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The virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s). In addition, it is possible that SARS-CoV might be spread more broadly through the air (airborne spread) or by other ways that are not now known (asic Information about SARS (3 May 2005), p. 1). What is the distribution pattern of the disease: All around the world, SARS has negatively affected every aspect of daily life. Today, the SARS coronavirus strain is believed to have originated in Guangdong province in southern China prior to its spread to Hong Kong, neighboring countries in Asia, and Canada and the United States during the 2003 outbreak. In early 2004, several new cases of SARS were investigated in eijing and in the Anhui province of China. All of these cases were epidemiologically linked to the National Institute…… [Read More]
SAS and Tourism in Hong Kong
SAS stand for Severe Acute espiratory Illness. This illness, caused by a coronavirus, originated in China in 2002 and spread to Asia by 2003. SAS spread to several countries in Asia, South America, Europe and North America before the outbreak was contained. The illness is transmitted through respiratory droplets, when a person sneezes or coughs. Touching contaminated surfaces, and then touching your own mouth, nose or eyes can also spread the virus. The symptoms are similar to the flu and most patients develop pneumonia (Fact Sheet, 2004).
One industry that was particularly affected by SAS was the tourist industry. The Asian destinations suffered the most, particularly China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Singapore (Clark, 2003). By May of 2003, the tourism business was significantly impacted, and perhaps Hong Kong was impacted the most. In Hong Kong, where there had been 299 deaths from SAS, the…… [Read More]
The easiest way that the disease can be passed is: by having someone who was exposed to these symptoms interacting with the general public. This is when an infected person could easily spread the disease from one person to the next. as, their coughing and flu like symptoms will cause no one take notice of these effects. This makes it more likely that they will expose others during the incubation period. For example, someone who could have been exposed can spread the disease to: their coworkers and family (who are around them when they cough). These people will begin to: experience similar flu like symptoms and will spread them to their friends as well as associates. Once the person who was exposed becomes infected, is the point that health officials will be concerned about a possible outbreak. as, the disease had several days to: spread and infect large segments of…… [Read More]
SAS or Severe Acute espiratory Syndrome was a virus that began in the Guangdong Province in China in 2002 and spread to more than 35 countries before it was finished. At first, the medical community was completely taken off guard because this was a virus, the coronavirus (WHO, 2003b), that they had never seen before. A report from the WHO dated April 11, 2003 said that
"This appears to be the first severe and easily transmissible new disease to emerge in the 21st century. Though much about the disease remains poorly understood, including the exact identity of the causative virus, we do know that it has features that allow it to spread rapidly along international air travel routes."
The outbreak was sudden and the disease seemed tailor made for the present tide of global travel. Once SAS reached a major destination such as Hong King, as it did in the…… [Read More]
This could include symptoms such as,
Pain, burning, or discomfort in the chest when taking a deep breath
Chest tightness, wheezing, or shortness of breath
(Health Effects of Ozone in the General Population)
Health Effects of Ozone in the General Population. etrieved from http://www.epa.gov/apti/ozonehealth/population.html
Kamps B. And Hoffmann C. SAS eference: Epidemiology. etrieved from http://www.sarsreference.com/sarsref/epidem.htm
Key Measures for SAS Preparedness and esponse. etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/guidance/core/keymeasures.htm
Markey M. SAS Severe Acute espiratory Syndrome. etrieved from http://www.safetyissues.com/site/health/sars_severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome.html
Meng Z. Lessons Learned From SAS for Future Epidemics.
National Ethics Teleconference: Health Care Ethics Issues aised by SAS. (2003).
Patient Exposure and the Air Quality Index. etrieved from http://www.epa.gov/apti/ozonehealth/aqi.html
SAS epidemiology to date. (2003). etrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/sars/epi2003_04_11/en/
Severe acute respiratory syndrome. etrieved from http://www.physorg.com/tags/sars/
Surveillance Protocol for SAS -- Draft. ( 2003) etrieved from http://www.dhhr.wv.gov/oeps/disease/Zoonosis/other/Documents/sars_protocol.pdf
What Is Asthma? etrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_All.html
What Causes SAS? etrieved from http://diseases.emedtv.com/sars/what-causes-sars.html
Yang…… [Read More]
(Who issues global, 2003).
The impact and seriousness of the SAS epidemic proves that population health technology needs more attention. This includes the Internet, wireless devices, and mobile/smart phones. In the event of another outbreak, a bioterrorism attack, or even a serious public health emergency, these devices help gather, detect, and communicate information to a global audience that has a greater chance of working collaboratively to find a cure, vaccine, or at least understand how to quarantine certain populations and help prevent the disease's spread (Eysenbach, 2003).
Moreover, many medical scholars believe that the SAS outbreak, as serious as it was, may have been only a training exercise for the potential of a global pandemic. With world travel as easy as it is, 1 person travelling from China to Los Angeles could infect 100 people. Those 100 passengers could conceivable be traveling to 100 different destinations; when one adds the…… [Read More]
SAS with a focus on the impact it is having in Toronto Canada. The writer explores what the epidemic is about and what Toronto officials are doing to combat and contain it. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
SAS in Toronto
Around the world the medical community is focusing on a new virus called SAS. When SAS first began to surface the concentration was in China. Travelers to and from there were cautioned to be careful and there were many quarantines occurring throughout the area. In more recent history however the focus has moved from China to Toronto as the virus has made the leap and is now in North America. While America watches its northward neighbor with a watchful eye Toronto scrambles to contain and eradicate its existence among its residents.
The death toll in Toronto currently sits at almost 40 with an additional 28 suspected…… [Read More]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAS) broke out in China in 2002, in Guangdong Province. This area is an industrialized region that lies at the heart of China's economic strategy. Cities like Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan are all major manufacturing hubs, the former two also shipping hubs. SAS was a form of pneumonia, and spreading from Guangdong it infected 1622 people in 13 countries, causing 58 deaths (Cyranoski, 2003). A doctor visiting nearby Hong Kong is believed to be responsible for the spared of SAS outside of China, though most commonly among medical professionals.
SAS was an issue because it was an unknown disease, and because of the nature by which it spread. People who came into contact with victims could catch the disease, and it is by this means that it traveled to multiple locations around the world. Most of these locations were in Asia, but there…… [Read More]
Communicable disease outbreak (SAS) by doing the following:
Describe the communicable disease outbreak.
A community wide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAS) within the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles County would represent one of the most dangerous and damaging health incidents in America's recent history. An extremely virulent manifestation of the human coronavirus SAS-CoV, SAS is known to cause severe fever in exposed patients which is typically accompanied by aches, chills, myalgia and other bodily symptoms. This extreme fever is soon worsened when "a lower respiratory phase begins with the onset of a dry, nonproductive cough or dyspnea, which might be accompanied by or progress to hypoxemia" (Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, 2011). Because the disease is so easily transmitted from patient to patient through physical contact, outbreaks of SAS are relatively common when proper precautions are not taken during the initial stages of exposure.
2.…… [Read More]
Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SARS epidemic created a medical emergency and a healthcare crisis with the loss of hundreds of lives in a short span of time. The knowledge of the etiology of the disease and the genome sequence of the virus provided new impetus in treatment of the disease. The crisis was successfully managed through an international cooperative effort and today we are better prepared to handle possible future outbreaks of the epidemic.
SARS is an acute infectious respiratory disease with all the symptoms of atypical pneumonia like fever, breathlessness that caused severe casualties in a short period of time. The first instance of SARS infection was reported in November 2002 in the Guangdong province of china. The SARS epidemic created a panic worldover and the World Health Organization issued a global alert on March 12th 2003 about the rapid spread of symptoms of atypical pneumonia. Symptoms of atypical pneumonia…… [Read More]
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…… [Read More]
The key ethical issues raised in the case study involving the SARS research, were that the center for disease control wanted blood samples from individuals who may have come into contact with the index case—i.e., the person who had SARS. If that person was on, say, a flight, the center wanted information from as many people on that flight as possible. The point was not to contact individuals to alert them of any danger, as they would have already passed out of danger or been placed into the hospital if they were in danger by the time they were located. The point was merely to obtain data so that the center could better understand the disease and how it spread. Thus, the key ethical issues involved obtaining consent from the participants in the study. Every participant in a study has a right to take part or not take part in…… [Read More]
Due to their contact with different patients, it allows them to become carriers of the disease.
It is important to study the relevance of SARS to epidemiology because epidemiology can provide an amount of diverse and important information that can facilitate the process of controlling, if not totally preventing, its spread. y relating SARS to epidemiology, people can become aware of the whole story on SARS. Moreover, epidemiology can be a fundamental source in finding solutions to combat the disease. Thus, providing another measure in the management and control of its spread. For instance, in the outbreak cases of SARS in many places worldwide, the article indicated that epidemiology provided appropriate models in containing the disease.
Emerging Infections: What Have We Learned from SARS?
Retrieved on Nov. 12, 2004, from CDC.GOV.
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no7/pdfs/04-0166.pdf… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
Search and Rescue is the search that is done to provide aid to the people who are feeling distressed or any sort of obvious danger. The general field of SAR encompasses many sub-fields that are generally acknowledged by the sort of terrain over which the search has been conducted. The types of terrain include ground search and rescue, which also includes the use of dogs for search and rescue. This is a kind of search and rescue that is done in the urban settings. Other kinds include the mountain rescue, combat search and rescue that is done on the battlefield and finally the air-sea rescue that is done over water. In this paper, particular importance will be given with respect to the last kind of SAR.
In Malta, the responsibility of SAR pertaining to search and rescue comes under the Armed Forces of Malta. This is conducted by the maritime…… [Read More]
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…… [Read More]
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…… [Read More]
ICS in New Orleans and Toronto
In both the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the outbreak of SAS in Toronto, the Incident Command System (ICS) had to implemented, yet both instances presented challenges to its implementation. In the former, the convergence of disparate agencies fueled an already chaotic situation, as few of the agencies were ICS prepared. In the latter, the outbreak was fueled by intensive, fear-causing media coverage, which ICS had to counter with education, patience, and endurance. In each case, the need for central command was essential but so was the ability of all agencies and workers to be "on the same page." This paper will compare and contrast both of these incidents and show how ICS was affected and had an impact.
Pre-Katrina, ICS in New Orleans was only being used for fire-related incidents. The emergency operations center (EOC) was not trained in ICS, thus…… [Read More]
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
It is…… [Read More]
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…… [Read More]
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Anwar's…… [Read More]
However, recent spot checks suggest that many operators are unaware of the risk and therefore have not taken precautions to prevent dangerous concentrations of CO (NIOSH, 1984). This could prove to be fatal.
When employees are around aircraft it is important to practice the utmost safety, in order to ensure the safety of the ground crew, the people are on board of the aircraft, and all other employees involved in the handling of the flight line. Individuals must watch and listen for newly arriving or passing aircraft. If driving, employees must keep a proper distance from the aircraft and drive slowly, at 5 miles per hour only (AFOSH, 2003). Caution must also be taken with forklifts and k-loaders, as they must be lowered while aircraft is moving.
When working at night and around hazardous equipment, employees must utilize luminous wands, practice safe driving techniques, as those mentioned above, and use…… [Read More]
Hopewell Holdings Ltd. -- a strategic plan for this real estate organization
The Nature of Hopewell's Holdings
Hopewell Holdings Limited is an infrastructure building and property organization founded by the Asian entrepreneur Sir Gordon u in 1972. Currently its largest contracts are to build toll roads and bridges in Mainland China as well as its other extensive real estate holdings, particularly in Hong Kong. Although it mainly focuses on its heavy construction, it also has interests in the leisure industry, in the form of hotels, including the China and the Panda Hotel in Hong Kong. It also has several commercial property interests throughout all of Asia. According to Hoover's Online, the company's 2003 annual growth was 81.8%. (Hoover's, 2003)
The principal activity of Hopewell Holding is investment holding. Its subsidiaries are active in the field of investment in infrastructure projects, property letting, property agency and management, hotel operations and management,…… [Read More]
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…… [Read More]
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…… [Read More]
conception that is laid behind write-down of inventory is that the amount value of the inventory being considered can still appear in the financial statements only if the inventory still has some worth or value. This particular amount value is attained by getting the difference between the original costs of the inventory as the prevailing market replacement value. In accordance to IAS 2, if the loss on write-down of inventory is minimal or trivial, it can be reported on the financial statements as a part of the cost of goods sold. On the other hand, if the loss amount is high then it is imperative to report it in the income statement in a separate line. More so, these kinds of aspects typically develop into a violation. Examples of these instances include the case of Enron Company and also the case of WorldCom. On the other hand, IAS1 encompasses the…… [Read More]
market capitalization of 23.011 billion, oeing is the nation's largest producer of commercial aircraft and the world's leading aerospace company. It operates in four principal segments: Commercial Airplanes, Military Aircraft and Missile Systems, Space and Communications, and oeing Capital Corporation. As the world's market for air travel fluctuates with the risk of war, so do oeing's revenues. However, as the United States moves towards a footing that may include future wars against perceived 'terrorist states,' oeing stands to gain from military aircraft and weapons production. As such, it intrigues investors as its market is a careful reflection of the front pages of the world's newspapers.
To successfully evaluate oeing's stock, we must analyze its fundamentals and the performance of comparables, as well as market performance. A projection of future revenues is necessary, along with an estimation of the cost of capital with which oeing produces. These allow us to provide…… [Read More]
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]
In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).
This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]
During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.
However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)
There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…… [Read More]
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…… [Read More]
I watched some TV on my Sony, yet another Japanese made (or designed at least) product. I then considered doing some homework -- quickly reconsidered, and jumped into bed under my new amsutta bedspread, which says on the label it is made in USA. onder of wonders.
Unfortunately, after conducting this experiment (and looking up many of the products I used for the day out of sheer curiosity), I found that I normally know next to nothing about the origins, manufacturers, or even the people that make the products that I use every day.
hat I did notice is that there is a definite trend toward the NIDL, especially in the products that demand high technology coupled with rather unskilled fabrication steps. I also noted that much of this work is being done throughout Asia, but more and more in formerly "unknown" countries (as far as large scale manufacturing goes)…… [Read More]
This shift in Hong Kong's economy as a response to a more open Chinese economy has been explored in detail by economists and academics.
This relationship is reciprocal and not one-sided, as China benefits from increased numbers of jobs and industry that are imported from Hong Kong, and Hong Kong benefits from the increase in service jobs and a higher quality of life and income provided by the move to away from a manufacturing focus and toward a service-oriented economy. In the following section, this paper will critically examine how Hong Kong can continue this integration with China in order to provide the most profitable outcome in both nations.
The first and most obvious way for Hong Kong to encourage and continue economic integration with China is to continue exporting its manufacturing jobs to the mainland. Despite critics who say that this is a detriment to the overall Hong Kong…… [Read More]
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Item Page Number
Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping tourism is a major aspect of the global tourism trade and as such is an area of tourism that is and should be promoted by destination countries and locations. This is true for Hong Kong as well as in other locations throughout the world. Ashworth (1989) writes that urban regeneration and tourism have become critically important activities beginning in the 1980's. Ashworth specifically notes two elements that link the ideas of the city and tourism and which show the complex relationship that exists between the features of a city and the functions of tourism that serve to result in shopping tourism in the city. The first element is comprised by the specific characteristics of a city and how this…… [Read More]
rapid movement of the modern age and the vast usage of technological equipment, it has become a constant question on whether radio frequencies are damaging to human health. Cell phones are known to emit relatively high doses of electromagnetic waves, which in some research, has been pinpointed to the adverse effect that it has on males, namely the issue on fertility. eports have been made indicating that cell phones might be another risk factor regarding the rise of male infertility due to its frequency emissions. While previous research has found no conclusive tie-ins to the phenomena, the latest technology and data have shown the contrary, though even this research is still subject to much scrutiny. Overall, there are too many variables to indicate that cell phones would be a main cause for male fertility, not without discussing the various other factors that help infertility along.
Infertility as defined…… [Read More]
goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.
Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…… [Read More]
adio Frequency Exposure
The world of electricity is wondrous in many ways. While mankind has somewhat grasped the ability to harness the power of electricity, new information and data is being understood to have new developments on how it may be harmful to one's health. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the impacts and qualities of radio-frequency (F) exposure to human health. This essay will first give background information on the subject to help explain the mysterious nature of both electricity and magnetism that is strongly connected to this possible health risk. The essay will then investigate empirical example and produced a review of literature pertinent to the topic. These studies will be used to help build a case suggesting that dangerous and unhealthy aspects of F waves and technology related to F.
adio Frequency Background Information
To better understand the impacts of radio frequency on the human…… [Read More]
Health Hazard/isk Communication
The term "risk communication" denotes any purposeful avoidance of risk-related information exchange between concerned parties. In this context, it (avoiding risk/hazard communication) may be defined as an act of transmitting or conveying information to parties in various areas including: environmental or health risk levels, meaning/significance of environmental or health risks, and actions, policies or decisions endeavoring to manage or control environmental or health risks. Concerned parties include scientists, government, industry groups, agencies, corporations, unions, professional organizations, scientists, the media, individual citizens, and interested groups (Florini, 2007).
Justification for Lying or Withholding isk/Hazard Information
In the past, one could adopt an 'experts know best' stance and merely inform citizens that, while one has identified a risk, they need not worry, and simply state how authorities are planning to deal with it. Today's public is not automatically acquiescent to authority figures, and demands to be more closely involved when…… [Read More]
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]
2008).. This points to the ethical responsibility of nurse educators -- it is not enough to treat the disease, bit one must treat the patient.
Failure to provide the proper level of education to a patient is certainly one way to fail them both ethically and medically, bit the opposite can also be true. That is, it is possible to provide too much care -- what is deemed "medically futile care" -- and this also raises very serious ethical issues in the realm of respiratory illnesses (Sibbald et al. 2007). This particular stuffy found that insufficient communication among the medical team was one of the primary causes for prolonging futile care, which often means increasing and/or prolonging a patient's discomfort without any reasonable expectation of an improvement in their condition (Sibbald et al. 2007).
The ethical choice here, of course, is to end care (with the consent of the patient…… [Read More]
From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.
2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.
3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.
4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…… [Read More]
Improved ommuniation onstitutes one of the threads needed for mending the rift between those individuals responsible for advertising and Boomers. To bridge the apparent generational divide and begin to raft ommerials that onnet with Boomers requires lear, onstrutive ommuniation (Derrik and Walker). Goals for messages advertised in ommerials or other means also need to be lear. One primary motivation for Boomers, as well as for younger generations is the belief that they, along with their ontributions matter (Derrik and Walker). When businesses and advertising reatives fous on similar missions and visions, this ontributes to the realization that differenes between younger generations and Boomers need not divide them. Instead as these differenes are hallenged, they an be surmounted.
For Generations Currently Shop in the U.S.
Currently, oneivably for the first time in U.S. history, four generations of individuals live, work and shop in Amerian ommunities. Consequently, four generations serve as potential…… [Read More]
The payee's endorsement is then forged and a criminal represents himself as the payee (Check fraud (http://www.ipsboston.com/pdcfpps_typesofcheckfraud.htm)."
In addition to the above methods of fraud, criminals often write checks on a close account and it takes time for the corporation receiving the check to find out that the account has been closed.
Criminals also open bank accounts using either fraudulent identification or by assuming the identity of others and commit fraud by depositing bogus checks. Criminals exploit the lag between the availability of funds provided by the depositary bank and the notification by the paying bank of the returned bogus check (Check fraud (http://www.ipsboston.com/pdcfpps_typesofcheckfraud.htm)."
WHY POSITIVE PAY IS a VALID OPTION
With the advances current technology offers the ability for outsiders to commit check fraud continues to increase.
Along with the technological advances, decreasing costs and wide spread availability of these products have made even sophisticated tools affordable to obtain.…… [Read More]
It is highly unlikely that they would become involved with illegal activities knowingly. However, the complicated nature of compliance risk and the high expectations within the banking industry make it possible that some legal manner might be overlooked.
Chief Compliance Officers are at particular risk due to the nature of their position and should be increasingly diligent to maintain a proper understanding of the expectations of compliance. Additionally, Chief Compliance Officers and the operations department should be aware of the current weaknesses within their own AML programs.
In an effort to minimize these risks, HSBC Bank USA has recognized the need for more purposeful measurement and management of compliance risk.
Legal and operational risk can quickly and efficiently hamper the activities of any bank. However, it is reputational risk that poses the greatest risk to HSBC Bank USA. Banks that are associated with money laundering, terrorism, and criminal activity in…… [Read More]
HK & Singapore
A country's economic growth "may be defined as a long-term rise in capacity to supply increasingly diverse economic goods to its population…" (Kuznets, 1973). There are a number of methods by which economic growth can be encouraged. These include reducing barriers to business expansion (such as interest rates, tax rates and bureaucracy), increasing transparency in government, increasing population, trade policy, technological innovation and increased exploitation of resources. Singapore and Hong Kong are first-world city states with large populations and limited natural resources. Although both have experienced population increases, density is very high and there is limited room for domestic consumption growth. Likewise, there is limited room for growth in resource exploitation, as neither has excess natural resource capacity. Transparency International ranks Singapore as first in the world for least corruption, and Hong Kong is a strong 13th, so there is little room for improvement (Transparency International, 2010).…… [Read More]
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]
State and major urban area fusion centers serve as central points inside the state and local environment for the reception, examination, gathering, and distribution of threat-related information between the federal government and state, local, tribal, territorial (SLTT) and private sector associates. Positioned in states and major urban areas all through the country, fusion centers are distinctively located to authorize front-line law enforcement, public safety, fire service, emergency response, public health, critical infrastructure protection, and private sector security personnel to comprehend local implications of national intelligence, therefore facilitating local officials to better protect their areas. Fusion centers supply interdisciplinary knowledge and situational consciousness to enlighten decision-making at all levels of government. They carry out analysis and facilitate information sharing while assisting law enforcement and homeland security associates in preventing, protecting against, and responding to crime and terrorism (State and Major Urban Area Fusion Centers, n.d.).
Fusion centers…… [Read More]
The country has traditionally relied on growing its workforce as a means of increasing its economic capabilities. hile Hong Kong has done the same in the past, its policy has diverged at this point. Faced with an influx of labour from the PRC, Hong Kong now faces a situation where it needs to focus on bringing in high-end labour, rather than the unskilled labour that is currently flooding in. Singapore shares a similar need, but has less space for new arrivals. A more open border with Johor Bahru on the mainland gives Singapore the ability to house labour out of the country that Hong Kong does not enjoy, but could encourage businesses to relocate there as well, to Malaysia's benefit.
Singapore has also focused on trade more than Hong Kong has. Traditionally, Singapore has adopted a role as a trade hub, where Hong Kong was a finance and insurance hub.…… [Read More]
Travel and Tourism
Tourism in Malaysia: A Comprehensive Overview
Malaysia like the United States of America is often referred to as a "melting pot" of people from many different countries, including Chinese an many other Asian cultures as well as other ethnicities, living together happily. While Malaysia is often cited for its multiculturalism, there are many also reasons this country is often known as a utopian paradise for tourism and travel. There are dozens of reasons to travel and tour Malaysian, including the people who are warm and lovely, eager to welcome and delight the millions of people that come exploring each year. Malaysia encompasses 13 states which are also home to 3 federally held territories. These are separated by the South China Sea, where 11 states lay and the territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya rest in Peninsular Malaysia and the one remaining federal territory Labuan in East Malaysia…… [Read More]
Globalization is best defined as a process of increasing interdependence between all people in the world. From fashion to the environment to multiculturalism to musical fusion and more, globalization emerged as a significant, new worldview in the 1990s. Globalization has created a world market in which goods, money, and people cross international borders as freely as possible. Modern transportation and theology, including the Internet, played a key role in the facilitation of globalization during the 1990s. As a result, there are many different areas in which worldwide perspectives, influences, and interactions during this time period altered daily existence for Americans and other citizens of the world.
As a result of the globalization boom of the 1990s, we now live in a world in which markets, media, law, corporations, labor, scientific research and advocacy groups are international, multinational, and multicultural. This has resulted in an enormous increase in multiculturalism around the…… [Read More]
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…… [Read More]
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…… [Read More]
How does a clinical trial contribute to risk analysis?
In the UK, clinical Trials Toolkit offers realistic advice to researchers in structuring and carrying out publicly funded trials via the utilization of an interactive route map. The Toolkit is majorly centered on CTIMPs (Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products) and the regulatory needs and environment related with these. However, &D and researchers working in other fields shall also get significant data and guidance of relevance to the broader trials settings. isk evaluation and mitigation entails application of statistical methods to choose significant factors having high research predicative values or sites which might be prone to noncompliance. It is claimed that prospectively arranged data-motivated and model-founded advances could assist optimize resources usage with maximal impact. Although the modeling exercise initiates objectivity in the hunt for significant risk factors, it should not by itself be seen as the only determinant…… [Read More]
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…… [Read More]
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…… [Read More]
Thus to sum up, the Primus Epic, a modern integrated avionics system created by Honeywell, was along with the Bell/Augusta AB139 on which it was found fit, was then extended to the Primus Epic AW139 for helicopters. The unique feature is that the Primus Epic is a single package that performs a number of integrated functions and the mentionable feature is the display technology and the interactive navigation system. This has condensed a number of flight related activities in a single unit. Landings have been made very safe with the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning system and there are reports of trails by various pilots which were conducted on many machines from the Cessna and many winged crafts. Particular mention has to be made on the trial on the Augusta Wetland Helicopters - the AW139 which has a special system designed for it and all the capabilities that a helicopter pilot…… [Read More]
Fashion Industry has always been very fickle. It doesn't show loyalty to one brand or one designer rather it chooses to go with the tide if the tide appears to bring better quality and more chic. The fashion industry is divided into three major segments, high, medium and mass. While the mass industry remains static in terms of brands and loyalty, it is the high and medium fashion segments that change often because in they are ruled by the customers who have great influence on the market but still the big players like Givenchy, Dior and Versace would still know how to play the market and give minimum leverage to the customers.
The industry has been divided into trend setters and followers. While setters enjoy greater influence, followers are dragged along by the companies catering to medium and mass segments.
In this industry, it is the supply chain…… [Read More]
blogspot.com/2009/03/air-asia-flight-cancellations.html> [28 July 2010].
This source discusses a common situation that is occurring with some Air Asian flights, cancelations. This is problematic, because many are occurring because the planes are not full; leaving their passengers stranded at airports or forced to find other accommodations. This is significant, because this information can be used to show how some Thai's, were flying Air Asia based upon their low cost fares. However, once their flight has been continuously cancelled, is when many are becoming unhappy with the low cost service. This is important, because this information can be used to show another factor; that could be affecting someone's decision to fly on an LCC or FSC. Where, the lower fares and fewer frills are an advantage that they have over FSC's. Yet, when you factor in issues such as unexpected cancelations; these lack of services and sudden changes could be a turn off…… [Read More]
Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the details needed in the process of recovering an aircraft that is involved in an accident. It includes all the duties, the responsibilities and the training programs necessary to successful manage an accident involving an airplane. The pre-accident pan is structures so as to contain all the latest notifications and the necessary contact procedures to be used to initiate a response to all the aircraft incidents. A copy of the pre-accident plan is then copied to the Chief of Fire and Aviation, The area Chief ranger and the notification set to a relevant body such as FAA (Castro,1988).
The pre-accident plan is to be coordinated with the relevant disaster control departments using a set of standard procedures that are to be exercised,…… [Read More]
These needs are only beginning to be addressed in Canada and while there do not appear to be many well-established initiatives there is a growing recognition of the need for such if Canada's healthcare sector is to gain and retain the necessary workers to deliver optimal healthcare in Canada.
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
ack, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the C Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, What's Ailing our Nurses? A…… [Read More]