Ronald Reagan Essays Examples

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Reagan & the 80s Movies

Words: 4752 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87633231

Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at this level. Reagan, probably felt much like the teenagers who had just entered high school at Ridgemont High, portrayed in a popular 1980s movie by a group of teens much like one would find anywhere in the United States. These individuals were tightly in the clasp of the dominate group,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.

McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
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Reagan and the 1980s

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96763424

Reagan and the 1980s

President Ronal Reagan served two terms, lasting from 1981 to 1989. During his tenure, he is noted for economic policies that favored the wealthy and a conservative agenda that took care of business interests at the expense of social efforts. More than fifteen years after Reagan's tenure, we still see his influence not only in the things he changed in the 1980s, but also in the politics and economic policies of current conservatives, particularly true of current President George W. Bush who, like Reagan, will also enjoy eight years to push his supply-side agenda.

In the year before Reagan took office, 1980, the United States economy was stagnant (Reaganomics). Inflation was 13.5% and unemployment was 7.1%. Gross domestic product (GDP) had only grown 2.8% from 1974 to 1981. Americans were anxious for a new agenda and Reagan responded with a different economic approach commonly referred to as either Reaganomics or supply-side economics. This form of economic policy holds that the supply side of the economy such as economic activity and production have to be stimulated to create weath. Reaganomics consisted of four key elements to reverse the high-inflation, slow-growth economic record of the 1970s: (1) a…… [Read More]

Gumbel, A. (2004, January 6). How the war machine is driving the U.S. economy. Independent. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site:

Kamin, D. And Shapiro, I. (2004, September 13). Studies shed new light on effects of administration's tax cuts. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from Web site:
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Reagan's Challenger Address

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93920039

speech "Challenger Address to the Nation" by President Ronald Reagan. Specifically, it will analyze the elements of the rhetorical situation in the address. It will also discuss how the elements relate to Reagan's presidency and popularity at the time of the speech in January 1986. Ronald Reagan endures as one of the most popular American presidents, and speeches such as this one are one indication of his popularity. They are poignant, resilient, and emotional, all of which characterize his administration and his outlook as a politician and a person.

When the Challenger space shuttle exploded during take-off in 1986, the event shocked and saddened the nation. America lost seven of its brightest and best astronauts, and the country grieved over the loss. Reagan's speech acknowledged that grief and mourned along with the nation. The speech is quite indicative of Reagan's public popularity at the time. Just like Reagan himself, the speech was emotional and touching. Two Reagan speech experts note, "In many ways the Challenger speech included the most salient features of Reagan's rhetoric: unself-conscious references to God, emphasis on heroes, appeals to values of freedom and progress, and Reagan's fitting presentational manner" (Ritter & Henry, 1992, p. 4). He…… [Read More]

Cannon, L. (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential portfolio: a history illustrated from the collection of the Ronald Reagan library and museum. New York: Public Affairs.

Ritter, K., & Henry, D. (1992). Ronald Reagan: The great communicator. New York: Greenwood Press.
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Reagan's Cold War Strategy Iran-Contra and Plausible Deniability

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77862691

Iran-Contra Outline

Oliver North, Ronald Reagan, and "Plausible Deniability."

This paper will attempt to contextualize Oliver North and the Iran-Contra Affair within a larger discussion of Cold War strategy.

The introduction will present the paper as having 3 basic sections. The first will discuss the idea of "plausible deniability" -- invoked by North during his 1987 testimony -- and show how it fit into Cold War strategy in the 1950s. The second section will discuss Reagan's own Cold War strategy, and his reversal of the 1970s policy of detente -- this will also necessarily entail Reagan's interest in supporting the Nicaraguan Contras, and Reagan's first-term standoff with Congress over funding the Contras (leading to the passage of the Boland Amendment for three consecutive years, 1982-1984). The third section will show how North revived the notion of "plausible deniability" after it had been disavowed in the 1970s, and will demonstrate that this was consistent with Reagan's larger policy of raising the stakes of the Cold War after the detente period. The paper hopes to demonstrate Reagan's overall culpability for Iran-Contra due to the status of "plausible deniability" as an outlawed strategy, but one which Reagan's administration deliberately endorsed.

SECTION 1: "Plausible…… [Read More]

3B. Congressional opposition. Focuses on Congress' opposition to Reagan's support for the Contras, the passage of the Boland Amendment(s), and the general context whereby Oliver North would implement the "plausible deniability" strategy that enabled Iran-Contra.

PART 3. Oliver North and Iran-Contra. This ties together the previous two sections of the paper, by explaining North's actions in terms of a pre-1969 Cold War mentality and policy that had been revived by Reagan.

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President Reagan's Human Rights Record Was Ronald

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30729658


Was Ronald Reagan a Good President?

President Reagan's International Human Rights Record

President Reagan's International Human Rights Record

The Cold War and Apartheid

On September 26, 1986, President Ronald Reagan (1986) sent a message to the House of Representatives that he would not sign into law H.R. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. Reagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned Reagan's motives. Although Reagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. Reagan's message to the House followed an earlier imposition of sanctions by his administration against the South African government, which Bishop Tutu called a "flea bite" (Bush, 1985, p. ii). H.R. 4868 eventually received enough votes to override Reagan's veto.

The then editor of The New Black Vote and staff member of the Institute for the…… [Read More]

Bruce, D. (2005). Interpreting the body count: South African statistics on lethal police violence. South African Review of Sociology, 36(2), 141-59.

Bush, R. (1985). Reagan and state terrorism in Southern Africa. Crime and Social Justice, 0 (24), i-x.
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U S History - Reagan Milk Ronald

Words: 1104 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67140339

In many respects, Milk's broad political objectives emphasizing the responsibility of government to solve the problems of its citizens may have been more effective in furthering gay rights than the more militant or at least confrontational approach taken by many of his contemporaries as well as those of others since his assassination (Marcus, 2002).

Specifically, Milk acknowledged but never directly promoted his own homosexuality and in his responsibilities in local government, Milk responded to citizens' complaints about matters such as roads that needed potholes repaired and the need for local ordinances pertaining to the mandatory cleanup of dog droppings. More importantly, in a town with many gay residents who were not parents, Milk opposed the closing of an elementary school under the proposition that the community must be equally welcoming of everybody and not reflect the needs of any groups over those of others, regardless of their respective prominence (Marcus, 2002).

In general, such concerns exemplified Milk's overall belief that the road to achieving tolerance for gays and other minorities lay in valuing the underlying principles of equality rather than in supporting causes specific to particular groups, even his own.

In that regard, Milk can also be credited with helping…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Reeves, R. (2005). President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Leadership of Former President Ronald

Words: 3117 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50439137

He learned quickly, showed political prowess, was not afraid to lead his followers in troubled times (like the Screen Actors' strike), and he could think on his feet, develop his own very moving speeches, and he had very strong beliefs which he was not afraid to voice. All of these are qualities of a leader, and they developed as he made his way thorough life.

Reagan, with support of some friends and political leaders, began toying with the notion of running for governor in California. Cannon notes,

Reagan, despite never having spent a day in public office, had political assets that his opponents failed to recognize. Foremost among these was that he was widely known and liked [...] He was an effective speaker -- in person, on radio, and on television -- with an intangible quality of identifying with his audiences and reflecting their values (Cannon 38).

In 1966, Reagan ran for governor against three-term incumbent Pat Brown, and he won, he was sworn in as Governor of California in January 1967. He was not worried about his lack of his political experience; he knew he could learn what he needed to do to run the government on the job.…… [Read More]

Cannon, Lou. Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

Joffe, Josef. "The 'Amazing and Mysterious' Life of Ronald Reagan." The National Interest Fall 2004: 85+.
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How Reagan Changed America

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21763723

Successes of President Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan was America's 40th president. He is among America's most influential presidents. He was able to make several positive contributions to the development of the American Republic. America grew to be a stronger superpower during his tenure as president. Ronald Reagan was also once a governor of California State before being elected president of the United States. Before joining politics, he spent much of his time in Hollywood and came out a polished public relations individual. The Hollywood experience made him fit for public appeal. At Hollywood, he was also able to rise to a leadership level when he was elected the president of the Hollywood Actors Guild. This paper seeks to reveal the successes of Ronald Reagan and their effect on America's destiny.

The successes of Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan contributed to the American nation. One contribution that he is associated with was on the issue of the cold war. The Cold War took place during the period of the 1980s. He is the one who won the cold war as per political pundits. During the cold war, Russia and the U.S. competed for superiority. In this war, there was no use of…… [Read More]

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Pentad Analysis of President Reagan S Speech

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13138543

Ronald Reagan's Evil Empire Speech

President Ronald Reagan made the Evil Empire speech at a time when the United States was experiencing several challenges and issues. Some of these challenges include growing tension of nuclear arms race, increased controversy about abortion, and high infanticide rates in 1982. The president decided to address these issues through a speech that was made during the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evangelicals in 1983. In his speech, President Reagan proclaimed the need to lessen the number of nuclear weapons in the country and the Soviet Union, illegalize abortion, and enact harsh punishment for infanticide. To convey his message and view, President Reagan utilized Biblical references as well as logos and pathos to support his viewpoint. The speech, which is commonly known as the Evil Empire speech, is one of the most remarkable speeches made by a president in America's history.

Kenneth Burke developed the pentad, which is a means for identifying motive and rooted in the concept of dramatism. Dramatism is a term that Burke gives to the examination of human motivation through the use of terms obtained from the study of drama. Burke utilized drama on the premise that drama acts…… [Read More]

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T Boone Pickins My Case for Reagan 1984

Words: 972 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99371043

Boone Pickins, My Case for Reagan (1984)

Boone Pickins, "My Case for Reagan" 1984

During the 1980 presidential campaign Republican Ronald Reagan suggested that Americans ask themselves whether or not they better off financially than they were four years earlier, at the beginning of President Jimmy Carter's administration. This became a key issue in the 1984 presidential campaign when President Reagan sought another four years in the White House. Even though there was a recession during 1982 Reagan won a landslide victory over the Democratic nominee Walter Mondale.

The economy was a key issue in the 1984 presidential race because the Reagan Administration's policy of cutting taxes and reducing spending on social programs were much more beneficial to some segments of American society than others. Businessman T. Boone Pickins made a case for the reelection of Reagan based on the economic conditions of the time. Pickins argued that more than any other President in the last 30 years Reagan understood the wisdom of allowing the free markets to operate freely and competitively. Pickins claimed that the free enterprise system makes it possible for every American to "attain his or her dream of material and spiritual wealth" (Pickins).

By reducing government…… [Read More]

Abramowitz, Alan L., David J. Lanoue and Subha Ramesh. "Economic Conditions, Casual Attributions, and Political Evaluations in the 1984 Presidential Election." Journal of Politics. Vol. 50, Issue 4. November 1988: 848- 863. 7 May 2012.

Kinder, Donald R., Gordon S. Adams and Paul W. Gronke. "Economics and Politics in the 1984 Presidential Election." American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 33, No. 2. May 1989: 491- 515. 7 May 2012.
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Political Economy

Words: 4136 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90134099

Reagan era economics and uses the economic era as a foundational support for the economic boom of the 1990's. The writer explores various published works regarding the Reagan Economic era including discussions about the trickle down theory and voodoo economics to lay the building blocks to explain the boom of the 1990's.

The economic boom of the 1990's brought America to heights it had not seen in many years. People were able to purchase what they wanted, when they wanted and in the quantity they wanted. The housing market soared and the quality standard of life seemed to improve more many Americans. It was a decade of self-discovery, and a decade of exciting stock, housing, auto and other economic avenues to explode. It lasted long enough for residents of this nation to become comfortable spending and that comfort drove the spending up. This in turn drove the economy forward and for the 1990's it felt that there was never going to be an end. But there was, and today the nation's economy remains in the slump it has been in since the latter part of the decade. There are many factors that led to the economic boom of the 1990's…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This was a very powerful show. Watching and listening to Howard Zinn talk about what he believes and what he hopes for was an amazing experience. Seeing clips from the History Channel documentary ensured that I will go in search of the entire show. The actors who represented the historical figures gave poignant readings that truly brought that time in history to life and -- importantly -- made it possible to understand how the individual portrayed were catalysts to incredible change. It was interesting to listen to Zinn's comments about the Obama and his comparison of Obama to Martin Luther King. The comparison seems a bit unfair as Martin Luther King was not an elected official. Rather, Martin Luther King's comments were entirely in alignment with his role as a pastor and a change agent. Indeed, in retrospect, Zinn's comments were pertinent to the criticism of Obama at the time (in 2009), but would not be considered as relevant today, given Obama's re-election and his firm stand with the middle class. Timing is everything in politics and social change, as Zinn's documentary so aptly illustrates.

The relevance of this video clip to the Occupy Movement is substantive. The quiescence…… [Read More]

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Remarks on the 40th Anniversary

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38996668

Therefore he establishes a strong personal ethos which he sustains throughout the remainder of the speech, (Rowland, p. 237). Reagan knew that many in the audience which he was speaking to had actually been through the very even he spoke about. Therefore, he had to establish a very personalized ethos in order to live up to their expectations of his speech; as well as to better connect the event with those in the audience who had heard about the events of D-Day but had not experienced first hand. He focuses particularly on the fight of the Rangers because of their strategic involvement in the invasion, as well as the historical importance in the overall success of the invasion. He seldom uses comparisons because he is not talking abstractly about those events; he is telling them how thy really happened, to the people that they happened too, "And before me are the men who put them there. These are the boys of Pointe du Hoc. These are the men who took the cliffs. These are the champions who helped free a continent," (American Rhetoric, 2008). Therefore, that eliminates the need to constantly use analogies which would further abstract is message.

Conclusion…… [Read More]

American Rhetoric. "Ronald Reagan -- 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address."

CBS News. "Ronald Reagan's D-Day Tribute: In 1984 Speech Called Normandy
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Clinton's Speech After Lewinsky's Scandal

Words: 4945 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25316762

Clinton's Lewinsky Speech

Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including Richard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), Ronald Reagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's case this paranoia and suspicion took on pathological levels. Scandal speeches always contain bombshells and shocking information, such as Clinton's admission of having a relationship with Lewinsky, but these admissions will inevitably be placed into as favorable context as possible. As politicians who had achieved the highest office, Clinton, Nixon…… [Read More]


Reagan, R. (1987). Iran-Contra Speech.
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Douglas Brinkely's the Boys of

Words: 1281 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32502934

The Rangers eventually located the battery of cannons that had been moved by the Germans and destroyed them with thermite grenades and helped secure the adjacent beaches for the rest of the D-Day invasion forces.

President Ronald Reagan and the Rebirth of Patriotism

President Reagan may have been a "B movie" actor who was best known for his roles in movies such as "Bedtime for Bonzo," but he was also enormously patriotic and served his country admirably during World War II by making a series of training films and helping raise funds for the war effort. As noted above, he was also a captain in the Army Air Corps, but his poor eyesight precluded his serving in combat. Nevertheless, his moving tribute to the men of the 2nd Ranger Battalion helped fuel a rebirth of patriotism in the U.S. that Brinkley suggests continues to the present day. Indeed, President Reagan was not known as the "Great Communicator" for nothing, and his speechwriters outdid themselves with this tribute. For instance, in his summation of the 2nd Ranger Battalion's heroic efforts, the former president made the observation in his speech that, "Behind me is a memorial that symbolizes the Ranger daggers that…… [Read More]

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Tax Reform Act of 1986

Words: 1855 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99266246

Political Science

Touch of Class

Social Class and the Tax Reform Act of 1986

Taxation has long been a contentious issue among the different classes of American society. The 1960s witnessed the beginning of the end of the old industrial economy. The 1970s saw the remains of American heavy industry move from the Rustbelt of the Midwest and Northeast to the Sunbelt of the South.

Increasingly, the service sector came to dominate the national economy. Population shifts, changes in technology, and a more mobile workforce - each played its part in creating a climate that was ripe for change. In the 1980s, Ronald Reagan proposed his "Supply Side Economics." Cuts in capital gains taxes for the wealthy would provide a stimulus for the entire economy. Benefits accrued from the excess capital would "trickle down" to the masses. The idea was embraced by diehard conservatives, but viciously attacked by many other segments of American society. Democrats, unions, and even many Republicans lined up against the President's plan, while Big Business, white-collar investors, and venture capitalists joined together to push the proposals through. The battle was divided squarely along class lines.

In many ways, the social classes that faced off in the…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice -- Revised 2Nd

Words: 972 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50565411

He will try to achieve balance in his life so that the work does not become all-consuming and then ultimately lead to burn out and frustration.

5. Delegate but don't detach (New Word City, 2010).

It is impossible to manage every aspect of a facility or a program. A leader must delegate, but in so doing, he must remain focused on the goals and the actions of each person who contributes to them. A good leader must avoid placing himself in the position of being unaware of what is happening around him. He must delegate in a way that supports a culture of collaboration and mutual dedication towards achieving goals, without ever seeming as though he is "passing the buck."

6. Build a narrative (New Word City, 2010).

Challenging staff to "be the best we can be" is meaningless. There is no clear direction. Building a narrative means creating picture with words and perhaps telling a story to which people can relate. A well-told story captures people's attention and help them understand, and retain, the meaning of the message.

7. Never underestimate the power of language (New Word City, 2010).

It is important to choose one's words carefully to convey…… [Read More]

New Word City. (2010) Ronald Reagan's leadership lessons. Kindle version.

Strock, J.M. (1999) Reagan on leadership: Executive lessons from the great communicator. Rosevile, CA: Prima Lifestyles.
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Nobel Prize Winner Was Born on Today's

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Nobel Prize winner was born on today's date? What was his field? And what was his political belief system or affiliation?

George de Hevesy was born on August 1, 1885 and received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1943. He was known for his work on "the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes" and "studied, amongst other things, the effect of X-rays on the formation of nucleic acid in tumours and in normal organs, and iron transport in healthy and cancerous organisms" (George de Hevesy, 1943, Nobel Prize). De Hevesy's political affiliation is not noted by the Nobel Prize Committee.

Conservative politics enjoyed a revival during the 1980s and 1990s. Identify conservative goals and assess the impact conservative policies had on U.S. society.

Until the 1970s, the Republican Party in America was not necessarily a traditionally 'conservative' party. There were many moderate Republicans, such as Nelson Rockefeller and John Lindsay who advocated a program of fiscal responsibility and government non-intervention combined with an equally laissez-faire attitude towards social policies. However, during the failed primary challenge of Ronald Reagan to Gerald Ford, this began to change. Republican politics became more and more associated with an evangelical…… [Read More]

Cornish, Audie. (2012). Affordable Care Act's insurance rebates in the mail. NPR. Retrieved:
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Jimmy Carter and the Iran

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84936057

The lasting legacy of the Iran hostage crisis is that the American public and government developed an attitude that the Iran people and government were a group of evil and crazy individuals who lacked the capacity to negotiate. This attitude caused a breakdown in negotiations at the time of the hostage crisis and has continued to the present day. Americans, as a rule, still fail to recognize that the Iranian people have legitimate concerns and that these legitimate concerns have value. Over the decades since the hostage crisis there has been little movement forward in regard to how Americans view Iran and the level of animosity between the two nations remains high. Farber suggests that this level of animosity helped to ensure that America's relations with the Muslim world would remain contentious and that such contentiousness led to the attacks of September 11 that resulted in the escalation of the "war on terror

Work Cited

Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)

Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter

Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical…… [Read More]

Farber, David, the Iran Hostage Crisis and America's First Encounter with Radical Islam, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2006)

Iranian hostage and Jimmy Carter
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American History During the 1940s America Had

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68012031

American History

During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and social mobilization became the positive effects of World War II during the 1950s. However, the downside or the negative effect of WWII is that it further intensified America's policy in abolishing attempts to curb freedom. Thus, in the 1950s, America adopted a Containment Policy that tried to stop Communism from…… [Read More]

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Persuasion Features of Presidential Scandal Speeches

Words: 2997 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63115226

Presidential Speech

The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran secretly. All the aforementioned scandals presented a scenario for the presidents. Bill Clinton, Richard Nixon and Ronal Reagan all had to give speeches at one time or another to own up for their actions.

All the three presidents that gave speeches made use of a stern and strong voice w…… [Read More]

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Policy Subsystems Iron Triangles and Subgovernments Compared to Issue Networks and Advocacy Coalitions

Words: 3563 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84111929

Beyond Separation of Powers

As high school students we all learned about the Constitutional separation of powers. With each of the three branches of government -- the judicial, executive, and legislative -- having the power to limit the power of the others, no one aspect of government could hold the American people hostage. This was the structure that the Framers put into effect to ensure that Americans would have an efficient, but humane, system of government. It was also, from its inception, an idealistic one. Indeed, perhaps too idealistic, for while it is good for democracy to have power divided among many rather than only a few, it is in human nature to want to concentrate power within oneself.

Thus over the over two-and-a-quarter- centuries of our nation's history, people have devised various extra-Constitutional methods for accumulating power. This paper examines three different ways in which individuals and political and interest groups have accrued power for themselves within American public life. Focusing on the decades since 1980, when Ronald Reagan began his first term as president, I will assess which of the three political strategies best explains American policymaking and polity.

These three political strategies that I will be examining…… [Read More]

deHaven-Smith, L & Van Horn, C. (2005). Subgovernment conflict in public policy. Policy studies journal 12(4): 627-642.

Frank, T. ( 24 June 2009). Obama and 'regulatory capture'.
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Political Philosophy I Pick a Political Leader

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36788641

Political Philosophy I pick a political leader (dead alive). Once pick leader, apply a philosopher's ideas a philosophy reveal leaders strengths / weaknesses. You a philosopher's ideas directly influenced a leader ( Machiavelli's influence Mussolini Hitler).

Leadership in the history of political thought has always been identified in the broader lines of certain political paradigms and lines of judgment and characterized by philosophical rules and guidelines. Leaders such as Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin, Charles de Gaulle, Ronald Reagan, Mikhail Gorbachev, to name just a few of the second part of the 20th century leaders that marked the political history of the world, have all been defined in their actions by particular elements of political and philosophical thought. Whether these examples point out a sense of extremism in terms of actions or moderation in their approaches, they are all representatives of social application of social philosophy and political undertaking.

One of the most significant leaders of the 20th century can be considered to have been China's Mao Zedong. His importance for world history does not lie only in the position Mao had, as the leader of the most populous communist country during the Cold War era, but also through the way…… [Read More]

Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.

Hertzler J.O. "The Typical Life Cycle of Dictatorships." Social Forces, Vol. 17, No. 3, (Mar., 1939), pp. 303-309
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Americans Have Always Been Hesitant

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35809941

Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.

In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or Republican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being witnessed in Vietnam. Faith in government was eroding fast during the 1960s, paving the way well for the upheaval and turmoil that characterized the 1970s. The New Left was successful in raising awareness of core political issues, gaining traction for Civil Rights, and poking holes in New Right logic. However,…… [Read More]

Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.

"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online: 
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Tear Down That Wall Has Been the

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40388415

Tear down that wall," has been the one sentence legacy of Ronald Reagan's presidential administration (Boyd). Ask any conservative political pundit and you are likely to hear that Reagan's defense strategy and, in particular, his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), was the direct cause of the Berlin Wall coming down, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the eventual end of the Cold War. Yet, in reality, how instrumental was Reagan and his policy in these occurrences or was the actual cause due to other factors?

Reagan, unlike his predecessors, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon, adopted a much sterner posture relative to relations with the Soviet Union. Reagan entered office initially on the coat strings of President Carter's problems with the Iran hostages and Reagan campaigned on the strength of his strong militaristic positions. When Reagan entered office the Cold War was forty years old. The Soviet Union and the United States has spent four decades trying to outspend and surpass the other in building up its respective weapons warehouse. The build-up was expensive for both countries and it was just a matter of time before one or both decided that this pattern had to be broken.

Interestingly, it…… [Read More]

Address to Members of the British Parliament," June 8, 1982, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan, 1982 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1983), 742-48.

Blum, Bill. "Ronald Reagan's supposed role in ending the cold war." 7 June 2004. Centre for Research on Globalisation. 22 May 2011 .
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Presidential Studies the Transfer of

Words: 2836 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64032062

S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.

Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.

Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were Ross Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the Republican nomination).

In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the Republican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, Ross Perot eroded much of Bush's conservative base and the liberal Clinton easily won the election.

George H.W. Bush to William Clinton

Clinton presented an alternative to George H.W. Bush in that his image was one of a confident, knowledgeable and experienced liberal Democrat. The Clinton administration immediately set to work,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.

Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at
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AIDS on Gay the Community

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52104630

Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.

This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of this societal phobia. Instead, there would appear to be associated factors that influence society's attitudes towards AIDS and PLWAs. (YOU MIGHT WANT TO INSERT YOUR INTERVIEW QUESTIONS HERE)

The focus that the media has put on specific groups unfairly places an emphasis on high-risk groups rather than high-risk activities. As…… [Read More]

Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military: Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Hodgson, I. Culture, meaning and perception: explanatory models and the delivery of HIV care. Abstract MoPeD2772, XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 2000. Available at
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Neustadt's Statement on Presidential Continuity

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13027648

The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.

Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the role of the presidency as vice versa, would ultimately become a template passed from one president to the next until the resolution of the Reagan administration. That this would mark the end of the Cold War, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the tumbling of the Berlin Wall…… [Read More]

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Mcgovern's Failed Candidacy Reshaped the Democrats His

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60276410

McGovern's failed candidacy reshaped the Democrats. His followers gave full convention voting expression to a gamut of groups who make up the "liberal coalition."

Despite the unpopularity of the Vietnam War, President Richard Nixon won by an unprecedented landslide against his Democratic rival, Senator George McGovern. ("The Presidential Election of 1972," 2005) The incumbent Nixon received 61% of the popular vote and 520 votes in the Electoral College to McGovern's 17. The American electorate had apparently granted Nixon the popular mandate that he had always craved. After the debacle of the rioting that took place during the 1968 Democratic Convention, the Democratic Party had undergone internal reforms that had important repercussions in the 1972 campaign, resulting in the nomination of the liberal anti-war pacifist from South Dakota who had little popular appeal.

The traditional power brokers of the Democratic Party, such as big labor, lost representation in the 1972 convention, while women, minorities, and leaders of the peace movement gained greater influence in the party. This transformation angered many of the traditional supporters of the Democrats, such as labor unions, Catholics, and Southerners. ("The Twilight of Liberalism: The Nixon Years," Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, 1999)…… [Read More]

"Clinton: William Jefferson." Welcome to the American Presidency.2005. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at templatename=/article/article.html

"John Ashbrook: 1972 Announcement Speech." (2005) 4 President Speeches. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at 
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Overcrowding in Prisons Impacts on African-Americans the

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73301417

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts on African-Americans

The overcrowded prisons in the United States are heavily populated by African-Americans, many of them incarcerated due to petty, non-violent crimes such as drug dealing. This paper points out that not only are today's prisons overcrowded, the fact of their being overcrowded negatively impacts the African-American community above and beyond the individuals who are locked up. This paper also points to the racist-themed legislation that has been an important reason why so many African-Americans are incarcerated -- and the paper points to the unjust sentencing laws that have unfairly targeted black men from the inner city.

Critical Analysis

When overcrowding becomes an extremely serious human and ethical problem such that state or federal prison officials must find a temporary solution, one trend that has been implemented is to move inmates to other prisons in distant states. However, according to author Othello Harris, who is also editor of the Journal of African-American Men, moving inmates to other states has the "…consequence of reducing the likelihood that prisoners will receive visits from their families and friends" (Harris, et al., 2003, 46). This of course impacts African-American families in a real way because decreased visitation availability takes…… [Read More]

Dalrymple, Jane, and Burke, Beverley. (2006). Anti-Oppressive Practice: Social Care and the Law. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Hallet, Michael A. (2006). Private Prisons in America: A Critical Race Perspective. Champaign,