1000 results for “Romans”.
The people under the rule of the Roman constitution were not themselves certain if they were living in an aristocracy, a despot, or a democracy. The rules of the legislature would indicate that the people were in control of the government, however only those with money or familial power were able to take part in that government. Polybius illustrates that the Consul and Senate which are responsible for administration and were in charge of the state's coffers. However, at the same time, he tries to underscore the importance of the average person in Rome. He shows several ways in which the people have power, such as in honoring heroic acts and punishing evil ones. He also claims that the people are responsible for war and peace because the other branches would need the consent of the people in order to act. In his writing, Polybius seems adamant that…
Polybius. Histories. Vol. I. Translated by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. New York, NY: Macmillan and Co., 1889. pp. 468-71.
This allowed the landowner to have more land worked by more people for less since it was not his responsibility to provide for these people as he would have to in order to maintain a slave, now would they have to invest in the initial purchase of such laborers as he would a slave. Once this trend started many farmers preferred not to invest into slavery because they saw it as a declining market. Naturally the slaves themselves were considered eligible for liquidation of assets, so if a farmer were to invest a large sum to purchase a slave and yet not have the potential to sell this same slave for a higher price (because of the skills and training they had received while working in their household) at a later date then this would logically be seen as a bad investment. Eventually the laws of supply and demand took…
Kagan, Donald, Steven Osmet, and Frank Turner. The Western Heritage. New Jersey: Prentice
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…
The rule of law is essential to commerce, and commerce is essential to wealth. To longer shall local chieftains and would-be kings rule over the Empire - they are all subject to me, no different from anybody else.
A call upon the soldiers. Military might is the key to our success, in establishing rule of law and expanding our borders. Your support is required for this endeavor and for it you will be rewarded handsomely. I call upon the administrators. You are the ones who will do my work, and ensure that our country is filled with peace and prosperity. I call upon the merchants and the traders. My reforms will give you the opportunity to become wealthy beyond belief. Support me, go forth and trade. Bring us the goods of the orient.
My subjects, all I ask of you is for your help. I need your support. Be peaceful,…
Dhammika, Ven. S. (1994). The Edicts of King Ashoka. Colorado State University.
Retrieved November 2, 2008 at http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html
No author. (2008). Qin Dynasty. TravelGuideChina.com. Retrieved November 2, 2008 at http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qin
2. What were the military, social, and economic events that led to the Gracchan land reforms (discuss one event each of military, social, and economic)? How did the Gracchi attempt to resolve these problems (discuss three)? How effective were they?
When Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune, the social structures that had nourished the Republic as it developed from an independent city-state were already breaking down. The consolidation of public land under the emerging latifundia system had turned roughly 7% of the population (Last, 1932a, p. 9) into indigents as displaced peasant farmers flooded Rome and other cities, only to find demand for their labor limited at best. Meanwhile, the army was starving for recruits as the traditional citizen military class proved too small to police the vast Roman frontier and quell slave revolts closer to home. Finally, relations with the Italian and even the Latin allies had become increasingly strained.…
After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.
Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.
Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.
Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…
1) Giulia De Dominicis - Article Title: The Roman Theatres in the Age of Pius VI. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 81.
2) Live Hov - Article Title: The 'Women' of the Roman Stage: As Goethe Saw Them. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 61.
3) Garret Fagan - Article Title R.C. Beacham. Power into Pageantry: Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Journal Title: Comparative Drama. Volume: 35. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 465+.
4) The Columbia Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia Article Title: Drama, Western. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004.
And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.
Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.
Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…
Roman view of Christianity
Early Christianity did not develop in isolation, but within a complex landscape already occupied by belief systems, social networks, systems of identity, and political institutions, and it is essential not to regard it 'as somehow independent, as if the church were an entity existing apart from Christians living in particular times and places. Such a treatment neglects how the history of Christianity was influenced and shaped by its cultural environment.'
Foremost among the factors making up that environment was the Roman Empire, itself an amalgam of peoples, creeds and societies. The relationship between Christianity and pagan Rome was a complex and evolving one. This paper will examine Roman hostility to Christianity during this period, and aspects of Roman criticism of Christian belief.
In the earliest period of the Christian church's existence within the Roman Empire, Christians were commonly referred to as troublemakers, offending against Roman order…
Henry Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).
Robert Doran, Birth of a Worldview: Early Christianity in its Jewish and Pagan Context (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995).
Mark J. Edwards, et al., eds., Apologetics in the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
John Helgeland, 'Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173-337', Church History, vol. 43, no. 2 (June 1974).
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…
Buckleitner, Warren. Ancient History: Lives and Times in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. School Library Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, (2004): 58.
Dowling, Melissa Barden. A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time. KronoScope, Vol. 3, No. 2, (2003): 169-184.
Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. CAESAR'S First Great Campaigns. Military History, Vol. 20 No. 6, (2004): 50-56.
Purcell, Nicholas. The Way We Used To Eat: Diet, Community, And History At Rome. American Journal of Philology, Vol. 124, No.3, (2003): 330-358.
That is the beauty of the successful and rising platform established through successful investments; it all becomes quite circular. Then, by reinvesting and refinancing earnings, everything becomes stronger. Just as easily, however, this corporation could have been buried.
1. What is a franchising arrangement? And how is this reflective of business expansion? Moreover, how does this support business growth? From HighBeam Business, these key-terms set the stage from here on out:
MLA: Pondent, Corr S. "About eacquired Franchise ights" (29 December 2010). Highbeam Business: Money. eHow. Demand Media, Inc. Web. 18 March 2011.
About eacquired Franchise ights
A franchising arrangement is a way to expand a company's business without investing a lot of additional money. The franchisee gets the use of an existing business model, or franchise rights, as well as business support, and pays the franchisor a franchise fee in return.
The franchisor could decide to buyback…
HighBeam Business: Issues in Accounting Education: The hole in the doughnut: accounting for acquired intangibles at Krispy Kreme. Web. 16 March 2011.
Citation: Bollinger, Michael a. CMA, CFM, CPA, CIA, CGFM, CDFM. "Fair value, Accounting procedures." Publication title: Strategic Finance. Montvale: Mar 2011. Vol. 92, Iss. 9; pg. 25, 1 pages 4K9S4PXGS8 at CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY - SACRAMENTO MAIN ACCOUNT via ProQuest, an information service of ProQuest LLC.
5. Auditor impairment analysis on book value of reacquired franchise rights for Arizona acquisitions. The four present values should allow you to reach a conclusion about the acceptability of the client's impairment analysis. Up to this point you are performing a conventional analysis of accounting estimates as per CAS 540. Become thoroughly acquainted with this CAS and refer to it in your report. Call this conventional analysis, and its conclusion, Part I of your report. It is worth 5 marks. The solution posted in BB for class 7 to the class discussion a&B company case, and the Hilton and O'Brien article in class 6 link may help in doing this part of the assignment.
You can use any accounting standards you prefer to support your conclusions, the U.S. ones mentioned in the case, or comparable CICA Handbook sections, or international standards, but be specific about which ones you are using so that the marker can follow your analysis and give you full credit.
The public library in the baths of Caracalla was no exception to this (DeLaine, 1997).
Inside the bathing area itself, there were several components (DeLaine, 1997). One of these was a 183X79-foot cold room located under three 108-foot high groin vaults. There was also a double pool which was tepid, and a 115-foot diameter hot room (DeLaine, 1997). There were also two separate gyms where people could box and wrestle with one another. There was also a standard swimming pool in the north end of the complex. It was a roofless structure and had mirrors made of bronze mounted over it (DeLaine, 1997). This helped to direct sunlight into the area surrounding the pool for both beauty and warmth. The whole building was on a platform that was raised up twenty feet off of the ground. This was done in order to allow for the furnaces underneath the building and…
Birley, Anthony R. (1988). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, 2nd ed. Yale: New Haven Connecticut.
Chastagnol, Andre. (1994). Historie Auguste. Robert Laffont: Paris.
DeLaine, Janet. (1997) the Baths of Caracalla. Portsmouth, Rhode Island
Meckler, Michael. (1994). Caracalla and his late-antique biographer: A historical commentary on the Vita Caracalli in the Historia Augusta. University of Michigan.
Persecution of the Early Church (pick a specific outbreak caused by a Roman emperor, the reasons for the outbreak, and the results).
The article that was written by De Ste. Croix (1963) is talking about how Christians were persecuted after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64 AD. At the time, Nero believed that they were responsible for these events in order to challenge the Emperor Nero's leadership. He was paranoid and felt that Christians were a threat to his rule. As he believed, that they intentionally started the fire to draw attention to his incompetence and encourage others to embrace their faith. This meant abandoning state sponsored religions and engaging in acts of disobedience. While at the same time, they wanted to challenge many of the large public works projects and the polices of the government. However, De Ste. Croix thinks that Nero did not use the fire…
Brakke, David. "Cannon Formation and Social Conflict." Harvard Theological Review. 87, no.4 (October 1994): 395 -- 419.
De Ste. Croix, GE. "Why were the Early Christians Persecuted?" Past and Present. 26, no.2 (November 1963): 6- 38.
Moltmann, Jurgen. "Political Theology." Theology Today. 28, no. 1 (April 1971): 6-23.
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…
Ando, Clifford. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 2008.
Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome, Volume 1: A History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1998.
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…
The ordeal could have been avoided if Rosemary would have taken more responsibility for her own health and started to act upon her inner doubts. Individual inner doubts and other impulses are also very occult in nature as they seem to appear out of nowhere in many instances. This type of hidden information is very valuable for individuals to notice and eventually master in their own practices of living life. The world is subjective in nature and if one is willing to forfeit this gift, there are others, much like Roman and Millie, who have no problem taking you and your self-hood for their own personal purposes.
The occult means hidden, not scary or creepy. Occult knowledge is creepy and scary if we are not prepared to handle the unknown. Masters of occult knowledge will certainly try to confuse others to prevent them from attaining the knowledge contained in the…
Ebert, Roger. "Rosemary's Baby." Rogerebert.com. 29 Jul 1968: n. page. Web. 29 Mar. 2013.
Godwin, John. "Occult America." Church of Satan, 1972. Retrieved from http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/LaVeyOccultAmerica.html
Greenhorn, Sean. "I've Never Seen Rosemary's Baby." Telstar.me 16 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://telstar.me/2013/03/16/ive-never-seen-rosemarys-baby/
Peary, Gerald. " Roman Polanski's 'Rosemary's Baby' and the Dark Side of Hollywood. Vigilant Citizen, 26, Feb 2011. Retrieved from http://vigilantcitizen.com/moviesandtv/roman - polanskis-rosemarys-baby-and-the-dark-side-of-hollywood/
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
Claude Mulvihill could also be a major subplot character. His confrontation with Gittes leads to Gittes getting his nose slashed.
Ida Sessions, the woman who was hired to play Evelyn in the beginning of the film, would be considered a supporting character in Chinatown. She does not play a major role in the narrative, but she is there at key moments (it is her clues, for example, that allow Gittes to pursue the water scandal.) Walsh and Duffy, Gittes's partners, are also "helping characters" in this respect.
With a film as complex in its plot as Chinatown, it certainly helps to reconstruct events chronologically when evaluating the plot of the movie.
As Chinatown is essentially a detective movie, there are numerous clues dropped throughout the movie that the viewer is expected to pick up on and draw inferences out of. One example is the fact that Gittes, who…
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.
The Roman Villa
Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…
Melmoth, William, "Elegant epistles, or, a copious collection of familiar and amusing letters: selected for the improvement of young persons, and for general entertainment, from Cicero, Pliny ... And many others," Printed for Charles Dilly, 1790, New York Public Library.
Rykwert, Joseph and Schezen, Roberto From Ancient to Modern, New York: Abrams Books, 2000
"Sketches of the domestic manners and institutions of the romans," Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821, Complutense University, Madrid.
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html.
Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.
Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm
Ancient Roman History
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.
Diocletion attempted to stabilize the Roman Empire by splitting it into two (and later four) regions with four rulers -- also known as the Tetrarchy, with each ruler picking a successor (Mathisen). Since the time of Caesar, it had essentially become too big to be governed by one ruler. Thus, Diocletian's re-ordering of the empire was a way to make governance more practical and possible (Khan Academy). He himself took over governance of the Eastern half with its base in Constantinople while appointing a co-ruler for the Western half. Later to keep out the Visigoths, Diocletian also appointed two more rulers to help keep the barbarians from invading. In doing so, Diocletian began the practice of subdividing provinces into dioceses -- and creating a hierarchy of governance from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic Church adopted its diocesan rule from.…
Fall of the Roman Empire
Towards the 5th century, the Roman Empire scrambled to ruins as one of the greatest world super powers. Since then, the reasons for the fall of the empire remain a controversial topic prompting the rise of various popular explanations for its decline. Historians have blamed the collapse of this great empire on differing factors such as social complexity, natural disasters, climate change and military failures just to mention a few. Even as of now, other historians still contend that the Roman Empire did not actually fail because part of it later continued to exist but in the form of Byzantine Empire. In this essay, I present the strongest historical theory used to explain the collapse of this most legendary Empire.
Joseph Tainter (1990) pioneered the explanation and theorization of the Roman Empire collapse (Tainter 11). This American anthropologist holds that given technological levels yield implicit…
Engineering the oman Colosseum
While the Colosseum stands, ome shall stand; when the Colosseum falls, ome shall fall; when ome falls, the world shall fall. -- The Venerable Bede quoting an Ancient Anglo-Saxon Peasant Prophecy
Perhaps the most enduring symbol of the greatness of the oman Empire can be seen today in the ruins of the Colosseum. This massive amphitheatre is situated in the middle of modern ome near the oman Forum and has become an iconic representation of the oman Empire at its zenith. Although estimates vary, analysts believe that at least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 80,000 spectators were accommodated in its capacious dimensions and the Colosseum has become the benchmark by which all subsequent stadia have been judged. Flush with the treasures and riches of Jerusalem, the builders of the Colosseum spared no expense in its design and construction, but despite its impressive seating capacity and…
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…
Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.
Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Narrative of an Episode From My Travels With Paul
As a traveling companion of Paul, I have seen a number of marvels and the way in which the Christian faith of the Apostle challenges the boundaries between cultures and societies. For example, in Greece, I have seen Paul mix and mingle with Jews, with those baptized by John (and then baptized in the spirit of Christ by Paul),[footnoteRef:1] with Romans, and with every other possible number and variety of inhabitant in the islands. Paul could relate to many because his mission and view were such that he saw himself connected to everyone, even the living and the dead. I mention these latter because even a tombstone of a young girl, depicting her innocence as she holds a dove, could elicit from Paul such reverence and appreciation and praise that you would think he had personally known that girl.[footnoteRef:2] In such…
The Bear Hunt. A Mosaic at Getty Villa.
"Marble Relief with a Young Girl Holding Doves." Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
New Testament. BibleHub. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
Roman Mosaics Across the Empire. Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus
The wall painting of The Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus at the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii (c. 60 BC) is a work of oman art that exemplifies the oman culture in the time just before Christ -- rich, ornate, elaborate, bordering on decadence, yet with still enough refinement to see a nobility and purpose in the spiritual life. Here, in the villa of a wealthy oman's vacation home near Mt. Vesuvius (which would fatally erupt just a century later, burying under ash and avalanche the wealthy in their very lap of luxury) can be seen the Greek influence on the oman culture.
The mural depicts a number of scenes in the ite of the Cult of Bacchus across three walls within a room of the Villa, near which was a wine press, used to make wine from the local…
Dembskey, E. J. (2009). Aqua Appia. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Retrieved from http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romappia/ >
Dionysian Mysteries. (n.d.). Hellenica. Retrieved from http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
Jackson, J. (n.d.). Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii. Retrieved from http://www.art-and-
Such self-righteousness coupled with overwhelming military prowess is an intoxicating brew; forcing their way of life on others, usually "for the good of such less developed societies" is the next logical step. In case of ome's annexation of Greece and Asia Minor, the desire of the oman aristocratic elite for personal glory was also an important factor. In the oman society, the greatest fame was bestowed on the commanders who won wars abroad and such opportunities could only arise if the oman Army was busy fighting a foreign war; it is no surprise, therefore, that the oman elite chose to annex Greece and Asia Minor in the 2nd century BC even though they faced no imminent threat from their neighbors to the East. (Ibid.)
Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The oman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. etrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/2055/l33anc.htm
Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The Roman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. Retrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/2055/l33anc.htm
What sources can I add to the discussion below that would support the work?The ancient Greeks and omans had multiple different operational contexts for unique categorizations of stewards, from farming operations to household management, to financial oversight, but the common attribute in all stewardship roles was service through the execution of a set activities on behalf of an owner or master of property (Wilson, 2016, pp. 3334). Wilsons (2016) set of those activities and attributes (p. 39) were like those ascribed to a modern-day mid-level manager, to include planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling, as opposed to a leader, who focused on vision and strategy (Kotter, 1990, pp. 38). As such, two thousand years ago, the phrase steward leadership may have been considered somewhat oxymoronic, as the owner or master would have been considered the very singular leader and the steward more of a manager, i.e. not a leader. Furthermore, the…
Reumann, J. H. P. (1958). “Stewards of God”: pre-Christian religious application of oikonomos in Greek. Journal of Biblical Literature, 77(4), 339–349.Rodin R. Scott. (2010). The steward leader. InterVarsity Press.Wilson., Ken., R. (2016). Steward leadership in the nonprofit organization. InterVarsity Press.
Bust of Antinous
The piece of Roman art being discussed is the bust of Antinous Mondragone, which is now in the Louvre in Paris, and it came from the Mondragone villa, located in Frascati, Italy. The artist is unknown, but it is thought to have been sculpted around 130 AD. This beautiful sculpture represents much of Roman art at the time, and it represents a larger cultural context, as well.
The arts were becoming popular during this time in the Roman Republic, and sculpture was becoming increasingly popular after the Romans captured Syracuse during the Second Punic Wars and brought back much of the island's sculpture to display in Rome. Roman sculpture often copied classic Greek statutes, because the artists and people admired Greek art. The sculptures were often of Roman rulers, indicating how important they were to the culture, and how they were held up by the people as…
spiritual gifts that are presented in omans 12 These are: Prophecy, ministering (helps), teaching, exhortation, giving, ruling, mercy. By illustration of quotes from relevant passage so the Bible this paper shows how each Gift is used by God for a particular purpose within one of his servants and followers.
The Seven Non-Miraculous Gifts
God in his almighty wisdom has given those who follow and believe in him and therefore being blessed with the Holy Spirit, seven gifts discussed in omans: 12 6-8,. These gifts are prophecy, ministering (helping others), teaching, exhortation, giving, ruling and, mercy. In looking at these seven gifts in turn we will discuss how these gifts work and how they affect those who use these gifts.
The seven gifts of oman's 12 are known as the non-miraculous spiritual gifts, they are given by Gods grace to all Christians yet no one Christian will receive all seven gifts…
Anonymous, (2002), Spiritual Gifts, [online] accessed at http://www.angelfire.com/ak3/dailyword/spiritualgifts.html
Ascough Richard S. (1999, Oct), The Holy Spirit and Spiritual Gifts in the New Testament Church and Today, Interpretation, v53 i4 p428
The Bible (NIV), (accessed 2002), [online] accessed at http://bible.gospelcom.net/cgi-bin/bible?language=english
Stanley, C, (1999), Ministering Through Spiritual Gifts, Thomas Nelson Publishers
The interaction between the two is also symbolic of the innocence of the prewar state. Before the war, interactions and romantic interludes between Jew and Caucasian were no problem. During the war, however, Jews were marginalized to the point where they were no longer recognized as human beings. This is symbolized by the harsh treatment of an old Jewish man by a Nazi soldier, also during the beginning scenes. The man is ordered to walk away from the sidewalk and into the gutter, where he steps into water. This contrasts with the pleasure that zpilman and the blonde derives from their interaction. Visually, the contrast between the Jews and Germans is symbolically depicted by the physical differences between zpilman and the girl, which would become symbolic not only of ethnic differences, but also of the way in which these differences are used to justify the death of hundreds of thousands…
Chang, Chris. 2002, Nov-Dec. "The Pianist." Film Comment. Findarticles.com:
Cunneen, Joseph. 2003, Feb. 14. "In a Maelstrom: two movies explore the horrors of Nazi power." National Catholic Reporter. Findarticles.com:
extradition case regarding film director oman Polanski is a rather sordid affair. According to the information available on March 10, 1977 the 43-year-old Polanski had a sexual escapade with a 13-year-old girl named Samantha Jane Gailey (now known as Samantha Geimer; Schwarzbaum, 2013). According to testimony provided by Geimer to a grand jury Polanski had gotten permission from her mother to photograph her for a spread in the magazine Vogue. According to the reports the session took place at the home of actor Jack Nicholson who was on a vacation; however, Nicholson's then girlfriend Anjelica Huston was there but did not witness the incident although she was concerned and knocked on the bedroom door several times in an effort to find out what was happening (Schwarzbaum, 2013).
According to Geimer's testimony Polanski shot photos of her drinking champagne while topless. He also reportedly made her take a Quaalude and then…
Day, M. (2015, May 22). Roman Polanski U.S. extradition case adjourned by Polish court. The Telegraph retrieved on July, 9 2015 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/roman-polanski/11622582/Roman-Polanski-due-to-appear-in-Polish-court-over-U.S.-extradition.html .
Legifrance (2005). Code of criminal procedure (legislative part), Articles 696-1 to 696-7.
Retrieved on July 8, 2015 from http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/Traductions/en-English/Legifrance-translations .
Palmer, B. (2009, September 28). What's "unlawful sexual intercourse"? Slate. Retrieved on July 9, 2015 from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2009/09/whats_unlawful_sexual_intercourse.html .
Pianist directed by oman Polanski. Specifically, it will imagine every part of "The Pianist" that was violent or contained swear words was simply removed from the film. Censorship in film has always been a contentious issue, and with the advent of Clean Flix, the situation has come to a head. While it is certainly a person's right to view entertainment that they do not feel is offensive, for a company to "clean" offensive content is simply alteration of the work, plain and simple. This alteration changes the meaning of the work, and alters the integrity and very foundation of many films. Clean Flix may provide a valuable service, but it is at the cost of the film and what it stands for.
Artistic integrity versus "offensive" content. It is a difficult question for both sides to discuss, and whatever changes are made to a film; they constitute some kind of…
The Pianist. Dir. Roman Polanski. Perf. Adrien Brody, Emilia Fox, and Thomas Kretschmann. Universal Studios, 2002.
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…
Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.
Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.
Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
Second Punic War
The Punic wars, a total of three wars were violent clashes that took place between ome and Carthage and spanned across a timeline of almost a Century starting from 264 BC and ending in 146 BC with the destruction of Carthage. During this time, ome had established itself as the dominant power across the Italian Peninsula while Carthage was a powerful city state that was in Northern Africa had developed itself into a strong maritime power in the world at the time. In the context of this discussion however, the second Punic war will be the area of focus and in particular the causes of the war.
In the years leading to 237 BC, ome had taken over the control of Sardinia and Corsica. However, Carthage managed to establish another base of influence in Spain in 237 BC with the leadership of general Hamilcar Barca and after…
Morey W.C., (1901). Outline of Roman History: The Second Punic War (BC 218-201). Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.forumromanum.org/history/morey15.html
Tufts University, (n.d). Polybius Histories: First Cause of the Second Punic War. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234%3Abook%3D3%3Achapter%3D9
Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and to make Christianity the official religion of Rome. This makes him one of the most important figures in estern history, and in fact, world history. Prior to Constantine's conversion, Christians were widely persecuted throughout the Roman Empire (Herbermann and Grupp). Making Christianity the official religion of Rome led to the downfall of the Roman Empire and the birth of the new Holy Roman Empire. Because of Constantine's conversion, Christianity became a dominant religious, political, and economic world power.
Constantine was born in Naissus, a city in the Moesia Superior region of the Roman Empire. Moesia Superior is modern day Serbia, and Naissus is the modern-day town of Nis. Constantine the Great's father was the Emperor Constantius. Constantine's mother Helena was a commoner but was later named as a Christian saint. Immediately after the death of his father…
Gill, N.S. "Constantine the Great." About.com. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/people/p/constantine.htm
Herbermann, Charles, and Georg Grupp. "Constantine the Great." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 18 Feb. 2013
Pohlsander, Hans A. "Constantine I (306-337 A.D.)." De Imperatoribus Romanus. Retrieved online: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm
The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to show compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. (Tacitus, Book V, a.D. 70). Some of the Jewish customs, such as the burying of the dead instead of burning them, unlike the Romans, are presented by Tacitus as borrowed from the Egyptians. Tacitus describes the Jewish customs and ways of expressing their religion without pretending to understand it. Although disgusted by most of their habits completely strange to him, he is also showing his admiration for these people who proved to be able to stick together at all times and endured since immemorial eras. He is also critical to some of what the…
Tacitus, Cornelius. The Annals of Imperial Rome. Trans. Michael Grant. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1956.
Tacitus Cornelius. Histories. Trans Alfred John Church and William Jackson. Retrieved Nov.30, 2007. 2004 available at http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/tacitus/t1h
The third reading of this article, or "reading against," concerns the assumption that Roman is making: That is, the teachers and the business community will be in favor of this collaboration and get the ball going.
Due to the "No Child Left Behind" initiative as well as increased stress on testing results and making sure that students complete greater amounts of learning, teachers have been more hard pressed to get everything done in the school year. Increasingly, as society's problems become more complex, teachers also have to deal more with helping students who bring their personal needs into the classroom. For example, more children and youth come from single-parent households and often require more support outside of the home as they did before. Teachers frequently have to wear a number of different hats in addition to educator. Additional programs, such as that mentioned by Roman, may be seen as a…
They believe that God exists in a trinity, made up of Father, Son and the Holy Spirit. They believe Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary. There is an emphasis upon the sacraments (communion, etc.) to unite the believer with Jesus as the Savior (ibid).
Abortion is against Church doctrine and it is very pro-family. Groups such as the Franciscans work with the poor. Catholic Charities is one of the largest social welfare groups in the country (ibid).
hile there are groups within the Roman Catholic Church, they all recognize the Pope as the leader of the Church that is the successor to the Apostle Peter, the "rock" upon whom Jesus founded his movement (Matthew 16:18). The group sees itself as the original Church, dating back to the time of Jesus (ibid).
The Church is organized into bishops who head up geographical entities called dioceses, priests, deacons and the laity.…
Matthews, Warren. World Religions. 4th ed. New York, NY: Thomson Learning, 2004.
"Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana." California Missions Online. Mission San
Fernando Rey de Espana, n.d. Web. 12 Dec 2010.
1971 Film Version of MacBeth
oman Polanski's 1971 version of Shakespeare's play Macbeth is dark, suspenseful and quite bloody for a film that was made before the slasher genre was even in existence. What is particularly good about Polanski's take on the play is that he seems to not have taken into account any versions of the play before he made his own; that is, Polanski has put his own mark on the film that proves itself to be quite different from any of the films that he would do before -- or after. Considering the year that Macbeth was made -- 1971, just two years after the Manson murders that claimed his wife Sharon Tate's life, their unborn baby, and three others (Garber 104), it might not be crazy to think that Polanski's ample use of blood in this film was a way of avenging the death. This is…
Garber, M. (2009). Shakespeare and modern culture. Anchor; Reprint edition.
Morrison, J. (2007). Roman Polanski. IL: University of Illinois Press.
Rothwell, K.S. (2004). A history of Shakespeare on screen: A century of film and television. MA: Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition.
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…
Chapter six is a detailed examination of the iconography of the Roman god Sol, particularly the depiction of the rays, or radiant energy associated with the sun god. Many historians automatically assume that any artwork that contains a depiction of symbolic light must be associated with Sol, but the author, Steven Hijman, explained how the only acceptable forms of symbolic light that are associated with Sol are rays, radiate nimbi, and radiate crowns without lemnisci. ut while depictions of Sol will have one of these forms of symbolic light, they were not used exclusive in relation to Sol. And this is the central theme of the chapter, whether or not "rays alone always constituted a 'solar quote' in Roman Imperial art."[footnoteRef:1] To demonstrate how solar allusions are not always necessary when depicting an image of Sol, there were three examples of Roman Imperial artwork presented to…
Hijmans, Steven, (2009). "Sol: The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome." PhD diss., University of Groningen.
Roman Law Concerning the Jews
Time Period: Circa early 300s AD
Location: Roman Empire, Mediterranean Era, Realm of Constantine
Constantine was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. As a reformer, he enacted a number of laws to restructure the empire and solidify power. He was the first Christian Emperor and moved his residence to Byzantium/Constantinople. His Edict of Milan degreed religious tolerance throughout the Roman Empire, but also a number of laws and rules that specifically affected Jews during the time. cholars now think that the idea of religious tolerance was primarily pointed at tolerance of Christianity by Romans.
The Jews and Rome: Constantine's Christianity resulted in his being the first Roman Empire to severely limit the rights of the Jews in the Empire. As Christianity grew in power in the Empire, more and more civil authorities tried to reduce Jewish privilege. Many scholars believe that the important significance…
Sources Used and Consulted:
Cohen, S. (2009). Legitimization Under Constantine. Frontline. Retrieved from:
Hallo, W., et al. (1984). Civilization and the Jews: Source Reader. Westport, CT:
Christianity has obviously made its make on mankind. However, the early Christians, coming from different religions, cults, and worldviews before the emperor Constantine converted the empire, would have experienced this transitions at varying levels from revolutionary to marginally different. This analysis proposes that a member of the oman society such as the Vestal Virgins saw a dramatic and revolutionary change in their daily lives. However, by contrast, not all members would have perceived the transformation as dramatically. For example, a devotee of the cult of the sun might have found rituals such as Christmas entirely familiar and consistent with previously held beliefs. This analysis proposes that although the introduction of Christianity was a dramatic change for the whole of oman, the differences were not felt by all demographics equally.
Of all the different groups that would have taken a welcoming to the conversion to Christianity in the…
Kahlos, M. (2012). Pagan-Christian Debates Over the Interpretation of Texts in Late Antiquity. The Classical World, 525-545.
Nothaft, C. (2012). The Origins of the Christmas Date: Some Recent Trends in Historical Research. Church History, 903-911.
Parker, H. (2004). Why Were the Vestals Virgins? Or the Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State. American Journal of Philology, 563-601.
Pedroni, L. (2011). The Sun without Rays and the Eclipse of 272. Journal of Late Antiquity, 116-123.
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…
Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.
This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.
Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
Some of the issues that made Liu a favorite of many were the fact that he lowered taxes, he reduced the demand for labor from the state and the origin being from the peasants.
Liu appointed rich land owners as governors because of the distrust he had against merchants, he as well appointed officials that were loyal to him ensuring that he controlled all the powers within the dynasty. Liu died in 195 B.C and left a stable Han dynasty. Though there were power struggles within the dynasty after the death of Liu, they were resolved by capable leadership. The rule of Jingdi, Wendi and Wudi were predominantly peaceful, prosperous for peasants, expansion of China, art and trade thrived as well under Confucianism. The expansion saw northern Vietnam, Korean peninsula come under the Han dynasty. Trade routes to Asia were open including the famous Silk oad.
However, the wars of…
Cultural China, (2012). The Collapse of the Han Dynasty. http://history.cultural-china.com/en/183History6001.html
Rit Nosotro, (2010). The Decline of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw07hanromecollapse33100120.htm
Socyberty, (2009). The Fall of the Roman and Han Empires. http://socyberty.com/history/the-fall-of-the-roman-and-han-empires/
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…
Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon. Originally created 1999. Last updated 2005. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/1080_Flora.html
Flora and Pomona." Ancient Roman Mythology. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://www.crystalinks.com/romemythology.html
Ovid. Fasti. Translated by a.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000.
Pliny. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1938.
The Transitions of Roman Culture (Romanitas) As It Interacted with Christian Culture (Christianitas) And Barbarian Cultures (Germanitas)
Christianity in late antiquity runs from the Christian Roman Empire when Christianity rose under the Emperor Constantine (c. 313) up to the end of the Western Roman Empire (c. 476). The sub-Roman period transition was gradual and occurred at varying times in different places. Therefore, the exact time the period ended is varied. The late ancient Christianity lasted up to the end of the 6th century. On the other hand, Justinian conquests of the Byzantine Empire occurred between 527 and 565. However, in 476, it ended when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus died. Christianity spread from the Roman Judaea without any endorsement or state support. It became Armenia’s state religion in 301 or 314, Georgia in 337 and Ethiopia 325.the The Thessalonica Edict saw it develop into the Roman Empire’s state religion in…
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…
As a result of their religious beliefs, even though not routinely practiced, the Romans, by contemporary standards, were highly superstitious. ri-malchio routinely took extreme precautions to attempt to ward away bad luck. On the other hand, Encolpius appears less superstitious, in fact, sarcastic in regard to the posting of a slave to ensure no one trips over the dining room threshold (sec. 30) (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). Animal sacrifice, another religious practice in/or Roman religion, reportedly helped secure divine favor in exchange of a gift. he animal sacrifice was generally an inedible piece of the animal. Sometimes the religious person would withhold his gift until he was assured he had his gift or that it was on the way. Encolpius, for example, does not automatically make a sacrifice, but names animals he will sacrifice to Priapus "once he gets his virility back (sec. 133)" (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). When…
The traditional Roman religion did not provide an-swers to life questions for the ancients, while the philosophical religions, reportedly did provide some answers. During Petronius' time, Stoicism and Epicureanism rivaled each other for the hearts and minds of men. Sto-icism would win. Stoicism, founded in Athens about 300 B.C.E. By Zeno of Citium, constituted the practice of being enduring, Those who were stoic mastered suffering, as well as their emotions for what they perceived as higher cause.
This practical prescription of the ancient belief system included the following logic: "To be virtuous is to live according to the will of God (a monotheistic lan-guage was used), which is manifested in nature. If one observes nature, it is plain that God decrees constant change" (Ruden, 2000, p. 185). The Romans perceived that to harmonize with na-ture, one became compliant with change, yet did not seek positive change. This religious practice, in turn fostered numbness; permitting a myriad of things to be sought, including "health, material well-being, human relationships, honor) and avoided (illness, poverty, loneliness, shame) but purists insisted that the only really important attainment was controlling one's attachments (Ibid, p. 186).
Controlling ones attachments contributed to the "perfect" Stoic. Their detachment reportedly mimicked the detachment some perceived God to possess. In the afterlife, they claimed one who had become the perfect Stoic sage could achieve unity with God. Suicide to stoics served as a religious act, in which the person signified the human will's ultimate transcendence over circumstance. In general, due to various be-liefs about the person's soul and the value placed on honor, Ro-mans were somewhat tolerant of suicide. They considered it a great evil to defend themselves. In doing
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
In the later years of Marcus Aurelius' reign he made his son, Commodus, co-emperor. Father and son fought together briefly in an effort to forestall another German invasion in 177. The father-son co-rule was short-lived, however, as Marcus Aurelius died in 180 after ruling for 19 years.
Although Marcus Aurelius was a competent political leader and successful military leader, as well, perhaps his greatest contribution was in area of philosophy. As indicated earlier, Marcus was follower of the Stoics and he wrote a book entitled Meditations in which he set out what it meant to be a Stoic (Bowder). Like his mentor, Epictetus, Marcus professed the importance of two basic principles, Endurance and Abstinence. Further, he stressed that inner freedom is attained through a resignation to providence and a disregard for anything not in one's power.
Most of the content of Meditations was prepared in Marcus Aurelius' last years. The…
Aurelius, Marcus. Meditations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Benario, Herbert W. "Marcus Aurelius." 30 January 2001. De Imperatoribus Romanis. http://www.roman-emperors.org/lindexxx.htm . 3 May 2012.
Bowder, Diana. Who was who in the Roman World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.
Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts on File, 1994.
Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.
However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…
"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."
The origin of the Carthaginian Empire can be traced back to 814 C, North Africa where Carthage was situated towards the east of Lake Tunis where we can locate Tunisia today. Carthage was basically founded by Phoenician settlers which came from Tyre city which is now known as Sur in Lebanon. Queen Dido was credited with being the founder of this city and since the establishment of this empire; there are numerous myths that can be traced back to the association with Romans and Greeks, essentially their literature (owman).
Success of the Carthage Empire
The Carthage city was famous for trade and that proved to be the means of their survival and helped the Carthaginians gain massive amounts of power and spreading the trade routes and networking all along the Mediterranean. In the early 6th century C, Hanno, a famous Carthaginian explorer went on his trip sailing till…
Bagnall, Nigel. The Punic Wars: Rome, Carthage, and the struggle for the mediterranean. Hutchinson Publishers, 2005.
Bowman, David. The Carthaginian Empire. Bluewood Publishing Limited, 2010.
Durham, David Anthony. Pride of the Carthage. Anchor Publishers, 2006.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Punic Wars. Cassell Publishers, 2001.
The Rise of the Papacy
The Middle Ages, so called because of their position between the ancient and the modern eras, are often termed medieval or even dark. This period of time is marked by a dearth of non-church art, and by the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. This was a far-reaching kingdom that was financed by the kings of subject countries, and was ruled by a variety of men. This was also a time when the people bowed under the weight of the growing Catholic oppression that regarded all religions but their own as sacrilegious and the Catholic Church as sacrosanct. This paper looks at the church's rise to power during and after the demise of the Roman Empire, how that rise affected the people of Europe, and what the apex of that power looked like..
Leuba, Jean-Louis. "Papacy, Protestantism and Ecumenism." The Ecumenical Review 46.4 (1994): 467-475.
Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge, 2002.
Moorhead, John. "Bede on the Papacy." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.2 (2009): 217-232.
Power, Amanda. "Franciscan Advice to the Papacy in the Middle Ages." History Compass 5.5 (2007): 1550-1575.
Harris (1979) noted that the work of Polybius on oman Imperialism can be viewed to be a much more closer/realistic account of the process that any other 20th century historians. Polybius was therefore very honest and at the same time reliable with his work on oman history (Davidson, 1991, p.10).
Polybius' contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution
The contribution of Polybius to the establishment of the U.S. constitution is well documented. His work on the separation of powers is indicated to have immensely influenced the U.S. Founding Fathers (Lloyd,1998). His work can therefore be regarded as one aspect of classical contributions to the U.S. constitution (Bederman,2008).The concept of separation of powers concerns the need for having separate and very distinct legislative, executive as well as judicial branches of a given government. This is one of the central features of the U.S. Constitution. Through this process of separation of…
Bederman, DJ (2008).The Classical Foundations of the American Constitution: Prevailing Wisdom. Cambridge University Press
Davidson, J (1991).The Gaze in Polybius' Histories James Davidson Source: The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 81 (1991), pp. 10-24 Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.
Hamilton, A.,Jay, J and Madison, J (1788).The Federalist Papers. Available online at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1404/1404-h/1404-h.htm
Harris, W.V. (1979) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (I 979), esp. I1I 1- 13 and IIS-I 6.
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