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wanda and Child Soldering
There are approximately 300,000 child soldier in the world today and 120,000 of these are present in Africa, wanda in one of the places in Africa with a very high ratio of child soldiers. These children are abducted and then brain washed and manipulated in order to make them killer, spies, messengers etc. They are given fire arms at such early age and trained to not feel anything when they kill someone. Most of the times these children are abducted but there are also times when they voluntarily come and join the groups in trying to escape the poverty as, as soldiers they do get food, shelter and medicines.
According to a survey about 20,000 child soldiers have been part of the warfare in wanda till date. Even though reports have been given by the government of wanda that there are no child soldiers in their…
Aptel, C. (2008). Closing the U.N. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Completion Strategy and Residual Issues. New England Journal of International and Comparative Law 14 (2): 169 -- 188.
De Brouwer, Anne-Marie L.M. (2005). Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence: The ICC and the Practice of the ICTY and the ICTR. Antwerp and Oxford: Intersentia.
Diamond, J. (2005). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York, NY: Viking.
Fujii, L.A.(2008). The Power of Local Ties: Popular Participation in the Rwandan Genocide. Security Studies 17 (3): 568 -- 597.
wanda is a country in eastern Africa where hundreds of thousands of Africans were massacred in one of the most troublesome time in international history. The book, "We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families" by Phillip Gourevitch (1998) tells an all too true account of the atrocities that occurred during this very unstable time in their past. Two opposing ethnic groups, the Tutsis and the Hutus, went head to head in a genocidal combat that eventually killed about one million individuals -- the majority of them innocent citizens -- and left millions more scarred both physically and psychologically. The Hutus believed in the extreme ideology of what was called Hutu Power. Followers of this ideology began to formulate ideas on the evil contribution that the Tutsis were making to their society and went as far as deeming them cockroaches. With the assistance of…
Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998. Print.
The UN's role in the wanda genocide
The wandan genocide took place during a civil war that nearly destroyed the poor, African nation. The civil conflict was waged between two ethnic groups known as the Tutsis and Hutu. An estimated 800,000 people were killed, mostly Tutsi, and the hands of the ethnic Hutu (UN admits wanda genocide failure, 2000, BBC). Initially, the UN had assumed some responsibility for attempting to keep the peace during what was supposed to be a transition to a power-sharing government between the rival factions. The UN mission (UNAMI) "created in October 1993 to keep the peace and assist the governmental transition in wanda, sought to intervene between the killers and civilians. It also tried to mediate between the [pro-Tutsi] PF [wandan Patriotic Front] and the [pro-Hutu] wandan army after the PF struck from wanda to protect Tutsi and rescue their battalion encamped in Kigali…
UN admits Rwanda genocide failure. (2000). BBC. Retrieved December 7, 2011 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/714025.stm
Ferroggiaro, William. (2001). The U.S. And the genocide in Rwanda 1994: Evidence of inaction.
National Security Archive. Retrieved December 7, 2011 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB53/index.html
he Kambanda case would officially begin only three years after the commitment of his crimes. According to a timeline on the trial, "Jean Kambanda is arrested in Nairobi, Kenya on 18th July 1997 and transferred to Arusha, to the International Penal Court for Rwanda on the same day." hus would begin a remarkable trial, somewhat unprecedented, but arguably driven by the conditions which would be established by the events of World War II. Kambanda's trial is contextualized by the recent and more distant elements of Rwanda's ethnic and political history.
he notorious ethnic cleansing of Rwanda which occurred in the early 1990's had actually been the long-standing product of decolonization. When the political power vacuum had left the nation to the disposal of leadership by force, Rwanda's 1959 revolution for independence did not just separate it from the authority of its German oppressors. It additionally exiled countless numbers from its…
The case in question concerns one amongst a comparably small handful of individuals who are accused of having actively endorsed a politcy of genocide as a way to relieve the nation of its ethnic conflict. The Kambanda case would officially begin only three years after the commitment of his crimes. According to a timeline on the trial, "Jean Kambanda is arrested in Nairobi, Kenya on 18th July 1997 and transferred to Arusha, to the International Penal Court for Rwanda on the same day." Thus would begin a remarkable trial, somewhat unprecedented, but arguably driven by the conditions which would be established by the events of World War II. Kambanda's trial is contextualized by the recent and more distant elements of Rwanda's ethnic and political history.
The notorious ethnic cleansing of Rwanda which occurred in the early 1990's had actually been the long-standing product of decolonization. When the political power vacuum had left the nation to the disposal of leadership by force, Rwanda's 1959 revolution for independence did not just separate it from the authority of its German oppressors. It additionally exiled countless numbers from its own population which the emergent leadership viewed as sympathizers to colonialism. This is a recurrence of an important theme in Africa's structural problems as characterized in the earlier breakdown of its continental factioning. With his power threatened in 1990 by the invasion of refugees from neighboring Uganda and their implied subversion of his rule through majority, despotic President Juvenal Habyarimana orchestrated a military propaganda initiative "to redefine the population of Rwanda into "Rwandans," meaning those who backed the president, and the "ibyitso" or "accomplices of the enemy," meaning the Tutsi minority and Hutu opposed to him."
Hearkening to ethnic tensions which had initially predisposed the Hutu to hatred for and fear of the Tutsi, Kambanda in the wake of Habyarimana's assassination continued the devastating exploitation of foreign incursion. The casualties, which numbered over a million, of Tutsi if including political enemies of the president, became just another in the litany of tragedies which are the lasting effect of colonialism. And more than that, it was a demonstration of the shortcoming in resources and liberties availed to international governing bodies whose powers appear to be stunted by poor collective judgment. The purpose of its implied powers to allow the U.N. To take immediate peacekeeping action when necessary is explicated by he legal charter, which states, "let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are planly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the constitution, are constitutional. Essentially the same arguments pro and con
wanda Genocide and Stories
The majority of richer, stronger countries in the world failed to intervene during the genocide in wanda because they were part of the United Nations. While the UN does get involved in genocide issues, it is forbidden for other countries to get involved in internal disputes if there is no genocide taking place (Nyankanzi, 1998). Because the UN was not completely clear on what was taking place in wanda, and because it failed to act quickly, it later stated that its response (or lack of response, more accurately), was a complete failure (Nyankanzi, 1998). Many countries spoke out and wanted something done about the genocide that was taking place, and wanda was asked to end that aspect of the conflict. However, very little was done and the requests to stop the violence and killing were refused or simply ignored (Nyankanzi, 1998). While other countries could have…
Cannon, C.M. (2009). Soraya M., Stoned to death for being an "inconvenient wife." Politics Daily. Retrieved from http://www.politicsdaily.com/2009/05/13/he-who-casts-the-first-stone/
Simons, S. (2009). Master of War: Blackwater USA's Erik Prince and the Business of War. NY: Harper.
Nyankanzi, E.L. (1998). Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi. NY: Schenkman Books.
While this still falls far short of the average of U.S.$34 for developing countries and U.S.$12 for sub-Saharan Africa, it represents tremendous progress for a country whose health infrastructure was virtually annihilated by the war."
For a country that was virtually wiped out during an atrocious civil war in 1994, wanda's progress has been impressive especially where economy and education are concerned. However the reason this progress has failed to make a major impact on human development indices is because of the absence of trickle down effect. The benefits of progress are concentrated in high income groups and the wealthier families in the country while the rural areas continue to suffer. Dependence on agriculture is still a major issue for the country where low productivity has led to further suppression of poor families and has offered no respite to those suffering from debilitating effects of poverty. Education sector has…
Turning Vision 2020 into Reality. United Nations Human Development report. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/nationalreports/africa/rwanda/RWANDA_2007_en.pdf
Millennium Development Goals in Rwanda.
As such, primordialism cannot fully be applied to the ethnic division between the Tutsis and Hutus groups during the intra-state conflict that dominated the genocide. On the other hand, social constructivism is slightly more applicable.
ocial constructivism is a sociological theory that implies that the formation of national identity and ethnic group formation is a consequence and creation based on Rwandan history. However, constructivism is based in political and societal context and must be examined according to the specific moral edicts that permeate the minds of the citizens of a country and also the leadership of that particular nation. ocial constructivists would argue that the social and political tradition of Rwanda dictates the ethnic identities of the Hutu and Tutsi peoples. The Tutsi monarchy ran the government and were more favored over the Hutu prior to 1959, when Belgium, officials began to see the Hutus as more socially acceptable.
Social constructivism is a sociological theory that implies that the formation of national identity and ethnic group formation is a consequence and creation based on Rwandan history. However, constructivism is based in political and societal context and must be examined according to the specific moral edicts that permeate the minds of the citizens of a country and also the leadership of that particular nation. Social constructivists would argue that the social and political tradition of Rwanda dictates the ethnic identities of the Hutu and Tutsi peoples. The Tutsi monarchy ran the government and were more favored over the Hutu prior to 1959, when Belgium, officials began to see the Hutus as more socially acceptable.
Although this action did not initially lead to violence until 1990, the Tutsis groups did not overtly object to the newly formed Hutsi run government structure in 1962 when the Tutsi where overthrown. When Belgium colonized Rwanda, racial mixing to some extend did occur during the 1940s, which led to the formation of the Tutsi, who are a breed of European and African heritage. On the other hand, the Hutu is of pure African descent. Consequently, the general antagonism between both Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups is better explained through social constructivism as the sentiment between both groups resulted in the 1994 genocide in which hundred of thousands of Rwandans perished.
In conclusion, a closer examination of the current state of Rwanda does not fully depict the sordid 1994 genocide that arose between the Tutsi and the Hutu groups. To date, both groups are learning to tolerate each other after several international peacekeeping interventions by the United Nations and other peace promoting agencies. While primordialism is not relevant as a sociological concept to explain the tension between both groups, social constructivism is a better model to highlight the effects of intra-state ethnic conflict.
Inclusion of polarized differences within the so-called team in relation to the government of Rwanda was vital for the lack of agreement during the negotiations. Two-level game situation and chaotic structures led to the failure of the bargaining power of the government of Rwanda during the negotiation process. One of the eventual outcomes of the negotiation process was the composition of the national army with 50% from the Tutsis population. This led to inabilities and sense of inferiority in the case of Rwanda. It is also essential to note the difference between the fractured and ineffective Government of Rwanda in comparison to the strongly and united RPF during the negotiation process. This unity of the RPF was under the influence of the military superiority following the break-out of the civil war and essence of exile in the case of Uganda.
The concept of war in Uganda was essential in the…
K.I. Klepp, et al. "Changes in Exposure to Information, Communication and Knowledge
About AIDS Among School Children in Northern Tanzania, 1992-2005." AIDS Care
20.3 (2008): 382-387.
"Peace Accord in Rwanda May Be the Real Thing." Africa Report 38.5 (1993): 10.
("Rwanda Today: The International Criminal Tribunal and the Prospects for Peace and Reconciliation; Interview with Helen Cobban," 2004 at (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ghosts/today/)
The works that foster such shows of faith must continue and accelerate to meet the needs of the wandering souls who still carry the burden as ghosts of the Rwandan spirit. The Catholic church is also noted by Cobban as a very active member in this process and this is reflected in the words of Pope John Paul II in his Dives in misericordia, where he intones that the faithful take an anthropocentric view upon the state of humanity and step away from worldly designations of chauvinism of race, gender, and creed as a delimiting designation allowing humanity to shirk acknowledgement of its connectedness as one.
The more the Church's mission is centered upon man -- the more it is, so to speak, anthropocentric -- the more it must be…
France's financial interests were reliant upon Hutu victory. As a result, France did intervene, even after the UN pulled out of wanda. However, the French intervention was not aimed at helping Tutsis. The Hutu greeted the French like allies, and the French did nothing meaningful to prevent further massacres. The fact that France is considered a powerful country, especially in the setting of the UN, made the rest of the world reluctant to meaningfully intervene, with the result that genocide was permitted to protect the financial interests of a powerful country.
As much as the world promised "never again," after the genocide in wanda, the genocide in Darfur in 2003 bears such similarities the situation in wanda that it is inconceivable to pretend that the genocide was not foreseeable, and, being foreseeable, the UN forces could not have done something to intervene. As in wanda, there had been historic fighting…
Frontline. 2008. On our watch. Retrieved October 28, 2009 from PBS.org
Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/darfur/
Gourevitch, P. 1999. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families:
stories from Rwanda. New York: Picador.
Child Soldering in Rwanda
Child Soldiering in Rwanda
In Rwanda, child soldiers have been used by different players as a part of reaching key objectives. To see the long-term consequences, requires examining the issue in detail and why it is occurring. This will be accomplished through studying the problem and how it is impacting the country. These factors will show the lasting effects on the region and the people who live within it.
In many regional conflicts, human trafficking has become an avenue for meeting the needs of the different sides. At the heart of this strategy, is recruiting child soldiers to conduct military operations. According to Human Rights watch, there are a total of 200 to 300 thousand who are recruited in achieving these objectives. This is problematic, as these tactics will destroy society and increase the perpetual cycle of violence. In the case of Rwanda, this is used…
Ohlsson, Leif. Livelihood Conflicts. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Coalition, 2000. Print.
Ragin, Charles. Configurational Comparative Methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2009. Print.
Straus, Scott. Remaking Rwanda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011. Print.
Wesselles, Michael. Child Soldiers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006. Print.
Hotel wanda Summary
Genocide in Hotel wanda
Hotel wanda (2004) is a dramatic account of the obstacles Paul usesabagina, a Hutu hotelier, was forced to overcome to ensure the safety of not only his wife Tatiana, a Tutsi, and their children, but also of countless refugees of the wandan genocide of 1994. The film centers usesabagina's efforts to provide a safe haven at the Belgian-owned Hotel des Milles Collines in Kigali, wanda's capital, which is under constant threat of being overtaken by Interahamwe, the anti-Tutsi militia (Hotel wanda, 2004; Lovgren, 2004). Through the course of the film, it is made evident what factors contributed to the uprising and genocide in wanda that lasted from April 1994 until July 1994.
At the beginning of the film, which takes place before genocide breaks out, the Hotel des Milles Collines welcomes a BBC television camera crew who are in town to cover the…
Hotel Rwanda. (2004). Directed by Terry George. United States: United Artists/Lions Gate
Entertainment. Accessed 31 January 2013, from Netflix.
Lovgren, S. (2004, December 9). "Hotel Rwanda" portrays hero who fought genocide.
National Geographic News. Accessed 31 January 2013, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1209_041209_hotel_rwanda.html .
This is an emotional film, but it adds the balance of political self-interest and of the power of corruption that would incite the impoverished masses against one another to acquire individual wealth. What Paul quickly realizes, and what the viewer comes to understand, is that it is not about the masses whom are living in poverty and despair - although the rebel leaders do need the masses to accomplish their goals. Cheadle's character, who greased the system on both sides of the fence, stands helpless and disheartened when the action climaxes with violent murder of Rwanda's Tutsis.
He learns another lesson when, against his hope, the United Nations and the countries of the world fail to take action to help the Tutsis, who are dying by the thousands daily. There is almost a sense the killing is allowed to rage on because the world doesn't care about "black Africa." In…
The film thus shows an ordinary man, who, for the love of a woman, committed an extraordinary act of personal courage and selflessness. It shows much like Steven Spielburg's "Schindler's List" how ordinary people -- businessmen and husbands alike -- can do the amazing, when called upon by historical and personal needs. However, the true events depicted in the film are also somewhat shaming to the contemporary American viewer. It is saddening to realize how much of the events that transpired occurred during relatively recent years, and received almost no press, except the occasional mention in a tiny corner colum of the newspaper, when far less disasterous local events received coverage.
The film is horrifying, but not because it is graphic. It is poetic in its cinematorgraphy as well as realistic. For example, sometimes the director focuses on the weapons rather than the bloody bodies of those who have become…
For example, in 2004, bad weather threatened the already strained economic conditions in the area (USAID). In describing Rwanda's current economic situation, Murenzi states that the country cannot "meet food and nutrition needs of the population at large," has "exploit[ed]" the land, does not produce a diverse enough amount of goods, cannot stimulate its own economy because of a lack of wealth, especially among subsistence farmers, and has too weak of an infrastructure to support "low value, bulk commodities." High population density, large amounts of debt, and a great deal of foreign aid complicate the current economic crisis in Rwanda (USAID). Thus, the current state of Rwanda's economy can be described as developing primarily because the economy as it is cannot provide for its people.
Though Rwanda currently suffers from many economic problems, its future prospects are aided by several key factors -- a general willingness and desire to be…
Allen, Susan, Stephenson, Rob. Weiss, Heidi, Karita, Etienne, Priddy, Frances, Fuller,
Laurie, Declerco, Andre. "Pregnancy, Hormonal Contreceptive Use, and HIV-Related Death in Rwanda." Journal of Women's Health. 16.7 (2007): 1017-1027.
Bearak, Barry. "Education in Afghanistan: A harrowing choice." The International
Herald Tribune. 9 July 2007. 8 March 2009. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/07/09/news/afghan.php
Hotel wanda: The Heartbreaking Story Of wandan Genocide
Emotions soar in Terry George's Hotel wanda (2004), as the film intensely portrays the gruesome effect of the wandan Genocide. Named aptly as the "African Schindler's List" (Burr), the film looked to elicit a plethora of emotions that can only be done through a story loosely based on Paul usesabagina's memoirs over his time as manager of the Sabena Hotel des Mille Collines. egardless of inaccuracy, the story and the acting does the film itself major justice, and the desired effect could only be positive.
Don Cheadle plays usesabagina, a Hutu who is married to a Tutsi (Sophie Okonedo). This communal bond sparks much controversy in wanda, a country that is torn between the Hutu and Tutsi extremist factions. Through the use of propaganda -- wherein radio personality George utaganda (Hakeem Kae-Kazim) calls the Tutsi "cockroaches" -- the Hutu incite their people…
Burr, Ty. "Hotel Rwanda Movie Review: Cheadle brings quiet power to 'Rwanda'." The Boston Globe. January 7, 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
Hotel Rwanda. Dir. Terry George. Perf. Don Cheadle, Sophie Okonedo, Joaquin Phoenix, Nick Nolte, Jean Reno. United Artists, 2004. DVD.
"Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened." BBC News - Home. 18 Dec. 2008. Web. 02 May 2011. .
local central African banks: Burundi, Rwanda & DRC can learn from the way European banks operate
T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s
Short description of the issue:
Description of how local central African banks operate: n Africa
Description of how European banks operate
How and what can central African banks learn from European banks?
This dissertation (Thesis) is a description, how and what local central African banks can learn from the way European banks operate. This focuses on the banking sector development in central Africa and Europe. This central African region is calling Greats lakes region. As the traditional financial sector is unable to meet the needs of the majority of population in this region, we will try to provide some African central banks examples: Burundi, Rwanda and Congo.
Short description of the issue
Banks have always played a very important…
In Europe, the European Investment Bank has played a pivotal role in organizing PPPs for European projects. By handling difficult procurement systems, such as competitive tender procedures and helping to develop administrative capacity, the EIB has become a point of reference for large and complex projects. The involvement of the EIB in infrastructure projects presents clear guarantees to private financial institutions of the viability and quality of projects, leading to reduced risk premiums. The EIB also offers credit guarantees. In this particular sense, the EIB does provide a useful role model for the Asian Development Bank's operations across Asia (ADB Institute, 2011).
What lessons can we learn from the African banks?
On the whole, African banks stayed the course through stormy weather. Most financial sectors were in the middle of a pronounced growth phase when the financial crisis took hold of international financial markets. This expansion peaked as late as the third quarter of 2008, well into the unfolding global crisis. But even during the crisis,
Ethnicity and Gender in Modern Conflicts
Modern conflicts are becoming more and more inclusive from all points-of-view. They entangle all types of groups, regardless of their combatant or non-combatant status. They include not only men with specific training, but also affect women, children, disadvantaged groups. The means of war are no longer the ones traditional but rather include terrorist actions, subversive means of attaining power. Since the Second World War, the techniques, the definitions of combatant forces, as well as the means of waging war have dramatically changed, reason for which the outcomes are more and more unpredictable.
Since the end of the Clod War and until the beginning of the 21st century, more than 100 conflicts took place around the world (Nye, 2005). Almost all of them were intra-state conflicts that are often defined as ethnic wars, "wars in which the sides define themselves, partially through cultural differences…
Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. Ethnicity and Nationalism. London: Pluto Press, 2002
Freeman, M. "Genocide, Civilization and Modernity." The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 46, No. 2. pp. 207-223, 1995
Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. Picador: New York, 1999.
Nye, J. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005.
Colonial Influences on the Rwandan Genocide
The Colonial Roots of the Rwanda Genocide
During a five-week period, between the second week of April and the third week of May in 1994 (Hintjens 241), close to 800,000 Rwandans were massacred (Storey 366-367). This represented a shocking 11% of the total population at the time. The killings continued into June of the same year, probably resulting in the deaths of another 50,000 men, women, and children. The vast majority of those massacred were Tutsi, but dissident Hutu were also killed. Although Belgian colonial rule ended in 1962, the roots for the Tutsi genocide can be traced to that period in the country's history ("Rwanda: A Historical Chronology"). This report will examine how the colonial powers created conditions that would foster events eventually leading to the 1994 Tutsi genocide.
hy Does Genocide Exist?
Bradley Campbell briefly reviews the many explanations that have been…
Campbell, Bradley. "Genocide as Social Control." Sociological Theory 27.2 (2009): 150-72. Print.
Hintjens, Helen M. "Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda." Journal of Modern African Studies, 37.2 (1999): 241-86. Print.
"Rwanda: A Historical Chronology." Frontline. PBS.org. n.d. Web. 7 May 2014.
Storey, Andy. "Structural Adjustment, State Power & Genocide: The World Bank & Rwanda." Review of African Political Economy 28.89 (2001): 365-85. Print.
After they crossed the border, Ugandan officials rounded them up, packed them onto trucks, took them to remote regions, and dumped them" (Kinzer, 11-12).
During his first years in school, in Uganda, in the middle of nowhere and under circumstances closer to the prehistoric world, Kagame follows the path of many others who see in education the only way to escape camps and return to their homelands together with their families. "He applied himself single-mindedly to his studies and was so successful that in his final year of primary school, he won the highest grades of any student in the district. This was no easy feat. There were many wandan students there, and nearly everyone has been sent to school with the same challenge: study hard, because your generation must find a way to end our exile" (Kinzer, 14). He manages to be the first among them and to detach…
Gribbin, R.E.(2008) Book Review. A Thousand Hills. Retreived: Nov, 8, 2008. Available at http://rwandakenya.blogspot.com/2008/10/book-review-thousand-hills.html
Kinzer, S.(2008). A Thousand Hills: Rwanda's Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed it Wiley.
The genocide and a high HIV / AIDS epidemic rate (recent estimates by the Ministry of Health suggest that 8.7% of the rural population is infected) has severely disrupted the population demographics, weakened human resources development, and resulted in reduced availability of agricultural labor ("ural Poverty in wanda," 2007).
Due to the reasons stated above, the World Bank estimates that 65.7% of the rural population of wanda lives below the poverty line and even a greater percentage (83.7% of the total population) of the country lives on less than $2 a day (Ibid.).
ural poverty in wanda." (2007). ural Poverty Portal: International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). etrieved on January 10, 2008 at http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/english/regions/africa/rwa/index.htm
wanda." (2007). Encyclopedia Encarta Online. etrieved on January 10, 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761560996/wanda.html
The total area of the country is 26,338 sq km (10,169 sq miles). Source: Encyclopedia Encarta
wanda has a population density of 397…
Rural poverty in Rwanda." (2007). Rural Poverty Portal: International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Retrieved on January 10, 2008 at http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/english/regions/africa/rwa/index.htm
Rwanda." (2007). Encyclopedia Encarta Online. Retrieved on January 10, 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761560996/Rwanda.html
The total area of the country is 26,338 sq km (10,169 sq miles). Source: Encyclopedia Encarta
Rwanda has a population density of 397 persons per sq km
wanda Genocide (1994)
The ole of Globalization
We know that the factors which resulted in the wanda genocide taking place were the ethnic hatred, ecological pressures and the civil war. However, what we don't know is why the genocide took place at all. Therefore, here we will be talking about the genocide that took place in 1994 only. Here the obvious features of the globalization as well as the international pressures that were faced by wanda will be discussed, along with this we will also be looking at the globalized forces that were brought together by the Arusha Accords which ultimately resulted in the happening of genocide. Later on, the Kaldor's 'New War' thesis will be examined in order to understand how wanda is a part of a broader 'new war' environment where conflicts are arising among the neo-ethnicities in their efforts to gain power.
Before the 1980's,…
Adelmann, H. & Suhrke, A. "Early warning and conflict management," JEEAR, Copenhagen, 1996
Chossudovsky, M. "Economic Genocide in Rwanda," Economic and Political Weekly (India) 13, April, 1996
Des Forges, A. "Shame -- Rationalizing Western Apathy on Rwanda," Foreign Affairs, 79:3, 2000
Goose S. & Smyth, F. "Arming Genocide in Rwanda," Foreign Affairs 73:5, 1994
role that technology has played in terms of the genocide in wanda, both before and after.
With the scope and depth of technology, there is an ability to make natural disasters seem even worse -- worse in the sense that a degree of sensationalism can develop, making the incident seem more pervasive and more damaging. One of the major ways that technology has impacted the manner in which we consume news is via the fact that it makes the news more immediate and more accessible. As one theorist has argued, "…sensationalism played an important role in journalism and the spread of news. People would shoot the breeze about this guy getting eaten by a bear or that woman being involved in affair. It's human nature to be curious about things that might affect our own survival -- such as death and sex" (Sanders, 2011). Technology has taken the element of…
Binns, T. (2008). Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies. Trenton: Prentice Hall.
Collins, A. (2009). Disaster and Development. New York: Routledge Press.
Goose, S.D. (1994). Arming Genocide in Rwanda: The High Cost of Small Arms Transfers. Retrieved from: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50333/stephen-d-goose-and-frank-smyth/arming-genocide-in-rwanda-the-high-cost-of-small-arms-transfers
Hillhorst, D. (2013). Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crises: Everyday Politics of Crisis Response. New York: Routledge.
Memory refers to a mental process where information is encoded, stored, and retrieved for use (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The process of memory is not, contrary to what many believe, like a tape recorder that accurately records events. Instead, our recollection of events is pliable and subject to a number of influences (Loftus, 1979). For instance Buckley-Zistel (2006) discussed how the recollection of the past of horrific events such as the 1990's genocide in wanda is influenced by variables such as the roles of the people during the event or their current living situation. Connerton (2008) attempted to disentangle the notions that remembering is usually considered a virtue and forgetting is necessarily a failing of a person or people. He noted that forgetting is not necessarily a unitary phenomena and that forgetting might have a purpose. Even though wandans claim that remembering the genocide is important to avoiding reoccurrences in…
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence, The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2 (pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.
Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006). Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for local coexistence in post-genocide Rwanda. Africa, 76(2), 131-150.
Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1, 59-71.
Loftus, E.F. (1979). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312-320.
The Search for the Truth in Rwanda, an argumentative essay
There are those who claim that elgium is the perpetrator in the extermination methods used in Rwanda however, there are those who claim that the Rwandan government itself may be to blame with ties to a loan from the IMF World ank. Among all the arguments leveled the most likely perpetrator of these crimes can be traced back to the Roman Catholic Church, who was the entity to first set a seal upon the Hutus and Tutsi people. This paper will explore the many arguments set forth in the Rwandan genocide event as to who is to blame for the atrocities that occurred.
A rief History of the HUTU & TUTSI of Rwanda:
The genocide, which occurred in Rwanda, has been and still is a hotly debated issue. Over 100 years ago Catholic missionaries created a bogus "pedigree"…
DeSouza, Leo J. (1997) Washington Monthly: Assigning blame in Rwanda: how to break the cycle of revenge in ethnic conflict Washington Monthly [Online] located at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_n9_v29/ai_19757663/pg_2
Toussaint, Eric (2004) "Rwanda: The Financiers of the Genocide" [Online] available at: http://www.cadtm.org/article.php3?id_article=611
TOUSSAINT, Eric. 1996. -- Nouvelles revelations sur les ventes d'armes --, 2
p., CADTM 19, Bruxelles, 1996
Emergence of Nationalist Struggles
Analysis of Emergence Nationalist Struggles
Decolonization is considered to be the process, which concentrates on the removal of colonialism; the process in which one country exerts unequal amount of power and politics over another country. It is either a political or cultural movement, which attempts to gain independence and the complete removal of insidious and destructive impacts of colonialism. This paper aims at discussing the emergence of nationalist struggles that occurred in the process of decolonization of South Africa and wanda in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore, this paper would discuss the impact of colonial powers and nationalist movements on nature development countries.
In Africa, the nationalist movement started "from the birth of Ghana in 1957 to the first democratically elected government of South Africa in 1994. The character and pace of decolonization varied from relatively peaceful constitutional transfers of power…
Birmingham, D. The Decolonization of Africa. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2005.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. Africa: Endurance and Change South of the Sahara. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Le Seuer, James D., ed. The Decolonization Reader. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Middleton, John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara. New York: Scribner's, 1997. 4 vols
Ethnicity is one of the more fluid concepts in sociology because one's ethnicity is largely defined by membership in a social group. The social group shares a common background, whether through experience or ancestry and they share characteristics that set them apart from other groups. Many times these characteristics are stereotyped, but the stereotypes are derived from a reality where the majority of members of the group do, indeed, share those characteristics. Moreover, one's ethnicity is not limited to a single background. A person can have multiple ethnicities by having a family that derives from multiple different ethnic traditions. However, a person can also have multiple ethnicities because larger ethnic groups can be further subdivided into smaller ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as tribes.
Ethnicity is also intertwined with race, which is an interesting concept. Genetic analysis has revealed that there is greater similarity than difference among humans from…
Bayer, M. 2009. "Reconsidering primordialism: An alternative approach to the study of ethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1639-1657.
Caliendo, S. & Mcilwain, C. 2011. The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, London:
Cornell, S. & Hartmann, D. 2007. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World,
As an intern I would like to be a part of some international business-related aspect of the United Nations' Millennial Development Goals Project. Not only do I want to learn, but I want to help as well. And being able to promote gender equality, not only in my home country, but around the world, is something that I would be proud to be associated with.
As I need to learn to successfully expand my business, a U.N. internship will provide me with the opportunity to learn, as well as make contacts which may help my business. I also want to learn the latest ways to incorporate the idea of gender equality into my business so that when I expand and hire more people, I will be able to give more women of my country a chance to achieve financial security. Finally, I hope to gain some insight into how the…
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/
Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.
Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
" (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325) This was the real thing: more than a half-million Tutsi murdered- three-quarters of the population -- and the attempt by the wandan state and the Hutu majority to exterminate every last Tutsi." (Gellately; Kieman, 2003, p. 325)
The question is if this can be compared to the general holocaust and the Armenian genocide, which the world watched helplessly, could the massacre have been prevented? The question is more academic. Having seen that the clashes between ethnic groups, and those who are opposed to share the natural bounties with a community they regard as unnecessary probably the total prevention of the genocide design is not possible. Can an action by the authority like the UN then have mitigated it? The answer to that question lies in the way the nations view the sovereignty and the need for intervention form the UN. It is impossible to…
Confessore, Nicholas. 2000. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. - Review. Washington Monthly, pp: 7-8.
Dorn, a. Walter; Matloff, Jonathan; Matthews, Jennifer. 2000. 'Preventing the Bloodbath: Could the UN have predicted and prevented the Rwanda Genocide?' Journal of Conflict Studies, vol. XX, no. 1, pp: 9-52.
Gellately, Robert; Kieman, Ben. 2003. The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. New York.
Riemer, Neal. 2000. Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Praeger. Westport, CT.
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at
United Nations: Failures
The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…
As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."
According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.
The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
Yet, according to the article, former Yugoslav republics continue in their failure to arrest and hand over inductees, or to investigate and prosecute the war crimes in question. Clearly the counseling provided by the ICTY has been far from adequate, or the countries involved are simply not yet ready to take over the responsibility of prosecution.
The article also cites Amnesty International in a statement that war crime legislation on the domestic level in these countries are frequently not in line with international legislation, and that victim and witness protection programs are far from adequate. Apparently these issues have not been thoroughly investigated before implementing the phases of the completion strategy.
A further flaw in the completion strategy is consensus, or the lack thereof. According to the ecurity Council Report (2007), the various countries are in disagreement on how to proceed after December 2010. There are also differences regarding the…
Bellinger, John B. 2008, Nov. 14. U.S. Perspectives on International Criminal Justice. http://www.state.gov/s/l/rls/111859.htm
Belczyk, Jaclyn. 2008, Dec. 19. ICTY may have to remain open two more years: prosecutor. Paper Chase Newsburst. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/12/icty-may-have-to-remain-open-two-more.php
Citizens for Global Solutions. 2008. International Criminal Court: An Overview. http://www.globalsolutions.org/issues/international_criminal_court
Coalition for the International Criminal Court. 2008. http://www.iccnow.org/
Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.
One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…
2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Protection and Humanity
Intervention in an independent state
Sadly, human rights violation persists in this modern era. This is clearly the case in third world countries run by operators. The states are all independent for that matter; there comes a point when third party must intervene for saving the humanity at large.
When massive portions of population are being wiped off, efforts must be taken to avert the killings. The violations of human rights are a concrete reason to intervene in an otherwise independent state.
There are a number of factors which affect the present dilemma. By proposing that human rights are being violated means that the issue at hand is being handled too loosely. This paper will profess to highlight the value of human rights violation. Then situations will be examined where it was imperative to intervene, considering the ins and outs each party carry. The justification of the…
Cheadle, Don. Prendergast, John. (2005). Never again' again. USA Today.
United Nations Chronicle. (1993). Enforcing human rights: The UN machinery. Vol 30 (1) p93-95
Ghandhi, P.R. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at fifty years: Its origins, significance and impact. German Yearbook of International Law Vol 41 p206-252
The Economist. (2005). Lengthening the arm of global law. Vol 375 (8421) p38
Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?
One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.
A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…
Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."
Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015
"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.
4 May 2015
Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.
President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.
Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…
Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354
Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356 .
DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550 .
They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They are talking about what the news media is reporting, whether or not it is slanted toward a political ideology, and assessing the information. Everyone, it seems, has faster access to broader sources of news and ideas, and they are using that information to form ideas and conclusions about political leaders and how those leaders respond to local, national, and world situations, people, and events.
How the Public Interprets Political Semantics and Use the Internet to Impact Policy and Government
One of the most significant examples of how the internet has facilitated the public's access to information, and how people world-wide have analyzed political semantics and used the information to shape policy and government is the second term of America's former President…
Fisher, F., Miller, G., and Sidney, M. (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis:
Theory, Politics, and Method,
Feldman, O. And Landtsheer, C. (Eds) (1998). Politically Speaking: A Worldwide
Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Praeger Publishers,
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…
As anyone that knows history understands full well, the history of Africa has been fairly tumultuous over the years. Just looking over the last half a millennium reveals a very turbulent stretch of time that is full of slavery, colonialism, escape from said colonialism, genocide, starvation, anarchy and so forth. However, there have also been some good to great things that have happened in Africa and many of them are recent. This report shall look at the totality of post-colonial Africa. Much like the rest of the world, Africa has had to make a lot of adjustments since the imperialism of the French, British and Spanish has fallen away. Africa is far from being the only corner of the world that can say this about itself but Africa has quite obviously been hit harder than most continents and regions and this is especially true over the last half…
CDC,. (2015). 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa| Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/
Democracy in the Rough: Long Awaited Congolese Elections. (2015).
Gilbert, E., & Reynolds, J. (2012). Africa in world history. Boston: Pearson.
Rwanda: A History of Genocide. (2015).
The potentially socialist tone of these articles can explain a delay up through the Cold War, but it does not excuse delaying ratification into the twenty-first century. Upon further review, the socialist motive for delaying ratification does not stand.
Part 2, Topic 4: The wandan Genocide
On April 6, 1994, the plane of wandan President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down over Kigali airport, the main airport for wanda, a small country in Central Africa.. Habyarimana was killed in the crash, as was the Burundian president, Cyprien Ntaryamira. The President was a Hutu, the majority in wanda. Many believe the Tutsis, the minority in wanda, perpetrated the shooting. Some say Hutu extremists, to give them an excuse for what happened next, committed the murder. Within hours of the president's death, angry Hutus took to the streets and sought out those who supported peace between the Hutus and the Tutsis. They did…
Glendon, Mary Ann. (2001). A World made new: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House.
Fromkin, David. (2001, April 22). Drawing a Line, However Thin. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/22/books/drawing-a-line-however-thin.html?pagewanted=2
The UN also seems to have a failure to understand or function in an effective way when lives are in the balance and immediate action is needed during a war. At one point Dallaire needed a decision made by the Security Council, but the body was divided between China, France, and the non-aligned nations vs. The U.S., UK, ussia, and their supporters. The weekend was coming up, so it was decided that the nations should reconvene on Monday. "How many wandans would die that weekend," wondered Dallaire in exasperation as well as horror (Dallarie 301).
Given the constant stream of murders he witnessed, which he was virtually powerless to stop, due to his meager forces, it is easy to see why Dallaire experienced post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) upon returning home. However, his reaction seems inevitable and unpreventable. Granted, he could have received better debriefing and counseling upon his integration back…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake hands with the devil. Da Capo, 2004.
Time and again mankind has proven himself to be resourceful, skilled, and deliberate in taking on the forces of nature. hen mankind acts in a way that is contrary to the forces of nature, such as building fixtures or structures in the path of well-known paths of natural destruction, then mankind is challenging the forces of nature that bind mankind to the earth - the domain that God created for and gave to mankind.
However, when mankind succumbs to his own inner capacity for evil, then he is exercising free will. That that capacity for evil is capable of reaching extraordinary levels of destruction is the manifestation not of the devil, but of man's own reaction to the incremental levels of evil, the fueling of power that comes from exercising free will over others who are not capable, or who won't, act to prevent that exercise of free will over…
Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies?
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly Sept. 2001: 84-108. Questia. 26 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002381507 .
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration
Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background
Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces
However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005
Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995
Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).
History Of the estern Law
Meaning - in legal terms - for nations to "stay the hand of vengeance"
Justice Robert Jackson, while delivering his opening speech in November 1945 during the infamous Nuremberg trials for war offenses, enjoined the leaders of the Allied forces to "stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law" (Bass, 424). According to Jackson, doing this would be "one of the most significant tributes that Power has ever paid to Reason." The combining factor in the winner's retribution in events like the botched trials at Constantinople and Leipzig after the first orld ar, the orld ar II Nuremberg trials, the Napoleon story and the on-going trial of the rulers of the Slobodan Milosevic's empire all point to an appreciation of the legal sector which has been well defined as "fixation on a process, a sense that…
Bass, Gary Jonathan. Stay the hand of vengeance: the politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton University Press, 2000. Print.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Fifty Years of Constitutional Law: What's Changed?" Utah Law Review, no. 5, 2016, p. 689. Web.
Fletcher, Laurel E., Harvey M. Weinstein, Patrick Vinck, and Phuong N. Pham. "Stay the hand of justice: whose priorities take priority?" Berkeley Law, (2010). Print.
Goldstone, Richard. For humanity: Reflections of a war crimes investigator. Yale University Press, 2000. Print.
Because most of these intrastate conflicts involve identity issues they become intractable quickly. Identity is central to all human beings. It is part of everyone's self-esteem and affects how one interprets the world. This is why in ethnic conflicts the violence intensifies so quickly and strongly. Everyone involved is concerned with his or her personal security. One's home, family, and way of life are in peril. Needless to say, in these type of situations it can be expected the individuals involved will battle with every ounce of their resolve to insure that the factors that formulate their identity are protected. (egan)
Examining conflicts from a structural viewpoint results in a much different result in that the conflict is looked by examining the forces external to the people involved. Little consideration is afforded the involvement of the citizenry and their interests in the conflict. ather, the conflict is viewed through the…
Burg, S. "Ethnic Conflict and the Federation of Socialist Yugoslavia." The Journal of Federalism (1977): pp. 139-144.
Healey, J. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class. Pine Forge Press, 2005.
Regan, P. "Conditions of Successful Third Party Intevention in Intrastate Conflicts." The Journal of Conflict Resolution (1996): pp. 336-359.
Silber, L. & Little, a. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. Penguin, 1997.
It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).
Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…
1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).
2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.
3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).
"..three asymmetric methods that could be used to exploit the Court: (1) misusing the Court's investigative processes, (2) filing questionable or fraudulent complaints, and (3) manipulating mass media (Austin, W. Chadwick, Kolenc and Anthony Barone, 2006, p. 291)."
Finally, the issue of how the court might deal with the problem of international terrorism is not well understood (Yarnold, Barbara, 1991). The court's authority to extradite and prosecute terrorists from third world countries needs to be better defined Yarnold, p. 1). The United States has not signed on to the ome Statute, and understanding the U.S. role of protecting its own, should the U.S. continue to reject
The ome Statute is becoming clouded by the strength and power of the international community and courts (Dietz, Jeffrey, 2004, p. 137). Under the powers of the ICC, any American prosecuted in the court would be denied the protections guaranteed Americans under the Bill…
Aksar, Y. (2004). Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court. London: F. Cass. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538096
Austin, W.C., & Kolenc, a.B. (2006). Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? The International Criminal Court as a Weapon of Asymmetric Warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(2), 291+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016812758
Danner, a.M. (2003). Navigating Law and Politics: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and the Independent Counsel. Stanford Law Review, 55(5), 1633+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006263
That intervention considered, it is fair to say that on the one hand, the fact that the U.S. came out as the winner of the Cold War was obvious, and on the other hand that a certain change had occurred in terms of the rule of the international law.
The following years saw an increase in the intrastate violence, taking into account the Somalia crisis, the situations in South Africa, the genocide in Rwanda, or the war in the former Yugoslavia. All these elements of the international political scene were signs of the power vacuum that was created as a result of the fall of the higher authority in the communist world, the U.S.S.R. More precisely, although the cases in Africa were in fact reminiscences of post colonial revolts, the situations worsened as there was no authority to report to in terms of international situations. However, a certain modification did…
Buzan, Barry et al. European security order recast: scenarios for the post-cold war era. London; Pinter, 1990.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
Graebner, Norman a. "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate." The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13, No. 1., 1969, pp. 123-132.
Guzzini, Stefano. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. London: Routledge, 1998.
But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.
Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."
Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…
Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body
Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.
Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .
Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.
From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…
African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).
Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.
Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010. http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html (accessed March 05, 2011).
Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…
OCHA, (2012), retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://www.unocha.org/
O'Malley, Stephen, (2002, Sept 16), The role of OCHA in the emergency operations following the eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, report for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/role-ocha-emergency-operations-following-eruption-nyiragongo
Objectively Describing "Gorillas in the Mist"
Nearly thirty years ago, the film Gorillas in the Mist was released. It is a dramatic narrative with the protagonist Dian Fossey, a real person, who traveled to wanda, Africa, in her ambitious efforts to save the gorillas native to the area. Fossey is played by Sigourney Weaver, who is famous for her numerous roles, including this one and from the Alien movie series. The story the film tells is as much about Fossey's personal challenges, as it is about the challenges of the gorillas she is trying to desperately save, as well as the challenges of the nation of wanda, the continent of Africa, and others who follow in her legacy of intense dedication to the preservation of animal species. The film addresses and closely examines issues on a micro and macrocosmic scale, including issues of sexual inequality, war, and environmentalism.
Hinson, Hal. (1999). Gorillas in the Mist. The Washington Post, Web, Available from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/gorillasinthemistpg13hinson_a0c8cc.htm . 2013 June 28.
Internet Movie Database. (2013). Gorillas in the Mist. IMDB, Web, Available from: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0095243/ . 2013 June 28.
Conflict with Getting Minerals from the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) is Important to China's Economy
Globalization is a significant part of the business world. It offers many opportunities for change and growth, and helps people connect to one another even if they are across the world from each other. eing able to buy something from the next town over or the other side of the world can make a person very happy, and can also help companies expand and gain new clients. However, what the person is buying and where the items are coming from is very important. Some globalization has resulted in a desire for items that are coming from countries where the people are not being treated well. When that happens, it can be a serious violation of human rights and can cause a significant number of problems in the country from which the items are being…
Eichstaedt, Peter (2011). Consuming the Congo: War and Conflict Minerals in the World's Deadliest Place. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
Ma, Tiffany. (2013). China and Congo's Coltan Connection. Project 2049 Institute: 1-7.
Magistad, Mary Kay (2011). Slideshow: Why Chinese Mineral Buyers are Eyeing Congo. PRI.org. Retrieved from http://pri.org/stories/2011-10-26/slideshow-why-chinese-mineral-buyers-are-eying-congo
Meale, David. (2009). China's Quest for Resources in Africa: Emerging Opportunities for New U.S. Policy Approaches. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces: 1-52.
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…
Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca/about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html
United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from
Rutagarama, E. & Martin, a. (2006). Partnerships for protected area conservation in Rwanda.
The Geographical Journal, 172(4), 291-293.
Summary of the content: The authors work at the International Gorilla Conservation Programme, African Wildlife Foundation and School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, respectively, who emphasize the importance of developing networks of partnerships in developing countries that include national, regional and local government agencies as well communities, NGOs and the private sector to promote sustainable biodiversity conservation initiatives. Such partnerships can avoid the tendency to adopt extreme positions with respect to sustainable uses of natural resources such as the "fortress conservation" approach that discourages resource used by human populations on the one hand and the reckless use of natural resources with little regard for future sustainability on the other.
Describe of its potential application to topic: Many of the most valuable biodiverse environments are situated in developing nations, making…