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Peters suggests that a no-nonsense and zero-tolerance approach to implicit tolerance and emphasizes the need to pursue complaints as far up the school administration chain of command as necessary to achieve results. Similarly, Peters confirms the conclusions of other researchers and experts in the field of school psychology that bullying affects victims profoundly and presents specific problems with regard to maintaining high academic performance and also with respect to positive self-image formation that often persist far beyond the school years.
Peters acknowledges that bullying behavior cuts across all ages and grades and affects both male and female students, but recommends different approaches to addressing bullying based in the specific forms that it tends to take between the genders.
Whereas boys tend to bully through physical intimidation and violence, girls are much more likely to perpetuate bullying through indirect social exclusion and ridicule. Peters offers suggestions that include modeling non-violence at…
Feller, B. (2003) the Associated Press; U.S. Frames Bullying as Health Issue
Hutton, T. (2006) NSBA Leadership Insider: Practical Perspectives on School Law & Policy; No Rite of Passage: Coming to Grips with Harassment and Bullying.
Jonsson, P. (2004) the Christian Science Monitor; Schoolyard Bullies and Their Victims: The Picture Fills Out. Peters, R. (2002) Laying Down the Law: The 25 Laws of Parenting to Keep Your Kids on Track, Out of Trouble, and (Pretty Much) Under Control. New York: Rodale.
Wright, J. (2004) Preventing Classroom Bullying: What Teachers Can Do. Interventioncentral.org
Seventy-five percent of the school shootings over the past decade have been related to bullying (Vessey).
Because bullying is a social problem of the collective, it might be more successful in changing the peer group norms that reinforce bullying, which is the basic operating principle of school-wide anti-bullying programs (Juvonen). The worst thing anyone can do is to do nothing or assume that bullying behaviors are harmless (Vessey). The best intervention is communication. Parents should talk to their children and schools should incorporate discussions of bullying behaviors in classes (Vessey).
Greif, Jennifer L. "Reaching an American consensus: reactions to the special issue on school bullying." School Psychology Review. June 22, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Juvonen, Jaana. "Myths and facts about bullying in schools: effective interventions depend upon debunking long-held misconceptions." Behavioral Health
Management. March 1, 2005. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research…
Greif, Jennifer L. "Reaching an American consensus: reactions to the special issue on school bullying." School Psychology Review. June 22, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Juvonen, Jaana. "Myths and facts about bullying in schools: effective interventions depend upon debunking long-held misconceptions." Behavioral Health
Management. March 1, 2005. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Swearer, Susan M. "Research on school bullying and victimization: what have we learned and where do we go from here?" School Psychology Review. June 22, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Adults Who Were Bullied in School
Bullying is considered repeated acts over time that involves an imbalance of power between individuals. It can be verbal harassment, physical assault, coercion, manipulation, ignoring, or even subtler acts. Usually, psychologists find, bullying is done to coerce others by fear or threat, and occurs more often than one would imagine in the early years of elementary school ("Student eports of Bullying," 2001). There is a pervading assumption that bullying is a "normal" part of childhood and encompasses nothing more than minor harassment, more recent and long-term studies have found that intensive bullying in elementary school may have lasting psychological effects well throughout school age, and into adulthood (Nansel, et.al,, 2001, 2003). Overall, the statistics are staggering, and surprising:
White, non-Hispanic students are more likely than other ethnic minority children to be bullied but a factor of 5%.
In an average school, 15% of White…
The Bully/Victim Characteristics Chart. (2001, April). Retrieved December 2010, from SIU.EDU: http://tqe.siu.edu/473/documents/PDF/bullying/bullyvictim_chart.pdf
Characteristics of a Group - Norms. (2004, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Oxford Brooks University: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/small-group/sgt104.html
BeeBe and Masterson. (2006). Communicating in Small Groups: Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Bulach, Fulbright, and Williams. (2003). Bullying Behavior. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), 156-69.
The counselor reminds the children that some of the bullying is done because of ethnic and cultural differences. This week the session will be about helping those who are different by race, ability, gender, religion, etc. To feel accepted by doing something kind for them (Singh, et al., 2010).
The counselor can work with school personnel to develop a AK week. During this week, the students are able to write on a large banner the kindness deeds they do (AK Foundation, 2010). The students can help read books for library hour, recording at the same time, so the younger children can listen at any time. Food drives can be organized to help needy families in the school (AK Foundation, 2010). During these activities, discussion about how the act makes the student feels help reinforce the positive actions.
Follow-up includes comparing how bullying and cyber-bullying makes one feel vs. how the…
Bostick, D., Anderson, R. (2009). Evaluating a small-group counseling program -- a model for program planning and improvement in the elementary setting. Professional School Counseling. 12(6). pp. 428-434.
Crandell, T., Crandell, C., & Vander Zanden, J., 2009 Human Development (9th Ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill
Hendricks, J. (2010). Interview February 12, 2010.
Huss, S., Bryant, a., & Mulet, S. (2008). Managing the quagmire of counseling in a school: Bringing the parents onboard. Professional School Counseling, 11(6), 362-367.
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
This would help a victim open up to the teacher and thus seek help. School is an important period in a child's life and should be free of stress. It is the responsibility of school authorities to ensure child' safety. In the schools, where bullying incidents are non-existent have some active form of intervention in place. Bullying is a more serious problem in public schools compared to private school mainly due to the quality of education, teacher training and level of accountability. Higher level of accountability can result in fewer cases of bullying in public schools too. Concerted effort is required to reduce prevalence of bullying in schools across the country.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of…
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 326-333.
Hoover, J.H., Oliver, R., & Hazier, R.J. (1992). Bullying: Perceptions of adolescent victims in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology International, 13, 5-16.
Horne, a.M., & Newman-Carlson, D. (2004). Bully Busters: A Psycho-educational Intervention for Reducing Bullying Behavior in Middle School Students. Journal of Counseling and Development. Volume: 82. Issue: 3.
When these components were included in bullying intervention programs, Olweus found significant reductions of 50% or more during the 2 years following their introduction in American schools with more than 2,500 students. According to Heinrich (2003), "The bullying prevention program goals are reducing or eliminating existing bullying problems and preventing new problems. The major cost of this program is not in money but in the amount of time and energy required to effect change in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior" (p. 195).
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: outledgeFalmer.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of esearch in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum eview, 46(5), 37.
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum Review, 46(5), 37.
The possible connection between bullying experiences in school and online is consistent with data showing that when most schoolmates have Internet access at home, electronic communication is conducted largely within school-based peer networks.
Cited Study: Gross EF Adolescent Internet use: what we expect, what teens report. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2004; 25:633-649.
Livingstone S. Children use of the Internet: reflections on the emerging research agenda. New Media and Society. 2003; 5:
esearch design was based on correlational factors involving experimental quantitative statistical analysis. Targeted participants ranged from ages 12-17. Additionally, participants were introduced to an electronic survey on a popular teen Web site called Bolt in which an incentive was offered to induce participation, such as a raffle for an iPod or gift card. Through this Web site, data was collected from August through October 2005. In conducting an electronic survey, parental consent was not necessary, participants could…
Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. (2008). Extending the school grounds? -- Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496-505.
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Likewise, the percentages of young children who reported bullying behaviors who were themselves the victims of bullying by others as well as being abuse both physically and sexually in the home were highly disturbing and represent a call to action for educators at all levels. It is clear that violence continues to adversely affect both the bully and the victim, but it is also clear that the victims are not in a position to change their behaviors in the same ways as the bullies involved.
Implications for the Future. This author's personal experiences in public schools confirms that in some cases, teachers simply look the other way when witnessing bullying rather than taking action to stop such behaviors. In order to formulate effective interventions, teachers, administrators and parents must become more actively involved in reducing the incidence of bullying, and this will require direct behavioral observations of students in the…
Bradshaw, C.P., Sawyer, a.L. & O'Brennan, L.M. (2007). Bullying and peer victimization at school: Perceptual differences between students and school staff. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 361-363.
Espelage, D.L. & Swearer, S.M. (2004). Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32(3), 365.
Holt, M.K., Finkelhor, D. & Kantor, G.K. (2007). Hidden forms of victimization in elementary students involved in bullying. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 345-346.
The incidents of April 20, 1999 from Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado put bullying into a new perspective. Two students, Dylan Klebold and Ryan Harris, who were, for all intents, intelligent and well adjusted went on a killing spree. They killed and injured several members of the school including a teacher. (Rosenberg, 2000) Then they turned the guns on themselves. Their plans were grandiose. After the massacre, they intended to flee the country. Once the furor had died down, new information showed that the two students were generally reticent, withdrawn and subjected to bullying by their peers, especially the physically stronger students. Klebold and Harris were emotionally and physically abused. Isolated, they developed a hatred for their fellow students. This manifested in initial thoughts of suicide and then murder. Stories abound about bullying turned to tragedy abound. The Columbine incident was the biggest and got the most coverage.…
Berman, H., et al. "Sexual Harassment: The Unacknowledged Face of Violence in the Lives of Girls." The Best Interests of the Girl Child. Eds. H. Berman and Y. Jiwani. London, ON: The Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence., 2002. 15-44.
Bleuel, Hans Peter. Sex and Society in Nazi Germany. Philadelphia,: Lippincott, 1973.
Congress. An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Washington, D.C: House of Congress, 2002.
Fried, S., and P. Fried. Bullies and Victims: Helping Your Child through the Schoolyard Battlefield. New York, NY: M. Evans & Co., Inc., 1996.
Bullying and Harassment in Colleges:
One of the major reasons why children are sent to school or colleges by their parents is to learn. However, many college campuses have become breeding grounds for bullying and harassment that affects millions of students. While the extent of bullying and harassment in colleges is still unclear, such incidents take place on the basis of sexual orientation, religion, race, gender identity, and sex (Holt, 2010). The bullying and harassment in college campuses tend to occur through email, on the Internet, and face-to-face.
As the practice has become widespread across college campuses, memories of school bullying haunt people for several years. Actually, bullied students are usually habituated to defending themselves from cruel actions to an extent that they ultimately become bullies themselves. Moreover, unsupportive teachers also contribute to the spread of bullying and development of new bullies. For instance, many victims of bullying and school…
Billitteri, T.J. (2010, December 10). Preventing Bullying -- Do anti-harassment Laws Violate
Students' Rights? Retrieved April 13, 2013, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010121000&PHPSESSID=18229tb5jv1c5rdg0fhotish00
Holt, R. (2010, November). Should Colleges be required to Prohibit Bullying and Harassment?
Pro-Position. CQ Researcher.
Bullying -- and Victims
Summary of Important Facts on Page 502 of the Text
About 10 to 20% of today's children are bullies and up to 30% of children are victimized over and over. About a third to a half of victims are also aggressive and they do fight back. There are interventions available for victims and the best way to reduce bullying is to promote sports and other recreational activities, and basically to change the school environment.
how do children become bullies and how do bullies develop aggressive behaviors toward others? Bullies show very little "anxiety" and rarely are insecure, and they have a "strong desire" to be a dominant force over others -- notably their peers (Carter, 2011, 99). In fact those children who become bullies "derive entertainment" from their aggressive acts against others, and they rarely experience "remorse and empathy" for those unfortunate children who have been…
Berk, L.E. (2010). Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson College
Division, p. 502.
Carter, S. (2011). Bullies and Power: A Look at the Research. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric
Nursing, 34(2), 97-102.
A teenager's ability to thrive in his/her social circle may have more to do with innate qualities such as companionship than looks or talents, attributes that are commonly associated with popularity.
Whereas peer relationships can clearly have a positive role in social development, there are certain types of peer orientation that can also be detrimental. There are some teenagers who are extremely orientated to their peers to the extent that they break parents' rules, sacrifice school performance, undermine their talents, and even hide positive areas of their lives in order to maintain their peer relationships (uligni et al., 2001). This is the type of peer orientation that parents commonly object to and for good reason. Extremely peer oriented teenagers often feel that they have to stand out and hence seek problem behavior-oriented peer groups such as those that regularly skip class, abuse alcohol, and use drugs (uligni et al., 2001).…
For parents who may be concerned about their child's troubled peer relationships or peer orientation, much can be learned from these documented evidences on child social development. Parents must understand that problems such as bullying, deviant behavior, association with problematic peer groups, and the like are often processes that evolve over time and involve an interplay between many early risk and protective factors (Schwartz, et al. 2000, Fuligni et al., 2001). While some of these factors are temperamental in nature (e.g. non-assertiveness, submissiveness), many of them are also parental control related. For instance there is evidence to suggest that maternal over-protectiveness can be a factor in the bullying of submissive and passive victims (Olweus, 1993 in Schwartz et al., 2000). Similarly, excessive parental control during the teenage years can drive adolescents to place greater importance on their peer relationships rather than their parents (Deveraux, 1970, in Fuligni et al., 2001). On the other hand, a complete lack of parental control or support can also lead adolescents to seek more advice from their peers and thus be more influenced by them rather than their parents (Bonfrenbenner, 1967; Condry and Simon, 1974; and Steinberg, 1987; in Fuligni et al., 2001). Hence, parents must try to exert a developmentally appropriate level of control on their children and learn to adjust their relationship with them to accommodate their child's increasing level of maturity.
Parents should encourage their children to cultivate friendships within peer groups that are achievement oriented, wherever they may be found - in school, a sports or hobby club, church, work, etc. Studies show that association with healthy peer groups such as these are less likely to result in children showing problem behavior and low academic achievements in the latter adolescent years (Fuligni et al., 2001). Parents should also try to promote closeness in the family (e.g. By having meals or doing simple things together). Family cohesion has been shown to buffer the effects on adolescents who may be involved with deviant peers and is hence a protective factor for possible problematic behavior (Fuligni et al., 2001).
This paper has described the many roles that friendships and peer groups can play in a child's social development. The impact of these relationships is especially significant during the volatile teenage years, a critical transitional stage when children have to renegotiate relationships with their parents while at the same time seek acceptance from their peers. Friendships can either make or break a child and the important role of parents lies in giving them age-appropriate freedom and control; providing a supportive, cohesive home environment; and encouraging their children to associate with peer groups that have a positive influence.
Likewise, the study concluded that new teachers were significantly less confident in their respective ability to deal with bullies and their parents than with victims of bullying and their parents. The study disclosed that new teachers also realized their limitations in dealing with bullies and recognized the likely benefits of specific training in this area. The most natural extension of this study in the future would be to repeat it using more experienced teachers to determine whether and to what degree increased experience relates to greater response and how much of any recorded difference is a function of confidence on the part of experienced teachers. Finally, one of the most interesting areas of future research would be in the realm of a 2008 study (Song & Soiber) that is not included in this literature review. That study summarized much of the available previous literature on the general subject of childhood…
Bauman, S., and Del Rio, a. (2006). "Preservice Teachers' Responses to Bullying
Scenarios: Comparing Physical, Verbal, and relational Bullying" Journal of Educational Psychology; Vol. 98, No.1: 219-231.
Nicolaides, S., Toda, Y., and Smith, P. (2002). "Knowledge and Attitudes About School Bullying in Trainee Teachers" British Journal of Educational Psychology; Vol. 72: 105-118.
Song, S.Y., and Stoiber, K.C. (2008). "Children Exposed to Violence at School: An Evidence-Based Intervention Agenda for the 'Real' Bullying Problem" Journal of Emotional Abuse; Vol. 8(1/2).
Private Public School Similarities and Differences
isk and Benefits in Public and Private Schools
Special Need Students
Teachers Credentials in Private and Public Schools
This research paper focuses on the similarities and differences of private and public school education. It deciphers several truths and realities associated with these two systems. isks and benefits along with teacher's credentials in private and public schools are discussed in detail. Another factor brought to light is the positive role played by ample resources in the betterment of private sector and the loss it has incurred to public sector education system.
Parents always face this query whether they should choose a private school or public schools. They want best for their children and it is a normal perception that private schools are way better than public schools in terms of quality and academic excellence. Although problems exist in both the sectors but due to ample…
Anonymous. American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry. March 2011. 29 January 2013.
-- . PISA. 2 November 2012. 29 January 2012.
Nan, Stein. "Bullying, Harassment and Violence among Students." Radical Teacher (2007): 43-55.
Reese, William J. America's Public Schools: From the Common School to "No Child Left Behind." New York: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Online bullying and online harassment typically happens through chat rooms, text messages, and emails, and it generally happens when teens aren't in school, the studies show.
The findings appear in a special edition of the Journal of Adolescent Health.
Internet Harassment: What to Do?
Focus on safe use of new technology, not banning the technology.
Today's kids and teens are major media users, but they need grown-up guidance about safe media use, note the CDC's Corinne David-Ferdon, PhD, and Marci Feldman Hertz, MS. They predict that "with the development of new cell phones that are small enough to fit into young children's hands and that are designed to be visually attractive to a younger audience, more and younger children will become competent and frequent users of this technology."
That means that research on preventing online harassment "must be rapid and flexible enough to keep up with the evolving nature of…
Be Safe Bullying. (2002). Online Bullying. Retrieved on March 23, 2008 at http://www.besafeonline.org/English/bullying_online.htm
Belsey, Bill. (2004). Cyberbullying.ca. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from Web site: www.cyberbullying.ca
Liz Carnell and Bullying UK. (2008). Formally Bullying Online. Advice for Pupils. Retrieved on March 23, 2008 at http://www.bullying.co.uk/pupils/index.aspx
Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences. School Psychology
2. Stonewalling, or what many people, referred to as "silent treatment" occurs when the bully or group simply ignores the victim completely. This can be extremely distressing to adolescents. This often occurs with group exclusion.
3. A common form of relational bullying is the spreading of rumors and gossip about the victim. This is a direct attempt to ruin the victim's relationships and exclude them from contact with their peers and even with adults.
4. Taunting occurs when the bully insults or verbally abuses the victim directly. Taunting often continues even when the victim physically breaks down.
5. Conditional friendships occur when the bully places demands on the victim in order for the victim to be allowed in the group were with peers.
The effects of relational bullying are often more psychologically damaging than the effects of more physical forms of bullying. In addition, relational and physical bullying are often…
Beck, a.T., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Brown, B. (2004). Adolescent's relationships with peers. In Lerner, R. & Steinberg, L. (eds.),
Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.
Burrows, L. (2011). Don't try to bully gershon ben keren. Jewish Advocate, 202, 2.
Bullying and Conflict in Relation to Learning About Gender and Other Forms of Equity
One of the harsh realities of life in the United States is the potential for bullying behaviors to adversely affect the learning environment for young victims, transforming the school environment from a place of learning into one that is dreaded and feared. Moreover, bullying behaviors can have a profound effect on the manner in which young people are socialized concerning gender roles as well as their perspectives concerning equity later in life. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper provides a review of the literature to develop a discussion concerning the issues of bullying and conflict in relation to learning about gender and other forms of equity and the implications these have for students and teachers. Finally, following this discussion, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in…
The findings of this study will be disseminated through the use of technology and the postal service.
There will be several potential user groups identified following the study completion and those groups will be emailed and asked of they wish to see the results of the study. If they respond in the affirmative they will be sent a copy through the postal service that will include all of the research material.
This study proposal will target the incidence of racially motivated bullying in English secondary schools to determine the frequency, level and cause of such events. It will provide valuable information to future school administrators and counselors that develop anti-bullying programs for their student bodies.
Embry, S.L. (1995). Types of name-calling experienced by second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth graders and their beliefs about their peers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 3905. (AAT No. 9604759)
Levinson, Laura (2004) Assessment…
Embry, S.L. (1995). Types of name-calling experienced by second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth graders and their beliefs about their peers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 3905. (AAT No. 9604759)
Levinson, Laura (2004) Assessment of bullying: a review of methods and instruments.(Assessment & Diagnosis)
Journal of Counseling and Development;
Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R.S., Ruan, W.J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094-2100.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, between one-quarter and one-third of all American school children report being bullied in some fashion, with the highest prevalence of bullying occurring during the middle school years (Facts about bullying 2). It is inappropriate to classify every type of aggressive encounter between youths as bullying because young people are undergoing a profoundly transformative period in their lives when experimentation, peer pressure and the search for individual identity assume truly enormous significance. When some types of unwanted aggressive behaviors persist, however, they conform to the definition of bullying provided by the U.S. Department of Education and Centers for Disease Control (Facts about bullying 3) and many of these behaviors are crimes. A growing body of evidence confirms that bullying can have a wide range of adverse effects on both the perpetrator as well as the victim that can extend well into…
Chink, Spic, Terrorist, Whore, Nerd. These words seem to be just the beginning sparks of what most people characterize as bullying. The words and phrases are familiar enough; high school students across the country hear these insults being thrown out just as commonly as a larger student with his gang picking on a smaller and weaker student. The essence of teenage bullying has not changed; rather, with the amount of digital media and social platforms created today, there seems to be more reason to expect bullying -- both at school and online.
Bullying itself comes in many forms and sizes. It can be one hulking, leader-like personality with the aim at a Machiavellian increase in status in the school's social standing (Hamarus). Another can be the result of a racial slur and the violent actions taken against a differently ethnic individual -- perhaps even using an entire gang…
Hamarus, Paivi, and Pauli Kaikkonen. "School bullying as a creator of pupil peer pressure." Educational Research 50.4 (2008): 333-345. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 26 Feb. 2011.
Kennedy, Helen. "Phoebe Prince, South Hadley High School's 'new Girl,' Driven to Suicide by Teenage Cyber Bullies." NY Daily News. 29 Mar. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. .
Pierce, Tamora. "Don't Let Bullies Win." Dare to Be Stupid. 30 Mar. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. .
Rivero, Victor. "The Politicization of Bullying." District Administration 47.1 (2011): 54. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 26 Feb. 2011.
Students in elementary schools exhibit high levels of aggression toward their fellow students, and bullying is becoming increasingly problematic to manage. It is critical that teachers understand the nature of bullying and how to manage the problem. This presentation uses empirical evidence to show how students, families, and teachers can identify, prevent, and respond to bullying.
esearch reveals a difference between occasional aggressive behaviors and bullying. For example, Merrell & Isava (2008) define bullying as "repeated acts of aggression, intimidation, or coercion against a victim who is weaker," and a key feature of bullying is "intent to harm," (p. 26). Built into the definition of bullying is a power differential between the aggressor and the victim. Parents and teachers who recognize this feature of bullying may be able to identify the behavior in its early stages, and take necessary action. Teachers therefore need to understand how to prevent aggressive…
Kallestad, J.H. & Olweus, D. (2003). Predicting teachers' and schools' implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: A Multilevel Study. Prevention and Treatment 6(21).
Merrell, K.W. & Isava, D.M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? School Psychology Quarterly 23(1): 26-42.
Ross, S., Horner, R. & Stiller, B. (n.d.). Bully prevention in positive behavior support. Education and Community Supports.
Designing a Group
A Group for Individuals Concerned about School ullying Incidents
What population is the group designed to serve?
The group is ultimately designed to serve students of a school where bullying has occurred, and the entire school students, staff, and administrators. Local community members, such as physicians and health professionals would also be welcome; individuals who are professional counselors may have useful contributions. As well, it will serve the students' families, friends, and the community. Each of these individuals has something to contribute in a group dialogue about bullying, from a different perspective. The largest issue to be faced at the onset is empowering individuals, such as students, to speak frankly in the presence of not only their peers, but also in the presence of perceived authority figures.
Parental involvement is important so that the parent can assist with issues that their child may have had concerning bullying;…
Anti-bullying procedures for primary and post-primary schools. (2013). Retrieved from: https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Policy-Reports/Anti-Bullying-Procedures-for-Primary-and-Post-Primary-Schools.pdf .
Berlin, R., & Ruscitti, D. (2011). Best Practices in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Illinois: The County of Du Page.
Burns, J.H. (2015). Retrieved from Bully Proof Classroom: http://bullyproofclassroom.com/great-anti-bullying-activities
Developing an Evaluation Plan (n.d.): Retrieved from: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/evaluate/evaluation/evaluation-plan/main
Long-Term Impacts of Bullying
Bullying is an undesirable, hostile behavior exhibited by adolescents due to perceived and sometimes real power imbalance. This is a repeated behavior, or one that may be possibly repeated, as time goes on. Both the bullies and those bullied can develop long-term problems. For a child's behavior to be termed 'bullying', it must be a hostile behavior and include the following:
Power imbalance: Children who bully make use of their physical strengths, their access to information that could be considered embarrassing, or their popularity to harm or control the activities of other children. These imbalances in power can alter with time and circumstances, even when they involve the same set of people.
epetition: These bullying behaviors do not occur just once, or can occur recurrently.
Bullying behaviors involve certain actions like threatening others, physical and verbal attacks, spreading rumors about someone, or leaving someone out…
APA. (2016). Bullying. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/topics/bullying/
Castillo, M. (2013, August 19). Childhood bullying may lead to social, health issues in adulthood. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/childhood-bullying-may-lead-to-social-health-issues-in-adulthood/
Chiril?, T. (2010). Social and Psychological Implications of Bullying in Schools. Toma Cozma.
Dombeck, M. (2014). The Long-Term Effects of Bullying. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress: http://www.aaets.org/article204.htm
According to the Illinois Legal Aid Online (2018) Bullying can be understood as the aggressive and unwanted traits espoused by school going children. The traits entail some perceived or real power imbalance. Some of the students will use this power (such as their physical strength, popularity, access to privileged information) to harm, blackmail or harm other students. This behavior has to be repeated or have the potential of being repeated for it to qualify as bullying (Illinois Legal Aid Online, 2018). This paper explores a bullying scenario and maps out a strategy to alleviate bullying among students. In doing so the paper quotes three cases (i.e. Goss v. Lopez, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, and New Jersey v. T.L.O). The rulings in these cases will be used to delineate the process of investigation, disciplining of bullies and bullying prevention measures. The paper also…
TIPS TO HELP KIDS PREVENT BULLYING
Cool Down -- Try to be calm when resolving conflict!
Describe the conflict, try to be logical!
What caused the conflict -- what can be done about it?
Describe feelings during conflict!
Listen respectfully, wait until other person has finished before talking!
Brainstorm solutions TOGETHER
Comes home with torn, damaged, or missing pieces of clothing, books, or other belongings;
Has unexplained cuts, bruises, and scratches;
Has few, if any friends, with whom he or she spends time;
Seems afraid of going to school, walking to and from school, riding the school bus, or taking part in organized activities with peers (such as clubs);
Takes a long, "illogical" route when walking to or from school;
Has lost interest in school work or suddenly begins to do poorly in school;
Appears sad, moody, teary, or depressed when he or she comes home;
The situation is then carefully monitored" (unisa.edu.au, 2010). This philosophy behind this method is that bullying occurs because bystanders allow it to happen and that other children help to facilitate bullying either by looking the other way or by encouraging the bully through either laughter or praise or some other form of negative reinforcement. This technique prevents the bully from engaging in further attacks on a potential victim in that it recruits a veritable army around the victim -- a form of collective support for reinforcement and assistance.
Educating parents is another way to appropriately deal with bullies. Parents are often unaware of the fact that when a child is bullied, they will often feel deeply scared and ashamed. The fear and shame can often translate to the child not saying anything about the situation or about what's going on or how they feel. Experts encourage parents to talk to…
Greatschools. (2007). Nine ways to eliminate bullying. Retrieved from http://www.greatschools.org/parenting/bullying/600-how-to-deal-with-a-bully.gs
Unisa.edu.au. (2010, October 29). Six ways of dealing with bullying. Retrieved from http://w3.unisa.edu.au/news/2010/291010.asp
The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being of the parent is guaranteed. In turn the parents visualize the problem of intimidation of their children to prevalent in schools. The psychologists however find that the inclination towards avoidance of the schools is the consequence of various elements with their reaction to both home and school stressors. The contemporary thought on school phobia depicts that there are some children who denies attending school as a result of separation anxiety. (School Phobia)
Most of the children reluctant to go to school are between the ages 8-13 years. In case of some the reluctance is as an effort to avoid uncomfortable feelings associated with school. The phobia is associated with the fear of being criticized or evaluated. Sometimes the particular activities like…
Anandalakshmy. S. The child at school. Retrieved at http://www.doctorndtv.com/children/detailtopics.asp?id=31 . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Bullying in schools. Retrieved at http://www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/school.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Hogan, Maureen. School Phobia. Nassau County Psychologist. Retrieved at http://www.fenichel.com/schoolphobia.html . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Starting School. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved at http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/82.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
The author of this report has been asked to detail three different programs that are geared towards crime prevention and control with students. For each program, there will be a description. There will also be a listing of the pros and cons for the program. The difference in the methods as well as a general compare and contrast will be completed. The overall level of success for each program will also be included. While anti-crime programs have varying levels of success with the students of the United States, keeping students out of trouble is something that is deemed to be worthwhile and necessary.
One of the more prolific and prominent programs out there that relates to crime would be DARE, which is short for Drug Abuse Resistance Education. It educates children about the danger of drugs and the related outcomes that can come with the same. It also educates…
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
Education and Bullying -- Argumentative esearch Paper
Bullying and Education
Education and Bullying
Argumentative esearch Paper
The purpose of the research in this work is to answer the question, "Does bullying effect an individual's education? First bullying will be defined in the perimeter of the educational environment. The author of this work takes the stance that bullying does most positively affect an individual in terms of their quality of education and in fact does continue to affect the individual who receives and even the one who perpetrates the bullying behavior. Inclusive in the research will be the stated 'signs' of bullying behavior taking place, preventative measures that are stated to be effective, types of bullying behavior, and common myths surrounding those who are bullies. Some important facts about violence in schools are stated to be that first, that 1/3 of all injury death that occurs in the United States are…
Rigby, Ken (1997) What Children Tell Us About Bullying in Schools Children Australia (1997) 22, 2, 28, 34. University of South Australia. Online at: http://www.educa tion.unisa.edu.au/bullying/childtelus.htm
The emotional cost of bullying Mental Health and Growing Up, Third Edition. Factsheet 18, for parents and teachers. Online available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.k/info / mhgu/newmhgu18.htm.
Consequence of Bullying in Schools Online available at: htttp://www.educationworld.com / searchnew/adv_results.jsp
Youth Violence: A Public Health Concern (nd) CSPV School Violence Fact Sheet. Center for the Study of Violence Online available at; http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/p blications/factsheets/schoolvioleence/FSSV02.html.
Bullying can be a difficult topic to tackle. That is why this bullying essay will help offer an idea of what will comprise a good paper and what potential areas of research to cover within this controversial and popular subject. From developing a good thesis, carrying it throughout body paragraphs, and closing with a brief and concise conclusion, this essay will show what to do to obtain a high grade. The first step before the thesis, the body, and the conclusion, is a unique and informative introduction. This will help lead to an idea of where to start the paper and when all is finished, an abstract can be created, thus putting a successful end to any writing project.
Understanding a Bully
What Makes Others Bully?
Bullying: The Need to Control
Identifying the Four Common Types of Bullying
What Methods Can Schools in the United States Implement to Prevent Violence in Schools?
Statement of the problem
The recent upswing in high-profile violent incidents in the United States has focused increasing attention on the causes of this public health threat and what types of response are most appropriate. The debate over the most appropriate responses to increased violence in American society has also extended to the nation’s schools. Although it has always been present to some extent, violence has become a major problem in the nation’s schools in recent years (Kelly, 2010; Killam & Roland, 2014). While the potential for enhanced awareness of the problem and improved reporting mechanisms may account for some of the reported increase in school violence in recent years (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), the research that follows will clearly show that any level of violence in the schools can be enormously harmful to students and…
Cornell, Dewey; Limber, Susan P. (2015). Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. American Psychologist. 70(4), 333-343.
his article focuses on the legal circumscriptions for counteracting the effects of bullying and the very instances of this unfortunate phenomenon. From a legal perspective, the right to endure an existence bereft of bullying is something which is only granted within the context of civil rights. Moreover, the authors of this document determine that such rights generally require individuals to fit into categories protected by civil rights such as belonging to a historic minority group, having a disability or experiencing religious or gender-based persecution. It is concerned with establishing changes in basic laws to prevent instances of bullying that do not apply to the aforementioned categorizations.
Peets, K.; Poyhonen, V.; Juvonen, J.; Salmivalli, C. (2015). Classroom norms of bullying alter the degree to which children defend in response to…
This source stratifies the effects of anti-bullying programs into three different codifications including a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional one. Within this article, the authors conduct original research to determine the efficacy of utilizing anti-bullying approaches that focus on cognitive-behavior and that which focuses on just behavior. The findings indicate that the order in which these two anti-bullying programs are implemented is of immense importance, and that utilizing the cognitive-behavior approach subsequent to utilizing the one focusing on just behavior is more effective in redressing negative emotions. Still, both programs were able to decrease dysfunctional cognitions regarding bullying.
Turner, H. A.; Finkelhor, D.; Shattuck, A.; Hamby, S.; Mitchell, K. (2015). Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes. School Psychology Quarterly. 30(3), 366-384.
This study was of extreme interest in that it contextualized the phenomenon of bullying beyond simply representing physical, psychological, cognitive and emotional effects of an inherent power imbalance between the bully and its victims. Instead, it utilized empirical evidence based on qualitative interviews with both students and parents about the effect of victimization as it pertained to sex, weapons, internet use, and injury. The study found that the most profound ways that victims were effected had to do with these latter reasons, and not just the conventional power imbalance associated with bullying. The implications are that there is much more at stake when a student is victimized by a bully.
Calgary Public School Board
Models of Consultation and Collaboration
hat model of consultation and collaboration am I going to use -- and why? I am employing a combination of approaches to the issues confronting teachers when it comes to illiam Perry and Janna Small. The model devised by Idol, Nevin, Paolucci-hitcomb (INP) (referred to as the "Collaborative Consultation Model"), was specifically designed to help " . . . learners who may be at risk for school failure," learners in "remedial programs," learners who receive "supportive speech and language instruction" (Idol, et al., 1995). In particular, the INP model has proven to be successful for teachers who have "special needs students in their classrooms" (Idol, 348).
Also, I will use the two models employed by the Iowa Department of Education since 2009 -- co-teaching and collaborative consultation.
hat factors have I considered in my decision? As the model by INP puts…
Council for Exceptional Children. (2008). Ethical Principles and Professional Practice Standards
for Special Educators. Special Education Professional Ethical Principles. Retrieved February
16, 2017, from https://www.cec.sped.org .
Crowley, A.A., and Sabatelli, R. M. (2008). Collaborative Childcare Health Consultation: A
"Studies show that most bullies do not engage in belittling or violent behavior in order to hide a lack of self-esteem. In most cases, the bully is confident and possess high self-esteem….he has a need to dominate others…" (Marr, 2003, p. 1)
Bullying has become a serious problem in schools, more serious than in the past because children can now bully over the Internet in addition to the bullying they can do at school. There are tools parents and teachers can use to teach children how to avoid a bully, and even how to fight back if needed. The problem will likely never go away completely because there will always be children who misbehave in a belligerent way. But public awareness is an important step to take, and a second important step is to have parents work with their kids on how do deal with bullying, if they have…
Barry, Dan. (2008). A Boy the Bullies Love to Beat Up, Repeatedly. My Bully. Retrieved Nov.
17, 2010, from http://www.mybully.org/?p=31#more-31 .
Ferrell-Smith, Finessa. (2009). Tackling the Schoolyard Bully: Combining Policy Making
With Prevention. National Conference of State Legislators / Issues & Research. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.ncsl.org .
Pretraining: Before implementing the actual intervention method, the classroom teacher will conduct two 20 minute group instruction sessions designed how to teach the students to report their peers prosocial behaviors as well as general positive variables that have been observed on the part of their peers. Emphasis will be placed on the fact that all students of the class have to be involved. The teacher will allow the students to select their desired reward as long as this were feasible and practical and will ensure that unanimous approval and interest is evidenced in desired reward. A cumulative goal (e.g. 120 tootles) too will be unanimously decided on. The teacher will ascertain that all students understand the elements and conditions of 'tootling', that all agree to be involved, and that questions, if any, are satisfactorily addressed and answered. Students will be encouraged to provide examples of instances that can be mentioned…
Anderson, C.M., & Kincaid, D. (2005). Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: School wide positive behavior support. The Behavior Analyst, 28(1), 49 -- 63.
Cashwell, T.H., Skinner, C.H., & Smith, E.S. (2001). Increasing second-grade students' reports of peers prosocial behaviors via direct instruction, group reinforcement, and progress feedback: A replication and extension. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 161 -- 175.
Cihak, D., Kirk, E., & Boon, R. (2009) Effects of Classwide Positive Peer "Tootling" to Reduce the Disruptive Classroom Behaviors of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities J. Behav Educ 18:267 -- 278
Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guadino, D., & Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73, 288 -- 310.
Long-Term Effects of Bullying
The issue of bullying has garnered increasing publicity in the media, as it is more widely acknowledged to be a serious problem and is not just a matter of 'boys being boys' or 'girls being girls.' A number of shocking cases of students who committed suicide as a result of being bullied motivated President Barak Obama to create a federal task force on the subject which cumulated in the first National Bullying Summit in August 2010. The purpose of the summit was to gather information to understand how to prevent bullying; to find better ways to intervene when it is taking place; and help students recover from the emotional damage caused by bullying.
Current existing research suggests that victims of bullying are more apt to suffer from depression and social isolation (Farrington, Loeber, Stallings, & Ttofi, 2011; Klomek, Marrocco, Kleinman, Schonfeld, & Gould, 200; Nansel et…
72% of college students self-identified as the targets of bullying during their K-12 years (Chapell, Hasselman, Kitchin, Lomon, MacIver, & Sarulla 2006). College health clinicians must be aware of long-term effects of bullying to be able to anticipate any mental health issues which arise during the transition of adolescents from high school to college (Jantzer, Hoover, & Narloch 2006). The current study will contribute to the existing literature on the phenomenon by specifically focusing on the long-term aftereffects of bullying on young adults. Social and psychological disturbances that manifest themselves during the college years and afterward must be fully comprehended by clinicians and researchers to better design both remedies and treatments (Ireland & Power, 2004; Schafer et al., 2004; Duffy & Nesdale, 2009).
Curtailing bullying and remedying its aftereffects remains an issue for schools and workplaces (O'Connell, Calvert, & Watson 2007). Bullying not a discrete problem: its can continue to haunt the victims many years later (Losel et al. 2012). Bullied college students may be inhibited in their professional and personal aspirations as a result of the psychological trauma of bullying and this victimization can continue to affect them later in life (Kshirsager, et al. 2007). This study will specifically explore freshman college students' perceptions of the long-term effects of bullying and perceptions of the severity of bullying, stratifying the opinions by gender and ethnicity. It will also seek to determine the aftereffects of being a bully and if this leads to dating or marital violence or a greater likelihood of participating in workplace harassment (Currie & Spatz Widom 2010; Farrington, Trofi & Losel 2011).
Private vs. Public Schools
Many parents find themselves caught in a dilemma when trying to decide on which choice of education to take for their children. They ask themselves whether to take their children to private schools or public schools. For a parent to choose the ideal school for their children they always have to take into consideration all the available options. They consider things like the cost of the school, how much time they will invest as a parent, the social impact that the school have on their children based on the specific need of their children as well as the family.
Private schools offer the best option for the parent who is in need of better and quality education for their children. Private schools have a nearly perfect graduation rates which market them a great deal. Their performance is better as compared to the public schools. This is…
Mary Elizabeth, (2012). "Public Schools vs. Private Schools."Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-schools-vs . -- private-schools.html
Parents For Better Education America (2011). "What Every Parent Should Know About Private Schools vs. Public Schools," ASIN: B004R9QKL8. Binding: Kindle Edition. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://education.mitrasites.com/public-education-vs.-private-education.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2010). Private School Facts. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/facts.html
The Council for American Private Education. (2003). Academic Performance 2003. Accessed May 10, 2012 from http://www.capenet.org/Outlook/Out9-03.html#Story5
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
Texas House Bill (HB304) - Relating civil liability bullying a child
1. Title of the Suggested Bill
Texas State’s ‘anti-bullying’ house bill possesses the following key features. Its title appropriately alludes to the protection of children’s rights (CAIR Texas, 2017). If enacted, the law would:
a. Offer tools to educational institutions: This bill would authorize educational institutions to examine cases of bullying outside of school, develop a tip line that maintains anonymity, and enable greater educational institution latitude in penalizing pupils who engage in major cyber bullying (e.g., urging a child to kill him/herself).
b. Reduce the number of victims: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates reveal suicide to be the second main cause of adolescent deaths.
c. Offer tools to law enforcers: Law enforcers can, by means of summonses, increasingly expose anonymous users on social media websites who post or convey intimidating messages. The law will render e-bullying and…
" (Mattaini and McGuire, 2006)
Results reported on the Olweus program for Scandinavia are as follows:
(1) impressive: reductions of 50% or more in bullying problems, with reductions increasing over time -- at least for 2 years;
(2) reductions in other forms of antisocial behavior; and reported improvements in school climate. Several replications support the utility of the approach (U.S. Surgeon General, 2001 in: Mattaini and McGuire, 2006).
Summary and Conclusion
The Olweus program is cited in the literature as being the only bullying prevention and intervention program that has produced empirical results and that has been replicated in studies. Furthermore, the Olweus program is the only bullying prevention program that has received recognition as a national model and a lueprint Violence Prevention Program by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Olweus program follows federal requirements in its involvement of all actors…
Boyle, D.J. (2005) Youth Bullying: Incidence, Impact and Interventions. Journal of the New Jersey Psychological Association, 55(3), 22-24. Online available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/vinjweb/publications/articles/bullying.pdf
Lead & Manage My School: Exploring the Nature and Prevention of Bullying (2009) Federal Criteria for Identifying Effective Programs. U.S. Department of Education. Online available at: http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/training/bullying/bullying_pg22.html
Mattaini, Mark a. And McGuire, Melissa S. (2006) Behavioral Strategies for Constructing Nonviolent Cultures with Youth. Behavior Modification. Vol. 30 No.2 March 2006. Sage Productions. Online available at: http://njbullying.org/documents/behavstratmattainimaguire3-06.pdf
Exploring the Nature and Prevention of Bullying (2009) Day 3 -- Bullying Prevention Strategies. Leading & Manage My School. U.S. Department of Education. Online available at: http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/training/bullying/bullying_pg17.html
Practice & Critical Thinking
Harassment & Bullying in the Workplace
Many people are familiar with bullying in schools and other places where children and young adults spend time, but workplaces are becoming increasingly toxic places where bullies feel they can harass and intimidate other workers (Barnes, 2012). Now that bullying problems have begun to take place in the workplace so frequently, the issue is coming to light and more must be done about it. A recent bullying situation took place at my workplace, but I was not the one being bullied. Unfortunately, the person on the receiving end of the bullying is not good at standing up for herself, so she gets bullied quite a bit. She is overweight, which contributes to the jokes and giggles that happen around her. She is a very kind and generous person, though, and it is a shame the other workers fail to see…
Barnes, Patricia G. (2012), "Surviving Bullies, Queen Bees & Psychopaths in the Workplace." NY: Patricia G. Barnes.
Bell, Arthur H. (2005). You Can't Talk to Me That Way: Stopping Toxic Language in the Workplace. NY: Career Press -- New Page Books.
Field, E.M. (2010). Bully Blocking at Work: A Self-Help Guide for Employees and Managers. AU: Australian Academic Press.
Hornstein, Harvey A. (1996). Brutal Bosses and their Prey: How to Identify and Overcome Abuse in the Workplace. NY: Riverhead Trade.
Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Students
It is important that all children feel safe in the school environment. The majority of waking hours are spent at school, so it must be ensured that students feel comfortable, safe, secure, and supported while at school. This is especially the case for lesbian and gay students, who face several challenges in regards to discrimination, self-esteem, and fitting in with other students. It is the responsibility of teachers and school administrators to address this issue and devise strategies for ensuring that lesbian and gay students are appropriately supported in the school environment.
Lesbian and gay students often feel isolated, alienated, and left out at school (Youth Pride, 1997). These feelings of isolation result in several troubling outcomes. Suicide rates among lesbian and gay students are high, with studies indicating that gay and lesbian students are up to three times more likely to attempt…
Bullying.org (2011). Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.bullying.org .
Lambda Legal (2010). Getting down to basics: tools to support LGBTQ youth in care. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://lambdalegal.org/take-action/tool-kits/getting-down-to-basics .
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2011). Public policy and government affairs. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.ngltf.org/our_work/public_policy .
Schwartz, R. (2011). GLSEN lauds bipartisan introduction of safe schools improvement act (S.506) in senate. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2702.html?state=policy&type=policy .
They establish identities or are confused about what roles to play. Additionally, Cherry (2011) states that child must have a conscious sense of self that is developed through social interaction. A child's ego identity is constantly evolving as he or she acquires new experiences and information. Processing these new experiences and information embodies and shapes one's sense of self.
According to Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development (Berger, 2010), thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions. In turn, these factors have a direct correlation to the sense of self that motivates competence, positive behaviors, and actions. If a void occurs in developing a sense of self relative to others, he or she will have psychological barriers that are translated into a defense mechanism to conceal one's lack of motivation, fear of failure, and social dysfunction (Berger, 2010). Lowering the affective filters are critical to foster social development…
Berger, S. (2010). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers
Cherry, K. (2011). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
This debate does not include the fact that peer pressure in many public schools causes families to spend much more on "street clothes" so that their kids are not embarrassed or bullied because they do not have the latest fashions. (a single pair of the least expensive GAP girl's jeans can run $30 -- two to three times the cost of uniform pants or skirt). It seems clear that the argument that public school uniforms are more expensive may be difficult to prove.
The second, and most often used, argument against school uniforms is that they stifle self-expression and inhibit individuality. These are normally arguments from parents of children who have not yet participated in a school uniform policy. Most parents, in my research, who have a child who goes to a public school with a uniform policy say that their child expresses their individuality and self-expression in many other…
Educationbug.org. "Public SChool Uniform Statistics." 2010. educationbug.org. 17 March 2010 .
LBUSD. "School Uniform Fact Sheet." 2010. Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD). 17 March 2010 .
This polarization of different groups is likely to carry over into the classroom: socio-economic disadvantages often translate into economic disadvantages. If one population is more represented in higher-level classes this can foster prejudice. High-performing minority students may feel uncomfortable if they make up an even slimmer majority in their honors and AP classes.
The segregation in the business indicates how on an adult level there is even more community division. Students are to some extent 'forced' to be in a diverse environment in public schools while adults are not compelled to do so and the shopping throughout the city exhibited relatively homogenous patterns between the dominant composition of the neighborhoods, the owners of the shop, and the shoppers.
However, the high levels of education in the community and the changing population suggest that a more diverse and multicultural perspective is possible, provided there is greater political will within the school…
La Casita. (2013). Yelp. Retrieved:
LOTE. (2013). Pearland High School. Retrieved:
No public school in the United States is so perfectly administered that is cannot be improved. Dunn School in Trenton, New Jersey, is certainly not close to being perfect but there are signs that the school is improving. A school improvement plan has been approved and enabled and it includes: a) effective instruction; b) promotion of a positive school climate and culture; and c) effective community and family empowerment. The last two goals could become pivotal to the future of the school, if they are approached with solid background thought and good communication between the school leadership, the community, and families.
Promoting a positive school environment & involving the community
According to the ISLLC Standards #1 and #2 emphasize the need to create a "widely shared vision for learning" and to develop a "school culture and instructional program" that promotes learning while helping the staff become more professional.…
ISLLC Standards. (2012). School Leadership Briefing / Ideas, Insights, and Inspiration for Professional Growth. Retrieved November 5, 2013, from http://www.schoolbriefing.com.
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Social-Emotional Environment. Retrieved November
5, 2013, from http://www.edu.gov.
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
41). Children who are bullied have less chance of meeting their academic potential and consequently my not receive the education they need for later success in life.
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
What is the effect of bullying on academic achievement?
What is the effect of bullying on the emotional stability of the victim?
What is the effect of current prevention and intervention programs on bullying behavior?
The purpose of this literature review was to develop the background and statistical information required to help answer the above-stated research questions. The focus of the literature review will relate first to the general aspects of the problem under consideration, followed by an increasingly specific focus on the problem as at relates to the faculty and students at Arthur County Schools in Arthur, Nebraska. In this regard, Gratton and Jones (2003) emphasize…
Many students are not experiencing safe environments. The sense of safety for many children is being threatened by the bully/victim dyad. Research on bullying has come to the forefront with national media coverage of violent incidences in schools. It is the purpose of this literature review to investigate prior research and information that has been accumulated concerning victimization and bully prevention programs. The focus is on the victim regarding emotional stability and academic achievement as well as looking at the effectiveness of present bully prevention programs within the United States.
There are different degrees and types of bullying, and all of them can have an adverse effect on academic achievement. "Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior with an imbalance of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes distress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person(s)" (Atlas & Pepler, 1998, p.86).
Students can become the victim of direct bullying, a term that describes open attacks on the victim (i.e., kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, threatening and intimidating); by contrast, indirect bullying describes behaviors that promote the social isolation, ostracism, or exclusion of the intended victim, as well as rumors and gossip: "Indirect bullying involves manipulating the social status of an individual within his or her peer group by changing the way others perceive and respond to the individual" (Atlas & Pepler, 1998. p.86). Not surprisingly, then, students that become victims of bullying in school are not able to freely pursue their academic goals compared
Counter Acting Bullying Effects
The purpose of this project is to raise awareness about the issuing of bullying as it takes place in school facilities and during school related activities. Some research indicates this phenomenon is "normative" (Peets et al., 2015, p. 913). Additionally, the project will provide measures to both reduce the rate of incidence of bullying in such settings, and to reduce the severity of bullying. Ideally, the full implementation of this project will eradicate bullying, and help to create a school and school-related environment which is much more peaceful and conducive to learning and educated. In terms of raising awareness, this project will target all members of the school community including administrators, employees, instructors, students, parents, and any relevant members of the surrounding community.
The rationale for this project is relatively simple. Bullying is something that has occurred for nearly as long as formal attempts at organized…
Cornell, Dewey; Limber, Susan P. (2015). Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. American Psychologist. 70(4), 333-343.
Peets, K.; Poyhonen, V.; Juvonen, J.; Salmivalli, C. (2015). Classroom norms of bullying alter the degree to which children defend in response to their affective empathy and power. Developmental Psychology. 51(7), 913-920.
Trip, S.; Bora, C.; Sipos-Gug, S.; Tocai, I.; Gradinger, P.; Yanagida, T.; Strohmeier, D. (2015). Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(4), 732-740.
Turner, H. A.; Finkelhor, D.; Shattuck, A.; Hamby, S.; Mitchell, K. (2015). Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes. School Psychology Quarterly. 30(3), 366-384.
One of the most critical facets of actually implementing this project and seeing it through to completion pertained to the cooperation I obtained from both the principal and the teachers at this particular learning institution. The principal gave his permission to allow the anti-bullying campaign be the focus of Thursday morning's assembly. As such, we were tasked with posting all of the signage during the preceding days in the week so that there would be visual reinforcements for the assembly, and so students would be already exposed to some of the anti-bullying rhetoric on Thursday.
I was pleased (and perhaps a little surprised) at the degree of cooperation I received from the other educators at this school. More than a few of them lauded me for taking a proactive stance to counteracting bullying and enforcing classroom management, which is one of the central concepts in P.R.A.I.S.E. that wanted…
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
actions from the perspective of the principal and determine the proper courses of action dealing with issues of student harassment and ethical issues related to this topic.
It is necessary to investigate Julia's claim regarding the threatening email she received. The tone of the harassment is very serious and demonstrates a problem within the school. Proper school procedures should be followed in this case which involves interviewing all parties involved including parents, Julia, and those students in the library. The violent nature of the threat requires a response in this case.
If the investigation revealed that the threat to Julia was created by a known student at home through his computer, the nature of the threat creates a different dynamic because the offense did not necessarily occur on campus. The Supreme Court of the United States is currently weighing the legality of this issue in Elonis v United States and…
Lithwick, D. (2014). Are Facebook Threats Real? Slate, 16 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2014/06/elonis_v_united_states_supreme_court_will_hear_the_facebook_speech_case.2.html
New York City Department of Education. Regulation of The Chancellor, A-832. Student to Student Discrimination, Harrassment, Intimidation and Bullying. 21 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/68542AE0-CA99-4C8B-A31B-A1E96FEC7633/0/A832.pdf
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). inesburg, Ohio. New York: B.. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469.
Duffy, Jim, Stacey areham, and Margaret alsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353.
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162.
Packman, Jill, illiam J. Lepkowski, Christian C. Overton, and Marlowe Smaby. "e're Not Gonna Take it: A Student Driven Anti-Bullying Approach." Education 125.4 (2005): 546+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009846899.
"Parents Should Speak Up about School Problems." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 5 Nov. 2007: A9. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023891271.
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). Winesburg, Ohio. New York: B.W. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469 .
Duffy, Jim, Stacey Wareham, and Margaret Walsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353 .
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162 .
Threat ssessments and Crisis Interventions in the Public Schools
llen, M. & Burt, K. (2002). School counselors' preparation for and participation in crisis intervention. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 96-101.
uthors cite the increasing number of crisis situations being experienced in the nation's public schools and describe the trauma, cognitive dissonance and loss of a sense of security that can adversely affect all students and teachers who experience these types of events, even when they are resolved safely. While the list of crisis situation types is virtually infinite in public school settings, some of the more common types of crises that have been experienced in the public schools in the past include natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and earthquakes) as well as anthropogenic sources including school shootings, suicide, student or teacher deaths, sexual and physical abuse, and gang-related activities. Fires in the schools may be either natural or manmade.…
A number of states implemented crisis response planning requirements following the shootings at Colorado's Columbine High School in April 1999. Authors note, though, that notwithstanding the increase in high-profile crisis situations in the nation's public schools such as school shooting, teachers will be more likely to have to respond to crisis situations that involve child abuse and neglect, emotional abuse or bullying on a more frequent basis. Likewise, even events that occur outside the school doors such as the death or injury of a family member, the divorce of parents or an abusive home environment can have an adverse effect on students while they are in school. Finally, for schools that do not already have a crisis intervention plan in place, authors recommend forming a task force to develop one at the earliest opportunity.
Pascopella, A. (2008, January). Threat assessment plans: Every district needs an action plan for averting violence. District Administration, 44(1), 34-37.
Authors cites the ongoing need for assessing threats in the nation's public school districts and recommends that all district administrators secure a copy of the guide to managing threat situations and creating safe school environments published collaboratively by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service. In fact, the guide is based on the U.S. Secret Service's plans for protecting the President of the United States from various threats. Although every school district is unique, the types of threats that can occur share some commonalities that make threat assessment an overarching priority. While all public school districts are required to have emergency management plans in place in the event of natural disasters, there is no corresponding requirement for having threat assessment plans in place. Therefore, district administrators must take the lead in creating an organizational culture that places a high priority on threat assessment in order to ensure that all stakeholders are aware of the problem and understand how to respond when threats materialize.
EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY
Instrument to be used
Future use of study results
Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…
Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.
Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.
VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.
Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
Gangs in Public School
Many schools especially in urban and suburban areas continue to register gang-related activities within their premises and involving their students. This study appreciates the dangers associated with such gangs to the schools and other stakeholders around them. Various laws and regulation have been passed in different states in the U.S. allow parents to withdraw their children from certain public schools. Schools reputed for gang-related problems stand to lose students. This paper provides the scope of action steps in which schools take to intervene, prevent, and suppress the scope of violent gang activity while establishing crisis response plans. The strategies are developed to address potential actions of school violence including gang activity.
Gang members bring in their attitudes, behaviors, and conflicts to the school compounds. The dangerous gang issues and activities of a given community take place within local schools. Gang members take on each other within…
Branch, C., (2013). Adolescent Gangs: Old Issues, New Approaches. New York: Routledge.
Garot, R. (2010). Who You Claim: Performing Gang Identity in School and on the Streets. NYU Press
Kinnear, K.L. (2009). Gangs: A Reference Handbook. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Macnab, N. (2012). Uncle Sam's Schoolhouse: Bullying, Predators, and Students. New York: Dog Ear Publishing