Russian & Chinese Intelligence
PRC & RUSSION INTELLIGENCE: Any reviewer of the intelligence structures of Russia and the People's Republic of China can see that size and complexity still matter. They each have intensive and comprehensive structural forces with targeted elements designed to achieve certain aims. While it is likely that each has grown with an eye toward the other, often it is said that the Chinese Ministry of State Security (which came into being in 1983) mirrors the Russian structure that formally came into being in 1995 but that is grounded on past KG activities and methods.
The following are brief overviews of the Chinese MSS[footnoteRef:1] and the Russian FS[footnoteRef:2], which is the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation. The summaries provide a foundation for seeing the similarities and the differences and suggest why the Chinese version is probably more profitable for them in the long run. [1:…… [Read More]
Health Promotion Plan: educing Tobacco Use Amongst Members of the ussian-American Culture
ussian Cultural Synopsis
There are several unique or otherwise noteworthy practices in the ussian culture that could have an impact on areas of health. Consumption practices tend towards the extreme, with food and drink supplied amply for guests and families alike, resources permitting, and with the extending of hospitality a common and expected practice in the culture (ies, 2012). Families tend to live together, with multiple generations occupying the same home, though quarters are far less cramped in the United States than they are for ussians still living in their native country, and family influence when it comes to all forms of consumption as well as other behaviors and practices is quite strong (ies, 2012). At the same time, independence and spontaneity are often observed in the decisions and behaviors made by members of the ussian…… [Read More]
Russian Orthodox Religion
The Russian Orthodox Church has been through many evolutions and challenges along the way to being more than a thousand years old. The Church originally emerged from a pagan society and was greatly influenced by existing Christian beliefs from other regions. This paper reviews the changes that the Church has gone through -- including the attacks on its beliefs and buildings and its monasteries by the Bolsheviks, who advanced the strict atheistic philosophy that communism promoted at that time.
The Founding of the Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church is believed to be over a thousand years old; author Alexander Negrov offers that as an approximate time frame, explaining that Christianity was first introduced to this "pagan Slavic nation" in the tenth century (Siebeck, 2008, p. 25). hat helped to bring Christianity to "Old Russia" was that fact that among her neighbors was the Byzantine Empire,…… [Read More]
ussian Organized Crime in America
The fall of Soviet Union worked as a catalyst for the spread of crimes throughout the world. Not only the countries connected to the ussia are vulnerable to "ussian Mafia," but entire world is facing the threat of criminal activities originating from ussia. Crimes like human trafficking, money laundering, trading stolen automobiles, arms and ammunition, and drug trafficking are among the major activities, which is being done by ussian organized crime. Europe, being closest to ussian border, is the most affected region, however, Israel and United States are affected too as these countries have the highest number of ussian immigrants. Hence, it can be stated that no place in the world is immune of ussian Mafia. This paper would try to shed light on the ussian organized crime, who are known as ussian Mafia? What do they do? How they engage and expand their criminal…… [Read More]
Russian Revolution Sheila Fitzptrick
Author's riting Style and Book Organization
Sheila Fitzptrick is a well-known writer who has written more than ten books on modern Russian society and its history. 'Russian Revolution' is one of her recent books. This paper will highlight some of the facts in relation to the October Revolution in Russia as highlighted in a more opinionated manner by the author.
Author's riting Style and Book Organization
There is no doubt about the fact that the 'Russian Revolution' is a great example of the immense writing talents that Sheila Fitzptrick has. The level of interest that the book attracts can be defined by the immensely skilled writing technique used by the author herself. The book, which can be more defined as being a slim volume, is a great example of a thought provoking book that compels its readers to analyze and imagine the events given…… [Read More]
The Russo-Japanese War was a conflict that occurred between Russia and Japan during the years 1904-1905. In this conflict, Japan and Russia battled over control and territorial dominance among the Asian countries that are strategically situated in areas where both countries (Japan and Russia) can easily expand their power. The origin of the war started with the failure of Japan to secure an agreement with Russia, wherein the latter should recognize Japan as one of the 'occupants' or conquerors of Korea, while Japan will also recognize Russia's territorial control over Manchuria (in China). Because of Russia's refusal and vested interest to increase its territorial powers over Asia, Japan launched an attack against Russia on February 8, 1904, which marked the start of the Russo-Japanese War.
Despite Russia's superior weaponry and military forces, Japan was able to win the war. The Russo-Japanese War was a very significant event, which…… [Read More]
Russian Constructivism artistic and architectural movement arose in Russia after the Revolution of 1917. The Revolution set the stage for one of the most remarkable transformations of artistic theory in the history of art. The Constructionist form was born from many artists such as Rodchenko who were in pursuit of a much more innovative approach to art. The Constructivists strived to produce bold work in painting, sculpture, photography and architecture through the use of new mediums. The Constructivists abandoned traditional medium and embraced influences from the progressive and technologically advanced industrial society after the revolution. The movement called for the artists' direct involvement in industrial production and thus the construction of a new society after the Revolutions.
Artists of this time tried to apply the laws of "pure" art to objects of utilitarian purpose and mass consumption, and to "build a bridge" between art and the new "savior" of the…… [Read More]
As the president of the Russian Federation, I am faced with the challenge of building a strong, vibrant nation from the ashes of our Communist past. Our nation today struggles economically, politically, and socially. e must rebuild the stability and power of the Russian Federation through creating a strong economy, social climate, and political structure. I seek a path for Russia that is truly Russian, and based on the example of Russia's past glory under the rule of Lenin and the mighty Czars.
Today, the Russian Federation is almost 144 million people strong, and stretches from the Arctic Ocean, Europe to the North Pacific Ocean. e are the largest country in the world, with a literacy rate of over 99%, and rich in Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber (The orld Factbook). Our past is one of great history of powerful Czars and great empires. e would do…… [Read More]
Through an illogical narration, the postmodern Russian writers, including Sorokin,
emerged out of the "underground," shaped a world out of nonsense, where the never ceasing sequence of parodies, arranged in progression, projects man's knowledge of the world at the limit of "reason" and language. This new "absurd" model of conceptualization of the world offers the means for analyzing the many breaks and discontinuities which characterize Sorokin's literary texts.
Socialist realism was the official state art style in Russia as late as 1991. (Socialist realism, 2009) Therefore, censorship was a fact of life for artists since the purpose of Socialist realism was to elevate the common worker by presenting his or her work as admirable.(Socialist realism, 2009) the Next Item on the Agenda utilizes this style to the extreme by using Piskunov as the "common worker" and how he overcomes the attacks from the committee which is clearly not the real…… [Read More]
This work will first address the idea that the Russian Revolution of 1917 was inevitable given the charged events that had occurred in and around Russia preceding the event and then it will go on to look at the issue from the opposite angle, describing ways in which it might have never happened. Given the extreme nature of the events and the almost unavoidable idea that the way history has occurred is the only way it could have, in hindsight, there is a need to better understand the concept from a what happened, and what could have happened, standpoint. It is also an accepted fact that understanding Russia is impossible without a clear understanding of her history, both as a Soviet state and as an empirical power. Change was inevitable, but was the Russian Revolution of 1917?
The Russian Revolution of 1917 began as almost all other revolutions…… [Read More]
A scholar cannot only look at society with the eye upon the concerns of the Russian intelligentsia, which did indeed breathe a collective sign of relief after withstanding the Great Purge of the late 1930s, Stalin's "Doctor's Plot," and other acts of paranoia. (Fitzgerald, pp.135-161) but many of Stalin's inefficient economic schemes, such as running the economy as a series of five-year plans were retained. One cannot easily separate economic from political growth and development. Finally, under the leadership of Brezhnev, Russian Communist society came to a virtual standstill, leading to its collapse as a viable economic system in 1989. For more than thirty years, the land experienced, rather than growth or use of its considerable natural and human resources, a period of long-term stagnation. During this time, most ordinary Russians had little hope for their futures, that the lives of their children would be better than their current lives,…… [Read More]
The Revolutions of both France and Russia had many waves and stages. In France, the election and then disappointment of the third estate led to actual bloody revolution and then a series of regimes including the infamous Napoleonic leadership. Russia endured several waves of revolution, too, beginning notably with the failed revolution of 1905. In his famous work The History of the Russian Revolution, Leon Trotsky discussed the nature of revolution itself. He said, "A Revolution takes place only when there is no other way out. And the insurrection, which rises above a revolution like a peak in the mountain's chain of events, can be no more evoked at will than the revolution as a whole. The masses advance and retreat several times before they make up their minds to the final assault" (Kreis 1). His comments about revolution are especially apt because he notes the rise of fall of…… [Read More]
"Allied intervention was of dubious value: foreign arms and supplies aided the hites, but were insufficient to insure victory and let the Reds pose as defenders of Mother Russia. Bolshevik propaganda portrayed hite generals (wrongly) as reactionary tools of estern imperialism, and (more correctly) as aiming to restore the landlords. Conversely, the Reds possessed able leadership, a disciplined party, clever propaganda, and a flexible policy of national self-determination. The Red Army had central positions, better discipline, and numerical superiority" (Rempel 2009)
The hites opposed the Reds, but did not really provide a coherent, singular ideological rallying point to marshal support in opposition to Lenin. Furthermore, the nationalist revolts in the provinces, although anti-Leninist, were by definition regional rather than cohesive in nature, and caused many ethnic Russians to support the Reds. Eventually, "The Bolsheviks gradually reasserted military and political control over the tsarist borderlands, except for Poland, Finland, and the…… [Read More]
hat make both works similar are the attitudes of the main characters: Zhivago and Shukhov each attempt to make the most of what fate and history have to deal them, although both experience decidedly unfavorable fates. "Shukhov is a 'simple heart,' a beloved type in Russian literature from Turgenev to Tolstoy." (Slonim, 333). Solzhenitsyn's character simplistically seeks out the small and minimal pleasures to be found in his deplorable condition. Although the character portrayed was not deemed challenging to Russian authority, the conditions that Solzhenitsyn matter-of-factly depicts eventually came under scrutiny.
Switches in policy and practice have meant that some authors have their work published both openly and as samizdat literature, or that sometimes samizdats become public. Particularly from 1966, when more effective controls were imposed after Khrushchev's 'thaw,' there was a proliferation of samizdats." (Shaw, 120). This has become the case with both Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn's writings. For instance,…… [Read More]
And Capitalist Exploitation."
A modern version of Gogol's the Overcoat, doesn't allow the reader a minute's rest or contemplation regarding life -- it simply is dour, counterproductive, non-actualizing. Yet -- one still holds out that the man-v-man, and/or man-v-universe may only last 2-3 more months. Akaky is not a "hard-nosed revolutionary communist worker." it's getting cold, so he saves over 500 rubles to purchase a "Good Quality Soviet made Coat." The coat, sad to say, turns out to be part of the Black Market. He is afforded a few moments of stardom as he comes into the office and all view his wonderful coat; but then it is stolen and Akaky finds himself in the system -- where did you get it, etc. and, as a symbol, shows that without this material "good" he cannot attain happiness.
There are also dual themes in this -- the man vs. society --…… [Read More]
There were some farmers who refused to join these collective farms, but they were drastically punished. Most of the insubordinates between them were unconditionally sent to Siberia.
Later on, Khrushchev constituted the decentralized industry, because he wanted things to run smother and faster, without the current impediments from the central bureaucratic authority. A great number of ministries were dismantled. In what concerns the agriculture, Khrushchev established lots of wheat plantations on the former empty lands from Asian and Siberian Russia, thing which led to a bigger amount of manufactured products. He also reduced the taxes that collective farmers had to pay for their small, private cultivations. ut social negative aspects restraint people's freedom, such as the fact that, in 1957, oris Pasternak, now a famous writer, couldn't receive the Nobel Prize because his well-know novel, Doctor Zhivago, somewhat criticized the negative aspects from the post-revolutionary Russia.
Under rezhnev too, there…… [Read More]
He knows that to get the material he needs in his journal, he must gain their acceptance and trust, and so, he allows them to manipulate him. While they do not force him to kill the goose, he knows he has to do something to prove himself to them, and that is the only thing he can think of. He gains their respect, and so, he knows he will have the information he needs for his journal.
There is another, underlying theme in these passages that is more difficult to acknowledge, and that is the presence of the ussian government. In "Envy," the Party gives Kavalerov's roommate a spacious, luxurious apartment because of his prominence in the Party, and in the story leading up to the passage in "ed Cavalry," Gorky reads a Lenin speech reprinted by Pravda. Throughout all of these works, the theme of the Party and their…… [Read More]
The interviewee would go on to note that Gazprom experienced an inflection point in 2000 with its IPO, suggesting that the need for greater openness and accountability inherent to the courtship of public investment would stimulate fundamental change. The interviewee would indicate that Gazprom would be among the leaders in Russia in producing thorough environmental reporting on its own practices.
This corresponds with what our research finds to be one of F&C's core priorities. So reports REO Research (2009), which indicates that in the area of sustainability, "F&C's focus has been to press companies to build a stable long-term business model based on tackling workplace health, climate change and community relations." (p. 5) This is a primary imperative upon which it bases its interaction with a host of Russian firms, based on their expressed commitment to truly effect environmental policy and sustainability change. Litvack supports claims concerning this priority, indicating…… [Read More]
Petersburg in the square in 1825. The Tsar put down the protest, which took place in December, and for which the group was later labeled The Decembrists.
The uprising failed to unseat the Tsar -- that would not happen for another century -- but it cemented the new ideological undercurrent that would eventually overwhelm Russian society from top to bottom. Essentially, all of this was the result of Peter the Great's challenge to the Russian classes to make Russian a Great Power. From Chaadayav to Kakhovsky, the plea for insurgency was soon ringing out. Peter the Great may have had great social ambitions -- but they were at the expense of the nation's religious orthodoxy which was essentially, as Gogol and Dostoevsky would say, the only restraint truly holding Russia's passionate populace together.
Peter the Great must not receive the entirety of the blame, of course, for Russia's spiral toward…… [Read More]
Upon Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to power, molding the features that characterized the new Soviet regime, with policies based on Marxist-Leninist ideology, which is often considered to represent a political and economic system called Stalinism (Russia pp). During the 1920's, Stalin consolidated his authority with the Great Purge, which was a period of severe repression that peaked in 1937 (Russia pp).
After Stalin's death in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union (Russia pp). Under this new leadership, an amnesty was declared for some who were serving prison sentences for criminal offices, price cuts were announced, and a relaxation of restrictions on private plots, ending the role of large-scale forced labor in the economy (Russia pp). From 1958 to 1964, Khrushchev was also the Premier of the Soviet Union (Russia…… [Read More]
The economy all but collapsed, and with it went the Tsar and the Russian Empire.
The economic chaos that ushered in the Soviet Union met the Russian people on the way out of the Soviet Union as well. Despite the problems in the 1990s, ranging from massive unemployment to currency collapse, the Russian economy today is showing signs of improvement, modernization and stability.
Since the currency collapse, Russia has posted consistently high GDP growth figures and ranks first in GDP growth in the G8. Macroeconomic indicators are consistent with an emerging economy. The economy today is based around natural resources, especially oil, and there is an emerging high-tech sector that is capitalizing on Russia's stock of experienced technical and scientific staff. The economy is being opened to investment, which along with oil revenues has fueled the strong growth. Foreign direct investment has risen from $14.6 billion in 2005 to $45…… [Read More]
And in such instances where one might be sold, the selling nobleman was given the right to retain the individual's family and property.
hough the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. herefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by…… [Read More]
Some of the local companies have complained that the federation has not been able to resolve their concerns towards the accession issue, and therefore it is believed that the government has failed to exercise comprehensive analysis of the problems expected to be experienced by the domestic industries. The local companies have expressed their serious concerns on several issues, comprising 'the incompleteness of legislative reforms required for membership, such as passing a new Customs Code, law on external trade policy' (Mehmet, 2002). The local companies have raised serious doubts about the lack of exposure of the local companies to the competitive market, and problem with reference to the sluggish pattern of the growth of total factor productivity. It is anticipated that exposure of the local companies to the international market will 'detrimental in the short run to some sectors of the ussian economy such as the food and machine-building industries' (Mehmet,…… [Read More]
In this essay, we will investigate the topic of Russian interference in the United States’ 2016 Presidential election. This essay will contain a list of topics related to Russian meddling, possible titles for essays covering those topics, an outline of the essay, and an example demonstrating how to write a strong essay. Our free example essay will not only explain how Russian interference influenced the election, but also show you how to write each part of an essay: introduction, thesis statement, and body paragraphs that combine evidence and analysis. The essay will conclude with a review of the information presented in the essay and suggestions for further action.
A New Kind of Cold War: Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election
Is Putin the De Facto President of the United States: How Russia Influenced the 2016 Election
Should Russian Interference in the 2016 Election Invalidate the Results?
What Does Russian…… [Read More]
Russian psychologist ygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, with Input and Interaction Theory. Beginning with a definition of both theories the paper will then note how the two theories differ and where they are similar in their approach as well as how they are applied to everyday issues such as teaching language.
Sociocultural theory was first conceived and developed by Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich ygotsky's, (1896-1934). His most productive years were at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow (1924-34), where he expanded his ideas on cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. His writings emphasized the roles of historical, cultural, and social factors in cognition and argued that language was the most important symbolic tool provided by society. His book, "Thought and Language" is a classic text in psycholinguistics' theoretical contributions to the development of curricula and teaching strategies. (Forman, Minick, Stone 1993)
ygotsky was interested in applying Marxist…… [Read More]
Russian composer Piotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) was that of his Romeo and Juliet Fantasy (first composed in 1869 and subsequently revised 1870 and 1880). In this composition, Tchaikovsky adapted Shakespeare's tragedy of thwarted adolescent love into the sonata form. (Grout & Palisca 584) Although the play that inspired this musical work is often called tragic rather than Romantic in its orientation, Tchaikovksy's interpretation of the tale is a clear example of the Romantic style of 19th century orchestral music. Five elements must be analyzed to understand and underline the Romantic nature of this composer's work. Firstly, one must consider the 'storytelling' use of the sonata form of the Fantasy. Secondly, one must consider the way in which the sonata was considered by the composer to be an Overture, a work that gives a 'summary' or a miniature of a larger story or musical work. Thirdly, the tone color of the…… [Read More]
Russia and the Mongol yoke: How bad was it?
The Mongol invasion forever changed the culture of Russia. It brought to an end the period known as the 'Kievan Rus' as the Mongols took control and "captured, sacked, and destroyed Kiev, the symbolic center of Kievan Russia."[footnoteRef:1] The Mongol invasion certainly changed Russia irrevocably: it is not simply that some of the measures of the Mongols were oppressive in nature, but that the autocratic methods of control used by the Mongols were later adopted by Russian leaders, and led to the development of a Russian form of government that was profoundly different from that of Russia's European neighbors. The 'Mongol yoke' ironically produced what we think of now as 'Russian culture.' [1: Dustin Hosseini, "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. 12 Dec 2005. Available: http://www.sras.org/the_effects_of_the_mongol_empire_on_russia [17 Apr 2013]]
Russia has…… [Read More]
wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite).Most aligned themselves with the Octobrist Party because of its guarantee of religious freedoms and freedom of the press for minority groups (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite)."
Each village generally had its own congregation that was independent of the other ussian Mennonite congregations.
They all agreed on fundamental Mennonite beliefs such as believer's baptism, nonresistance and avoidance of oaths (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite).Pastors of Flemish congregations read sermons from a book while seated at a table. Frisian pastors stood while delivering the sermon (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite)."
Pastors of each church were simply members that the congregation agreed to have lead them in their faith and were not paid for their services, which meant they were usually wealthy landowners that did not have to work for a living. They had a significant amount of influence over members of their community, much in the same way today's pastors and rabbis have influence…… [Read More]
USSR REFLECTION & RESPONSE
The end of the U.S.S.R. as explained in the very beginning of the source material is really not all that shocking when looking at the fate of other "empires" over the course of human history. One could point to other empires like the Roman one, which itself fell. More recently, even more modern versions of empires have fallen as well. For much of the 1600's, 1700's, 1800's and even the early 1900's, there were three countries that controlled most or at least much of the world, those being Great Britain, France and Spain. Regardless of the type and how big they get, they always seem to fall under the weight of their governmental structure, their compromised society or even just their sheer enormity on the global scale.
However, Russia as it is currently constituted is certainly still huge. The required source notes that the country is…… [Read More]
trouble that faced the Caucasus at the time of the Great Reforms tended to be that it was, and continues to be, one of the most culturally and linguistically varied geographic locations on earth. In a strict geographic sense the Caucasus is part of Asia; however, its cultural and historic ties are much closer to Europe. Until the Great Reforms, "The Caucasus had never been unified except as a geographic concept applied to the territory between the Black and Caspian Seas, bordered on the north where the inland sea of the steppe breaks against a mountain barrier on the south, rather more vaguely, by the plateau of what is now northern Iraq and Iran."
For the region, as with the rest of Russia, perhaps the most important event that occurred during the Great Reforms was the abolition of serfdom.
hen Alexander II signed the fact of emancipation in 1861 he…… [Read More]
They were wrong about the Bolshevik's giving in to their demands, however.
The Bolshevik's attacked the city (located on an island), under cover of darkness. They wore white uniforms to blend in with the snow and ice surrounding the city. The workers tried to defend themselves and their families, but the Bolshevik's sent in 50,000 troops. They began their attack on March 7, and the sailors and workers defended the Kronstadt fortress for ten days before they fell. A diary entry from the time says, "17th March, 1921: Kronstadt has fallen today. Thousands of sailors and workers lie dead in its streets. Summary execution of prisoners and hostages continues" (Schoolnet). Thousands of people, both sailors and civilians were killed in the streets of the city. When the Bolshevik's took Kronstadt sailors as prisoners, they later took them into the forests and executed them.
Kronstadt was the last rebellion against the…… [Read More]
As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.
No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…… [Read More]
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…… [Read More]
Jewish-ussian heritage. The writer details the emergence of the Jewish faith in ussia, the radical actions taken to stop its growth and existence and the more recent developments that have created it to begin a resurgence. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
In the past two decades the former Soviet Union has gone through many different changes, with the biggest one being the dismantling of its very existence and government and the slow process of rebuilding it from the ground up. In the former Soviet Union there were many strict rules and the heavy arm of Communism was felt throughout the state. One of the things that was heavily mandated was the freedom of religion. The Jewish faith had encountered severe opposition in the Soviet Union for many years and all but the most stubborn Jews had been driven out of the land many years…… [Read More]
Ivanits'"Russian Folk Belief"
Linda Ivanits' Russian Folk Belief is a foundational and possibly one of kind work exploring concepts of Russian culture that have previously been unknown and would probably have remained so had Ivanits not seen fit to document them. The oral tradition is a largely challenged historical source as it is so difficult to both document and record in an accurate and scientific manner. The bedrock themes that are present within Ivanits work are continually demonstrated within her text through real memories and experiences of Russian people.
Ivanits clearly demonstrates how a tradition associated with eons of standards and cultural practices has evolved through more modern times, into the age of Christianity. Each section of her book weaves the roots of Russian folk belief with the dominance of the Christian ethic and practice.
In Part I Folk Beliefs About the Supernatural Ivanits demonstrates how the historical folk entities…… [Read More]
Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan" by Artem Borovik.
Book report on Hidden War by Artem Borovik
Title of book: "Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan"
Author's purpose in writing the book: This book contains three documentary stories: "Vstertimsia u Zhuravlei," "Spriatannaia Voina," "Kak I Byl Soldatom Amerikanskoi Armii." The first two stories are about the Afghan war, while the third story is about how the Soviets destroyed the image of the American soldier as an enemy for decades. The theme of the book deals with military conflicts and the wars fought. The writer uses the current political and ideology style of writing.
Borovik was born into the Soviet elite and went to prestigious Moscow English School, then to New York, since his father, Genrikh, who worked as a correspondent for the Novosti press agency, was given a…… [Read More]
Japanese vs. Russian ar
The war between Russia and Japan is a conspicuous occurrence. This was the initial thunderbolt blow of Admiral Togo upon the exposed Russian fleet in Port Arthur as well as the end maturing of the quarrel plus the continuity of the war, which were manifested through a swift unattainable decisiveness under the same circumstances a century ago. It could be true that win of Japanese over Russian was due to strategic and operational skills but not their opponent blunder. The circumstances could be the capacity of the leader and the conditions upon which they are called so that they could act; Lesser and Napoleon men differences could be another factor. The well-known concern was that the war had to turn on only sea and land co-ordination right from its initial by the involved belligerents. Though all of them tried this kind of co-ordination, Japanese were the…… [Read More]
Svetlana and Suny
Svetlana Alexievich provides the reader of Secondhand Time with a personal, intimate glimpse into the real life experiences of a Russian during the Soviet Era and during the post-Soviet Era. The glimpses are often chaotic and disordered, but they have the feeling of being authentic and of showing an unfiltered, raw side of life that does not come across in more staid and structured productions, such as Suny’s The Soviet Experiment, which reads more like a text book or a typical history book—dry, free of emotion, sentiment, personality and intimacy. While undoubtedly equally authentic in its approach, Suny’s Experiment wields a more sophisticated air and exudes a scholarly perspective that does not always deliver to the reader the kind of immediate sensations that people in the 21st century are used to having. In the Digital Era, senses have become used to instant gratification, to jumping from tidbit…… [Read More]
Japanese, Chinese and Russian empires from 1500-1800. We will look briefly at the kind of structures/bureaucratic arrangements that used to keep order and control and to manage their populations . We also will compare and contrast these empires and see that the major thing that paved the way for the eclipse of China and Japan by 1800 was an inward focus while Russia's westward glance gave it the ability to forge a viable Eurasian empire.
Ming and Qing China
In Ming China, the structure of government was built around a series of professional bureaucrats schooled in their designated skills areas and Neo-Confucianism with its ideas of individual morality and responsibility (this also influenced the Japanese and Chosun Korea). The bureaucrats were the glue that held the Ming Chinese empire together. This made the period until 1644 when the dynasty was overthrown a golden age where arts, culture and the economy…… [Read More]
Priests must help these lost souls return to the flock and must do their utmost to prevent people from giving in to their desires for sin and venial pleasure. Sometimes this job might seem insurmountable, but it is not. They have the strength of God to help them fight against sin and they must be devoted and determined.
A Talk before Confession
The purpose of confession is for the sinner to confess his sin and to be absolved through some form of remuneration to God. Further, the one confessing must have a firm purpose to sin no more. Many people misunderstand the nature of confession. They come to think that it is a sort of a blank check where they can do whatever they wish for six days out of the week, provided they go to Church on Sunday and apologize to God for those actions. They do not really…… [Read More]
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…… [Read More]
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…… [Read More]
Business in ussia
The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).
ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…… [Read More]
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…… [Read More]
Joseph Stalin, with some justification, is perhaps one of the least popular leaders of recent world history. His brutal actions when enforcing collectivized agriculture upon the Russian peasantry caused casualties so high the numbers of the dead, in terms of the amount of the population of his nation that was killed, exceed that of the Holocaust. According to the historian Lynne Viola in her book Peasant Rebels Under Stalin, even the cagiest estimations of the death toll that occurred suggest that over the course of the decade between the 1920s and early 1930s, more than 1,100 people were directly killed by the state. Even more Russians indirectly suffered death by famine as a result of the agricultural process of collectivization. (210; 213-214) hat is not so well-known, however, is that starvation also had its roots in the policies employed by the resistance of peasants as well as the policies of…… [Read More]
The relationship between the Russian Revolution and the rise of fascism is distinct and marked. Both movements were revolutionary in their own way, and both were provoked to a certain extent by a Marxist inspiration. Lenin was one of the leaders of the Russian revolution and he was a committed Marxist. He did not want Russia to participate in any part of the war, but was the one who surrendered to German invasion. When Lenin died, the gap that was left open in his death was quickly taken over by Stalin. Fascism was the outgrowth of a revolution that was meant to create more freedom, justice and equality. This is because the Russian revolution and the nation were vulnerable during this time of transition: this vulnerability meant that someone strategic could have the power to come in and corrupt the policies in place. This paper will explore the nuances, events…… [Read More]
Again, Russia showed it either did not wish to play in the world of globalization, or it just fumbles the ball every time it has an opportunity to score.
Indeed, following the "debacle" that resulted in the imprisonment of Kodorkovsky, "sizable losses" were suffered "for Russian companies' stocks on national and foreign stock exchanges, as well as certain downsizing of foreign direct investments due to high political risks," the Yale writer explains.
Another viewpoint as to why Russia stumbles in the globalization game comes from Alexey Portanskiy, Head of the TO Information office on Russia's accession to the TO; one main reason Russia has not made it into the TO (aside from the general reluctance on the part of Russian society to open up), Portanskiy asserts, is "the resistance of sluggish bureaucracy and lack of political commitment from the top" (Portanskiy, 2005) (orld Trade Organization).
But the Yale article claims…… [Read More]
Collectivization on the Russian Countryside
he Soviet Union, under Stalin's leadership, embarked on a massive economic plan to industrialize the largely agrarian country. he so-called five-year plan, actually four and a quarter year plan, required the concentration of labor in urban areas. Most of the people in the Soviet Union lived on farms in small villages. o implement the plan significant social changes had to occur. he people most affected by these changes were the peasants in the small villages in the Russian countryside. he peasants represented the most conservative, most religious, and most traditional group in the Soviet Union. Conflict was inevitable when the greatest change is required of the people who are the least likely to be comfortable with change. he instability of the Soviet Union government between the Russian Revolution and the ascendancy of Stalin and the violent protests of the peasants delayed the imposition of socialist…… [Read More]
As Paxton (2005) points out, the Russian Revolution was directly responsible for the rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Russian Revolution, comprised of and led largely by a Jewish demographic, represented a threat to the nationality and national interests of European states. Fascist movements were not limited to Italy and Germany—they appeared in England, France, Spain and elsewhere—but Italy and Germany emerged as the primary Fascist states because of the force of leadership that emerged in each nation respectively: Mussolini in Italy, and Hitler in Germany. Both were at the forefront of the conservative, nationalist movement that pushed back against the rising tide of Communistic socialism, which the conservative nationalist parties vehemently opposed. The Russian Revolution was, in essence, a rejection of everything Old World, as Fitzgerald (2000) showed. The representatives of Fascism were fighting specifically for that Old World—and they were using every possible avenue they could…… [Read More]
The two cities I am going to compare are Irkutsk and Tampa. Irkutsk is located in Siberia, along the shores of the Angara River, near the shores of Lake Baikal. Tampa lies on Tampa Bay, near the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Its inland location and northerly latitude characterize the weather of Irkutsk, which is very cold for most of the year, with five freezing months from November to March where the temperatures drop significantly. Summers are mild. Tampa's southerly location gives it a warm climate, with freezing temperatures seldom if ever occurring. The climate is warm, sunny, and humid. Summers are hot and humid with frequent thunderstorms. The average July temperature in Irkutsk is 64.5, and the average January temperature is -0.9F. The average July temperature in Tampa is around 90, and in January it is 70 (U.S. Climate Data, 2012); orld Climates, 2012).
Irkutsk has a…… [Read More]
hile this class of Russians was known for its fascination with luxury brands, there is evidence that Russia's newer wealthy class are shifting their tastes to more independent looks (Groskop, 2008).
The target market therefore is going to be part of the older demographic, for whom luxury brands are directly equated with status and style. In Russia, these will tend to be females in millionaire families, aged 35 and up. These buyers will tend to live in either Moscow or St. Petersburg, where almost all of Russia's wealth is held. They are worldly, and are often familiar with luxury brands from their travels. These Russians are well-traveled and consider themselves among Europe's elite. They are usually educated, but most of the women do not work. Shopping is a pastime, and they will invariably have purchased luxury brands before, if not Coach specifically.
The typical financial picture of a…… [Read More]
Instead of allowing an end to this conflict that will become a beginning to a longer and more vicious conflict, the current fighting and disagreement must be ended with a mutually accepted border drawing to which both parties agree and that is backed up by treaties.
Thus, while countries competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics as a symbol of international compatibility, fighting raged in Georgia. Although it only lasted for five days, the most recent conflict between Russia and Georgia had seeds in pervious years of land disputes and ethnic dividing lines, characteristics that label the area a problem spot in international relations. hile Russia has ended its aggression in this most recent conflict, both Russia and Georgia have admitted to being poised for war. If fighting in the area continues, implications are significant both for the international world and for the region as both Russia's reputation and local ethnic…… [Read More]
Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century
The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…… [Read More]
age and several thousand miles separated Russian Alexander Pushkin and American Flannery O'Connor. This essay seeks to illustrate why they deserve to be considered as icons of world literature. Pushkin's body of works spans poetry -- romantic and political, essays, and novels. Influential music composers like Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Rimsky Korsakov and Tchaikovsky adapted the lyrical and dramatic elements of Pushkin's works. Flannery O'Connor's work, on the other hand, was largely restricted to short stories. The profundity of her work lies in its uniqueness -- not volume. Her stories hide gruesomeness, truth and religious thought that is not immediately obvious at a superficial level.
The short-story "The Queen of Spades," while not necessarily representative of all of Pushkin's work gives us an idea of the narrative skills that keep the reader on edge. (Pushkin, 1834) The twists in the story combine elements of fantasy. ut at heart this is a story…… [Read More]
Kolchin's Unfree Labor
Kolchin uses primarily "printed primary materials" as his sources -- material that was either printed and published at the time of the events which he chronicles or collected by historians later (377). The fact that these materials are not hard to find and that they exist quite abundantly is what made this possible. Thus, what Kolchin does in his comparative history is to simply "order" the information and make sense of it: he has no difficulty gathering it; on the contrary, putting the pieces together to form a coherent whole or a convincing picture is his goal.
For example, Kolchin utilizes "records left by the masters (and their allies)" as sources as well as other records such as "diaries and reminiscences, plantation and estate records, and correspondence between owners and their administrative subordinates" as he builds his foundation of historical data (377). This is a solid foundation…… [Read More]
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…… [Read More]
Crime and Punishment" Christian symbolism offers an undercurrent throughout the novel which helps explain Raskolnikov's redemption at the end, and which offers Raskolnikov and the reader a way out of destructive over-rationality.
In the first part of the novel Raskolnikov is an atheist, rejecting God and at the same time deificating himself. He believes that he is above God and it is his need to prove this that leads him to murder. He has rejected the Christian characteristics of humility and sacrifice.
This theme of Christian sacrifice is important throughout the novel. The very first mention of religion in the book is with the character Marmeladov in the tavern. He introduces the ideas of forgiveness, mercy and the power of suffering. At the same time insisting that everyone needs someone to turn to, "for every man must have somewhere to go. Since there are times when one absolutely must go…… [Read More]
ussian Public Debt Downgrade
The ussian economy is heading into a deep recession: the projected average growth over the next three years has been estimated at 0.5%. The years of the ussian oil boom are fading fast and tensions continue to rise with the West, in light of ussian pugilistic actions in the Ukraine. Standard & Poor's has judged the ussian government's prospects for servicing the debt as continuing to narrow, with few options left for the central bank of ussia to employ: available mechanisms are scaffolding for the teetering ussian banking sector or propping up the ruble. Following the credit downgrade, the ruble fell 7% in after-hour trading to reach a new low of 68 rubles to the dollar.
In what appears to be a terrible and perfect storm, the ussian economic growth prospects are diminished, the flexibility of the monetary policy of the ussian Federation has weakened, and…… [Read More]
paradox of the perfect selfless citizen O-90
On one hand, the soft, unified and always feminine presence of O-90 in Yevgeny Zamyatin's novel e stands as an idealized example of unquestioned obedience to the authority of a unified and totalitarian state. The future dystopia of e in the form of One State in e has entirely erased the concept of human individuality and independent thought. It has produced a citizen body that is entirely permeated by its beliefs, of which the spherical O-90 is perhaps the most obvious physical and psychological example. However, O-90's existence in a state of emptiness and her willingness to become a psychic void lacking a sense of self also means she is paradoxically capable of embodying the ideal of unconditional love, more than anyone else in the novel.
Of course, unconditional love is something hardly tolerated as a product of a unified state ideology. Love…… [Read More]
Eugene Onegin is the classic literary work by Alexander Pushkin. Some have argued that Tatyana is the central character of the novel. This essay will seek to explain how the narrator describes and develops her character. We will also discuss the moments of growth seen in her life as depicted by the novel.
Tatyana is described by the narrator as the daughter of Larina, a landowner in a farming village. Tatyana is young and full of optimism and anticipation. Her family is very hospitable and her upbringing is quite different from Eugene's, who lived in a mansion. Eugene is depicted as being very experienced with women and love, Pushkin writes,
From lovely beauties he already felt distant, But dragged after them for routine's sake. A refusal - he was consoled in an instant, A betrayal - he was glad his thirst to slake. He sought them all with no sign…… [Read More]