legal thinking that most of the modern world has also came from the Roman law, which was full codified in what was called late antiquity (Goldsworthy, 2003). The Romans governed such a vast and impressive territory that they had to have a good way that they could rule over it safely and securely (Taagepera, 1979). They did that through a form of public administration that had never before been seen and they also created a civil service and a formal method of collecting taxes (Starr, 1974). The Romans were busy people and they were very serious about….
Asimov, Isaac. (1989). Asimov's chronology of the world. Harper Collins.
Durand, John D. (1977). Historical estimates of world population: An evaluation.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. (2003). The complete Roman army. Chapter 3. The life of a Roman soldier.
Starr, Chester G. (1974). A history of the ancient world, second edition. Oxford University Press.
The newly emerging Persian Empire emerged as a great threat and later before ome fell their attacks on the oman Empire played a very significant role in the downfall of oman Empire. The most alarming part of this battle was that during these encounter many experienced legions of ome were either captured or killed and with they no longer available uncertainty and fear prevailed in the oman Army camps. Slowly and gradually vast areas of oman Empire were lost which resulted in humiliation and demoralized the army and the people living in ome (Burrell 1991).
The things that omans took as their pride and strength like their political system and their well-established army ultimately became their weaknesses. Their army which has posed fear into the hearts of so many for so many years but were no longer that strong and had weakened to alarming extent inviting others to take over….
Burrell, Roy. The Romans. Oxford [England]; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Christ, Karl. The Romans: An Introduction to Their History and Civilization. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
Giardina, Andrea. The Romans. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, cop, 1993.
Kamm, Antony. The Romans: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2008.
He notes that the word used is "metamorphoustai," a Greek word, and it contains the word "morphe," whihyc means "essence." The process involves the aforementioned sacrifice of the body, and it also involves a renewal of the mind, meaning that the inner self is changed by the process to become like Christ. This is discussed elsewhere in the scriptures, notably in Philippians chapter four.
John Piper writes that the aim of the passage cited is to make all life become "spiritual worship." The second verse offers Paul's answer to how we can accomplish this, and to do it we must be transformed, changing not just external behavior but how we think, a change effected by the renewal of the mind. Paul says this transformation will come about by testing whazt the individual believes is the will of God, menaing what is good and acceptable and perfect. Piper notes that there….
Bryan, Christopher. A Preface to Romans: Notes on the Epistle in Its Literary and Cultural Setting. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Deffinbaugh, Bob. "Romans: The Righteousness of God." Bible.org (2005), http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=2320 .
Guroian, Vigen, "Moral Formation and Christian Worship," The Ecumenical Review 49(3)(1997), 372.
Home, J. David. "Challenge to Be Changed." December 1, 1996. http://www.horizonsnet.org/sermons/rom37.html .
When Diocletian became the emperor of ome in 284 AD, the oman Empire was beset with enormous military and social problems and was on the verge of collapse. Complete anarchy prevailed in the oman army which was no longer controllable under a single command and it was common practice for a succession of generals to declare themselves as emperor. In the fifty years before Diocletian came to power, a similar number of emperors and pretenders to the throne had come and gone, only one of them dying of natural causes. As a result, civil wars and unrest erupted throughout the empire. oving armies seized whatever goods and food supplies they could find in the countryside and cities while the imperial tax collectors made increasingly harsh demands on the farmers to generate funds for the large armies and a bloated bureaucracy. When the farmers could no longer afford to pay….
Mathisen, Ralph W. (1996). "Diocletian (284-305 A.D.)." An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. [Accessed on October 9, 2004]
Turnbull, Percival. "Roman Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online. [Accessed on October 9, 2004]
omans and Law
The oman law is considered as the greatest legacy of ancient ome to the Western Civilization, as several existing civil and common laws in most Western countries are based on the laws introduced and developed by the omans.
ome's laws were first codified around 450 BC when a group of ten magistrates wrote ome's laws on 12 wooden tablets that became known as the Twelve Tables. The legal system that evolved around these laws (known as the jus civile) applied equally to all oman citizens and was the source of all public and private laws for a considerable period. As the oman conquests spread far and wide, the need for a different legal system that applied to all subjects was felt. The praetor (magistrate) was given powers to define and interpret the law applicable to non-oman citizens. A new legal system known as jus gentium thus evolved. When citizenship….
Mythology - Religion
oman eligion in Antiquity There are few topics today as hotly debated and as historically violent as religion. In ancient times the shift from polytheism to monotheism in terms of…Read Full Paper ❯
The overall affect the facial configuration gives the gazer is of wise man in repose of thought. But the piece is not beautiful in the conventional sense. It…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Roman Empire The history of the Roman Empire has long been a topic of discussion amongst those who are interested in ancient political and social structures. The purpose of this…Read Full Paper ❯
Massive and long Roman road leading directly through the center of cities according to Zaker, forms the core of the identity of these outposts, as they then felt…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
In a number of letters written by Caesar to Roman writer and historian Cicero, one finds that Caesar admitted "no hope of delivering booty except slaves" from ritannia and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Also, a son could marry, for Roman law had never recognized monogamous sexual relationships between slaves. Sons could also inherit property, and this possibility of inheritance was another…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
oman Civilization: The Pre-Christian Centuries The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze oman Civilization. Specifically it will discuss the pre-Christian centuries of oman civilization, including personal…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
The tribes had finally become a threat for the Roman Empire. Fights between tribes had passed over the borders with the Romans and large numbers of barbarians were crossing…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Roman Women Pulished in 1962, Roman Women y J.P.V.D. Baldson chronicles the "history and haits" of women in ancient Rome from the Repulic to the Christian era. Touted on the…Read Full Paper ❯
The Greek god which was considered to rule over all the other gods was Zeus. Along with several other gods, he lived on Mount Olympus. Greeks believed that each…Read Full Paper ❯
The Romans continued their contributions into the political and government sector, as well. The constitutions of various European countries have been influenced by the Romans, and the framers of…Read Full Paper ❯
The newly emerging Persian Empire emerged as a great threat and later before ome fell their attacks on the oman Empire played a very significant role in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
He notes that the word used is "metamorphoustai," a Greek word, and it contains the word "morphe," whihyc means "essence." The process involves the aforementioned sacrifice of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
oman Empire When Diocletian became the emperor of ome in 284 AD, the oman Empire was beset with enormous military and social problems and was on the verge of collapse.…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
omans and Law The oman law is considered as the greatest legacy of ancient ome to the Western Civilization, as several existing civil and common laws in most Western countries…Read Full Paper ❯