Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 1000 essays for "Sample Data"

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

View Full Essay

Flight Data Recorder

Words: 3362 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42429284

Flight Data ecorder

From a system viewpoint, prevention is a great deal less expensive than accidents. Two Boeing 737 accidents remain entirely unexplained at this time (Colorado Springs, 1992; Pittsburgh, 1994). Both airplanes had older digital flight data recorders that did not record control surface positions; that information might very well have led to an unambiguous finding of probable cause. In sharp contrast, the Aerospatiale AT-72 that crashed after extended flight in icing conditions ( oselawn, Indiana, 1994), was equipped with a modern digital flight data recorder whose data enabled investigators to discover, literally within days of the accident, that icing had disturbed airflow over the ailerons beyond the pilots' ability to maintain control. It has been suggested that a substantial fleet could have been equipped with modern flight data recorders for less than the costs of the two 737 accidents.

Some of the innovations discussed here are clearly needed…… [Read More]


Ashford, Peter. (2010) Flight Data Recorders: Built, Tested to Remain Intact After a Crash. Parts I & II. Technically Speaking. Avionics News.

Hopkin V.D. (2004). "Human factors in air traffic system automation." In R. Parasuraman & M. Mouloua (Eds.), Human performance in automated systems: Current research and trends (pp. 319-336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hopkin V.D. (2007). "Situational awareness in air traffic control." In, R.D. Gilson, D.J. Garland, & J.M. Koonce (Eds.), Situational awareness in complex systems (pp. 171-178) Daytona Beach, FL: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Press.

Hughes J.A., Randall D., & Shapiro D. (2002). Faltering from ethnography toward design. CSCW 92 Proceedings.
View Full Essay

Sampled and the Various Types of Instruments

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84228662

sampled, and the various types of instruments used in data collection. The methods also differ in how the data will be collected: qualitatively, quantitatively or both.

In the following essay we will be discussing the comparisons and contrasts of the following research methods, followed by some examples and particular usage of these methods.

Field esearch Method

Experimental esearch Method


Field esearch Method

Field research is an activity used to collect primary or unusual data using methods such as face-to-face interviewing, telephonic interviews, surveys and direct observation etc. The purpose of this study is to observe the phenomena in its natural state, collection of data and then construction of theory. The field research method has much strength, such as that the researcher can conduct research in a better way to find out the specific information that is required. Similarly, flexibility is also a great strength of this method, as the…… [Read More]


Babbie, Earl R (1973) "Survey Research Methods" Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Experiment Resources (2008) "Experimental Research" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: 

Shuttleworth, Martyn (2009) "Field Experiments" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources:
View Full Essay

Data Analysis using Excel

Words: 357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45733537


"According to T-100 Domestic Market, the top seven airlines in the United States by domestic boarding in a recent year were Southwest Airlines with 81.1 million, Delta Airlines with 79.4 million, American Airlines with 72.6 million, United Airlines with 56.3 million, Northwest Airlines with 43.3 million, US Airways with 37.8 million, and Continental Airlines with 31.5 million. Using Excel, construct a pie chart and a bar graph to depict this information". ( Kaplan University, 2016 p 1).

Pie Chart

Bar Graph

Department of the Interior releases figures on mineral production. The following are the 15 leading states in nonfuel mineral production in the United States in 2008". ( Kaplan University, 2016 p 2).


Value ($Billon)














New Mexico



Descriptive Statistics

Value ($Billion)



Standard Error






Standard Deviation

1,923099…… [Read More]


Kaplan University (2016). Using Data Analysis in Excel. USA
View Full Essay

Data Analysis Retail Case

Words: 3388 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17908095


The five management programs have the same common dependent variables. These are the average turnover, the weekly profit and the monthly staff time cost. The independent variable for this experiment is the management system that is used. There are five different management systems that are being used at the company, and they differ in their methods. The data presented show the impact of the different management systems on the different output measures (dependent variables).

The wild card is the type of store data. The company investigated this using three store categories, and presented its findings, but they were not presented with statistical analysis. As such, they should not be considered to be an independent variable.

Outcome variables are the dependent variables.. Ultimately, for this company the variables should reflect a wider variety of output measures for each store. . The output variables should be related to the success measures.…… [Read More]


Investopedia (2015). Sales per square foot. Investopedia. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from 

Taylor, C. (2015). What is a simple random sample? Retrieved December 10, 2015 from 

Baldwin, S. (2006). Organisational justice. Institute for Employment Studies. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from 

Hannan, M. & Freeman, J. (1984). Structural inertia and organizational change. American Sociological Review. Vol. 49 (2) 149-164.
View Full Essay

Sample Variability and Statistical Inferences

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21466519

digit integers {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}.

Sampling distribution of each sample is .04

Mean () Probability P (x)

If a population has a standard deviation ? of 25 units, what is the standard error of the mean if samples of size 16 are selected? Samples of size 36? Samples of size 100?

Standard error for sample size 16 25 / 4= 6.25

Standard error for sample size 36 25/6= 4.17

Standard error for sample size 100 25/10= 2.5

According to Nielsen's Television Audience report, in 2009 the average American home had 2.6 television sets (more than the average number of people per household, at 2.5 people). If the standard deviation for the number of televisions in a U.S. household is 1.2 and a random sample of 0 U.S. households is selected, the mean of this sample belongs to a sampling distribution.

a.What is the shape of this sampling distribution?…… [Read More]


From candy to jewelry to flowers, the average consumer was expected to spend $123.89 for Mother's Day 2009, according to an April 2009 National Retail Federation survey. Local merchants felt this average was too high for their area. They contracted an agency to conduct a study. A random sample of 60 consumers was taken at a local shopping mall the Saturday before Mother's Day and produced a sample mean amount of $106.27. If ? = $39.50, does the sample provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claim at the 0.05 level of significance?

Z star is .0575, which means the p value is .48 and is not smaller than the established level of significance. Therefore, the sample does provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claims.
View Full Essay

Data Methods and Hypotheses of Two Studies

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99189358

Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.

Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."

For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.

Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.


ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.

ead the articles in detail.

Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…… [Read More]

References used in the study are presented.
View Full Essay

Compare and Contrast the Two Primary Crime Data Sources Used in the United States

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49906355

Crime Data Sources in the United States

The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…… [Read More]


Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS

Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.

"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.

Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website:
View Full Essay

Prelude to Statistical Data Analysis

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43339128

Take for example a human resource manager who is interested in how three different departments in a business situation waste time on the internet on a given day when they should be doing company business. The human resource person would collect data through a time study process and determine the number of times each employee in each department logs on and off the internet for personal business. The times would be collected, added together and the times of each department converted to percentages. In the example presented, the human resource manager can report that, cumulatively, the employees in Department 1 spent a total of 5 hours a day on the Internet, Department 2 employees 2 hours a day and Department 3 spent 6 hours. The raw numeric count is then converted to percentages and the pie chart would look like the following (Ohlson, 2005):

The solution to the data presented…… [Read More]


Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs. p.43

Weirs, Ronald M. (2005). Introduction to Business Statistics. Scranton, PA: Brooks/Cole

Publishing Company.

View Full Essay

Nonparametric Analysis of Selected Data Set

Words: 417 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 85891332

Nonparametric Analysis of Data Set

The datasets consist of the following variables:

• Sub_num

• Gender

• Major

• Coffee, and • Num_cups.

The datasets are used for the nonparametric analysis to investigate whether the choices of college majors are different between males and female's individuals. The analysis is carried out with the chi-square test and the document presents the output as follows:

Gender * Major Cross-tabulation






Chi-Square Tests



Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

Likelihood Ratio

Linear-by-Linear Association

N of Valid Cases

The minimum expected count is 4.30 and 1 cells (10.0%) have the expected count less than 5.

The analysis of the chi-square test is used to assess whether both males and females' participants are different in the choice of colleges' major. The frequencies are analyzed and the outcome of the tests show that they are significant because:

p = .127,

χ2…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

E-Groceries Primary Data Collection Secondary Data Collection

Words: 12291 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 50065159


Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Performance evaluation of the optimized supply chains

McLane e-grocery

Carrefour Ooshop e-grocery

Logistics Optimization

Structural decisions items of operations strategy in logistics

Hardware of the firm

Operational Facilities

Operational Capacity

Process technology

Supply Network

Infrastructure decision areas

Software of the organization

Planning and control


Organizational Structure

Comparison of structural and infrastructural logistical operations management decisions


Capital Investment

Globalization and Logistics Optimization

Logistical optimization models

Challenges in e-grocery Logistics

E-grocery logistical solution

Store-based order picking model

Figure: Store-based order picking model

Store-based order picking for attended goods reception

Store-based order picking for unattended goods reception

Dedicated order picking model

Figure: Dedicated order picking model

Delivery from dedicated centers for attended goods reception

Delivery from dedicated centers for unattended goods reception


E-basic needs frameworks so that organizations can get beneficial

Execution methodology

Distinctive logistical results

ecognize e-basic framework

E-basic framework

E-basic model…… [Read More]


Anand, G., Ward, P.T., Tatikonda, M.V., & Schilling, D.A. (2009). Dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement infrastructure. Journal of Operations Management, 27(6), 444-461.

Barnes, D. (2008). Operations management: An international perspective. United Kingdom: Thomson.

Griffin, R.W., & Pustay, M.W. (2009). International Business: A Managerial

Perspective. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Correctly Determining a Sample for

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78806546

Depending on what the particular needs are for a qualitative study, the samples should be small so that researchers can achieve data saturation, in which no new information is encountered so that redundancy occurs (Polit & Beck, 2008, p. 363). In comparison, quantitative studies are usually advantaged by larger samples that are more representative of a population.

Developing a sample for a research study requires researchers to specifically tailor their sample to the research design. Doing so involves determining whether the study will be quantitative or qualitative, and utilizing one of the many different sampling measures that categorized as either nonprobability or probability sampling. There is a distinct relationship between quantitative studies and probability sampling measures, and qualitative research and non-probability measures (particularly those that involve purposive sampling). However, researchers must ensure that their samples demonstrate a causal relationship -- that is ideally in accordance with their hypotheses -- and…… [Read More]


Creswell, J. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Retrieved from,%20Quantitative,%20and%20mixed%20methods.pdf 

Lunsford, T.R., Lunsford, B.R. (2005). "Research forum -- the research sample, part I: Sampling." American Academy of Orthotists & Prosthetists. Retrieved from 

No author. (no date). "What is research design." Retrieved from Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781794688

Saldanha, L., Thompson, P. (2002). "Conceptions of sample and their relationship to statistical inferences." Educational Studies in Mathematics. 51 (3) 257-270.
View Full Essay

Pros of a Representative Sample in This

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58340167

pros of a representative sample in this case? In this regard, your thread provides some of the advantages?

The study affirms the importance of cultural influences in research and management. A representative sample is particularly important in this study since the ramifications are immense. The authors argue that culture impacts perceptions and outcome of research. The researchers argue that consideration of cultural differences is critical when choosing researchers for and applying techniques in cross-cultural research as well as in the performance appraisal and international management. Implications of this study would have huge effects in an immense amount of fields from that of the social sciences where scholars and government as well as NGOs would choose researchers based on cultural specifications to conduct and evaluate research. Corporations, too, would include ethnicity as one of their criteria when choosing employees who would conduct performance appraisals. Most importantly still, management echelons would be…… [Read More]


People science & Policy The need for representative samples in quantitative research 

Rundblad, G (2006) Recruiting a representative sample.
View Full Essay

Gather Numeric Measurement Data From

Words: 464 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61867614

In order to gather the necessary measurement data the following questionnaire will be administered to the selected samples.

The sample of 50 for each group was chosen as correlation studies with a sample of 50 correspond to correlations of 0.90 or higher. For multiple regression analysis the 50 sample size is sufficient to deal with multiple predictors.


Dear Participant: Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study in an attempt to determine whether there is a positive or negative relationship between female high school smokers and female college smokers. Please answer all questions fairly and honestly. Please do not place any personal identification information on the questionnaire.

1. Age:

2. Birth Order: First____ Middle____ Last

3. Length of time you have smoked:

4. Does your father smoke? Yes____ No_

5. Does your mother smoke? Yes____ No_

6. Do you participate in sports' activities? Yes____ No_

7. What is…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sampling Design & Data Method

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38737103

(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.

In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.

Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
View Full Essay

What Is the Future of Big Data

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32539179

ig data: What does it mean for your business?

Once data about consumers was relatively difficult to amass. Now, in the digital age businesses are assaulted with a plethora of sources of consumer data. "Data now stream from daily life: from phones and credit cards and televisions and computers; from the infrastructure of cities; from sensor-equipped buildings, trains, buses, planes, bridges, and factories. The data flow so fast that the total accumulation of the past two years -- a zettabyte -- dwarfs the prior record of human civilization" (Shaw 2014). The big data revolution has the power to be as revolutionary as the Internet in the ways that businesses conduct commerce and consumers view themselves. "ig data is distinct from the Internet, although the Web makes it much easier to collect and share data. ig data is about more than just communication: the idea is that we can learn from…… [Read More]


Corbin, K. 2014. CIOs must balance cloud security and customer service. CIO Magazine.

Available at:  [2 Nov 2014]

Cukier, K.N. & Schoenberger, V. 2013. The rise of Big Data. Foreign Affairs. Available at:  [2 Nov 2014]
View Full Essay

Statistical Data Analysis of the

Words: 1380 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97697259

This analysis was deemed necessary as differences can exist on the basis of an overall group effect and not an individual variable (question) effect and visa versa.

Male Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.



Squares between error

Required F. value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement: With a received F. value of 1.04 and a required value of F = 4.21 the conclusion can be drawn that no statistically significant differences exist in attitude toward Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development for male radiographer participants within the three health care departments at a probability level of 95%. Therefore, all three health care groups consisting of males perceive attitudes towards Career Choice, Professional Relationships and Development the same.

Female Mean Per Question Analysis x Department

Source of Sum of d.f.



Squares between error

Required F. Value: 4.21 ? < 0.05

Concluding Statement:…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sampling Data Analyses the Single-Study Critique Paper

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80304165

Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a quantitative study paper.

Quantitative article analysis

The Nursing esearch article "Effectiveness of an Aspiration isk-eduction Protocol" addresses a proposed method to reduce the risk of aspiration in critically ill patients through a three-pronged intervention strategy. The intervention strategy components include "maintaining head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees or higher, unless contraindicated; inserting feeding tubes into distal small bowel, when indicated; and using an algorithmic approach for high gastric residual volumes" (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). It used a two-group quasi-experimental design of critically ill, mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving tube feedings. 329 were in the control population, 145 in the experimental group (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). The patients were all drawn from the same five ICUs at a Level…… [Read More]


Metheny, Norma A., Jami Davis-Jackson & Barbara J. Stewart. (2010). Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk-Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1): 18 -- 25. Retrieved: doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba05.
View Full Essay

Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63073192

Statistic Data From Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, National Institute of Health


Every second person in Armenia, irrespective of sex, is a smoker. Only 15% of the population have never smoked before WOMEN and SMOKING

53,6% smoked some time in the past

39,6% smoke

Chart indicates % of women smoke... cigarettes per day

Chart indicates that in Armenia among the smoking women the percentage of women with higher education is significantly more than those having secondary education.

Qui Hing

Tobacco and Teenagers

In Armenia about half of the smokers start smoking reaching the age of 18, 36,6% of teenagers are smoke

Number of cigarettes per day

Boys and girls

Boys and young men in Armenia start smoking much sooner than girls, more than a half of a yang men start doing it before reaching the age of 18. Absolute majority of girls in Armenia start smoking after the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Security and Control of Health Data

Words: 3766 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68825610

Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper

Protecting Health-Care Data

The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)

This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…… [Read More]


A WWW implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health


Accessed 21 September, 2005

IO Press. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Schools Use Data for Implementing

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62144861

His intention is to use an experimental approach by using statistical tools to quantify and assess program effectiveness by comparing school effectiveness ratings before implementation of the program with schools effectiveness ratings following the implementation of the program.

5. Is there anything in the procedures for collecting the information or in the instruments themselves that could bias the results or weaken the study?

The author does not describe the source of his schools merely stating the inclusive and exclusive criteria that they satisfied. The schools, all in Milwaukee, had to satisfy three main criteria: firstly that the program under study was introduced during a period when rating were available, secondly, that the number of schools introducing the program must be sufficient for statistical results, and thirdly, that there should be sufficient and adequate comparison groups. His research seems immune to bias.

The author does, however, mention the possibility of bias…… [Read More]


Thompson, B. (2006). Evaluating Three Programs Using a School Effectiveness Model: Direct Instruction, Target Teach, and Class Size Reduction, Third Education Group Review, 2, 1-10.
View Full Essay

Epidemiological Data and Then Exploring Possibility of

Words: 410 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84386973

epidemiological data, and then exploring possibility of a causal connection between lack of government funding for community-based treatments and increase in HIV incidence in queer male communities.

Both statistical descriptive and inferential tests will be employed.

The descriptive tests summarize and describe the data. These would include frequency analysis e.g. Of the amount of men diagnosed as queer, and frequency that the participants experienced homophobia. Univariate analysis would focus on one variable, e.g. frequency of homophobia, by analyzing the mean, the distribution, the central tendency, and the dispersion of the occurrence.

The distribution would provide some assumption of the pattern of the range: whether normal or skewed.

The central tendency would, in this case, measure the mean of the data, i.e. average number of males that experienced discriminatory treatment. Dispersion would be another descriptive tool that measures the spread of values around the central tendency, i.e. range and standard deviation.…… [Read More]


AllPsych Online:
View Full Essay

High Level of Anecdotal Data and Loose

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18417092

high level of anecdotal data and loose interpretation involved. For any serious study, what we want is quantitative or scientific research. For a research to be truly effective, it must the following criteria:

"There must be a felt difficulty or problem to be addressed

There must be a location and definition of the felt difficulty

One must suggest solutions (hypotheses) to the problem

Using deductive reasoning one must predict the consequences of the various suggested solutions

One must test the hypothesis in action" (Blumenfeld, p. 119)

With qualitative research, there can be several challenges starting from proper research hypotheses to research data analysis. This is because qualitative research doesn't have numbers or facts included. It is purely based on interviews, life stories, anecdotes and such other expressive data which cannot be easily analyzed and the margin of error can usually be very wide.

In order to ensure good accuracy levels…… [Read More]


Warren J. Blumenfeld. (1993) Looking at Gay and Lesbian Life. Beacon Press.
View Full Essay

Project Data

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93176321

The FEP (Fundraising Effectiveness Project) aims at helping non-profits quicken fundraising. The Project strives towards the above objective by offering yearly charity growth tracking and evaluation features to nonprofits. An increase in giving may be defined as net gains minus net losses in contribution (Tools - Fundraising Effectiveness Project). Nonprofit entities raise a larger sum of money via investments in growth-focused fundraising methods which amplify gains as well as decrease losses. FEP's emphasis is "effectiveness" (or charity growth maximization) instead of "efficiency" (or cost minimization). A yearly survey is performed, helpful performance measurement instruments for gauging increase in giving are provided, and loss/gain statistics are issued via an annual report, by partnering with The Urban Institute, the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP), and participant donor software companies. FEP resources back growth-focused fundraising initiatives. The Gig (Growth in Giving) program endeavors to increase philanthropy's GDP (gross domestic product) share. This initiative…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Organizing Data in Qualitative and Quantitative Studies

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24201868

Tracking Data

In research, data and information collected needs to be organized in a manner that makes sense for the researcher at the analysis and report writing stages. Data can be organized depending on the data analysis objectives of the researcher. The researcher would organize qualitative data differently than a survey or quantitative data. It is through data organization that the researcher, at times, would make sense of the data at hand and would either confirm or change the direction or focus of the data analyses (while keeping in mind that any changes should still be aligned with the study's objectives).

Organizing data collected using qualitative methods require a different kind of organization or approach to data analysis. Qualitative data are made up of text relevant to the study at hand, and may be in the form of a key word, phrase, sentence, or passage from a specific discussion into…… [Read More]


Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.
View Full Essay

Keeping Digital Data Secure

Words: 2444 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3974927

Future of Data Storage in Computer Networks

There are a number of problems facing the future of information technology including the fact that networks are increasingly asked to expand in order to accommodate more and more data. Many experts believe that such increases will mean two things; one that the networks will become increasingly secure, and two because of the security, the data contained on the network will become more difficult to access. This study sought to determine the various processes that are currently being used to secure data on various networks, and to determine if that security will, or will not, ensure that data will become incrementally more difficult to obtain. To this end, this study used the most current literature available to determine if there is a problem with the data being stored in the current manner, or if there is a perception that the data will be…… [Read More]


Axellson, A-S. & Schroeder, R. (2009). Making it open and keeping it safe: E-enabled data-sharing in Sweden. Acta Sociologica, 52(3), 213-226.

Datt, S. (2011, Winter). The information explosion: Trends in technology review. The Journal of Government Financial Management, 60(4), 46-54.

Folk, M. & Barkstrom, B. (2003). Attributes of file formats for long-term preservation of scientific and engineering data in digital libraries. Paper presented at the Joint Conference

on Digital Libraries, Houston, TX, May 27-31.
View Full Essay

Manage and Organize Qualitative Data Lecompte 2000

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79418643

manage and organize qualitative data. LeCompte (2000) notes that data can be organized using traditional organization techniques like creating files, cataloging, labeling, and creating indices. These techniques are often applied to qualitative data that comes in the form of field notes or other written information. Today, the information might be stored in a database on the computer. Often the data might be recorded on a smartphone or tablet, which will make it even easier to transfer to a computer. However, the techniques of indexing, cataloging and labeling are still used to manage large amounts of qualitative data.

It is important that the research is able to make sense of the data, but it should also be remembered that one of the most valuable traits of qualitative research is that it has a lot of flexibility with respect to how that data can be analyzed and presented. As such, it is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bansal, P. & Corley, K. (2011). The coming of age for qualitative research: Embracing the diversity of qualitative methods. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 54 (2) 233-237.

Guest, G., Bunce, A. & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and validity. Field Methods. Vol. 18 (1) 59-82

LeCompte, M. (2000). Analyzing qualitative data. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 39 (3) 146-154.

Morse et al. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Vol. 1 (2) 13-22.
View Full Essay

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis

Words: 1832 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78985915

.....employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employee's data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the organization where the mean age of all the entire workforce is 39.19 years. However, workers between 18 and 29 years of age consist of 30.4% of the workforce. However, workers between age of 30 and 40 consist of 23.2% of employees within the organization. Employees between 41 and 50 years of age consist of 23.2% of the workforce while employees between 51 and 63 of age consist of 21.7%.

The findings also reveal the proportion of the employees belonging…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Driven It Collects Numerical Data

Words: 396 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6236731

In such a design, one group of counselors would receive additional training to address the needs of the new population while a control group would not.

Qualitative methods -- that is, non-data-driven methods, involve participant observation (such as the study's constructors acting as counselors themselves), direct observation (observing counseling sessions), unstructured interviewing (of subjects and counselors in the newly reformed program), and finally case studies of specific study subjects that are followed for a period of time (Trochim 2006). It should be stressed that there is no one, singular correct method: both quantitative and qualitative approaches to research have strengths and weaknesses. Quantitative data is easier to use to assess a large population of subjects, but may produce misleading results if only certain variables are focused upon, while qualitative data can yield more useful and unusual experiential results, but can be overly individualized and not paint a full picture of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ouyang, R. Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Retrieved June 12, 2009 at

Trochim, William. (2006, October 20). Qualitative methods. Research methods knowledge base.

Retrieved June 12, 2009 at 

View Full Essay

Secondary Data Review

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13062202

Secondary Data eview

Solving the Problem of Decreasing evenues

Due to continuing instability in the stock market, the business I originally wrote about, Unit Investment Trust that was part of JP Morgan, had been losing money since 2002. Ultimately, those in charge of such decisions, chose to sell the UIT part of the business.

Over the last few years, many businesses have faced similar problems because of the recession and stagnant economy, and other businesses have gotten into trouble because of other issues.

One such company is featured in an article from the Boston Business Journal. Ultimate Parking Inc. is a Boston-based valet parking company. This company was doing well enough that it was able to spin-off another venture called premier Curbside Valet. Originally the second company did very until the curbside restrictions in the aftermath of 9/11 completely destroyed the second company. In the words of the owner and…… [Read More]


Archambeault, B. "Shifting Gears." Boston Business Journal,

Archambeault, B. "Golden Moldy." Boston Business Journal

Hillix, D. "Quitting Was not an Option." Dallas Business Journal
View Full Essay

A Review of Data Collection Methodologies

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57278179

leadership styles in evidence at Proctor & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive. The paper will begin with an examination of the different leadership theories. Of particular interest will be surveys that can identify leadership types. When looking at leader-member exchanges, the key for this paper will be to ask both leaders and followers questions to determine what leadership styles are in use at these two companies. The survey technique will be utilized.

There are four different methods of data collection, including questionnaires (surveys), interviews, observations and unobtrusive measures. The questionnaire method for this project has the advantage of being easy to gather and tabulate, and in that way it is relatively inexpensive to gather large amounts of data. This will be important given that the project requires information from many different managers in these two companies. Interviews are more in-depth, which allows for the gathering of richer, more detailed data. Observations can…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52749824

Sampling and Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Probability sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants
There are many ways of gathering information from a population using the qualitative or the quantitative approaches. Probability sampling is indeed the best strategy that a researcher can use to select participants from a population. There are many reasons to support this position as below discussed. Probability sampling can be understood as the sampling technique that takes a small sample from larger populations using one of the methods under the probability theories. In order for a participant to be selected a random method of selection must be used. The most fundamental requirement in probability sampling is ensuring that every person in the population has an equal and known likelihood of being selected. For instance, where a sample of 10 people is to be selected from a population of 100 people every person in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Population Data Collection Dependent and

Words: 1579 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14228254

Using a random sampling helps to insure that there will be a randomly equal number of learning disabled students, gifted students, underachievers and overachievers in each group. In addition the random sampling will help insure a statistically close to equal sampling of males and females in each group.

Assumptions will also be made that the students will put forth their best effort in the class work and instruction so that the semester test results will be a true reflection of what they have learned in the American History course that semester.


This methodology section is designed to produce the most pure results with regard to the research question. Care has been taken to explore the different elements of the research topic and produce the best possible method by which to test that question.


Dobrosielski-Vergona, Kathleen a.; Gallagher, Judith E.; Williams, Theresa M.; Wingard, obin G. More (2005) Web-based…… [Read More]


Dobrosielski-Vergona, Kathleen a.; Gallagher, Judith E.; Williams, Theresa M.; Wingard, Robin G. More (2005) Web-based vs. traditional classroom instruction in gerontology: a pilot study. Journal of Dental Hygiene

Beard, Lawrence a.; Harper, Cynthia (2002) Student perceptions of online vs. On campus instruction.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included) Education Journal

Piotrowski, C. & Vodanovich, S.J. (2000). Are the reported barriers to Internet-based instruction warranted?: A synthesis of recent research, Education, 121, 48-53.

Rossman, P. (1992). The emerging worldwide electronic university: Information age global higher education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
View Full Essay

Ethical Pros and Cons of Criminal DNA Data Banks

Words: 1532 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84593917

Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks

DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).

Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…… [Read More]


DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)

Retrieved February 6, 2004, 

Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, 

Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
View Full Essay

Search for Knowledge or Data

Words: 1154 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7963573

I would also define 'living alone' and carefully assess the living environment and region (economic factors, demographic variables, geographic elements amongst other factors) of the environment (both immediate and mediate, i.e. home and region) that the individual occupies.

7. Caring for a cat pet prolongs life of a person over 65 to 75 living alone in the Northwestern region of USA?.

Variables would involve 'caring' (the type and intensity of caring acts employed); 'cat' the type of pet; 'person' (assessing gender, family history, cultural factors, work situation or retirement; level of education; history of disease and related factors (such as falls, hospitalizations and so forth); economic standard of living; and person's personal history (particularly history of stressors). Further variables include 'living alone'; quality of living environment and region; social factors (immediate / extended family; community; involvement in community activities; involvement in extracurricular activities and the extent and intensity of these…… [Read More]


Breakwell, G.M., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in Psychology. London: SAGE

Dellinger, a.B. & Leech, N.L. (2007). Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 309-332.

Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. NY: McGraw Hill.
View Full Essay

Testing a Sample of Iqs Compared to the Population Mean

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73357601

colloquially individuals may think that some people are smarter than others, the more scientific term for the concept of being smart is intelligence. The notion of measuring a person's intelligence was first pursued in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet (Kamin, 1995). The French government was looking for a way in which to help predict which students would have the most difficulty in school (Kamin, 1995), so they hired Alfred Binet, who was a psychologist, to develop a test. Binet developed the first intelligence test, a version of which is still used today (Kamin, 1995). Intelligence testing really took off during World War I, when the U.S. army wanted a way to screen a high number of army recruits. This lead to the development of new forms of intelligence tests in order to determine which army recruits were of a higher intelligence and would be successfully in leadership roles (McGuire,…… [Read More]


Gupta, V. (1999). SPSS for Beginners. 1st Books Library.

Kamin, L.J. (1995). The pioneers of IQ testing. In Ressell Jacoby & Naomi Glauberman (Eds.), The Bell Curve Debate: History, Documents, Opinions. New York: Times Books.

McGuire, F. (1994). Army alpha and beta tests of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Intelligence. New York: Macmillan.

Neisser, U. (1997). Rising scores on intelligence tests. American Scientist, 85, 440-447.
View Full Essay

Collects Data to Test the

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 74021085

The survey will not take much of your time. It will take approximately 5-10 minutes to complete.

The objective of this study is to determine human factors affecting the safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) at the United States Air Force. The study is a part of research project for a Master's degree program in aviation/aerospace management. The phrase "heavy" aircraft refers to cargo, transport, or refueling aircraft. Aviation incident refers to an incident in which either the military or the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) conducts a safety investigation.

Following is a list of possible attributes of UAV pilots. The scale is rated from 1 to 5; "1" being "not very important" and "5" being "very important."

Please Tick an appropriate answer from 1 to 6.

For a UAV pilot to demonstrate effective aviation safety, he or she should be a:

1. Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training…… [Read More]


Barribeau, P. Butler, B. Corney, J. et al. (2005). Survey Research. [email protected] Colorado State University Department of English. Retrieved [26 August 2011] from .

Trochim, W & Donnelly, J.P. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, (3RD Edition). Atomic Dog Publishing.USA.


Appendix 1: Survey of Perceived Characteristics of UAV Pilots
View Full Essay

Teacher Work Sample

Words: 3214 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89565389

Teaching Unit for an 8th-Grade Language Arts and Literature Class

Contextual Factors

Community, District, and School Factors

Classroom Factors

Student Characteristics

Learning Goals and Objectives

Pre-Assessments Aligned with Learning Goals and Objectives

Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Assessments

Criteria Used to Measure Student Performance for Learning Goals

Plan for Formative Assessment to Gauge Student Progress

Design for Instruction

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 1.

How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and b.

How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context

Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 2.


How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and Objective(s)


How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context


Materials and Technology Required to Implement

the Activity


Plan for Assessment of Student Learning During

and/or Following the Activity

Instructional Decision-Making…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dorn, Charles M., Stanley S. Madeja and F. Robert Sabol. Assessing Expressive Learning: A

Practical Guide for Teacher-Directed, Authentic Assessment in K-12 Visual Arts

Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Oklahoma Teacher Work Sample Assignment. (2003, March 11). Oklahoma Higher Education.
View Full Essay

ERP Implementation Approach the Study Collects Data

Words: 3586 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25478508

EP Implementation Approach

The study collects data from 5 business units of the company. The data collection method is through both qualitative and quantitative data analysis, and the study collects data to enhance greater understanding of the EP implementation approach carried out by the company. As being discussed previously, the methodology used to collect data is through qualitative and quantitative approach, and the study collects data from the following business units:

Accounting Department

Human esources Department

Purchasing and Supply Department

Manufacturing and Product Development Department

IT (Information Technology) Department.

The study selects these business units because they are the most important business departments that focus on the core business activities of the company. The selected company represents a cross section of the major companies engaging in the EP implementation. Typically, the information collected from the company is treated with high confidentiality, and the company chooses to implement EP system to…… [Read More]


Bogdan, R.C. & Biklen, S.K. (2003). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Coffey, A. Holbrook, B. And Atkinson, P. (1996) Qualitative Data Analysis: Representations & Technologies, Sociological Research Online, vol. 1, no. 1.

Ettlie, J.(2000).The adoption of enterprise resource planning systems, in Responsive Production and the agile enterprise, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Managing innovative Manufacturing, University of Aston.

Gibbs, GR (2002) Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with NVivo. Buckingham: Open University Press.
View Full Essay

Population or Data You Plan to Sample

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77160322

population (or data) you plan to sample for your study. There are a variety of sampling methods from which to choose. Your choice of sampling method will depend on your research design and method. For instance, if you are using a qualitative method you might use purposive or snowball sampling. If you are using a quantitative method, you might use simple random sampling or systematic random sampling. Like research methods, sampling methods each have specific strengths and limitations in terms of reliability and validity. There are also ethical considerations when using sampling methods with certain populations such as children, the elderly, the developmentally disabled, and individuals who are institutionalized.

Write a brief description of the population or type of data you plan to sample for your dissertation. Then describe the sampling method you plan to use and explain why you plan to use it. Finally, describe at least two issues…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Theories the Real Data From Audience Ratings

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3080607


The real data from audience ratings comes from the "people meters" that record what the target sample watches, how long the shows are watched, and what is fast-forwarded. In the case of the Nielsen ratings data is sent daily (both live and DV data) and even which family members are watching it. Data is broken down in the demographic age groups and ratings represent what percentage of the nearly 116,000,000 viewers are watching a particular program (a 1.0 rating would mean that one percent or about 1,600,000 viewers were watching a program; Lotz 2007). This is a disadvantage in that samples like this are extremely difficult to make representative of larger target populations.

The reasoning behind audience ratings is that audience ratings are the most obvious indicator of the program's success. However, the actual numbers that networks use to decide if a particular program is a success are not…… [Read More]


Baran, S.J. And Davis, D.K. 2000. Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, 2nd Edition. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Barry D. 2008. Rating the ratings: A study of TV audience measurement [Online]. Available at:  [Accessed 31 December 2012].

Hall S. 1980. Encoding/decoding. In Hall S. et al. eds. Culture, media, language. London: Centre for Contemporary Culture Studies, pp. 128-138.

Kaul A. And Wittink D.R. 1995. Empirical generalizations about the impact of advertising on price sensitivity and price. Marketing Science, 14 (3), pp. 151-160.
View Full Essay

Null Hypothesis and the Data Treatment

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61884684

Treatment of Data and Hypothesis in esearch

During the research, there was data that was collected and having been plotted on the histogram and the appropriate scatter plots, the obtained results gave a descriptive portrayal of the finding from the variables. The histogram and the scatter plot gave the pictorial correlation between the time spent and the frequency of the attendance of the gym session with the audio and visual aids and on the other hand without the aids. The descriptive approach enabled the clear display of the findings such that the correlations were seen clearly hence giving a descriptive statistics at the end of the collection of the data. This descriptive data hence has the potential of giving the researcher easy time in explaining the correlation between the variables involved. The descriptive data also gives the researcher the basic information about the variables that are in a dataset for…… [Read More]


Lund Research Ltd., (2013). Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from 

The Regents of the University of Michigan, (2013). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from 

William M.K., (2006). Inferential Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from
View Full Essay

Balancing Data Quantity and Quality

Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70070130

Quantity and Quality

Describe the strengths and limitations of the provided data collection instrument for gathering data you need to evaluate the fitness course in the scenario provided.

The strength of the data collection instrument suggested is that it can be uniformly applied. The students are enrolled in three weeks each of five different activities for a total of fifteen weeks each. The research study will be for a period of three years meaning that at least ten groups of students can be utilized in the research and the same questionnaire can be used in all ten groups of students. The limitation is that with any survey, the results will be dependent on the reports of the participants of the study. Given that it is both a pre- and post- questionnaire, researchers must believe in the self-report of the individuals participating which allows for a great deal of fallibility (McKenzie…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Program evaluation and evaluation instruments. Baltimore, MD: Author.

McKenzie, J.F., Neiger, B.L., & Thackeray, R. (2013). Measurement, measures, measurement instruments, and sampling. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Health Promotion Programs (6th ed.). Pearson: San Francisco, CA.
View Full Essay

Easily Reduced to a Single Data Point

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95770258

easily reduced to a single data point. This allows researchers to find the answers to their questions quickly and in direct relation to the research question. However, one of the key drawbacks to quantitative research is that it often does not allow for a detailed exploration or to explore the "human" side of the equation. Quantitative research gives quick and simple answers, but it does not always provide the best solution to the research problem. Qualitative research provides greater depth and insight into the problem at hand.

According to Creswell (2007), "we conduct qualitative research because a problem or issue needs to be explored" (pg. 39). esearchers embark on the exploration of a phenomenon because of a "need to study a group or population, identify variables that can be measured, or hear silenced voices" (2007, pg. 40). esearchers ask open-ended questions to allow the participants to tell their stories, and…… [Read More]


Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Flyybjerg, B. (2006). "Five Misunderstandings About Case Study Research." Qualitative

Inquiry, vol. 12, no. 2, April, pp. 219-245.

Flyybjerg, B (2011). "Case Study," in Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln, eds., The Sage
View Full Essay

Analyzing the Data Analysis

Words: 743 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15790536

recordings, what would you define as the unit for analysis? hy? How many data units (in rough estimates) are you likely to get based on this decision? Does the estimated number of data units seem adequate? hy or why not?

Through the analysis of the recordings, I would define communication as the measure for analysis. The reason being, efficacious doctor communication is vital to constructive doctor-patient relationships and proposes better health results. In addition, doctor communication is deemed the strongest and most reliable forecaster of patient assessments and evaluations of doctors (Quigley et al., 2014). Proper communication skills, together with deliberation and requisite time to effectively listen and offer apparent and clear explanations are some of the characteristics that patients expect for, the most, in physicians. As a result, the reports of doctor communication from patients are deemed to be the consistent and assertive predictor of general doctor assessments for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Quigley, D. D., Elliott, M. N., Farley, D. O., Burkhart, Q., Skootsky, S. A., & Hays, R. D. (2014).

Specialties differ in which aspects of doctor communication predict overall physician ratings. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29(3), 447-454. 

Roberts, M. J., Campbell, J. L., Abel, G. A., Davey, A. F., Elmore, N. L., Maramba, I., ... Burt, J. A.

(2014). Understanding high and low patient experience scores in primary care: analysis of patients' survey data for general practices and individual doctors. BMJ, 349, g6034.
View Full Essay

Collecting Using Describing Data

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38052507

Decision Making Situations

One of the most critical issues that gripping our national debate today is the issue of unemployment and the subsequent concerns the rate of unemployment raises, regarding the U.S. economy's ability to fully recover. According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, the unemployment rate was 5.6% in January.

Unemployment rates for most major worker groups, including adult men (5.1%), adult women (5.0%), teenagers (16.7%), whites (4.9%), and blacks (10.5%) -- were little changed in January. The unemployment rate for Hispanics rose to 7.3% over the month, about the same rate as last fall. The unemployment rate for Asians was 5.2% in January, not seasonally adjusted." (Unemployed situation summary, 2004).

The Government conducts a monthly sample survey called the Current Population Survey (CPS) to measure the extent of unemployment in the country. (FAQ, 2004) Thus the method of data compilation is not universal; rather it is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

FAQ." (2004). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at 

Unemployment situation summary." (2004) Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at 

Occupational outlook handbook." (2004). Bureau of Labor and Statistics. Retrieved on February 23, 2004 at
View Full Essay

Business Email Sample

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89773805

Company Email

Two alternatives to increase the company's customer service score

Dear Greg,

I first would like to thank you, for providing me the opportunity to oversee your four store locations as the retail division manager. This is a large responsibility, and one that I am willing to accept. One of my roles is to ensure the competitiveness of our growing franchise. Customer service is a pivotal strength of our business; however, it has been declining of late.

I understand that with any business customer service is paramount to success. BCCC is no different in this regard. This is particularly true as competition is pervasive in all of our markets. Competitors, particularly in our industry, will strike at any opportunity to steal market share from our company. I understand this dynamic and have enclosed recommendations to keep the company competitive from a customer service perspective. Over my tenure as manager,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Comfortable Do You Feel With Data and

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94286637

comfortable do you feel with data and the data collection and analysis process?

A better understanding on data, data collection, and analysis process informs me on the need to have effective training and professional development. With the increased diversity in data collection methods, I often face the challenge of grasping differentiated data, which require great skill and knowledge level. While enhancing the skills related to collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, I am potentially equipped to adjust my knowledge to accommodate different needs. While accessing great data volumes, I have learnt to collect and analyze them in a timely manner (Johnson & La, 2010). Experts consider such skills crucial in understanding and identifying the areas that need improvement whilst applying tailored data in such situations. Data collection and analysis are useful processes especially when one has to make an informed decision.

Are you more likely to rely on quantitative data, qualitative…… [Read More]


Johnson, R.S., & La, S.R.A. (2010). Data strategies to uncover and eliminate hidden inequities: The wallpaper effect. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.

Klein, M.F. (2011). The Politics of curriculum decision-making: Issues in centralizing the curriculum. Albany: State University of New York Press.
View Full Essay

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Reporting

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54312642

mixed research approach would work best. It could be argued that such an approach is usually the best methodology to use, because the mixed research approach allows for speculation and analyzing using more than just the numbers. One recent study determined that the "the combining or mixing of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is not a new or unique phenomenon" (Frels, Onwuegbuzie, 2012, p. 184). The same study found that researchers "routinely collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data as a necessary part of their profession" (p. 184).

The mixed research methodology is often used in other areas of study in a most effective manner. For example, a recent study states "addition to an adequate sample size for statistical analysis of outcomes, the validation of prognostic factors using a mixed methods approach also obviously requires a longitudinal design to reach the relevant endpoints, such as completion of treatment, hospital discharge, or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fendley, A.; (2010) Forensic scientist, New Scientist, Vol. 206, Issue 2761, pp. 9-10

Frels, R.K. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J.; (2013) Administering quantitative instruments with qualitative interviews: A mixed research approach, Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 91, Issue 2, pp. 184 -- 194

Macdonald, R.; Back, W.E.; Johnson, P.W.; (2011) Retrospective analysis to identify trends in forensic research, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 550 -- 557

Zickmund, S.L.; Yang, S.; Mulvey, E.P.; Bost, J.E.; Shinkaus, L.A.; LaBrecque, D.R.; (2013) Predicting cancer mortality: Developing a new cancer care variable using mixed methods and quasi-statistical approach, Health Services Research, Vol. 48, Issue 6, pp. 2208 -- 2223
View Full Essay

Analyzing Data Quality Standards

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63061749

Quality Standards

Data Quality Standards

This paper examines the different ways of assessing the quality of clinical trial data submitted for regulatory purposes compared to data submitted for academic publication.

esearchers and pharmaceutical firms do clinical trials for the purposes of collecting data and sharing with industry, scholars and regulators to help make policies and decisions about the efficacy/safety of illness, disease or preventative drugs being studied. To make sure that researchers are adhering to protocol and best practices in their investigations, sponsors of such studies often monitor these trials in one way or the other (Quality Management in Clinical Trials, n.d). The main objectives of monitoring are to guarantee patient safety and the integrity of the collected data. Monitoring could entail spontaneous visits during the study so as to check on the progress.

One of the most important documents in clinical trials is the CS (Clinical Study eport). This…… [Read More]


(n.d.). Pfizer: One of the world's premier biopharmaceutical companies. Quality Management in Clinical Trials. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from 

Williams, E. (2007). Federation of American Scientists -. Clinical Trials Reporting and Publication. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from
View Full Essay

big data in criminology and law enforcement

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97345409

Crime and criminological data can be gathered, interpreted, and represented in different ways. The use of “big data” in criminology has helped illuminate the efficacy of various prevention or intervention policies and programs, as well as helping to better allocate resources for criminal justice. In the United States, the main data sources include the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The UCR is subdivided into the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program, each of which track specific types of crime data (FBI, 2018). Another major crime data system used in the United States is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). A similar tool has been used on an international scale with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Distinguish Between Qualitative and Quantitative Data Give

Words: 497 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77876222

Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data. Give an example of each.

Qualitative data is information that describes and is subjective in nature. Examples of qualitative data include feelings, opinions and interpretations.

Quantitative data is numerical information that is objective in nature. Examples of quantitative data includes things such as the temperature, time and percentages.

Determine which of the levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) is most


(a) Social Security Numbers- NOMINAL

(b) Consumer Reports magazine ratings of "best buy, recommended, not recommended"- ORDINAL

(c) The numbers on the shirts of the Miami Heat basketball players. - NOMINAL

(d)The weight of people being hurled through the air at an enthusiastic rock concert- RATIO

(e) John, who is different in many ways, measure time in days, with 0 corresponding to his birth date. The day before his birth is -1, the day after his birth is +1, and so on.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Analysis of Data and Probability

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 61708108


Summarizing Data and Probability

Blood Pressure Data

Patient ID



1st Patient

2nd Patient

3rd Patient

4th Patient

5th Patient

6th Patient

7th Patient

8th Patient

9th Patient

Diastolic Blood Pressure Measurements


Mean is also referred to as average. This is obtained by adding up a set of tallies and thereafter dividing the resulting summation by the number of tallies. The general formula for obtaining mean is as follows:

Mean of the systolic blood pressure measurements

Mean of the diastolic blood pressure measurements


The median is the middle value of an ordered set or list of numbers.

Median of the systolic blood pressure measurements

Ordered set is as follows:

90, 110, 120, 120, 130, 130, 150, 150, 160

Therefore, the median is 130

Median of the diastolic blood pressure measurements

Ordered set is as follows

40, 60, 60, 70, 80, 80, 90, 90, 110

Therefore, the…… [Read More]


Joseph, L., Reinhold, C. (2002). Introduction to Probability Theory and Sampling Distributions. Fundamentals of Clinical Research for Radiologists.

Waller, D. L. (2008). Statistics for Business. United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann.
View Full Essay

Process for Qualitative Data Collection

Words: 1058 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 70209972

Data Collection Procedure

What do you see as the value of the IB? Why would one be needed for informal research, such as a class assignment?

IB's value to researchers in America's Universities (AU) is enablement of superior ethical standards in conducting research works (including respondent protection), while allowing students, teaching faculty and other staff members to carry out research works in an efficient and timely manner. IB aims at creating an atmosphere of awareness and respect for research subjects' welfare and rights in university campuses, along with expanding on knowledge and enabling research of the best quality (Enfield & Truwit, 2008).

Issues that the IB might be interested in reviewing regarding the research question and design for this research study

especting Involved Individuals. Mandated by a moral obligation to respect other people, the idea of informed consent comprises three components: information, voluntariness, and understanding. esearch subjects are to be…… [Read More]


Amdur, R.J. & Bankert, E.A. (2011). Institutional review board: member handbook. (3rd ed). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 12-15.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. (4th ed.) Pearson Education, Inc.

Enfield, K. B. & Truwit, J. D. (2008). The Purpose, Composition, and Function of an Institutional Review Board: Balancing Priorities. Respiratory Care, 53, 1330-1336.

Fowler, F. J. (2009). Survey research methods (4th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
View Full Essay

Decision Making From Data Anaylsis

Words: 660 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75576835

Decision Making

This section analyzes the farm data of the Department of Agriculture and explores the relationship between the total number of the U.S. farms (x) and average farm size (y). The paper carries out the regression analysis for the interpretation. From the analysis, the average farm size (y) is the dependent variable and U.S. farms (x) is the independent variable. The paper uses the following equation to determine the relationship between y (dependent variable) and x (the independent variable):

y =bx +a

The summary output of the regression analysis is as follows:


egression Statistics



Adjusted Square

Standard Error









Significance F















Standard Error

t Stat


Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95,0%

Upper 95,0%










Number…… [Read More]


Albright, C.S. Winston.S. Zappe, C. (2010). Data Analysis and Decision Making. Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Measurements and Scale Data

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19262117

Scales in esearch

Measurement And Scaling

The role of scales in research

If someone is asked: "on a scale of 1-10, did you like that new movie," their response is meaningless unless it is clear that 1 means 'I didn't like at all,' that 5 means 'I thought it was okay,' and 10 means 'I loved it.' On a scale of 1-100, 10 is a not very positive response, while on a scale of 1-10, 10 is a very positive response. Before he or she begins accumulating data, a savvy researcher must create an effective, scaled response designed to measure the information that will be amassed and that will yield meaningful results.

But simply assigning a value of 1-10 alone is not scaling. Statistical analysis is required to ensure that analyzing the population sample's responses are accurate (Trochim, 2006, General issues in scaling). Three major types of uni-dimensional scaling methods…… [Read More]


Trochim, W. (2006). General issues in scaling. Social Research Methods. Retrieved: 

Trochim, W. (2006). Guttman scaling. Social Research Methods. Retrieved:
View Full Essay

rresearch methodology adn data colelction approaches

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 93253157

team-taught student grades.

This research question leads to the correlation study approach in order to effectively answer the research question and provide the appropriate relationship that is between the dependent variables used in the research question.

In order to effectively answer this research question, there is need to have a large sample size that will bring out the correlation between the involved dependent variables. The data collection method that can give such sample size is the survey method since it will enable the researcher to survey the results, the behaviors, the outcomes of the group interactions and the possible variables that influence the results (egents of The University of Michigan, 2017). The data collection instruments or survey tools that would be suitable and will be used in this particular research are the questionnaires, structured interviews and the literature review of the existing literature on the subject.

Data collection tools

The…… [Read More]


European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training, (2017). Types of Data Collection Tools. Retrieved April 11, 207 from 

McNamara, C. (N.D.) Overview of basic methods to collect information. Free Management Library. Retrieved April 11, 207 from 

Regents of The University of Michigan, (2017). Survey Research Methods. Retrieved April 11, 207 from
View Full Essay

Business Data Analysis A Group

Words: 2695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 86787581

The analysis of the scenario involves copying by hand devoid of utilizing excel formulae. The terminology 'What if ' scenarios mainly refer to the underlying base case of the numerical figures in the tables of the financial planning business model. It is significant to undertake checking of the entire changed cells that have altered back to their corresponding original numerical values prior to processing to a new 'What if '.

In order to aid Kitchenware Product in visualizing the underlying table that pertains to figures within the scenario 3,an individual require to draw a graph utilizing Excel's chart depicting the prevailing comparison of the corresponding profits for the diverse sales volumes taking note of the profit peak within year 3 (ARLOW, 2005, pp23-56). In the underlying report that pertains to every scenario's of net profit after tax is adequate. Nevertheless, in case there is complete spreadsheet details are demanded for…… [Read More]


BARLOW, J. (2005). Excel Models for Business and Operations Management. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. ^u.

Barlow, J., 2005, Excel Models for Business and Operations Management, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons

BOSLAUGH, S. (2012). Statistics in a nutshell. Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly Media.

Kirca, O., Koksalan, M., 1996, "An Integrated Production and Financial
View Full Essay

Measuring Data About Students

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88098457

large elementary school regarding the average number of days per week each math teacher spends in a collaborative teaching community. The average ranges from 0 to 7 days per week. You have also obtained the pre-test and post-test scores in math administered in those same classrooms in the beginning and end of the semester, and you have calculated a score that shows learning during the semester by subtracting the pre-test score from the post-test score for each student.

You are interested in examining any potential relationship between the average number of days of teacher collaborative activities and student learning (i.e., post-test minus pre-test). How can you best handle the data so that you can perform group comparisons to examine the relationship between the two variables? Why is this technique the best for handling the data?

The scenario outlined in the case is suitable to attempt to identify the relationship between…… [Read More]