Rwanda Essays (Examples)

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Organized Violence

Words: 2668 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51452900

wanda Genocide (1994)

The ole of Globalization

We know that the factors which resulted in the wanda genocide taking place were the ethnic hatred, ecological pressures and the civil war. However, what we don't know is why the genocide took place at all. Therefore, here we will be talking about the genocide that took place in 1994 only. Here the obvious features of the globalization as well as the international pressures that were faced by wanda will be discussed, along with this we will also be looking at the globalized forces that were brought together by the Arusha Accords which ultimately resulted in the happening of genocide. Later on, the Kaldor's 'New War' thesis will be examined in order to understand how wanda is a part of a broader 'new war' environment where conflicts are arising among the neo-ethnicities in their efforts to gain power.

International Pressure

Before the 1980's,…… [Read More]

References

Adelmann, H. & Suhrke, A. "Early warning and conflict management," JEEAR, Copenhagen, 1996

Chossudovsky, M. "Economic Genocide in Rwanda," Economic and Political Weekly (India) 13, April, 1996

Des Forges, A. "Shame -- Rationalizing Western Apathy on Rwanda," Foreign Affairs, 79:3, 2000

Goose S. & Smyth, F. "Arming Genocide in Rwanda," Foreign Affairs 73:5, 1994
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Technology and Disaster

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14218469

role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.

With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…… [Read More]

References

Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.

Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.

Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers

Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
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Collective Memory in the Aftermath of Mass Violence

Words: 1469 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32052393

Memory refers to a mental process where information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for use (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The process of memory is not, contrary to what many believe, like a tape recorder that accurately records events. Instead, our recollection of events is pliable and subject to a number of influences (Loftus, 1979). For instance Buckley-Zistel (2006) discussed how the recollection of the past of horrific events such as the 1990's genocide in wanda is influenced by variables such as the roles of the people during the event or their current living situation. Connerton (2008) attempted to disentangle the notions that remembering is usually considered a virtue and forgetting is necessarily a failing of a person or people. He noted that forgetting is not necessarily a unitary phenomena and that forgetting might have a purpose. Even though wandans claim that remembering the genocide is important to avoiding reoccurrences in…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence, The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.

Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for local coexistence in post-genocide Rwanda. Africa, 76(2), 131-150.

Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1, 59-71.

Loftus, E.F. (1979). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312-320.
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Hutu Blame The Search for the Truth

Words: 3486 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50326689

HUTU lame?

The Search for the Truth in Rwanda, an argumentative essay

There are those who claim that elgium is the perpetrator in the extermination methods used in Rwanda however, there are those who claim that the Rwandan government itself may be to blame with ties to a loan from the IMF World ank. Among all the arguments leveled the most likely perpetrator of these crimes can be traced back to the Roman Catholic Church, who was the entity to first set a seal upon the Hutus and Tutsi people. This paper will explore the many arguments set forth in the Rwandan genocide event as to who is to blame for the atrocities that occurred.

A rief History of the HUTU & TUTSI of Rwanda:

The genocide, which occurred in Rwanda, has been and still is a hotly debated issue. Over 100 years ago Catholic missionaries created a bogus "pedigree"…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

DeSouza, Leo J. (1997) Washington Monthly: Assigning blame in Rwanda: how to break the cycle of revenge in ethnic conflict Washington Monthly [Online] located at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_n9_v29/ai_19757663/pg_2

Toussaint, Eric (2004) "Rwanda: The Financiers of the Genocide" [Online] available at: http://www.cadtm.org/article.php3?id_article=611

TOUSSAINT, Eric. 1996. -- Nouvelles revelations sur les ventes d'armes --, 2

p., CADTM 19, Bruxelles, 1996
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International Politics and Relations in the Current

Words: 3680 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11224377

international politics and relations in the current era, which define how communities and geographical regions relate to each other, have evolved over a period after time. The human history has been a roller coaster ride, full of violence, bloodshed and genocides. The term genocide refers to a planned and organized destruction against a national, ethnic or religious group.

In every geographical area, there are people from different ethnic, religious and social backgrounds and from different mindsets and school of thoughts. In general, one of the groups remains in the majority while the others remain in the minority. Both the majority and the minority groups have their own respective points-of-view which they aspire to enforce; however, since the majority has the numerical strength, they consider it their natural right to be in the powerful position. In some cases, it had been observed that the minority manages to take over the powerful…… [Read More]

References

BBC News 2000, UN admits Rwanda Genocide failure, 15 April.

CovertAction Quarterly, n.d. U.S. fiddles while Rwanda burns, viewed 17 December 2010, .

Thompson, T 2007, The media and the Rwanda Genocide, Fountain Publishers, Uganda.

Fisanick, C 2004, The Rwanda Genocide, Greenhaven.
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Emergence of Nationalist Struggles Analysis of Emergence

Words: 2324 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34299438

Emergence of Nationalist Struggles

Analysis of Emergence Nationalist Struggles

Decolonization is considered to be the process, which concentrates on the removal of colonialism; the process in which one country exerts unequal amount of power and politics over another country. It is either a political or cultural movement, which attempts to gain independence and the complete removal of insidious and destructive impacts of colonialism. This paper aims at discussing the emergence of nationalist struggles that occurred in the process of decolonization of South Africa and wanda in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore, this paper would discuss the impact of colonial powers and nationalist movements on nature development countries.

Overview

In Africa, the nationalist movement started "from the birth of Ghana in 1957 to the first democratically elected government of South Africa in 1994. The character and pace of decolonization varied from relatively peaceful constitutional transfers of power…… [Read More]

References:

Birmingham, D. The Decolonization of Africa. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2005.

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. Africa: Endurance and Change South of the Sahara. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Le Seuer, James D., ed. The Decolonization Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Middleton, John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara. New York: Scribner's, 1997. 4 vols
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Four Models in Global Healthcare

Words: 3204 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21438575

Community Health Aides Model

Improving International Healthcare

"International Health-care system...hat to do to improve the U.S.'s health system"

Global health organizations have been studying ways to create efficacious care within and across the many national, ethnic, and cultural contexts. Several models have been shown to be particularly effective regardless of context. Using extant secondary research, this report will provide the fundamental framework for a model that is agile, comprehensive, and eminently adoptable.

Five contexts in which the model was implemented are briefly discussed: Alaska, Iran, Jamaica, and Rwanda. These implementation settings have the following attributes in common: Sparse populations, cultural and ethnic influences that differ from the physicians and administrators of the healthcare programs, and the need for regular follow up care and consultation. The information provided does not focus on any particular disease or disorder, but rather describes a system for addressing the needs of communities in rural or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cumper, Gloria C. And Vaughan, J.P. Community Health Aides at the Crossroads. World Health Forum 6 (1985): 365-367. Print.

Hansen, Suzy. What Can Mississippi Learn From Iran? The New York Times 27 July 2012. Web. 4 April 2014.

Haraldson, Sixten S.R. Community Health Aides for Sparse Populations. World Health Forum 9 (1988): 235-238. Print.

Kraemer, Alison. The Key to Effective Care in Rural Rwanda. Community Health Workers. Harvard College Global Health Review. 19 September 2009. Web. 4 April 2014.
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Primordialism Ethnicity Is One of the More

Words: 4088 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54926074

Primordialism

Ethnicity is one of the more fluid concepts in sociology because one's ethnicity is largely defined by membership in a social group. The social group shares a common background, whether through experience or ancestry and they share characteristics that set them apart from other groups. Many times these characteristics are stereotyped, but the stereotypes are derived from a reality where the majority of members of the group do, indeed, share those characteristics. Moreover, one's ethnicity is not limited to a single background. A person can have multiple ethnicities by having a family that derives from multiple different ethnic traditions. However, a person can also have multiple ethnicities because larger ethnic groups can be further subdivided into smaller ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as tribes.

Ethnicity is also intertwined with race, which is an interesting concept. Genetic analysis has revealed that there is greater similarity than difference among humans from…… [Read More]

References

Bayer, M. 2009. "Reconsidering primordialism: An alternative approach to the study of ethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1639-1657.

Caliendo, S. & Mcilwain, C. 2011. The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, London:

Routledge.

Cornell, S. & Hartmann, D. 2007. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World,
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Third Announced Goal of the

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3082398

As an intern I would like to be a part of some international business-related aspect of the United Nations' Millennial Development Goals Project. Not only do I want to learn, but I want to help as well. And being able to promote gender equality, not only in my home country, but around the world, is something that I would be proud to be associated with.

As I need to learn to successfully expand my business, a U.N. internship will provide me with the opportunity to learn, as well as make contacts which may help my business. I also want to learn the latest ways to incorporate the idea of gender equality into my business so that when I expand and hire more people, I will be able to give more women of my country a chance to achieve financial security. Finally, I hope to gain some insight into how the…… [Read More]

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African Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33417207



In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.

Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.

Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 1847 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81460756

S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.

5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).

The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.

With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.

2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton

3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide
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Global Media

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/ 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3090 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8617183

President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.

In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).

ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]

References

An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.

Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html

The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at  http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp 

Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
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Political Psychology Has Always Been

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76136874

A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'

A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]

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U S History and Foreign Policy

Words: 3087 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44277503

The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).

Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.

In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.

The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]

References

CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19870301faessay7847/george-f-kennan/containment-40-years-later-containment-then-and-now.html

An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
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United Nations Could Have Done

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32619042

" (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325) This was the real thing: more than a half-million Tutsi murdered- three-quarters of the population -- and the attempt by the wandan state and the Hutu majority to exterminate every last Tutsi." (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325)

The question is if this can be compared to the general holocaust and the Armenian genocide, which the world watched helplessly, could the massacre have been prevented? The question is more academic. Having seen that the clashes between ethnic groups, and those who are opposed to share the natural bounties with a community they regard as unnecessary probably the total prevention of the genocide design is not possible. Can an action by the authority like the UN then have mitigated it? The answer to that question lies in the way the nations view the sovereignty and the need for intervention form the UN. It is impossible to…… [Read More]

References

Confessore, Nicholas. 2000. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review. Washington Monthly, pp: 7-8.

Dorn, a. Walter; Matloff, Jonathan; Matthews, Jennifer. 2000. 'Preventing the Bloodbath: Could the UN have predicted and prevented the Rwanda Genocide?' Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. XX, no. 1, pp: 9-52.

Gellately, Robert; Kieman, Ben. 2003. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. New York.

Riemer, Neal. 2000. Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Praeger. Westport, CT.
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Changing Paradigm in International Policing

Words: 8998 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743756

The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."

The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.

Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."

Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.

Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at   http://www.un.org / peace/reports/peace_operations/, accessed on 09 May 2010.

Demaggio, a.R. Mass Media, Mass Propaganda: Examining American News in the "War on Terror. 2008, p. 236.

Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Field Support, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations Principles and Guidelines (2010), found at http://www.peacekeepingbestpractices.unlb.org/Pbps/Library/Capstone_Doctrine_ENG.pdf, accessed on 09 May 2010.
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Failures of the UN

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41687985

United Nations: Failures

The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…… [Read More]

As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."

According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.

The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
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Identity Conflict Based on Social

Words: 3196 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70724004

In other words, the question that needs to be answered is, how did psycho-social identity differences create such deep rifts in a society that was in fact closely related by intermarriage and years of living closely together. This leads to the conclusion that there are other social and political factors that need to be taken into account in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the events, as well as how they impacted on the meaning of identity. .

Social Dominance and other theories

As noted above, the discussion and analysis of the causative features of this conflict and the concomitant effect of this analysis on possible resolution scenarios is largely dependent of the ability of the particular theoretical model to take into account the many variables of this conflict. In order to achieve a more holistic view of the conflict one has to take into account the fact…… [Read More]

References

Bigagaza J. et al. Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/PUBS/BOOKS/Scarcity+Surfeit/Chapter2.pdf.

Bird C. ( 2004) Status, Identity, and Respect. Political Theory, 32 ( 2).

Huddy L. ( 2001) From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory. Political Psychology, 22 ( 1).

Identification. Retrieved from http://www.thefederationonline.org/events/Briefings/2006_SPSP_DHS/SPSP_Moreland_Sum.pdf
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Strategy Icty and Ictr Introduction

Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26469442

Yet, according to the article, former Yugoslav republics continue in their failure to arrest and hand over inductees, or to investigate and prosecute the war crimes in question. Clearly the counseling provided by the ICTY has been far from adequate, or the countries involved are simply not yet ready to take over the responsibility of prosecution.

The article also cites Amnesty International in a statement that war crime legislation on the domestic level in these countries are frequently not in line with international legislation, and that victim and witness protection programs are far from adequate. Apparently these issues have not been thoroughly investigated before implementing the phases of the completion strategy.

A further flaw in the completion strategy is consensus, or the lack thereof. According to the ecurity Council Report (2007), the various countries are in disagreement on how to proceed after December 2010. There are also differences regarding the…… [Read More]

Sources

Bellinger, John B. 2008, Nov. 14. U.S. Perspectives on International Criminal Justice. http://www.state.gov/s/l/rls/111859.htm

Belczyk, Jaclyn. 2008, Dec. 19. ICTY may have to remain open two more years: prosecutor. Paper Chase Newsburst. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/12/icty-may-have-to-remain-open-two-more.php

Citizens for Global Solutions. 2008. International Criminal Court: An Overview. http://www.globalsolutions.org/issues/international_criminal_court

Coalition for the International Criminal Court. 2008.  http://www.iccnow.org/
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Poverty Reduction Occur on a Local Scale

Words: 3310 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283918

Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.

One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].

Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
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Protection and Humanity Intervention in an Independent

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15977729

Protection and Humanity

Intervention in an independent state

Sadly, human rights violation persists in this modern era. This is clearly the case in third world countries run by operators. The states are all independent for that matter; there comes a point when third party must intervene for saving the humanity at large.

When massive portions of population are being wiped off, efforts must be taken to avert the killings. The violations of human rights are a concrete reason to intervene in an otherwise independent state.

There are a number of factors which affect the present dilemma. By proposing that human rights are being violated means that the issue at hand is being handled too loosely. This paper will profess to highlight the value of human rights violation. Then situations will be examined where it was imperative to intervene, considering the ins and outs each party carry. The justification of the…… [Read More]

References

Cheadle, Don. Prendergast, John. (2005). Never again' again. USA Today.

United Nations Chronicle. (1993). Enforcing human rights: The UN machinery. Vol 30 (1) p93-95

Ghandhi, P.R. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at fifty years: Its origins, significance and impact. German Yearbook of International Law Vol 41 p206-252

The Economist. (2005). Lengthening the arm of global law. Vol 375 (8421) p38
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Moral Interventions

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29121753

Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?

One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.

A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."

Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015

"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.

4 May 2015
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Truman in Hypothetical Crisis as

Words: 5310 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62428097

Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.

President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.

Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354

Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550

DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550.
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Semantics A Tool for Shaping

Words: 3085 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89126084

They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They are talking about what the news media is reporting, whether or not it is slanted toward a political ideology, and assessing the information. Everyone, it seems, has faster access to broader sources of news and ideas, and they are using that information to form ideas and conclusions about political leaders and how those leaders respond to local, national, and world situations, people, and events.

How the Public Interprets Political Semantics and Use the Internet to Impact Policy and Government

One of the most significant examples of how the internet has facilitated the public's access to information, and how people world-wide have analyzed political semantics and used the information to shape policy and government is the second term of America's former President…… [Read More]

Reference List

Fisher, F., Miller, G., and Sidney, M. (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis:

Theory, Politics, and Method,

Feldman, O. And Landtsheer, C. (Eds) (1998). Politically Speaking: A Worldwide

Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Praeger Publishers,
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Politics International Relations Analysis of Theories the

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91739419

Politics

International Relations

Analysis of Theories

The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.

To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]

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Continent Africa After Imperialism

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45428583

Post-Colonial Africa

As anyone that knows history understands full well, the history of Africa has been fairly tumultuous over the years. Just looking over the last half a millennium reveals a very turbulent stretch of time that is full of slavery, colonialism, escape from said colonialism, genocide, starvation, anarchy and so forth. However, there have also been some good to great things that have happened in Africa and many of them are recent. This report shall look at the totality of post-colonial Africa. Much like the rest of the world, Africa has had to make a lot of adjustments since the imperialism of the French, British and Spanish has fallen away. Africa is far from being the only corner of the world that can say this about itself but Africa has quite obviously been hit harder than most continents and regions and this is especially true over the last half…… [Read More]

References

CDC,. (2015). 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa| Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/

Democracy in the Rough: Long Awaited Congolese Elections. (2015).

Gilbert, E., & Reynolds, J. (2012). Africa in world history. Boston: Pearson.

Rwanda: A History of Genocide. (2015).
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Justice and Human Rights Part

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6415669

The potentially socialist tone of these articles can explain a delay up through the Cold War, but it does not excuse delaying ratification into the twenty-first century. Upon further review, the socialist motive for delaying ratification does not stand.

Part 2, Topic 4: The wandan Genocide

On April 6, 1994, the plane of wandan President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down over Kigali airport, the main airport for wanda, a small country in Central Africa.. Habyarimana was killed in the crash, as was the Burundian president, Cyprien Ntaryamira. The President was a Hutu, the majority in wanda. Many believe the Tutsis, the minority in wanda, perpetrated the shooting. Some say Hutu extremists, to give them an excuse for what happened next, committed the murder. Within hours of the president's death, angry Hutus took to the streets and sought out those who supported peace between the Hutus and the Tutsis. They did…… [Read More]

References

Glendon, Mary Ann. (2001). A World made new: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House.

Fromkin, David. (2001, April 22). Drawing a Line, However Thin. The New York

Times. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/22/books/drawing-a-line-however-thin.html?pagewanted=2
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Shake Hands With the Devil

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53814583

The UN also seems to have a failure to understand or function in an effective way when lives are in the balance and immediate action is needed during a war. At one point Dallaire needed a decision made by the Security Council, but the body was divided between China, France, and the non-aligned nations vs. The U.S., UK, ussia, and their supporters. The weekend was coming up, so it was decided that the nations should reconvene on Monday. "How many wandans would die that weekend," wondered Dallaire in exasperation as well as horror (Dallarie 301).

Given the constant stream of murders he witnessed, which he was virtually powerless to stop, due to his meager forces, it is easy to see why Dallaire experienced post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) upon returning home. However, his reaction seems inevitable and unpreventable. Granted, he could have received better debriefing and counseling upon his integration back…… [Read More]

References

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake hands with the devil. Da Capo, 2004.
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Tragic Events and God it

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70385848

Time and again mankind has proven himself to be resourceful, skilled, and deliberate in taking on the forces of nature. hen mankind acts in a way that is contrary to the forces of nature, such as building fixtures or structures in the path of well-known paths of natural destruction, then mankind is challenging the forces of nature that bind mankind to the earth - the domain that God created for and gave to mankind.

However, when mankind succumbs to his own inner capacity for evil, then he is exercising free will. That that capacity for evil is capable of reaching extraordinary levels of destruction is the manifestation not of the devil, but of man's own reaction to the incremental levels of evil, the fueling of power that comes from exercising free will over others who are not capable, or who won't, act to prevent that exercise of free will over…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies?

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002381507

Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly Sept. 2001: 84-108. Questia. 26 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002381507.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5865370
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Conflict in Drc Case Study Conflict in

Words: 4232 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70586802

Conflict in DC (Case Study)

Conflict in DC

Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo

Background of DC Conflict

The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.

DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.

DC…… [Read More]

Reference

Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration

Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic

Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
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Atrocities Happening in Recent Modern History of

Words: 1622 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43147157

atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces

However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005

Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995

Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).
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Western Law

Words: 2921 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96171582

History Of the estern Law

Meaning - in legal terms - for nations to "stay the hand of vengeance"

Justice Robert Jackson, while delivering his opening speech in November 1945 during the infamous Nuremberg trials for war offenses, enjoined the leaders of the Allied forces to "stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law" (Bass, 424). According to Jackson, doing this would be "one of the most significant tributes that Power has ever paid to Reason." The combining factor in the winner's retribution in events like the botched trials at Constantinople and Leipzig after the first orld ar, the orld ar II Nuremberg trials, the Napoleon story and the on-going trial of the rulers of the Slobodan Milosevic's empire all point to an appreciation of the legal sector which has been well defined as "fixation on a process, a sense that…… [Read More]

Works cited

Bass, Gary Jonathan. Stay the hand of vengeance: the politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton University Press, 2000. Print.

Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Fifty Years of Constitutional Law: What's Changed?" Utah Law Review, no. 5, 2016, p. 689. Web.

Fletcher, Laurel E., Harvey M. Weinstein, Patrick Vinck, and Phuong N. Pham. "Stay the hand of justice: whose priorities take priority?" Berkeley Law, (2010). Print.

Goldstone, Richard. For humanity: Reflections of a war crimes investigator. Yale University Press, 2000. Print.
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Nations Formed Through the Combination

Words: 1254 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29086479



Because most of these intrastate conflicts involve identity issues they become intractable quickly. Identity is central to all human beings. It is part of everyone's self-esteem and affects how one interprets the world. This is why in ethnic conflicts the violence intensifies so quickly and strongly. Everyone involved is concerned with his or her personal security. One's home, family, and way of life are in peril. Needless to say, in these type of situations it can be expected the individuals involved will battle with every ounce of their resolve to insure that the factors that formulate their identity are protected. (egan)

Examining conflicts from a structural viewpoint results in a much different result in that the conflict is looked by examining the forces external to the people involved. Little consideration is afforded the involvement of the citizenry and their interests in the conflict. ather, the conflict is viewed through the…… [Read More]

References

Burg, S. "Ethnic Conflict and the Federation of Socialist Yugoslavia." The Journal of Federalism (1977): pp. 139-144.

Healey, J. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class. Pine Forge Press, 2005.

Regan, P. "Conditions of Successful Third Party Intevention in Intrastate Conflicts." The Journal of Conflict Resolution (1996): pp. 336-359.

Silber, L. & Little, a. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. Penguin, 1997.
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U S Foreign Policy Was Deeply

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31241896



It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).

Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).

2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.

3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).
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United States Accept Reject International Criminal

Words: 2465 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34035114

"..three asymmetric methods that could be used to exploit the Court: (1) misusing the Court's investigative processes, (2) filing questionable or fraudulent complaints, and (3) manipulating mass media (Austin, W. Chadwick, Kolenc and Anthony Barone, 2006, p. 291)."

Finally, the issue of how the court might deal with the problem of international terrorism is not well understood (Yarnold, Barbara, 1991). The court's authority to extradite and prosecute terrorists from third world countries needs to be better defined Yarnold, p. 1). The United States has not signed on to the ome Statute, and understanding the U.S. role of protecting its own, should the U.S. continue to reject

The ome Statute is becoming clouded by the strength and power of the international community and courts (Dietz, Jeffrey, 2004, p. 137). Under the powers of the ICC, any American prosecuted in the court would be denied the protections guaranteed Americans under the Bill…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538094

Aksar, Y. (2004). Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court. London: F. Cass. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538096

Austin, W.C., & Kolenc, a.B. (2006). Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? The International Criminal Court as a Weapon of Asymmetric Warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(2), 291+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016812758

Danner, a.M. (2003). Navigating Law and Politics: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and the Independent Counsel. Stanford Law Review, 55(5), 1633+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006263
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Cold War and Its Aftermath

Words: 3171 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70876456

That intervention considered, it is fair to say that on the one hand, the fact that the U.S. came out as the winner of the Cold War was obvious, and on the other hand that a certain change had occurred in terms of the rule of the international law.

The following years saw an increase in the intrastate violence, taking into account the Somalia crisis, the situations in South Africa, the genocide in Rwanda, or the war in the former Yugoslavia. All these elements of the international political scene were signs of the power vacuum that was created as a result of the fall of the higher authority in the communist world, the U.S.S.R. More precisely, although the cases in Africa were in fact reminiscences of post colonial revolts, the situations worsened as there was no authority to report to in terms of international situations. However, a certain modification did…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Buzan, Barry et al. European security order recast: scenarios for the post-cold war era. London; Pinter, 1990.

Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.

Graebner, Norman a. "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate." The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13, No. 1., 1969, pp. 123-132.

Guzzini, Stefano. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. London: Routledge, 1998.
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Forensic Procedure for Digging Up

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86572126

But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.

Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."

Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body

Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.

Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
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European Convention Human Rights African Charter Human

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6722480

European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .

Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.

From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…… [Read More]

References

African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981.  http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).

Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.

Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010.  http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html  (accessed March 05, 2011).

Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.