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The process of sanctification can also be termed loosely of becoming like God, as we were all created to be like him and in sanctification we are restored to the full human potential designed by god. This has three parts or levels and includes the work done by the Holy Spirit, done by ourselves and through society. All three are required to achieve sanctification and that is the full development of the god-designed human being. The Holy Spirit makes the believer holy and sanctification is a part of it. The change does not take place immediately, and the process takes three stages. The names given to these three stages are positional sanctification, progressive sanctification and perfect or complete sanctification. (Sanctification- First Baptist Church) As we run the race to the end of our lives, Sanctification is an incessant procedure of growth. In the life of a Christian, the work…
Agent of Sanctification" Retrieved at http://www.abideinchrist.com/devotion/jul15.html. Accessed on 02/27/2004
Aoto, Stacey; Bellefeuille, Sheri; Gattis, Jay and Sullivan, Paul. "The Doctrine of Santification." Retrieved at http://www-students.biola.edu/~jay/theo-sanctification.html. Accessed on 02/27/2004
Berkhof, L. "Sanctification." A Reformed Theology Resource.
Retrieved at http://www.mbrem.com/life/sanctberk.htm. Accessed on 02/27/2004
" (Romans 12:1).
Assisted suicide is when one person aids another person in ending their life, ecause the person ending their life chooses to do so. This act is alternatively termed voluntary euthanasia, though the semantic difference etween the two terms lays in the intent of self-destruction (suicide) versus death with moral forethought and dignity (Downie 2004). It is a fine line, fraught with great moral dilemma.
Christian teachings are the foundation of deciding how Christians should conduct themselves, from minor prolems to great controversies. The Holy Scripture imparts to elievers that man is the creation of God, and in so eing, earing the Divine mark of grace. Indeed, the Sixth Commandment tells us "thou shalt not kill," and this proscriptive statement follows even into the medical field with the Hippocratic Oath "first do no harm" the Christian underpinnings of medical ethics calls into question those procedures that…
bibliography. Westport, CT.: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
Jong, Paul. Exegesis on the Book of Romans. Santos, 2006.
Jordan, Anne. Truth, Spirituality, and Contemporary Issues. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thomas Ltd., 2003.
Mitchell, Nathan. Cult and Controversy: The Worship of the Eucharist Outside Mass (Studies in the Reformed Rites of the Catholic Church, Vol 4). Collegeville: Pueblo Publishing, 1990 4th ed.
Palmer, E. Salvation by Surprise: A Commentary on the Book of Romans. Vancouver: Word, Incorporated, 1975.
Calvin graphically expresses this in the following excerpt:
Why, then, are we justified by faith? ecause by faith we grasp Christ's righteousness, by which alone we are reconciled to God. Yet you could not grasp this without at the same time grasping sanctification also. For he "is given unto us for righteousness, wisdom, sanctification, and redemption" [1 Cor. 1:30]. Therefore, Christ justifies no one whom he does not at the same time sanctify [Nullum ergo Christus iustificat quem non-simul sanctificet]. These benefits are joined together by a perpetual and inseparable bond [Sunt enim perpetuo et individuo nexu coniuncta], so that those whom he illumines by his wisdom, he redeems; those whom he redeems, he justifies; those whom he justifies, he sanctifies…Thus, it is clear how true it is that we are justified not without works yet not through works [sit nos non-sine operibus, neque tamen per opera iustificari], since in…
Bibliography Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
EtweqlvDIDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4 (accessed April24, 2009).
..if you really want the Christ and truly love him, there is nothing that will prevent his coming and taking up his abode with you provided your love for him manifests..." through loving inner spirit of Christ instead only the outside. One may appear to be a Christian yet the Lordship of Christ in the life of the Christian means that present is love, compassion and forgiveness for others. The Christian loves the 'inner spirit of Christ because to desire only the outside of Christ will not allow Christ true Lordship in our lives. Loving the inner spirit of Christ requires loving the spirit of love...faith...compassion... The spirit of forgiveness." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
Humanity tends to only: "...desire the outside of Christ..." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
-2000) the Christian loves more than simply an image of Christ as 'Lordship of Christ' does not mean loving the image of Christ in his white…
Article I - God (2007) UMC Online available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1654
Article V - of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. (2007) Online the United Methodist Church available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1649
Free Grace: The Sermons of John Wesley (1703-1791) Global Ministries: The United Methodist Church. 2007.
Jones, Rev. Dr. Gregory (nd) the Practice of Ministry and Your Understanding of God, Divine Grace, Humanity, the Lordship of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit dean of Duke Divinity School" FIX
Spiritual Transformation Through Community
Importance of Community for Spiritual Transformation
Process of Growth
iblical and Theological Foundations
The broad theme that this research project will endeavor upon is to what extent is there a necessity of community within spiritual transformation. Transformation can be thought of on many different levels that include on a personal as well as a corporate level transformation. It is reasonable to assume that every individual in the ody of Christ must align themselves fully on an individual basis so they are in a position to make their optimal contribution to the community and the church can move in its fullness of power and purpose. However, it is also reasonable to believe that the power of the collective Christian community is far greater than just the sum of its parts; that ultimately, there should be a Christian community transformation…
American Experience. (N.d.). People & Ideas: Walter Rauschenbusch. Retrieved from God in America: http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html
Armstrong, C. (2008). How John Wesley Changed America. Retrieved from Christianity Today: http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2008/august/how-john-wesley-changed-america.html
Barton, R. (2011, January 6). What We Believe About Spiritual Transformation. Retrieved from Transforming Center: https://www.transformingcenter.org/2011/01/what-we-believe-about-spiritual-transformation/
Bonheoffer, D. (1959). The cost of discipleship. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Pneumatologists and theologians have long sought to define the role of the Holy Spirit within the Christian faith. These scholars' understanding of the Spirit differs greatly, not only in terms of the role of the Holy Spirit, but also in terms of whether those roles are central to the Christian church (yrie, 1997). Even the base concept of the perception of the Spirit differs among scholars and religious leaders.
This paper discusses the various notions of the role of the Holy Spirit in the Christian Church, as expressed by modern theologians and pneumatologists. Additionally, this paper will discuss the differing views of whether those roles are central to the Church, or if they are to be applied on a more diverse level. Finally, this paper will discuss ways in which the Spirit is celebrated and displayed in the lives of those who believe.
To understand the role of the Holy…
Barres, C. 2004, 'Wonder working power', Heartlight magazine, [Online]. Available at http://www.heartlight.org/articles/200402/20040210_wonderpower.html .
Bednar, D. 2003, Mother's weekend welcome (transcript of March 21, 2003 Brigham Young University presentation for Women's Week). Brigham Young University, Rexburg, Idaho. Available at http://www.byui.edu/Presentations/Transcripts/WomensWeek/2003_03_21_Bednar.htm .
D'Ambrosio, M. 2003, 'The charisms of The Holy Spirit for service', Charisms of the Holy Spirit and the sacrament of confirmation, Crossroads Productions, Flower Mound, Texas.
Fanning, W. 1990, 'Baptism', in R. Broderick (ed.), The Catholic encyclopedia, revised and updated, Nelson Reference, New York.
Personal Theory Paper
Since mid-1970s, a serious matter for integration between Christianity and psychology developed among Christian counsellors. The integration movement developed as a result of reaction to psychology being accepted in the sector dealing with pastoral counseling where it did not face any criticism from the Christians’ point of view. The efforts for integrating psychology with Christianity developed more energy in the last twenty years since the time when Jay Adams refused to have psychology included in the pastoral care sector (Kim, 2004). Attempting to create an integration in psychology with Christian faith is a tedious experience as a result of the different approaches of the two academic disciplines.
According to Alan C. Tjeltveit (2012), the daunting questions that come as a result of taking psychology as well as Christian faith in a serious manner have to be dealt with. The queries that come from the sectors in…
John Wesley's understanding of the via salutis, identifying each component. Does John Wesley successfully maintain his emphasis both on God's goodness and on humanity's responsibility throughout this entire process?
The term "via salutis" translates into the "path of salvation." In the view of John Wesley, the path of salvation consisted of two distinct components, that of justification and sanctification (Wesley, 1980, p.271). Justification was an act of God's forgiveness and the human being accepting God into his or her heart. Although this fundamentally changed the believer from his or her previously sinful state, it still required active responsibility on the part of the believer to accept God's forgiveness and goodness. Thus, in this first stage of the path of salvation, there was a simultaneous action on God's part in God's willingness to forgive but also a conscious change on the part of the believer to recognize and accept that goodness.…
Outler, A. C. (1980). "Introduction." In John Wesley (Library of Protestant Thought). A. C.
Outler (Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wesley, J. (1980). John Wesley (Library of Protestant Thought). A. C. Outler (Ed.). Oxford:
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.
Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?
The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the…
Kung, 2001, p22-3
Karant-Nun, 2003, p10
Therefore what God has joined together, man must not separate." 7 Why then," they asked Him, "did Moses command [us] to give divorce papers (I) and to send her away?" 8 He told them, "Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of the hardness of your hearts. But it was not like that from the beginning. 9 and I tell you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery."
Divorce was taught to be a last resort, not the 'I am tired of you' choice. Children are hurt and devastated by the divorce and more psychological trauma is being placed on the child. Children are losing context on the meaning of love and what to expect from it.
The Bible also states the expectation on men and women in regards to the family. In Genesis 1:28, it is written, "God blessed them, and God…
Bertolet, Timothy J. 2002. "Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Peril of Postmodernism." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Evangelical Theological Society. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-275630471.html
Dawson, Lorne L.. 1998. "Anti-modernism, modernism, and postmodernism: struggling with the cultural significance of new religious movements." Sociology of Religion. Association for the Sociology of Religion. Retrieved May 06, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-20913875.html
Erickson, M.J. (1995). Evangelical Christology and Soteriology Today. Interpretation, 49(3), 255+. Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037673963
Holy Bible (King James Version). 1972. Thomas Nelson Inc., Camden, New Jersey.
In explaining his theories and conceptions regarding the divine nature, the writer helps us understand what the Thomistic school of thought is. It must be underlined that the Thomistic conceptions reach a very profound philosophical level. Regardless of this the author of the book under review manages to introduce them to the general audience through a language and a manner which make them accessible to everyone. Religious issues such as the revelation, the creation of the world in general and of things in particular are briefly explained in a manner which allows the reader to grasp their fundamental meaning. In addition, the writer makes some notes about the Thomistic virtues, explaining Aquinas' contribution to the development of the religious thought.
It is interesting to notice that McDermott's selection includes figures who come from various backgrounds and environments. From Aquinas we pass to Martin Luther, who, in his opinion is the…
McDermott, G. (2001)The great theologians, A brief guide. Intervarsity Press
Instead, holiness is attained through right-mindedness and a right heart. You say that the body affects the mind -- and indeed it does. But no longer is an obsession with bodily attributes, such as food, drink, and adherence to the laws of Leviticus (including circumcision) that connects us to God.
"Again Jesus called the crowd to him and said, 'Listen to me, everyone, and understand this. Nothing outside a man can make him 'unclean' by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:14-15). I do indeed agree that religiosity cannot be found in rote prayers, learned in childhood, or be encompassed by a vague sense of spirituality that does not take into consideration Christ's sacrifice. On the subject of prayer, I can only say that I pray daily -- both in the conventional manner in which you seem to think…
BibleGateway.com. October 26, 2010. http://www.biblegateway.com/
S. were not "hostile" to evangelicalism (Bebbington, p. 367). After II, the Church of Scotland and British Methodism launched "sustained evangelistic thrusts" and in Britain the "National Young Life Campaign" got involved in evangelical activities, Bebbington continued.
The American Presbyterian denominations announced in 1946 that they were to become "a crusading organ for evangelical religion" (Bebbington, p. 367). And when Billy Graham began preaching and healing in the post-II era he did "almost as much" to bring the evangelical movement strength in Britain as he did in the United States, Bebbington asserts. Even in the staid, conservative Church of England there was a "new evangelical revival" by 1959; further promoting the movement was the fact that the British and American evangelical movements linked their talents and strengths across the Atlantic Ocean.
Bebbington notes that the charismatic movement in Britain during the 1960s was in part inspired by the writings of…
Bebbington, David. 1994. Evangelism in Its Settings: The British and American Movements
Since 1940. Eds. Mark a. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George a. Rawlyk, in Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles, and Beyond, 1700-1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bebbington, David W., and Bebbington, Davi. 1989. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A
History from the 1730s to the 1980s. New York: Routledge.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century." (151) Elwell goes on to describe the works as, "written in an almost conversational style, these volumes deal with topics of theological concern, such as divine election, faith and sanctification, Holy Scripture, and the church, rather than presenting a tightly argued system of thought." (151) Finally according to Elwell and despite Berkouwer's shift in theology regarding human dealings, i.e. regret for spreading lack of tolerance for human differences of opinion Berkouwer, "never wavered from his commitment to the principles of Scripture, faith and grace alone." (151)
Berkouwer also wrote works of criticism against other theologian, most notably Karl Barth and Catholicism which are well read and famous in their theological arguments and as representative of his mid life shift in thought.…
Berkouwer, G.C. "Human Freedom" from "Studies in Dogmatics," Man: The Image of God GrandRapids MI: Eerdmans 1962.
Cameron, George a. "The Theology of G.C. Berkouwer: An introduction to my work on Berkouwer's theology, 'The Problem of Polarization: An Approach based on the writings of GC Berkouwer'" Retrieved October 7, 2008 http://www.theologyofgcberkouwer.blogspot.com/
Christianity and Judaism: The Deepening Dialogue. Ed. Richard W. Rousseau. Scranton, PA: Ridge Row Press, 1983.
Cobb, John B. A Survey of Methods. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1962.
Secondly, even the beginning of the film presents an African motif. The drums that open the scene are representative for the ancient tribal singing and dancing. The same drums are present in Cullen's poetry, revealing a deep African symbol. Moreover, the drums also make the passage from the contemporary life in which the film is first set, to the imaginary and ancient time of slavery.
The characters are as well particularly chosen. For instance, Joe, a white skinned slave is important for pointing out the traditional individual that tries to escape his past, through all means possible. He rejects his mother, who is the embodiment of the African spirit, he worships a white God, Virgin Mary, and in the end, he takes on a position that implies behaving in a similar manner as the white oppressors.
Joe's mother, Nunu, represents in the film the symbol of the African heritage. She…
Cesaire, a.(1984) Africa. In Aime Cesaire: The Collected Poetry.Translated by Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith, University of California Press.
Cullen, C. (1928). Harlem Wine. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/52567-Countee-Cullen-Harlem-Wine
Cullen, C. (2007). Heritage.retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/heritage/
Hughes, L. (2007) the Negro speaks of Rivers. Poets.org. Retrieved 2 November 2007, at http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).
That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…
Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-
Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns
Although Paul may create a hierarchy of man over woman in terms of their place in church, many women found not marrying at all, as advocated by Paul, as a source of liberation from the social strictures of marriage. Paul's emphasis on staying 'as you are' in a state of chastity enabled some women to cast off their supposedly innately sinful bodies and Eve's curse of childbirth:
Why did women turn their backs on their households in favor of the risks of poverty and the hostilities of their families...Rosemary Radford Ruether...according to her analysis, asceticism was a liberating choice for women in the fourth century, for not only did it allow women to throw off the traditional female roles, but it offered female-directed communities where they could pursue the highest self-development as autonomous persons...[Even] some men of the period...recognized the importance of celibacy for freeing women from domestic restrictions and…
Bible Gateway. [October 7, 2011]
Clark, Elizabeth. Women and the Early Church. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press,
Collins, Adela Yarbro. Crisis and Catharsis: The Power of the Apocalypse. Philadelphia:
He began in the center of a Puritan's life with the husband and wife relationship, but with each succeeding chapter, slowly expanded the view of relationships to include parents and children, masters and servants, the family and society, and finally the Puritan group as a whole. In each case, Morgan presented the order by which these relationships should take place, as well as the rationale behind the positioning of the different partners. But throughout all the discussion, Morgan is careful to remind the reader that this order he described is based on God's will, and that nothing can exist with the will of God permitting it to do so.
It has been suggested, with some justification, that the Puritan's possessed a world view that was biased toward themselves and their beliefs, and in effect, discriminated against Native Americans. (Simmons) and it is true that Morgan discussed the Puritan belief that…
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Family: Religion & Domestic Relations in Seventeenth Century New England. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. Print.
Simmons, William. "Cultural Bias in the New England Puritans' Perception of Indians."
The William and Mary Quarterly 38.1 (1981): 56-72. Print.
This is the same in our lives, because if we remain steadfast in out faith, our suffering can only serve to further God's work in our lives. Paul's example also highlights our responsibilities to each other, because through our own example we can help other Christians that might be facing the same kind of difficulty as us.
In the next few passages, Paul goes on to discuss something that has undoubtedly crossed the mind of any Christian facing extreme difficult, which is the idea that it might just be better to be done with the world and live eternally in heaven. Paul says that "for to me, living is Christ and dying is gain," to the point that "I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better, but to remain in the flesh is more necessary for you"…
Fowl, Stephen. Philippians. Grand Rapids: Wm. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2005. Print.
Gorman, Michael J. Inhabiting the Cruciform God: Kenosis, Justification, and Theosis in Paul's
Narrative Soteriology. Wm. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, 2009. Print.
Hays, Richard. The Moral Vision of the New Testament. T&T Clark: London, 1996. Print.
For four long months God appeared to be just presenting himself. He found that he was motivated; he was not sermonizing for Christ; he was sermonizing for hope. He discovered the whole thing in his heart that should not be there. For four months a struggle went on inside him, and he was a dejected man. But after four months the delight came. It came over him as he was on foot in the streets of New York. (Dwilight Lyman Moody: 1837-1899: (www.higherpraise.com)
Several times he had thought of it since he has been here. Eventually, he went back to God again, and he was no more dejected. He virtually prayed in his delight, 'O stay Thy hand!' He said he felt this earthen vessel would collapse. God occupied him with complete Spirit. If he had not been a different man since, he did not know himself. He believed that…
Chapters 1-3 D.L. Moody 1837-1899. Retrieved at http://www.whatsaiththescripture.com/Voice/Moody.The.Way.to.GOD.html . Accessed on 22 November, 2004
Gilchrist, J; Lawson, Anderson D.L. Moody. Deeper Experiences of Famous Christians... Ind.: Warner Press, 1911. Retrieved at http://www.wholesomewords.org/biography/biomoody4.html . Accessed on 22 November,
Dwight Lyman Moody) 1837-1899. Retrieved at http://www.christiansintouch.com/greatMen_DLM.cfmAccessed on 22 November, 2004
Dwilight Lyman Moody: 1837-1899. Retrieved at http://www.higherpraise.com/preachers/moody.htm . Accessed on 22 November, 2004
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…
1. Ragon, Michel. Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes. Volume I - Ideologies et pionniers 1800-1910. Casterman. 1986
2. Bonells, Jordi. Catalogne. Barcelone. Points Planete Seuil. 1992
3. Halker Maria Anna and Fischer Thomas. Spagna. Gremese Editore. 1994
4. Permanyer, Luis. Gaudi of Barcelona. Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 1996
Mao Tse-tung became both the political and spiritual leader of China, and the Cult of Mao developed as he led the Chinese people first in the Chinese Revolution and then in building a new and different China after 1949. The Chinese have a history of mythologizing their heroes and of making them into near-gods, and Mao benefited from this tendency and used of it to solidify his position and to develop his power.
Mao's thought developed during the early years of the decade prior to 1920, a period of great turmoil, with growing conflict between traditional Chinese thought and new ideas from the est. Mao became an active local leader in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and he retained his revolutionary fervor. However, he also became convinced that what was needed was more than mass enthusiasm, that what was also required was an organization of dedicated revolutionaries. The Russian…
Bianco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971.
William Lindesay, Marching with Mao. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993.
Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
Townsend, James R. And Brantly Womack. Politics in China. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986.
This once again brings the reader back to the tight framework that Calvin wants the reader to remember. Calvin does not want to voice an opinion as to the state of man's fall from Eden. In other words, he does not want to impose a pessimistic view in an optimistic world of man. The real question posed by Chapter Five is what man is in the presence of God and whether or not man is able to stand before God. Calvin believes such questions can only be answered by God on an individual basis.
The ideas expressed in Chapter Five continue to resonate with Calvin's views of Christ within Us. Chapter Nine establishes again the role of Calvin as he is doing his work for Jesus Christ. Calvin's work suggests the importance of Jesus as a form in the flesh as it pertains to everyone's salvation. This is not meant…
Niesel, Wilhelm. The Theology of Calvin. Cambridge, England: James Clarke and Co., 2002.
This stream-of-consciousness writing is in a secret journal, for the writer will get into trouble if what she writes is found by Sister Theo, who "checks our letters home. e're not allowed to say anything about the school" (Sterling 12). If the journal is discovered, the girl may suffer abuse at the hands of the teachers. riting is an act of defiance that the girl sees to be worth the risk.
The time of the story was a disturbing part of Canada's history. The use of Residential Schools actually predates Canada's existence as a country (meaning before Confederation in 1867, and the system served as a means of containment and control if the Indian population. As the Europeans acted out the myth of the New orld as an undiscovered and undeveloped land, the existence of the Aboriginal peoples complicated the myth and challenged the government that was instituted. Policies were…
Ricci, Nino. The Lives of the Saints. Toronto: Cormorant Books, 2003.
Sterling, Shirley. My Name Is Seepeetza. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1992.
Moreover, Malachi Martin describes the theology as "a freeing from political oppression, economic want, and misery here on earth. More specifically still…a freeing from political domination by the capitalism of the United States."
Furthermore, though it grew out of the unrest in Latin America "with its political domination by strong-arm leaders and monopolistic oligarchies," viewed by members of the Church as a direct result of American capitalism, the events in Latin America were preceded by a much more basic historical development -- the "rights of man" extrapolated from the French Revolution and re-coined as the "rights of the working man."
The spread of Marxist doctrine in the early twentieth century saw its incorporation into Catholic theology by several prominent professors right up to the time of the Second Vatican Council, upon which Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz certainly based her theology, and pursued her concept of "evangelical poverty": union with the…
Barla, J.B. Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome: Universita
Fowler, M. Zen Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices. UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.
Isasi-Diaz, Ada Maria. La Lucha Continues: Mujerista Theology. NY: Orbis Books,
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English
Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.
Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca
Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.
Basil's Argumentation on the Holy Trinity
Basil's argumentation defending the divinity of the Holy Spirit addresses the unity of the Godhead and the eternal associations of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son within the Holy Trinity (Basil 60). Not only does this augment his defense of the Holy Spirit, it completes St. Basils' trinitarian theology thereby laying the foundations of Orthodox Christian Trinitarian theology.
The Holy Trinity
The unity of the Godhead is reflected in the works of the Holy Trinity. hether regarding creation or human redemption, the works of the Holy Trinity are always one, revealing the communion of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. A good example of this unity of action is in the creation of the angels. These pure, spiritual and transcendent powers are called holy because they receive their holiness from the Holy Spirit. In considering the angels, or any…
Basil. St. Basil the Great: On the Holy Spirit (Trans. David Anderson). New York St. Vladimir's Seminary Press,, 1997. Print.
The Pre-Existence of Christ
The pre-existence of Christ is the central tenant of Christianity. This paper will review the pre-existence of Christ including supporting views and arguments against the pre-existence of Christ, proving that Christ did exist before His incarnation. Christ existed before the dawn of ages; he was not an afterthought in the mind of God, but rather, always was, and ever will be, as stated in the scriptures. To think otherwise would be heretical; such a statement is counter to every doctrine ever derived from the Gospels.
For centuries humankind has debated the origins of life; Christianity however, has supported the notion that life stems from Christ, and Christ comes from God, as the only manifest Son of God. Christ confirms this, as stated and proved in the book of John when Christ says,[footnoteef:1] "And now, Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the…
Bruce, F.F., 1990. The Epistle to the Hebrews, Grand Rapids: WB Eerdmans Publishing.
Bradley, Delon. 2010. The pre-existence of Christ: Christ's presence revealed through the Old-
Testament. Liberty Baptist: Lynchburg VA. ( http://www.biblicaltheology.com/Research/BradleyD01.pdf ).
Burt, Merlin D. 2006. History of Seventh-day Adventist views of the Trinity. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 17(1), pp. 125-139.
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Amen. This invocation, accompanying the sign of the cross, marks the beginning and end of every Roman Catholic prayer. It has become synonymous with Catholicism -- a celebration of the crucifix as representative of the lessed Trinity. While, every good Catholic takes this Triumvirate for granted, it is left to theological scholars like Jurgen Moltmann to dissect and analyze the salient features of the Trinity. Is the Trinity a Pneumatological or Christological entity? Is it a combination of the two? Where is God in the scheme of Moltmann's thesis? The theoditic question challenged the omnipotence, omnipresence and omniscience of God in his relationship with man. Is this question revisited in relation to Jesus Christ as the carrier of the Holy Spirit during his life on earth? Moltmann presents a clear interpretation of the relationship between Christ and the Holy Spirit…
Dabney, D. Lyle. "The Advent of the Spirit: The Turn to Pneumatology in the Theology of Jurgen Moltmann." Asbury Theological Journal 48 (1993): 81-107.
Hume, David. The Theodice Problem. 2002 n.d. God And Science. org. Available. December 7, 2002. http://godandscience.org/apologetics/nogod.html#01
Macchia, Frank. "the Spirit and Life: A Further Response to Jurgen Moltmann." Journal of Pentecostal Theology 5 (1994): 122.
McWilliams, Warren. "Why All the Fuss About Filioque? Karl Barth and Jurgen Moltmann on the Procession of the Spirit." Perspectives in Religious Studies 22 (1995): 176.
Religion: How Universal is the Christian Church?
Given all the variations of Christian denominations and different religions, how is it that the Church can still claim to be universal? "The name refers on one hand to the inclination towards uniformity (universus) existing in different things, in virtue of which different things may be represented by a single idea applicable to all in the same way and on the other hand to this one idea which is applicable to the different things (unum vs. alia)" (Universals pg). As used in the Nicene Creed, Catholic means 'universal' or 'all-embracing,' thus, Jesus Christ intended his church to embrace all people, just as he embraced all people, demonstrating in his own ministry to Greeks and Jews, rich and poor, woman and man, free person and slave alike (Schreck 89). The term 'catholic' in reference to the church is first recorded in a letter of…
Akin, James. "THE TWO CANONS: SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION." http://www.ewtn.com/library/ANSWERS/2CANONS.htm .(accessed 01-23-2003).
Schreck, Alan. Basics of the Faith: A Catholic Catechism. Servant Books. 1987; pp. 69, 70, 89, 90, 110, 112, 120, 265.
Universals." New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15182a.htm .
A accessed 01-23-2003).
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Christians, Muslims and Jews world over practice their belief that God is the Supreme Being, absolutely perfect, Who is responsible for creating all the things we have in today's world and for continuing to keep them in existence.
God has made everything that we have in the universe today; the list is infinite but it includes mankind, animals, plants, planets, etc. God keeps everything alive, if He were to stop giving life to all that exists today, everything would vanish faster than we could blink our eyes. Think about it, without God there could be nothing in this Universe.
In him we live and move and have our being" (Acts 17:28). "In him were created all things" (Col. 1:16). "It is he who gives to all men life and breath and all things" (Acts 17:25).
Not a single nation doubts the existence of God because they have an…
Benny Hinn And His "Gospel," available at http://home.hawaii.rr.com/bibletruths/benny.htm, accessed on: August 30, 2003
My Catholic Faith - Chapter 3 - God the Supreme Being, available at http://net2.netacc.net/~mafg/mcf/mcfc003.htm, accessed on: August 30, 2003
NTCOF: Does God Exist?, available at http://www.church.freethought.org/doesgodexist.html, accessed on: August 30, 2003
Benny Hinn, Good Morning, Holy Spirit
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Great Awakening: The eginning of Evangelicalism
The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. y advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. y attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…
1 Pettegrew, Larry D. "Evangelicism, Paradigms, and the Emerging Church." The Master's Seminary Journal, 2006: pp 159-175.
2 Gary Dorrien, The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1998) pp 2-3.
3 Clark Pinnock, Most Moved Mover (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) p 110.
4 Minkema, Kenneth J. "Jonathan Edwards in the Twentieth Century." Journal of the evangelical theological society, 2004: pp 659-87.
This actually plays a great role in Mendoza's progress as a moral person and assists the individual in being better prepared to deal with the social order. One can practically say that he experiences a healing process as he becomes an active part of the Guarani community and as he comes to cooperate with individuals who he previously discriminated. He learns that force only needs to be used for doing good and that it is wrong for him to associate stereotypes with particular groups.
Mendoza is the typical example of an individual who comes to find peace in the place that he previously considered hostile. By suffering a breakdown he is enabled to see the world with different eyes and he comes to appreciate the individuals who he previously considered to be nothing more than merchandise. Father Gabriel's intervention and the way that the Guarani community thinks make it possible…
Dir. Roland Joffe. The Mission. Warner Bros., 1986