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The Economic Intelligence Unit ranked Russia near the bottom of its list of globalized countries, giving it a ranking of 55th among the 60 countries surveyed (St. Petersburg Times, 2010). hen the Soviet Union collapsed, there was tremendous hope that the burgeoning trend of globalization would spark a bright future for the Russia. Those hopes quickly faded. Despite its considerable resources wealth, including the world's largest natural gas reserves and 8th largest proven oil reserves (CIA orld Factbook, 2011), the country quickly descended into hyperinflation and human misery (Saunders, 2001).
The Putin era has seen Russia only take tentative steps towards globalization, the country remaining mistrustful of the neoliberal ideology that drives the globalization process. Russian nationalism rose as a response to the "alien culture" of capitalism, and has guided Russian policy ever sense (Ponarin, 2004). hen the opening of markets increased the level of human misery, Ponarin…
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Russia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
Gilman, M. (2010). Russia faces the contagions of globalization. The Moscow Times. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.themoscowtimes.com/opinion/article/russia-faces-the-contagions-of-globalization/399359.html
Kochtcheeva, L. (2010). Russia's response to globalization: Europeanization, Americanization and self-determination. New Global Studies. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.bepress.com/ngs/vol4/iss2/art2/
Maudlin, W. (2011). Russia to join WTO. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November
Not surprisingly, permanent membership on the UN Security Council is a coveted international plum, and those countries that enjoy membership are empowered to virtually veto any substantive action on the part of the Security Council single-handedly (Carlson 9). In the alternative, if the Russian foreign policymakers accepted Germany's bid for membership, it might swing the balance of power from the existing China-Russia (and sometimes France) cabal that exists today and would, from Russia's perspective, seriously undermine their international standing. Russia could recommend that Germany assume a more prominent role in the UN as a more active member of an existing peacekeeping function or increase its commitment to the NATO alliance; this approach, though, might well play into hands of German foreign policymakers in the future as discussed further below.
Germany. Today, German foreign policymakers are assumed to have embraced the three fundamental attributes associated with civilian power over military rule:…
IFOR." (2006). Wikipedia. Retrieved September 16, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IFOR .
Carlson, Allen. (2004). "Helping to Keep the Peace (Albeit Reluctantly): China's Recent Stance on Sovereignty and Multilateral Intervention." Pacific Affairs 77(1):9.
Cortright, David, Linda Gerber and George a. Lopez. Sanctions and the Search for Security: Challenges to UN Action. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
Germany." (2006). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. Retrieved September 16, 2006 https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gm.html.
" (McAdams, 2006) the problem seems top be that healthcare concerns are not very high on the list of priorities of the government of Russia. However, there are reports that doctors in the country are simply not well prepared to perform their function.
III. World's Most Polluted Places
The article entitled "World's Most Polluted Places - Rudnaya Prinstan/Dalnegorsk, Russia" published by the lacksmith Institute states that: "Dalnegorsk and Rudnaya Pristan are two towns in the Russian Far East whose residents suffer from serious lead poisoning from an old smelter and the unsafe transport of lead concentrate from the local lead mining site. According to the most recent study, lead concentrations in residential gardens (476-4310 mg/kg, Gmean=1626 mg/kg) and in roadside soils (2020-22900 mg/kg, Gmean=4420 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation by orders of magnitude. These data suggest that drinking water, interior dust, and garden crops also likely contain dangerous levels…
U.S. Embassy in Russia (2006) Online available at http://vladivostok.usconsulate.gov/wwwhacsmedemerg.html
World's Worst Polluted Places - Rudnaya Pristan/Delnegorsk, Russia (2005) Blacksmith Institute Annual Report. Online available at http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/site10j.php
McAdams, Lisa (2006) Russian Readies Radical Health Care Reform - News VOA Online available at http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-05/2006-05-01-voa31.cfm
Russian Demographics (2005) Online available at http://www.friends-partners.org/oldfriends/facts/russia.html .
Using information from throughout the course, how would you assess Russia as a part of Europe? Culturally, politically, economically?
Russia's geographic proximity to both Asia and Europe has resulted in a distinctive coloration and mixed identities. There is an apparent tendency on the part of many Russians to align themselves with Europe. Reviewing Chepurina's (2011) assertion, this identification appears to be influenced by a preferred association -- much like a person might elevate their status by claiming to live near a more well to do neighborhood. A high flyover review of the articles and readings provides a unique perspective that deeper analysis seems to cloud -- Russia is pegged to Europe as the yuan is pegged to the dollar. As one moves, so moves the other. This is a culturally based analogy, however, not necessarily a political or economic comparison.
The European Union (EU), with its goal of creating…
Charlemagne. "The Eurasian tug-of-war." The Economist. 6 January 2013. 11 April 2014.
Chepurina M "Is Russian Identity European Identity?" Side Menu Society. 21 April 2011.
Shestakov Y "Russia no longer sees itself as part of Europe." Telegraph. 04 January 2012.
Simha RK "Unlocking Russian Identity: European or Asian?" 02 September 2011.
From this point-of-view, terrorism offers the occasion to undermine the state authority and ruin its influence in particular regions.
Olga Oliker points out that the ussians had been engaged into massive urban combat during the 1994-2000 conflicts. Indeed, the Chechens had the necessary means, as stated above, to undergo physically exhausting warfare. At the same time, though, the Oliker points out that the ussian troops also made serious mistakes by firstly underestimating their opponent and secondly by lack of preparedness. More precisely, Oliker points out some mistakes made during the confrontations as "the ussians believed the city was not well defended. They grossly underestimated their enemy and overestimated their own capabilities" (Oliker, 2001). Furthermore, there were clear cut problems of force coordination, among others. In the second intervention, the ussians managed to be more prepared and to have learned from previous mistakes. However, the attitude of the Chechen fighters proved…
Dunlop, John. Russia confronts Chechnya: roots of a separatist conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Oliker, Olga. "Russia's Chechen Wars: 1994-2000. Lessons from Urban combat." Rand Corporation. 2001.
Zurcher, Christoph. The post soviet wars: rebellion, ethnic conflict, and nationhood in the Caucasus. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
Sikorsky (1189 to 1972)
Igor I. Sikorsky was the designer of the first 'four engine fixed wing aircraft' and he also designed the first successful functioning helicopter. This helicopter was of the type that is generally used in the present era. In the year 1923, he emigrated to the United States of America and there he founded the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. This corporation is one of the biggest helicopter producing and designing firms. (Sras.org, 2013)
Sergei Korolov was a rocket designer and the supervisor of the Soviet Space program. And it was under his supervision that the first unmanned satellite, 'Sputnik' was launched in the space and the first man went in the orbit. (Sras.org, 2013)
Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov (1916 to 1998)
He was the founder of the field of organ transplants in animals. In the year 1937, he developed the first artificial heart. He performed first 'heart…
Potocnik, J. (2009) Women in Science. [e-book] Brussels: European Commision. p.86-89. http://ec.europa.eu/research/audio/women-in-science/pdf/wis_en.pdf [Accessed: 26 May 2013].
Lugsdin, E. (2013) Space Exploration -- the Contributions of Major Scientists. [e-book] Slovenia: j o z e f stefan institute. p.1-3. http://www-f1.ijs.si/~ramsak/ciolkowski.pdf [Accessed: 26 May 2013].
Russian Embassy in London (2013) Russian Science and Technology. [online] Available at: http://www.rusemblon.org/russianscience / [Accessed: 26 May 2013].
Sras.org (2013) Science in Russia and the Soviet Union. [online] Available at: http://www.sras.org/science_in_russia_and_the_soviet_union [Accessed: 26 May 2013].
Lissovilik and Lissovilik find that Russian membership in the TO would have a major impact on the structure and possibly the level of trade may be quite significant and could be much higher than current estimates. They find that on average, Russia's exports to TO countries underperformed its exports to other countries in 1995-2002, all the more surprising given "Russia's trade reorientation toward the more advanced developed and developing countries, all of which are or have recently become TO members" (para. 3).
The value of membership is noted by Mike Moore when he writes, "Joining the TO sends a clear message to the world community about a nation's commitment to the rule of law, property rights and good governance" (Moore 30).
In 2004, it was noted that Russia still had to sign agreements with several TO countries, including Japan, South Korea, and the United States. It had already signed an…
Lamy, Pascal. "Toward WTO membership: The EU wants Russia to make the grade."
International Herald Tribune (May 29, 2002). November 21, 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/2002/05/29/edlamy_ed3_.php .
Lissovolik, Bogdan and Yaroslav Lissovolik. "Russia and the WTO: The 'Gravity' of Outsider Status." IMF Staff Papers. Volume 53, Issue 1 (2006). November 20, 2007. http://www.questia.com/read/5015104061.
Membership, alliances and bureaucracy." WTO (2007). November 20, 2007. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org3_e.htm .
Women's equality groups and social organizations have also begun advancing the cause of women's rights in what remains a strongly traditional society.
Based on surveys by the Country Studies Series by Federal esearch Division of the Library of Congress, sexual harassment and violence against women grew increasingly in the 1990s. Over 13,000 rapes were reported in 1994, which means that several times that number of unreported crimes most likely occurred. In 1993, an approximate 14,000 women were murdered by their husbands or lovers, about twenty times the figure in the United States and several times the figure in ussia five years earlier. More than 300,000 other types of crimes, including spousal abuse, were committed against women in 1994; in 1996 the State Duma (the lower house of the Federal Assembly, ussia's parliament) drafted a law against domestic violence.
Working women still have the "double burden" of raising a family and…
Country Studies. Federal Research Division Library of Congress. October 11, 2005.
13 October, 2005. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html
Eberstadt, Nichols. The Public Interest, Issue #158 (Winter 2005), National Affairs, Inc.
Human Rights Watch. "Violence against Women in Russia." Statistics cited by a representative from the Ministry of Social Welfare, meeting at the Union of Russian Jurists, the Commission on Women's Issues, March 22, 1994. 12 October, 2005. http://www.hrw.org/about/projects/womrep/General-198.htm
It is recommended for Americans doing business in ussia to learn the ussian titles for Mr. And Mrs. And to have an understanding of the fact that ussians have three names as opposed to two in America (the third being the middle patronymic) (Wilson, 1996). elations between Americans and ussians in business are new, however many ussians speak English, yet writing documents in the ussian language is necessary. Furthermore, negotiations with ussians are a much more intense affair than in America as ussians are tough and try to wear down through lengthy negotiations. "ussians view compromise as a sign of weakness," and thus stick to their beliefs and may lose their temper, make threats, or walk out of business meetings- actions which will appear unprofessional as American norms (Wilson, 1996). This is a custom in ussian business relations, but something that may be new to Americans. ussians may engage in…
Background Note: Russia. (2007, February). Retrieved April 11, 2007, at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3183.htm
Joint Statement on New Russian-American Economic Relationship. (2001, November 13). Retrieved April 11, 2007, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/11/20011113-10.html
Russian-American Business Cooperation. Retrieved April 11, 2007, at http://www.russianembassy.org/EMBASSY/Rus-Am-business.htm
Schultze, S. (2000). Culture and Customs of Russia. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
These techniques will reduce the risk associated with any one country in the supply chain or manufacturing process. That is, even if Russia turned out to be a bad investment, the company would not be destroyed by that decision as the company would not be dependent on the Russian operation.
3. There are a few guidelines that I would offer to Adam in his negotiations with the Russian government. The first is that he needs to be certain of the protections that he has for his company's intellectual property. Adam is going to have to use local workers, and in doing so will expose his company to the risk that his IP is compromised -- he must be certain that the level of protection his company will receive in the Russian legal system is consistent with Western standards, and that his company will be treated the same as a Russian…
Indeed, the issues of territorial conquests and of wars being waged to occupy Azov for instance were significant at the practical level. However, Peter the Great managed to provide the Empire with an image of aristocracy that for instance, the Ottoman Empire did not have. This is largely due to the fact that all the initiatives to modernize ussia and transform it into the political power it became in the 18th century and beyond was somewhat influenced by the western states Peter the Great visited which included France, Great Britain, Germany. Therefore, the creation of a select aristocracy that learned to speak French or German was essential for exporting the image of a distinctive and modern ussian society. Soon, the ussian aristocracy was studying in the west and returning home with the image of modernity and further influenced their society.
Through these actions, Peter the Great created a modern ussia…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. (Paris: Hatier, 1994)
Cracraft, James. "Revolution of Peter the Great." (Harvard University Press N.d., Available at http://site.ebrary.com/id/10318462 ?)
Hobsbawn, Eric. The age of revolution. 1789 -- 1849. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962)
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. (London: Simon & Schuster, 1995)
ussia and Nationalism During the ussian evolution
Nationalism: "Devotion to one's nation; a policy of national independence ... A form of socialism, based on the nationalizing of all industry," according to the Oxford Universal Dictionary On Historical Principles. In AskJeeves.com "nationalism" is defined as "Love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it," and " ... The conviction that the culture and interests of your nation are superior to those of any nation."
The last definition is part of the way in which nationalism has also become kind of a "catch-phrase" for extreme patriotism, such as the United States policy of "manifest destiny," that any territory America wished to conquer was okay, because it was our destiny to conquer and expand our country.
The question as to how nationalism played a role in the Bolshevik evolution leads a reader into some of the more interesting aspects of assigned books about…
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. (1984). The Russian Revolution: 1917-1932. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford
Hosking, Geoffrey A. (1992). The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union From
Within. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Moynahan, Brian. (1994). The Russian Century: A Photographic History of Russia's 100 Years.
Russia in World War I
Maria Botchkareva and Russia in World War I
Maria Botchkareva's memoirs are painful to read, but also very uplifting in many ways. She talks about the hopelessness of many things in the war, but also about the camaraderie and the enjoyment that can be found in helping others. This is especially true when she writes of creeping out of the trench during the night to go to those that were lying wounded from the battle and begging for help. No one else would do it, and so she did it, and on the first night that she did this, she managed to save the lives of over 50 men. She was given commendation for this, but not as much as a man would have received, because there were still very strict rules and opinions about what a woman could or could not do during the…
"This reliance on commodity exports makes Russia vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the highly volatile swings in global commodity prices" (Introduction: Russia, Flag section, ¶ 3). In 2007, to boost the country's technology sectors, the Russian government launched an aggressive program to lessen its dependency. Few results, albeit, evolved come from the program.
In the agricultural realm, Russia has begun to emerge as an exporter of grain, whereas in the past the country excelled as an importer of grain. Since 1998, when Russia experienced a financial crisis, it has averaged a 7% growth annually. This has doubled disposable incomes; consequently creating a middle class. "The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up" (Introduction: Russia, Flag section, ¶ 3). In late 2008, the…
Researchers who study the international correlation of output changes basically have evaluated the delivery of business cycles between industrial countries. In the book, Is Russia still driving regional economic growth?, Issues 2005-2192, Clinton Shiells, Marco Pani, and Etibar Jafarov recount that a number of previous practical studies "have investigated the determinants of economic growth within each country rather than regional growth linkages and mostly refer to the period prior to the Russian crisis" (p. 5). Havrylyshyn, Izvorski and van Rooden conducted a few studies on growth and regression in transition economies.
The studies conducted by the researchers focused on identifying an array of institutional, macroeconomics, and structural factors as grounds for economic growth in economies that are in transition. "In contrast to these previous studies, the present paper estimates the growth linkages between Russia and other CIS and Baltic countries econometrically and considers how these may have changed
By using these as a channel through which to encourage and reward ethical business behavior, it may be possible to demonstrate the economic imperatives that underscore the demand for ethical codification in Russia. The discussion below seeks to support this claim by demonstrating the role already assumed by those SRI funds in operation. Particularly, it is incumbent upon us to attempt to measure the impact of existing SRI firms, no matter their scarcity, as a way of projecting the value of a larger SRI sector. Indeed, onderlich (2010) underscores this point, indicating that "the private sector must also play a more pro-active role in driving the anti-corrution agenda. First, companies must do not harm. They must manage their own conduct to make sure that their ethics and anti-corruption compliance programs are strong and effective." (onderlich, 2)
This promotes the main hypothesis of the research which is that SRIs have a…
Evans, T. (2010). Observers: Corruption Hits Russian Security. CNN Worls.
Feifer, G. (2009). Corruption in Russia, Part 1: A Normal Part Of Everyday Life. Radio Free Europe.
Pamfiova, E. (2010). Corruption, Undemocratic Institutions Holding Russia Back. RIA Novosti.
Stott, M. (2010). Russia Corruption 'May Force Western Firms to Quit.' Reuters.
After the fall of the Berlin wall, ussia seemed inconsequential. The crumbling of that wall symbolized the crumbling of the U.S.S.., or in most Westerners' view, ussia. Prior to the dissolution of the U.S.S.., ussia loomed large in many people's minds. The threat of a nuclear war was an everyday fear and ussia, it was feared, would be the one to start it. Schoolchildren were made to hide under their desks to drill for the eventual onset of a nuclear war (as if that would offer any protection). Now, however, most Westerners do not ever even think of ussia, much less fear it. ussia has become irrelevant in Westerners' minds. Well, after reading, "Does ussia Matter?" By Paul E. ichardson, it seems that Westerners had better pay attention because the bear can raise its huge head on a number of different issues (ichardson, 2003). Of particular interest is…
Richardson, P. (2003). Does Russia Matter? Retrieved December 02, 2012 from Website
Russian Life website: http://www.russianlife.com/blog/does-russia-matter/
Economic Development Between China and ussia
Both China and ussia have changed the way they operate in recent years, and that change has been a long time coming. The adjustments the countries have made are overdue, in that they should have been performed years ago in order to keep the countries on track and provide better economic growth for the people who call them home. As such, both China and ussia struggle with economic issues and poverty problems, some of which are more obvious and some of which appear to be more hidden. President Putin has changed the ussian economy and made important strides, but not enough has been done. The same is true with China, and Chairman Xiaoping Deng. eformation has been strong, but serious economic problems remain for the country. Here, the reasons behind those problems are looked at, in order to show what else may be done…
Castells, Manuel, Joao Caraca, and Gustavo Cardoso, eds. Aftermath: the cultures of the economic crisis. Oxford University Press, 2012.
Puffer, Sheila M., Daniel J. McCarthy, and Max Boisot. "Entrepreneurship in Russia and China: the impact of formal institutional voids." Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 34.3 (2010): 441-467.
Ruhl, Christof, et al. "Economic development and the demand for energy: A historical perspective on the next 20 years." Energy Policy 50 (2012): 109-116.
ussia in the 16th-17th century
The most significant achievement and expansion of ussia occurred during the later 16th and 17th centuries. Prior to this however, during the early 1500s ussia was enjoying the last remnants of enaissance culture. Some of the crowning achievements during this time, similar to those that occurred all over Europe in the age of art included the building of cathedrals and the printing of books. The second largest Cathedral in the Kremlin, the Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel, was built during 1505-1508 (russianet). The cathedral was elaborately and elegantly decorated as was typical of the era, some describe it as similar to works created during the Italian enaissance more so than the ussian (russianet). The Cathedral became the burial place of the rulers of ussia. Also occurring during this time, between 1517-1519 the first books in ussia were printed in Prague (russianet). In 1524 the…
Interknowledge, 1997. Russian History from 1600. Retrieved December 6, 2002 at http://europeanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.departments.bucknell.edu%2Frussian%2Fchrono2.html
The History of Russia. Retrieved December 6, 2002 at http://www.russianet.ru
Corporate Diplomacy: IKEA and the ussian Market
A Communication Strategy of Multinationals in elation to Host Governments
Corruption in the ussian Market
One of the main issues IKEA faced when it attempted to get into the ussian market was corruption (Heath, 2010). Because of the level at which that corruption took place, IKEA publicly rallied against it in an effort to change some of the problems that appeared to be so inherent in ussia's political system (Meyer, 2011). The corruption was something likely seen in other markets, as well, but not as blatantly as it was seen in ussia. IKEA's slogan in ussia was "Now Everything is Possible!" (Heath, 2010). That made sense in many ways. It sounded good in ussian, it spoke to the economic and political resurgence the country was experiencing, and it also related to the large number of items that can be found for sale in…
Abrahamson, E. & Eisenman, M. (1999) Management fashion: Lifecycles, triggers, and collective learning processes. Administrative Science Quarterly 44(4): 708 -- 740.
Anderson, G. (2005) Introduction. In: Anderson G (ed.) Reinventing the museum -- Historical and contemporary perspectives on the paradigm shift. Walnut Creek: Rowman & Littlefield, pp.1 -- 8.
Botan, C., & Hazleton, V. (eds.). (2006). Public relations theory II. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bush, J. (2009). An unpredictable business climate: IKEA turns sour on Russia. Spiegel Online International. http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/a-632507.html
The Sources of Soviet Conduct: The Essence of Kennan’s Article
The essence of George F. Kennan’s article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” is that Soviet conduct is based on the ideology of the founders of the Soviet system in Russia and on the circumstances that Soviet rule has foisted upon the country. Kennan breaks down what that ideology is and what those circumstances are in his article. For Soviets, Moscow was infallible, as Kennan (1947) described: the state was the supreme arbiter of the direction that society should take and its ideology was such that it could never collaborate with the capitalistic West but must, inevitably, act as a force opposed to the pursuits of the West. The essence of the Soviet State, according to Kennan, was that it would bide its time until the capitalist West collapsed under the weight of its own internal corruption. At that time, the…
At the same time, the socialist views of Karl Marx and Frederic Engels came to be known in Russia and offered the intellectuals a new consideration of the relation between work, remuneration, and the relationship between the worker and its employer. This in turn created a new sense of national unity and a reconsideration of what nationality really meant.
Taking all these perspectives into account, it is essential that the precise reason for the revolution. First and foremost, there was a need for change and the socialist views considered that change cannot occur through evolution, but rather revolution. In this sense, at the time, it was considered that the tsarist rule had brought the Russian empire to its ruin through the constant attempts to support social exclusion and differentiation. Thus, "for more than a century Russia's progressive forces stubbornly and tirelessly labored for the destruction of the most despotic governmental…
Basil, John. "Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution. Russian Review." The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review, 1968.
Don Levine, Isaac. The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1917.
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire 1875-1914. Oxford: Abacus, 1995.
Jahn, Hubertus. Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I. Ithaca,.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Being a stranger in a strange land: the feeling of culture shock is both exciting but also unnerving. Even knowing the English language or being familiar with American culture through film and television does not mean we will not encounter culture shock in other ways. The subtle mannerisms and gestures, facial expressions, and other types of nonverbal communication prove complicating even when we know the spoken language. The food and clothing styles will be different, as will the customs, rituals, and realities of daily life. As a Russian studying abroad in the United States, I have experienced many different levels of culture shock. These experiences have made me a stronger person, contributing to the value of my international education. While Russians and Americans share in common a strong sense of individuality and national pride, I have experienced culture shock in terms of communication, lifestyle, and customs.
One of the most…
Russia, Reform and Revolution
The Great Reforms freed the serfs but they did not really ease the life of the peasant or make it much better. The social structure (i.e., class system) remained fundamentally the same, except now the landowning class was determined to give as little to the peasants as possible. hereas prior to the Reforms, the peasants viewed the landowners similarly to the way Europeans viewed their lords in feudal Europe, as their providers and protectors. Now the peasants were viewed as autonomous and dependent upon themselves and the law was rigged against them regarding in particular the land settlement act (Freeze). The actual beneficiary of the Reform was neither serf nor landowner, but the State, which expanded its bureaucracy from the Tsar on down to the village. Now the serfs, who had always operated under the expression "we are yours, but the land is ours" now had…
Freeze, "Reform and Counter-Reform," pp. 180-93
Cracraft, pp. 344-58: MacKenzie-Wallace on mir and zemstvo (1877)
Olga Vasileva, "The Significance of the Peasant Commune in Revolutionary Thought" (student paper, 2012)
"The Catechism of a Revolutionary" (1868) and "Demands of Narodnaia Volia [People's Will]" (1879) in Dmytryshyn, ed. Imperial Russia, pp. 350-59
I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)
The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.
Catherine the Great
One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…
Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.
Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.
Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.
Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
Business in ussia
The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).
ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…
Kwintessential (2004). Doing Business in Russia. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-russia.html
Pearson Education (2013). Russia: Maps, History, Government, Geography, Culture, Facts,
Guide and Travel. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107909.html
Russian Embassy (2012). Russian Geography-Regions of Russia. Retrieved from http://rusemb.org.uk/russiageography/
However, expansion requires capital investment and there is question as to whether these trends have a strong enough bases to continue into the future. The focus of Russian spending trends is on construction, particularly improvements on the infrastructure. However, this good news comes with a work of caution. Russia still has many obstacles to overcome in terms of competitiveness. They are recent players on the global market and need to invest intensively to become major players. They still have a long way to go. Investors should keep this in mind as they decide to include Russia in their list of expansion projects (Economist Intelligence Unit Viewsire).
A review of literature regarding the growth of the Russian economy reveals many variables that could affect the long-term ability to sustain the current growth rates. Analysts disagree on the sustainability of the Russian economy. One body of analysts feels that sufficient resources are…
Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire. Russia's booming economy. June 18th 2007. The Economist. http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=349002&story_id=9354403 Accessed April 8, 2008.
Gaddy, C. Issues in the U.S.-Russia Economic Relationship. October 17, 2007. Brookings. http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2007/1017russia.aspx . Accessed April 8, 2008.
Products Marketing Association (PMA). International Resources: global Market Profile: Russia. http://www.pma.com/cig/international/russia.cfm Accessed April 8, 2008.
Sweeney, P. Exports to Russia Grow. Business Information Service for the Newly Independent
The read on him is that he can be "volatile" and "difficult to manage," but that he is an intelligent, effective leader. The general read is that Saakashvili attacked South Ossetia first, and Putin responded with massive overkill.
There have been numerous charges tossed about that George ush somehow triggered the Georgia-Russia crisis for many different reasons. Most of these charges have come repeatedly from Vladimir Putin. No independent, objective analysis of the crisis has found any evidence of the truth of those charges. (Zunes, 2008) a lame-duck president with most of his troops fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, George ush warned, threatened, cajoled, negotiated and sent aid. U.S. Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, held countless phone calls with Georgia and Russia asking them to back off. They didn't.
Aftermath - Solutions?
Russia currently has approximately 7600 "peacekeeping" troops stationed in South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and a few Georgian locations. There…
BBC news. (2008, August 21). Day-by-day: Georgia-Russia crisis. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from BBC news: Europe: day-by-day:
Drive, D. (2006, November). Blogs about: Georgia Russia crisis. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from WordPress.com: http://wordpress.com/tag/georgia-russia-crisis/
International Crisis Group. (2008, November 10). Russia-Georgia: the aftermath. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from International crisis group: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5772
A core weakness in the current dynamic seems to be the laxity of enforcement on the part of the EU with respect to this issue of citizenship. According to EU Facts, "although they had to improve their citizenship process in order to join the EU in 2004, a significant proportion of the population (10% of Estonians and 19% of Latvians) have still not been given these rights. Relations with Russia are critical to all three countries." (p. 1)
Today, there is an opportunity to force reconsideration of Russian relations for the Baltic States. As the global recession spreads through the EU and imposes heavy burdens upon the three states in question, leaders are being forced to reconsider the unilateral approach that has caused such problematic dependency on a struggling economic coalition.
The greatest threat to the critical relations between Russia and the Baltics is the cultural tension which exists between…
Bajarunas, E.; Haab, M. & Viksne, I. (1995). The Baltic States: Security and Defence After Independence. Chaillot Papers, 19.
Buhbe, M. & Kempe, I. (2005). Russia, the EU and the Baltic States: Enhancing the Potential for Cooperation. Batic Centre for Russian Studies.
EU Facts. (2010). Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Civitas.
Herd, G.P. & Lofgren, J. (2001). 'Societal Security', the Baltic States and EU Integration. Cooperation and Conflict, 36(3), 273-296.
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great was "one of those catalyzing forces in history who, through hard experience, unbounded intelligence, and overwhelming practicality, changed the face of a country against overwhelming odds. She was a German princess who was married to Peter, a nephew of Elizabeth, who served as Empress of Russia from 1741 to 1762. Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, was a shrewd and Machiavellian ruler; she did not like Catherine, who was, from the time of her marriage to Peter in 1745 to the death of Elizabeth in 1762, constantly under the threat of danger (www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM)."
Upon Elizabeth's death, Peter became Emperor Peter III and during his reign of just a few months, established peace between Russia and Prussia, averting Russia's conquest of Prussia. He was assassinated soon afterward, resulting in Catherine becoming ruler of Russia.
Prior to the deaths of Elizabeth and…
Absolute Monarchy and Enlightened Absolutism. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM).
Eighteenth Century: Introduction. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.rollins.edu/Foreign_Lang/Russian/18intro.html).
Peter the Great, Catherine the Great and the Rise of Russia. (accessed 01 June, 2005).
Chechnya [...] Chechen conflict with ussia, including how it started and when, along with the causes, effects, main events and attacks, and a current perspective on events in Chechnya today. Chechnya has always desired independence from ussia, and continues to fight for its' freedom today. The tiny country has not been able to shed ussian influence and government, but it has evolved into a world political crisis that has effected thousands of Chechen civilians and continues to cause strife and violence today.
Chechnya is a Soviet epublic that declared independence from ussia in 1991. However, ussia's leaders refused to acknowledge Chechnya's independence, and instead sent in troops to subdue the Chechens. They withdrew when they met armed Chechens ready to defend their country, but the current conflict had its beginnings in these events in 1991, which escalated to full-scale war by 1994. However, the roots of the problems between Chechnya…
Author not Available. " The Situation in Chechnya and Ingushetia Deteriorates." HumanRightsWatch.org. 8 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/07/russia8408.htm
Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Paige Sullivan, eds. Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Editors. "Country Profiles: Chechnya." BBC. 2004. 23 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/2357267.stm
Shah, Anup. "Crisis in Chechnya." GlobalIssues.org. 2 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp
Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Matthews, Owen and Anna Nemtsova. "The Kremlin Vigilantes." 14 February 2009. Newsweek. 17 May 2009 .
Monacelli, R. "Russia: Population, Immigration and the Economy." 19 February 2009. Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology, Policy. 17 May 2009 .
Schwirtz, M. "For Russia's Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope." 9 February 2009. New York Times. 17 May 2009 .
Yasmann, V. "Russia: Immigration Likely to Increase, Mitigating Population Deficit." November 2005. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 16 May 2009 .
RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION STATS:
immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population
immigrant population >…
Banjanovic, Adisa. "Russia's new immigration policy will boost the population." 14 June 2007. Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Room for Debate: Russia and the Liberal Ideal
The Liberal Ideal of the est, which grew out of the Romantic/Enlightenment era where men like Voltaire and Rousseau espoused the qualities of naturalism, freedom, and equality, is now being challenged by Russian President Vladimir Putin. He in turn is raising questions and rebuttals from those who oppose his regime's initiatives. Three articles from The New York Times show different perspectives on this challenge -- specifically, its effects on the social, political and economic situation of those it is aimed at rebuffing. This paper will identify the perspectives, synthesize the arguments, and put forth the new argument, which is this: while estern (and Eastern) liberals may object to these anti-liberal policies, as leader of Russia Putin has the right to oppose and/or support whatever ideals he deems healthy for Russia.
Each article shows why Russia's new anti-liberal direction is problematic for both…
Bernstein, Jacob. "Anti-Gay Policies Chill Viewers' Interest." The New York Times. 31
Jan 2014. Web.
Gladstone, Rick. "Pussy Riot Members Take Tour to New York." The New York Times.
5 Feb 2014. Web.
hile this class of Russians was known for its fascination with luxury brands, there is evidence that Russia's newer wealthy class are shifting their tastes to more independent looks (Groskop, 2008).
The target market therefore is going to be part of the older demographic, for whom luxury brands are directly equated with status and style. In Russia, these will tend to be females in millionaire families, aged 35 and up. These buyers will tend to live in either Moscow or St. Petersburg, where almost all of Russia's wealth is held. They are worldly, and are often familiar with luxury brands from their travels. These Russians are well-traveled and consider themselves among Europe's elite. They are usually educated, but most of the women do not work. Shopping is a pastime, and they will invariably have purchased luxury brands before, if not Coach specifically.
The typical financial picture of a…
Coach 2009 Form 10-K. Retrieved December 5, 2010 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MzY0MzU4fENoaWxkSUQ9MzU4NjcyfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1
Groskop, V. (2008). How Russia's new super rich are buying cool. The Guardian. Retrieved December 5, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2008/jan/13/fashion.features4
No author. (2006). Luxury goods firms are profiting from Russia's wealth. International Herald Tribune / New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/15/business/worldbusiness/15iht-luxury.3917590.html
Time. (2007). Russia: More than just millionaires. Time Magazine. Retrieved December 5, 2010 from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1664380,00.html
ussia has accused Georgia of allowing Chechen rebels to move freely and providing safe haven to them for launching terrorist attacks from across the border.
elations with Neighboring Countries
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed by 12 of the 15 former Soviet epublics after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 to preserve some of the political and economic ties. ussia's relations with the CIS countries have, however, been dogged by mutual distrust. Sources of tension between ussia and CIS members include the issue of claim over military assets belonging to the Soviet Union and the status of ussians settled in the former Soviet republics. Most of the disputes about assets have now been settled but such disputes have left a bad taste in the mouth and the initial optimism about the CIS becoming even a loose confederation has not been realized. ("ussia: Foreign elations," 2005)
Politics: Recent Political Events," (2004) Country Profile Russia 2004 Main Report
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia at a Glance (2005-2006)." (2005). Country Report Russia January 2005 Updater. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia: Foreign Relations." (2005) Political Overview Section from Countrywatch. Retrieved on February 16, 2005 at http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=142
pharmaceuticals in ussia. The writer provides an overview of the history of the topic as well as the current concerns in the field. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
When the Soviet Union dismantled its communist regime and began to rebuild its entire political and economic structure the world cheered and offered its support. It has been more than a decade and while several areas have been enjoying marked success the pharmaceutical field has been fraught with problems. The pharmaceutical industry in ussia has dealt with many problems including fraud, counterfeit and fake products. It is an industry that by its very nature mandates the strict compliance with purity both in manufacturing as well as cost. ussia works towards that compliance while trying to rid itself of the problems that have come with it.
The ussian pharmaceutical market is filled with problems and one of the biggest…
Privin, Irina (1997). Russia Beckons the Industry., Pharmaceutical Executive, 10-01-1997, pp 88.
Author not available (1996). RUSSIA DISCUSSES QUALITY OF MEDICAL IMPORTS FROM INDIA.., ITAR-TASS, 04-04-1996.
Author not available (1998). AS OF DEC. 8 RUSSIA RAISES IMPORT DUTIES ON ANY PHARMACEUTICALS HAVING A RUSSIAN-MADE ANALOGUE.., A&G Information Services, 12-29-1998.
Startseva, Alla (2002).Fake Drugs Called a $250M Business, THE MOSCOW TIMES., The Moscow Times (Russia), 04-26-2002.
The European country continues to negotiate numerous terms of agreements with the global organizations and is increasing its efforts to align its technologies to those required in the international context.
Another impediment in the path to successful trade between the United States of America and ussia is given by the rampant legislature. Take for instance the case of an American entrepreneur who would like to open a new business subsidy in Moscow and conduct import and export operations. He would have to go through an estimated number of 20 to 30 governmental agencies and acquire somewhere between 50 and 90 licenses.
A following reason for the tense relationships between the countries is revealed by different approaches in financial regulations. Whereas the United States promote an open circulation of capital, the officials at Kremlin deny it. As a consequence, ussian entrepreneurs have limited access to funding and investments on both national…
Dinmore, G., U.S. And Russia Miss Deadline on Trade, Financial Times, 30 October, 2006
Wilson, J., the Fast Food Phenomenon, Russia's Other Booming Market, 2004, http://18.104.22.168/sras/news2.phtml?m=262,last accessed on April 4, 2008
The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2008, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.htmllast accessed on April 4, 2008
Background Note: Russia, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, U.S. Department of State, 2007, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3183.htm l. Ast accessed on April 4, 2008
U.S.S.R., Russia, and China: A Comparison
Factors Contributing to the demise of the U.S.S.R.
Many factors contributed to the downfall of the U.S.S.R. One of the main things was the lack of leadership that the country had. This is not to say that it did not have a leader, only to say that the leadership itself had difficulties that the leaders tried to hide but ultimately could not. It was not the people that were flawed, although they were certainly not perfect, but it was the leadership ideals that the country held that were the problem. This was the main reason that the country fell, but a lack of leadership contributed to a great many other things that worked against the country as well.
For example, divorce, corruption, alcoholism, and economic problems were prevalent, and no one was really doing anything to prevent them from getting worse. This helped work…
The kingdom was left in ruins to Ivan's childless remaining son, Feodor, but soon came under the leadership of Boris Godunov, the brother of Ivan's last rape and one suspected murder.
Perrie and Pavlov single themselves out from the historical mass in their examination of Ivan IV by separating the man from the ruler; outside of a Stalinist examination of the ruler, they found a tyrant whose sadist cruelty was separate from his ability to centralize power and build the first Russian autocracy from which hundreds of years of greatness would follow. Yet, they clearly understand that it would be foolish to separate the pathological personality of Ivan from his reign; it does, in fact, serve to solidify many of his actions and the monstrous attempts at his thirsty control for absolute power. They recognize his epitaph - groznyi - as the source of the ruler whose leadership was awe-inspiring…
He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).
During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…
Stalin had suffered a major stroke on March 1st 1953 but there was delayed treatment due to his actions over the previous decades. he slowly died in the course of the few days that followed apparently in agony and ended up dying of brain haemorrhage.it still remains unclear whether Stalin would have been saved if medical help would have arrived shortly after he suffered from the stroke.
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014). Russian Revolution.Retrieved May 9,2014 from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution
Russia was a highly backward agricultural country prior to the revolution of 1917. Most of the agricultural land was owned by the royal family, the nobility and the clergy. Most peasants had to manage to survive on less than three acres of land using primitive tools and methods of cultivation. To compound their problems they were required to pay huge sums in rent and tributes to their land owners every year. These hardships created great discontent. Moreover, Russian industry was behind the times and highly dependent on foreign investment capital. Industrial workers had to endure hard conditions, received extremely low wages, and worked 12 to 14 hours a day. During this period it was considered a crime to form trade unions. The government did nothing to improve these conditions and the majority of the Russian people suffered from poverty and disease ("Causes of the Russia Revolution").
"Causes of the Russian Revolution." Pink Monkey Online Study Guide -- World History. (ND). Web. 22 October 2012.
"Causes." The Russian Revolution. (N.D.). Web. 22, 2012. < http://akussr.com/index.html>
Irakli Alasania: Georgia and Russia
Russia has had a difficult time adjusting to democracy. They have been inundated by capitalistic barons, gangsters and leaders who remain stuck in a communist ideology. Russia has tried to look more like the West because they see the financial advantages of the move, but, unfortunately, it seems that it difficult to move to a free market way of life. The problems increase when they have so many problems with former Russian states.
Irakli Alasania is one of the established leaders of Georgia. He has held several federal governmental and diplomatic posts, but his goal is a Georgia that is free from the controlling thumb of Russia. The Russian attitude of corruption and control has been the hallmark of the Georgian government under Saakashvili, and Alasania wants to end that chapter of Georgian life. This essay discusses the life, politics and aims of Irakli Alasania.…
hile the February Revolution ended the reign of the Tsar, the October Revolution solidified the hold and influence of the Bolsheviks. Lenin appealed to popular notions in order to garner support, though what followed the Bolshevik seizure of power was only more civil war between the Reds and the hites. The October Revolution nonetheless ended Tsarist Russia, as it had been known, by setting the course definitively towards a socialist state, in which violence and totalitarianism were key dictates, and the old technique of divide and conquer was used to quell the opposition that was itself full of disunity. Autocratic Russia could not have continued in tsarist form as there were too many forces at work in Russia at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century. The Bolsheviks were too well funded to fail and the will of the tsar was out of favor with the…
Rabinowitch, Alexander. "The October Revolution." Critical Companion to Russian
Wildman, Allan. "The Breakdown of the Imperial Army in 1917." Critical Companion
to Russian History.
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
Terrorism in ussia on an International Level
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…
Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism
Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.
Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738
Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
A major foreign policy issue that the United States must face today is the rise of the multi-polar world -- namely the role of Russia and China in world trade. With Russia coming to play a dominant role in the Middle East by aiding Assad's Syrian forces against ISIS and rebels fighters, the U.S. has a choice to make about how to approach the foreign power. If the U.S. pursues a policy antagonistic to Russia, it could find itself on the losing end of a fight in the Middle East, as Russian missile technology is far advanced and capable of shielding a significant radius. Moreover, outside the Middle East Russia and China have formed a significant relationship -- one that could undermine the dollar's role as the world's reserve currency. If the U.S. pursues a policy of befriending Russia and working with Russia and its partners to establish mutually-beneficial terms…
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
Between 1995-2002, 99% of all births in ussia were attended by skilled health personnel, while the number of physicians per 100,000 people was 420 between 1990-2003, and the number of people with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs in 1999 was between 50-79% (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
Nutrition, Water and Smoking
The United Nations reports that in 2000, 99% of ussia's population had "sustainable access to an improved water source. Between 1999-2001, 4% of the population was undernourished, while between 1995-2002 of all children under the age of 5, 3% were underweight and 13% were under height for their age group. From 1998-2002, 6% of all infants in ussia were born with low birth weight (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)."
One of the leading, preventable health risks is smoking.
In 2000, 10% of all adult ussian women smoked, compared to 63% of all adult men (http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_US.html)." This illustrates why men may be more likely to suffer from…
Lokshin, Michael M. And Ruslan Yemtsov. (26 February, 2001). "Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty and Social Exclusion in Post-Crisis Russia." The World Bank
Group. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://econ.worldbank.org/working_papers/1417/).
UN Development Programme. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/cty/cty_f_RUS.html ).
WHO. (accessed 28 February 2005). http://www.who.int/countries/rus/en/ ).
However, most of them have gradually resigned themselves to their situation and are enduring the circumstances in the best way possible.
Perhaps the most appropriate way to analyze the Soviet society in the post-Soviet period is to look at the effect of the change on different age groups of the population as has been done in a 2001 "Human Development eport" published by UNDP. The report reveals that among the different age-groups of ussians -- the "soviet" generation, born in the 1920s and 30s have been "pushed to the sidelines of public life" and suffer from an intense feeling of depression close to a feeling of being a social outcast. The "middle generation" groups too suffer from a deep "socio-emotional" crisis, considering itself as a generation "lost" in the waves of transformation and in their "struggle for survival." The younger ussian generation, on the other hand, has coped…
Country Study: Russia." (2004) Country Studies: The Library of Congress. October 1, 2004. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html
Human Development Report on Russia, 2001." (2002) Edited by Prof. Serguei Bobylev. UNDP. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=publications
Russia." (2005). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
2004 Estimate; Source: CIA World Fact book legacy of the Soviet era when the ruling ideology encouraged the adoption of a uniform Russian culture and enforced Russian as the official language throughout the Union
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…
From Jessica McElrath, Your Guide to African-American History)."
In addition to the renaissance the new found self-confidence and pride that was found by Southern Blacks who moved north also impacted the work environment.
Social protest was not only possible it was available to those who were not happy with their working conditions in the North (the BLACKS and the UNIONS (http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blktu.html).While it was extremely oppressed compared to the life of African-Americans today, it was still a far cry and significantly better than anything they had experience in the south up to that point.
Currently the nation is facing a social crisis when it comes to the plight of Mexican immigrants. Whether they are here legally or illegally there are an estimated 12 million Mexicans working and living inside the American boundaries. If one were to compare their plight to those of the Southern blacks they would find several similarities.…
People at Risk
Harlem Renaissance http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren.htm
THE BLACKS and the UNIONS
history of Germany, Japan, and Russia, comparing it with that of Mexico in the time-Period 1919-1945.
GERMANY, JAPAN, RUSSIA, AND MEXICO
One of the most interesting parallels between Mexico and the other countries in question is the way the people of Mexico reacted to what was happening in their country. Mexico, with its distinct peasant and upper-class populations, was ripe for changed during this time. "A veneer of Mexican culture scarcely overcomes the distance between the Mexican peasant and the Mexican citizen. The Mexican peasant, like peasants everywhere, lives in one world, the Mexican citizen in another" (Gran 160). However, while Russia, Japan, and Germany turned to socialism and dictatorship, Mexico turned to socialism for a time during the rule of Cardenas, but rejected it for a capitalistic democracy, much influenced by the United States. Cardenas' administration "expropriated U.S. And British oil companies. President Roosevelt and his ambassador to Mexico…
Gran, Peter. Beyond Eurocentrism: A New View of Modern World History. 1st ed. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
Jones, Errol D. "26 World War II and Latin America." World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Ed. Lee, Loyd E. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. 415-431.
Mayer, Dr. Eric. "1919-1945, Germany and Japan." Emayzine.com. 2001. 7 Nov. 2002. http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/germany%20and%20Japan%.html
Spenser, Daniela, and Friedrich Katz. The Impossible Triangle: Mexico, Soviet Russia, and the United States in the 1920s. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Prison Condition in USA vs. ussia
In assessing the human rights conditions of maximum security facilities, human rights groups look into 3 main areas: the duration of confinement; the conditions of confinement, and the criteria of eligibility. Each of these areas must be looked into individually and then considered in the context of the entire situation (Human ights Watch). Quite a number of concerns have been raised about the human rights conditions of the individuals held in prisons including: mistreatment of inmates / detainees by prison officials; unsafe conditions; and lack of sufficient legal protection (United States Department of State, n.d.). This paper also compares the situation of prison facilities in the United States and ussia.
The Standard Minimum ules, or the SMs for the Treatment of Prisoners are one of the most important international agreements on how prisoners should be handled. The SMs were adopted in 1955 by…
Hounshell, B. (2010). What are Russian prisons like? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2010/12/28/what-are-russian-prisons-like/
Human Rights Watch (n.d.). Supermax Prisons: an overview. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from https://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/supermax/Sprmx002.htm#TopOfPage
Markovic, V. (2000). Maximum Security Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. CRIME AND JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL, 16(39), 9-10.
Rosen, A. (2012). Inside Russia's Prison System. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/10/inside-russias-prison-system/263806/
religion shaped identity political entities ussia (us', Soviet Union, ussian federation) ways 'Historically, there has been a somewhat tricky dichotomy between religion in what is today known as ussia and the political situation that has governed this country. The relationship between these two crucial elements of society -- religion and politics -- has at times been in accordance with one another, and other times dangerously at odds with each other. Today there is a degree of tolerance and temperance between these two aspects of ussian life that have served to produce a great deal of friction throughout the country previously.
During the period of Czarist ussia, which concluded in 1917, politics exerted a great deal of influence over religion. With the Czars governing the country, ussian Orthodoxy was essentially the only religion supported by the state. Despite the fact that this religion was prevalent throughout the country well before the…
McCarthy, B. (2012). "Grappling with a post-Soviet identity." PRI's The World. Retrieved from http://www.theworld.org/2012/01/post-soviet-identity/
No author. (2007). "Religious and political history of modern Russia." Mary Mother of God Mission Society. Retrieved from http://www.vladmission.org/history/religiouspoliticalhist.htm
Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
Bennett, Philip. "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg." The Boston Globe
[Boston] 8 Aug 1993:
Japan Fact Sheet. "Railways." Web Japan. 10 Mar 2007.
< http://web-japan.org/factsheet/pdf/TRANSPOR.PDF >
Eugenia Ginzburg and Stalinist Russia
This paper looks at the book Journey Into the Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg and examines how her story impacts the study of the Stalinist Terror.
Eugenia Ginzburg: Portrait of a Prisoner
Eugenia Ginzburg experienced the heart of the Stalinist Terror as few have who lived to tell about it. A staunch communist supporter, Ginzburg found herself wrongfully accused of being an enemy of the people and subsequently thrown into jail. She spent the next eighteen years as a part of the Stalinist prison camps, suffering the hardships and tortures that those camps heaped upon the prisoners unfortunate enough to be imprisoned in them. Yet, through it all, Ginzburg never gave up on her communist convictions, and remained loyal to her party, only saying that Stalin was an enemy of the people, not the communist party. Because of her unique perspective of having been a part…
(orster, p. 1) Still, to a much larger extent that we will see applies to Abkhazia, the constitutive view is seen as much more valid and valuable to the international community. Here, we consider the case history offered by the statehood of Croatia and Bosnia/Herzegovina. According to orster, "the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Court of Justice's neighbor in the Hague is also supportive of the constitutive theory. In the ?elebi-i case, the I.C.T.Y. held that the conflict within the former Yugoslavia was only of an international nature after international recognition of the independent statehood of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina." (orster, p. 1)
Though there would be dissenting opinion on this stance within the International Courts, it does hold that at present, there is no obligation on the part of Georgia to recognize the statehood of Abkhazia. Moreover, it is clear that an assertion on…
Fabry, M. (2007). Secession and State Recognition in International Relations and Law. American Political Science Association.
Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/1/2/0/1/p212013_index.html
Moravcsik, a. (1992). Liberalism and International Relations Theory. Harvard University, Paper No. 92-6.
Online at www.princeton.edu/~amoravcs/library/liberalism_working.pdf
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
The collapse of the Soviet Union is perhaps one of the most influential events in world history, with political and economic consequences that reverberated across the world.
The once-great nation's southern region, now divided into eight independent republics, have been attempting to enter democratic society, but the transition from republic to democracy has been difficult at best -- and in some cases has failed outright.
The Struggle for Dominant Nationalities
One of the largest impediments to true democracy in central Asia has been the unequal ethnic makeup of the new republics.
In Uzbekistan, for instance, many of the cities had been known since ancient times for their multiculturalism and multi-linguism -- even the capital city of Tashkent.
However, with the formation of this republic, the second-largest cultural group in these cities, the Tajiks, was betrayed; unable to form a territorial state of their…
Domestic and foreign policy caused nation's anger and disrespect both in the eyes of own people and foreigners. As a result, Russian defeats and casualties on the WWI battlefields became a culminating point of Russian troubled times - the March Revolution began. Ultimately, Czar's rule was replaced and two main powers appeared: Provisional Government which consisted of wealthy elite and local Soviets which represented the majority of population. As the matter of fact Russians got disappointed with Provisional Government for many reasons. First of all that government continued participating in WWI and did nothing to stop it while practically all citizens suffered wartime troubles and wished taking their state out of the absurd war. Also Provisional Government was weak and had no real support either among citizens or in the army, so when Bolsheviks attacked it there was nobody to defend it. Russians realized that Provisional Government provided the same…
The issue of justice is also very closely related to that of morality. In the epublic, morality is again a function of the class division dictated by soul dominance. With every individual's place in society rigidly defined, social interaction were also defined. There would be a prescribed way of dealing with someone lese based on which class each member was, and since most immoral behavior has some form of jealousy at its root, the ideal state has carefully removed all such temptations to jealousy. The reason for the ascetic life of the philosopher-kings and warriors is so the commoners see the way of life that the rulers lead and are turned off by it; being ruled by desire and seeing nothing in that way of life to desire, they would cease even to desire power. For Plato, it would have been immoral for someone not equipped to rule to attempt…
Andreev, D. (2008). "The Soviet college student in the first half of the 1920s." Russian Education and Society, vol. 50, no 6, June 2008, pp. 77-90.
Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. (1918). Hosted on the Marxists Internet Archive. Accessed 6 December 2008. http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/constitution/1918/index.htm
Plato. The Republic. Richard Sterling and William Scott, trans. New York: Sterling, 1985.
Ross, K. (2004). "Plato's Republic." Friesian.com. Accessed on 6 December 2008. http://www.friesian.com/plato.htm