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In suburban areas, on the other hand, the economic opportunities are diverse and the population is less dense. Here parents are motivated to educate their child and the child gets higher individual attention from the teachers than those in the urban areas where population density is very high (Broomhall and Johnson, 1994; and Hanson and Ginsburg, 1988). Since educational aspirations of parents, students and teachers differ by population density and location; therefore, achievement gap differs by population density and location.
It is clear to some scholars that educational aspirations of parents, students and teachers remain the most important determinant of whether and how much a student achieves (Alexander, Eckland, & Griffin, 1975; Astin & Karabel, 1975; Chapman, 1981; Conklin & Dailey, 1981; Geoffrey, 1998; Litten, 1982). For instance, Astin and Karabel (1975) have conducted a research and the regression analyses indicate that measured academic ability is a more powerful predictor…
Alexander, K.L., Eckland, B.K., & Griffin, L.J. (1975). The Wisconsin model of socioeconomic achievement: A replication. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 324-342.
Astin, a.W., & Karabel, J. (1975). Social class, academic ability, and college "quality." Social Forces, 53(3), 381-398.
Azzam, a.M. (2005). The funding gap. Educational Leadership, 93.
Berk, L.E. (2000). Child Development (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 23-38.
Most states have provisions somewhat similar to that of the NCLB, where funding to districts and specific institutions is specifically allocated and comes with certain requirements (Galvin & obins 2000; U.S. DOE 2009). Advantages of receiving funding at the state level are increased localization and attention to differences in districts (U.S. DOE 2009). Disadvantages, however, are that the state is subject to even more extreme budgetary and taxation fluctuations, leading to uncertain funding year-to-year (Galvin & obbins 2000).
Supplementing vs. Supplanting
One of the major requirements of both federal and much state funding is that the dollars obtained through these sources must supplement existing programs and funding and cannot simply supplant them (UD DOE 2009; NCLB 2002). A simplified hypothetical example provides what is perhaps the best illustration of this policy. Assume that federal funds are obtained for the purposes of training teachers, but the school and/or district that is…
Galvin, P. & Robins, H. (2000). "State education finance: Utah." Accessed 11 October 2009. http://nces.ed.gov/edfin/pdf/StFinance/utah.pdf
Morris, a. (2009). "No Child Left Behind Funding Gets Big Increase in House Stimulus Bill." Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.civilrights.org/archives/2009/02/045-nclb-funding.html
NCLB. (2002). Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/index.html
US Dept. Of Education. (2009). Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.ed.gov/index.jhtml?src=a
LCFF Position Statement
School funding structure and allocation is something that is very controversial. It summons discussions and specters of class warfare, the haves vs. The have-not's equity in opportunity, equity in outcomes and many other hot-button topics in the political, cultural and public lexicons. The current school funding structure in the state of California is to be jettisoned in favor of the new Local Control Funding Formula, whereby funding for specific initiatives and goals is gotten rid of in favor of block grants of funds that are based on the situation and conditions of the school district in question. While no single funding structure will ever be perfect, especially for a state like California, treating school systems based on overall tax bases and resources is far better than allowing pet projects in individual districts to get special treatment for specific monies.
It has been known and pontificated about…
CDE. (2014, April 2). LCFF Frequently Asked Questions. - Local Control Funding
Formula (CA Dept of Education). Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/aa/lc/lcfffaq.asp#FC
CalWatchdog. (2013, March 27). Class warfare hits CA K-12 education | CalWatchDog.
CalWatchDog. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://calwatchdog.com/2013/03/27/class-warfare-hits-ca-k-12-education/
Given the diverse needs and universal education needs of students with exceptionalities, what is one of the most significant fiduciary responsibilities of the school leader? Why are these significant?
It is important to note, from the onset, that the school leader oversees not only student placement, but also staff assignment and management of the education al programs of schools. In general, school leaders in a special education setting have a duty to act in the best interests of students with exceptionalities. Specifically, they should strive to set up learning opportunities that are accommodative for students with special needs.
Exceptional students are largely heterogeneous -- meaning that their education needs vary significantly. However, the education goals of such students need not vary from those of other children (Tomlinson, 2011). In that regard, therefore, school leaders ought to put in place educational structures as well as conditions that avail optimal…
Baker, B.D., Sciarra, D.G. & Farrie, D. (2010). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card. Retrieved from http://www.schoolfundingfairness.org/National_Report_Card.pdf
Guin, k., Gross, B., Deburgomaster, S. & Roza, M. (2007). Do Districts Fund Schools Fairy? Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/do-districts-fund-schools-fairly/
Tomlinson, S. (2011). A Sociology of Special Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
The trial lasted seven months and Justice Leland Degrasse rendered his decision, 719 N.Y.S.2d 475 on January 10, 2001, in favor of plaintiffs and ordered the state to ensure that all public schools provide the opportunity for a sound basic education to their students." (Hunter, 2004) Entered, as part of this decision was a "costing-out study as the threshold task in developing a new school funding system." (Hunter, 2004) the intermediate-levels appeals court overturned the decision of the trial-court and made the claim that the New York State Constitution required only an eighth-grade education. The decision was appealed by the Plaintiff and the Court of Appeals sent down its decision (CFE II) which ruled for the favor of the plaintiff and New York State was given until the 30th July 2004 to: (1) make determination of the cost of the provision of a sound basic education; (2) fund these costs…
Buckley, Jack (2004) Department of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation. Boston College. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/teacherretention.cfm
New York (2007) Access Litigation Recent Developments. School Funding.
Hunter, M.H. (2004) Estimating the Additional Cost of Providing an Adequate Education - New York State Fact Sheet. 2004 April 28. Prepared for New York State Board of Regents and New York State Education Department.
Keman, Hans (1984) Politics, Policies and Consequences: A Cross-national Analysis of Public Policy Formation in Advanced Capitalist Democracies (1967-1984) European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 12 Issue 2,-Page 147. July 1984.
It moves things forward, but by inches, not by yards."
Again, using the acquisition and retention of "adequate" and competent teachers is an excellent example of the inadequacy of the current system -- even after the Williams settlement -- simply because the system, nor the funds have been adjusted to provide the level of education required in the schools. For instance, again according to Schrag:
it doesn't, however, contain any major incentives to attract and retain qualified teachers in impacted schools: There are no provisions for more preparation time, or smaller classes or the additional support personnel - counselors, reading specialists, librarians, vice principals - that schools and teachers serving disadvantaged students especially need (Schrag, 2004).
Although, as some might suggest, many teachers are willing to dedicate themselves on principle to providing adequate (or even above-adequate) education for their students even in the most difficult of situations, one has to…
Dictionary.com. (2004). Definition of Equity. Retrieved on October 14, 2004, from, http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=equity&r=67
Garrett, Kristi. (2003). "The Price of Success: The discussion about pricing a public education takes a noteworthy turn from equity to adequacy." California School Boards Association Magazine. Retrieved on October 14, 2004, from, http://www.csba.org/csmag/Summer2003/csMagStoryTemplate.cfm?id=39
Ryan, Howard. (2002). "Targeting Proposition 13 and Saving California." Web site. Retrieved on October 14, 2004, from, http://www.howardryan.net/prop13.htm
Schrag, Peter. (2004). "Williams deal - Better California schools by inches." Sacramento Bee. Aug. 18. Retrieved on October 14, 2004, from, http://www.sacbee.com/content/politics/columns/schrag/story/10417928p-11337563c.html
This paper compares and contrasts the school funding approaches of the state of Illinois and the District of Columbia. It shows that in Illinois there is a far greater problem of how to achieve a more equitable distribution of funds, though the state is currently setting a course to try to make this happen with its evidence-based model funding formula recently passed this year. In DC on the other hand, a foundation formula is used to disperse funds equitably throughout the District and private investment is obtained to help develop programs that can assist in closing the achievement gap. DC is thus better structured and its school funding approach better supported to achieve success over the long run.
Keywords: school funding, dc, Illinois, education
School Funding Investigation:
Comparing and Contrasting Illinois and Washington, D.C.
Funding for schools is a controversial topic for many mainly because of the lack…
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
Her point is to get support for her views, and she did, because three months after she wrote this piece there was a rally at the State Capitol in Austin where 5,000 people called for school choice in front of the Capitol building. Therefore, her words helped people make up their minds and seek action from their legislators. However, she failed to convince the legislators, who did not even address school choice during the 2007 legislative session (Editors). Either this means that the legislators are not listening to the will of the people, or that her rhetoric failed to gain their support.
The media has certainly picked up this issue, and it is an issue all around the country, not just in Texas. The Milwaukee school district has had a voucher system like this for over sixteen years, and it has proven to be a money saving plan for taxpayers,…
Editors. "School Choice Legislation." CEOAustin.org. 2008. 4 May 2009.
Storey, Jamie. "The Dropout Drain: How Dropouts -- Not School Choice -- Take Money From Public Schools." Texas Public Policy Foundation. 2007. 4 May 2009.
Public School Funding
ith reports on the lower standardized test scores among the nation's students, policy makers are once again turning their attention to the issue of education reform. For many educators, one of the culprits behind this is not only the dearth of money spent on public education. Rather, the available funding is disbursed unequally, benefiting the already more affluent school districts.
This paper examines the inequity that exists in funding public school education.
The first part of this paper looks at examples of this unequal funding throughout the country. The next part of the paper then looks at the various reasons for these disparities, from the government level to the lack of public support.
In the conclusion, this paper argues that there remains a strong need to increase public support for education funding, and to re-work the current formula used by states to determine how school funds are…
Brooks, Charles. 2002. "Poor and minority districts get thousands less per student." New York Amsterdam News. August 15.
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. 1998. The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
McDermott, Kathryn. 1999. Controlling Public Education: Localism vs. Equity. Lawrenc: University Press of Kansas.
Reed, Douglas. 2001. "Not in My Schoolyard: Localism and Public Opposition to Funding Schools Equally." Social Science Quarterly. March.
The NCLB Act (2002) stresses the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics of performance. The Open Group (2003) in defining the need for integration says that the data captured in SIF "are subsequently moved through state information systems to be used.
Federal, state and local dependence on the quality and availability of education data to inform decision-making has never been higher as funding to the school level based on NCLB benchmarks and measure adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements" (Open Group 2003).
All of these many requirements for reporting the performance of learning programs upward through district, municipal, and state and federal levels is to benchmark the effectiveness of teaching programs, adherence to and compliance with NCLB measures of success, and ultimately to define which schools will continue to receive state and federal funding for their programs, or conversely, those schools that will be audited as a result of…
NCLB (2002) - the White House Fact Sheet: No Child Left Behind Act. White House press announcement. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108.html
Open Group (2003) - White paper titled, "The SIF Plan: Advance Education through Interoperability." Published November, 2002. Updated April, 2003. San Francisco, CA. Accessed from the Internet on August 11, 2007 from location: http://www.opengroup.org/comm/case-studies/SIF-casestudy.pdf
SIF Architecture (2007) - Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Association. Presentation of the architectural elements of the SIF standard. Titled "SIF NCLB State Architecture and Community of Practice" accessed on August 12, 2007 from location: http://sif.edreform.net/download/102/1-6%20SIF%20NCLB%20State%20CoP.ppt
SIF (2007) - Why Interoperability. Description of the Zone integration server in the SIF networking topology. Schools Interoperability Framework Association website content. Accessed from the Internet on August 12, 2007 from location:
He also asserts that government participation in the arts beyond its role as a consumer can pose significant hindrances to the artistic processes. He claims that politics tends to "seek stability, compromise, and consensus," and as a result avoids supporting art that may "offend majority opinion or go over its head" (38). The market, on the other hand, has "liberated artists…from the potential tyranny of mainstream market taste" (23).
Is Government Funding Necessary or Appropriate?
There are many who disagree with Cowen, claiming that public funding for the arts is crucial to maintaining a vibrant, diverse, and forward-thinking creative community. These arguments are generally characterized by the theory that, while art as a market commodity is a healthy and valuable part of the artistic culture, there must also be a forum for art as a public good. This forum cannot be trusted to the market, which may or may not…
Becker, Howard. 1982. Art Worlds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Cowen, Tyler. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jenkins, Henry. 2006. Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.
McChesney, Robert. 2004. The Problem of the Media. New York" Monthly Review Press.
Another means for supporting and financing the education of deaf people is through the promotion of a financial package meant to improve the resources available to special schools and teachers. In this sense, schools in Great Britain for instance receive special funds for training their teachers to reach British Sign Language level 3 (Scottish Council on Deafness, n.d.), to become more aware of the special needs such persons have in the society and the academic environment. At the same time, the recruitment of already trained personal is fully funded in order to have the best teachers available for these special schools.
In theory, these projects are worth mentioning and offer a positive perspective on the issues concerning deaf people. However, not all children or grownups can benefit from such funding possibilities. In the education area, there are only specialized agencies which commit their funds to providing financial support to special…
National Foundation for the Deaf - Deaf Education Scholarship. (2006). New Zeeland Culture Online. Retrieved 18 Jan. 2008, at http://www.nzlive.com/en/funding/800437/B
Scottish Council on Deafness. (n.d.) Education and training. Access to communication and language, audiology, employment, health, social work and social care. Retrieved 18 Jan, at http://www.scod.org.uk/pdf/Manifesto2007.pdf
Schools in the 21st century are very different from the one-room schoolhouses that once dotted the American landscape. Today a single school can house thousands of students at various grade levels and many schools integrate the latest technologies into their curriculums. With this being understood, it will be interesting to see how school curriculum will change in the future. The purpose of this discussion is to examine how schools will change in the future as it pertains to technology. The discussion will also focus on the introduction of schools as social anchors, that are both moral and purposeful.
Schools of the future
Indeed technology will continue to play a large role in schools of the future. Educators will continue to incorporate technology into the curriculum. According to Caldwell and Hayward (1998) "schooling at the upper secondary level will become more complex and diverse, with multiple providers; combined with advances made…
Briefing paper on Emerging Issues and Best Practices -- Introduction. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.arc.org/gripp/publicEducation/grippPublicEducPg06.html
Florida Virtual School: The Future of Learning? A Forum Brief -- October 18, 2002. American Youth Policy Forum. Retrieved April 19, 2005 from; http://www.aypf.org/forumbriefs/2002/fb101802.htm
Caldwell, B.J., & Hayward, D.K. (1998). The Future of Schools: Lessons from the Reform of Public Education. London: Falmer Press.
Huskey, B.L., & Wiley, R. (1993, August). Using Public Education Campaigns to Build Community Partnerships. Corrections Today, 55, 154+.
Throughout the nation the American public has clamored for school change and reform. One of the alternatives that has moved to the forefront of the arena is the ability of parents to choose the public school that their children will attend without geographic boundaries and mandates.
Experts continue to debate whether or not school choice ability will force the hand of the public school system to make the desired changes. Some believe that parents having the ability to move their children to the school of their choice will force all schools to improve to compete, while others think it will harm the economically disadvantaged schools with little benefit to the then overcrowded wealthy schools. This paper presents a research proposal that addresses the question of school choice. This might include the choice to choose a different public school, choose to home school, and choose private school or another…
CHESTER E. FINN, JR. & REBECCA L. GAU, New ways of education. Vol. no130, The Public Interest, 01-15-1998.
Gail Russell Chaddock, Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor, Public schools enter a new world of competition., The Christian Science Monitor, 03-30-1999, pp FEATURES,.
Author not available, As home schooling rises, districts fail to meet needs., USA Today, 08-21-2002, pp 09A.
Author not available, What's so liberal about keeping children in dreadful schools?., The Washington Post, 02-23-2003, pp B08.
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
Conant challenged a very old standard with regard to education, as he identified that making decisions about who is given opportunity and who is excluded should be based on merit and ability rather than wealth, privilege and race. (235) His actions and ideals drive the continued utilization of federal student aide, even today, as well as the expansion of scholarship offering, both public and private as his work redefined the determination of who deserves education and who does not. (235-237) in a speech given by Conant he stressed that education in the past had fostered social stratification and in so doing created a potential situation of unrest among those who could not receive it. This Conant warned was the seed of revolution and the only manner in which to change this reality, he warned was through educational opportunity, "the chances of a nonrevolutionary development of our nation in the…
Schools and Society
As the new school years begins, the speech that the teacher gives on back-to-school night illuminates some sensitivity to parents. At the onset of the speech, the teacher thanks the translators that are present, an important component of the evening since the faction of people being spoken to do not have a strong grasp of the English language yet. The translator is a way to allow an open line of communication between the teacher and the parents of the students. Another sensitivity that the teacher demonstrates is the disclosure document that explains the general framework of the classroom and allows insight into the school life that students will foster while away from their parents. The disclosure document is a method to keep the lines of communication opened between the teacher and the parents, and is a tool to keep parents and the teacher to be working together.…
Mendoza, J. (2003). Communicating with parents. Clearinghouse on early education and parenting. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/2003/mendoza03.html
Epstein, J.L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (See pages 34 -- 36 and 407 -- 408. On reserve in the e-library. From the WGU Library click on the "E-Reserves" button, then click on "Teacher Education," "Foundations of Teaching," and "Schools and Society." From the list of articles, click on the "Epstein, Joyce Levy" link.)
School of Public Health
Public Health Admissions Essay
The most logical next phase of my career would be the completion of a degree in Public Health Administration.
A currently hold a BS in Sociology and the diversity that this and my personal history have offered me will lend well to the challenges of a postgraduate degree program. I am goal driven and will succeed, regardless of the difficulty of the task. I have researched the program that is offered by your institution and I believe the curriculum and faculty afforded there will be exactly what I am looking for and exactly what my professional goals need to progress.
The impetuses for my professional goals are strongly rooted in my life history. I am an immigrant from Sierra Leone. The reality of meeting my education goals were at times in my life fortuitous accidents. As a child myself my parents and…
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
Private Public School Similarities and Differences
isk and Benefits in Public and Private Schools
Special Need Students
Teachers Credentials in Private and Public Schools
This research paper focuses on the similarities and differences of private and public school education. It deciphers several truths and realities associated with these two systems. isks and benefits along with teacher's credentials in private and public schools are discussed in detail. Another factor brought to light is the positive role played by ample resources in the betterment of private sector and the loss it has incurred to public sector education system.
Parents always face this query whether they should choose a private school or public schools. They want best for their children and it is a normal perception that private schools are way better than public schools in terms of quality and academic excellence. Although problems exist in both the sectors but due to ample…
Anonymous. American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry. March 2011. 29 January 2013.
-- . PISA. 2 November 2012. 29 January 2012.
Nan, Stein. "Bullying, Harassment and Violence among Students." Radical Teacher (2007): 43-55.
Reese, William J. America's Public Schools: From the Common School to "No Child Left Behind." New York: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
(estructuring California's School Finance System) The requirement of funds that the schools necessitate is also a matter of controversy attracting the attention of courts in California. The ACLU filed a writ petition of Williams et al. Vs. State of California et al. emphasizing that the state fails to meet the obligations in providing all students with basic educational necessities.
The local school districts appearing the law suit of ACLU were charged in the Gov. Davis and the state law suit blaming that the accountability goes to the school authorities rather than the state with regard to adequate provisions. These law suits are seen to have profound impact on the ways the schools are financed in California and the authorities and the ways by which the decisions are affected to. (School Finance Overview) It is left for consideration of the problems by a newly appointed state commission. The commission among others…
Guide to California's School Finance System" (March 2004) Retrieved at http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/articles/article.asp?title=Guide%20to%20California%20School%20Finance%20SystemAccessed on 26 September, 2004 report from California: Proposition 13" New Tax Revolt Digest. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ii781213.html . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
Bell, Tom. (2004) "Fort Bragg schools feel sting of Proposition 13" Blethen Maine Newspapers. Retrieved at http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml. Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California's Proposition 13 Debacle: Could this lie in Wisconsin's future?" (March 4, 1997) Retrieved at http://www.weac.org/capitol/march97/prop13.htm . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California School Finance" Retrieved at http://delmarschools.com/district/business/ca_school_finance.asp . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California's Educational Funding:
Tragedy or Equity?
When attempting to determine whether the method and amount of public fund distribution is equitable within any school system, several factors are always considered. In the case of California, which boasts more than 1,000 individual school districts, 8,000 schools, and over six million students, many assert than in ex-ante analysis, the state's school finance system demonstrates sufficient levels of equitability. However, many do not agree.
The foundation system in California specifically guarantees that each individual district will receive funding known as a revenue limit based on a tax rate of one percent of its assessed value. Further, the state is charged with paying each district the difference between its determined entitlement amount and the actual amount raised through property taxes. Although this arrangement does seem good "on paper," there remain significant questions as to whether serious examples and possibilities of inequity exist among certain…
Bell, Tom. (2004). "Fort Bragg Schools Feel Sting of Proposition 13." Maine Today. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml
Ed Source. (2004). "California School Finance News." Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.edsource.org/edu_fin_cal.cfm#budget
RPPI. Reason Public Policy Institute. (2004). "Restructuring California's School Finance System." Web site. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.rppi.org/schoolfinance.shtml
Sacramento Bee. Staff Reporters. "Unfathomable: School Funding Mess Needs Simplifying." Sacramento Bee Online. Retrieved on September 26, 2004, from, http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/projects/paying_for_schools/story/7896515p-8834875c.html
The fair / unfair distribution of school resources. In 2000, the ACLU filed suit (Williams et al. v. State of California et al.), claiming that the obligation of the state to provide all students with "basic educational necessities" was not fulfilled. One million of California's students are deprived of educational basics, such as qualified teachers, decent school facilities, and appropriate textbooks.
An important part of these problems are caused by the inadequacy of the school system funding in the state. Others are problems to be solved by individual school districts, since they are seen as a local management problem.
The new concept behind the reform of school finance of California is the "weighted student formula" or "student-based budgeting," which is believed to be a way to a more equitable and effective school funding system. Still, skeptics doubt that it the concept is applicable to California's 9,000 schools serving 6 million…
1. Californians rank low in education, highway spending
Larry Barrett. The Business Journal. San Jose: Jun 17, 1996. pg. 1
2. Tiebout and tax revolts: Did Serrano really cause Proposition 13?
Kirk Stark, Jonathan Zasloff. UCLA Law Review. Los Angeles: Feb 2003.Vol.50, Iss. 3; pg. 801
In short, the parents are part of the learning community as well, and the responsibility of the parent does not end when the child walks through the schoolroom door. The parent must support the mission of the school, and the teacher, and reinforce the lessons learned in school, academically and ethically.
Parents should strive to respect teachers, and not transgress teacher authority without talking with the teacher first. This comes as a welcome relief to any teacher with a conflict with a parent that has spilled outside the classroom. Although a parent is unlikely to be in perfect agreement with every assignment the student receives, and every grade on a child's transcript, establishing a rapport between parent and teacher is crucial to further a child's learning and for a teacher to feel supported in his or her disciplinary decisions.
Article Review: Health Issues
Schools Enrolling Students with AIDS." (2003). ACIS.…
These standards set forth clear expectations for school districts, schools, teachers, and students for the core subjects of reading, science and math. Each state's standards and testing are different, but all have the same goal of providing consistent, quality education, as defined by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Beginning in 2014, students must not only be determined to be 'proficient' in these three core subjects, but schools must make Adequate Yearly Progress overall and for specific demographic subgroups (Murnane & Pappay, 2010).
Although there are benefits to the NCLB, including the accountability measures that have been established that have set clearer expectations, there are also drawbacks to these standards as well. There has been an increasing concern regarding the inordinate amount of time that teachers must spend preparing students for the standardized tests. Although this prep may improve students scores on these tests, teachers have reported that there…
Bakic-Miric, N. (Jun 2010). "Multiple intelligences theory: A milestone innovation in English language teaching at the University of NIS Medical School." Acta Medica Medianae, 49(2). p. 15-19.
Financing America's public schools. (No date). Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://www.nga.org/cda/files/PUBLICSCHOOLS.pdf.
Flook, L. & Fuligni, a. (May/Jun 2008). "Family and school spillover in adolescents' daily lives." Child Development, 79(3). p. 776-787.
Koshy, V., Ernest, P., & Casey, R. (2009). "Mathematically gifted and talented learners: Theory and practice." International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 40(2). p. 213-228.
Education Applies to Power and Life Chances
Why is education important?
Education depicts the ability to reason basing on the individual know-how of the acquired reading and writing skills. Further, individuals gain from the spectrum of imparted knowledge that enables them to surge deeper into unexplored aspects to bring beneficial changes to the society. Additionally, education occurs as a force that propels individuals to reach their potential and to become fully engaged in the dynamic trends of the modern world. As an engine of social mobility, education offers an avenue that individuals can utilize for the betterment of their lives, that of their families, and their communities (Hajiyev, 2015).
What is an education gap and how does it affect people and society as a whole
An education gap explains the observed and persistent disparity in educational measures based on the performance difference between students from different socioeconomic status, gender status,…
Gatongi, G. (2007). Person-Centered Approach In Schools: Is It The Answer To Disruptive Behavior In Our Classrooms? Counselling Psychology Quarterly 20(2): 205-211 DOI: 10.1080/09515070701403406. New York: Rutledge Taylor & Francis Group
Hajiyev, A. (2015). Governance and the Importance of Education: Stable for the Wrong Reasons. New York: Troubador Publishing Ltd.
Plotnik, R. & Kouyoumdjian, H. (2013). Introduction to Psychology. New York: Cengage Learning
Porte, E. (2015, Sept. 22). Education Gap Between Rich and Poor Is Growing Wider The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/business/economy/education-gap-between-rich-and-poor-is-growing-wider.html
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
There has been extensive research on the various and several different types of problems that students face in general, while they are still in school. Some of these are substance abuse, violence, truancy, delinquency, and so on. All of these factors have the tendency to adversely affect the student's life, and ultimately lead to a breakdown in his family life, as well as his personal life. It will also lead to a poorer performance in school, and a general lack of success in every sphere. Therefore, it is clear that today, there is an increasing need for social intervention, through government agencies and through law enforcement and judicial systems. One such program is the 'Positive Action Program', which is in effect a well-designed program that encourages a close collaboration among schools and homes and businesses and institutions, so that a partnership would be formed between the school and the…
"About House Bill 330" Kentucky Center for School Safety. Retrieved From
http://www.kysafeschools.org/about/housebill330.html Accessed 18 August, 2005
"Classroom Class Incentive Plan" Retrieved From
http://www.econedlink.org/lessons/index.cfm?lesson=EM444& ; page=teacher
This work intends to address the situation of budgeting problems within the context of a fictitious school for purposes of this work, which will be called Highbridge Day Care. This is a school that receives State allocations for funding in part as well as allocations from other sources. The school budget is set and fixed prior to budget submission to the board each year.
Too many times waste in the school budget can be traced back to abstract and poorly defined expenditures allocated to poorly defined functions of administration. However, the realization of this has some district resolving the problem.
Resolution of School udget:
Streamlining administration / support-service expense.
The school principal is ethically as well as administratively responsible to oversee budgetary concerns, not only in preparation, but as well in the carrying out of those allocations approved by the governing committee for the school. The…
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100 [Online] available at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/digests/digest100.html
Prager, Karen (1993) 'Collegial Process vs. Curricular Focus: Dilemma for Principal Leadership: Brief to Principals 'No. 5 ERIC Digest ED356550 [Online] available at: http://184.108.40.206:86/search/o?SEARCH=ED356550
"A Practical Look at School Leadership" (2003) Center on Reinventing Public Education (2003 Sept 13) located [Online] at: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:ocx-wPj5gFUJ:www.crpe.org/pubs/pdf/MakingSensePortin_brief.pdf+school+principal+tasks+budget+resources& ; hl=en& ie=UTF-8
"Priority on Learning: Efficient Use of Resource's (2004) ERIC Digest 100
Circles Model for an Inner City School
"I am shocked by the lack of urgency we are showing for the deplorable situation in our inner-city schools and their neighborhoods…students trapped, going to school in a community devoid of hope or opportunity, should challenge our moral sensibilities" (Brown, 2011, Jersey Journal).
Inner city schools (including those in Trenton, NJ) tend to be plagued by similar and familiar problems. According to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Urban Affairs (Glickman, et al., 2008), inner city communities continue to suffer from "disinvestment" (lack of funding sources), "outmigration" (whites moving to suburbs), and "abandoned property" and a sense of gloom that is reflected in schools. Also, the inner city is known for low income citizens, "predominantly minority," and their plight is often reflected in schools (Glickman, 557). And the poor conditions in inner cities -- including those neighborhoods in Trenton, New Jersey --…
Brown, N. (2011). Opinion: N.J. must improve cities to improve schools. Jersey Journal.
Retrieved August 20, 2013, from http://www.nj.com .
Glickman, N.J., and Scally, C.P. (2008). Can Community and Education Organizing Improve
Inner-City Schools? Journal of Urban Affairs, 30(5), 557-577.
ace to the Top-District fa Analysis
School Grant Programs
On May 22, 2012, the Secretary of Education made public the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) intention to build upon recent achievements in education through the ace to the Top-State programs (ED, 2012a) by offering an additional $383 million in grant funding to local school districts in 2012 (ED, 2012b). The goal of the ace to the Top District (TT-D) Competition is to continue advancing bold innovation and educational standards made possible through state ace to the Top grants. This essay examines the requirements and criteria that must be met in order to apply to the TT-D program.
Eligibility for applying to the TT-D is limited to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) or a consortium of LEAs (ED, 2012c). Based on Title IX, Section 9101, subsection 26, an LEA is defined as a public board of education or other public…
ED. (2012a). Applications for new awards; Race to the Top -- District. Federal Register, 77(159), 49654-49677. Retrieved 5 Nov. 2012 from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-16/pdf/2012-20037.pdf .
ED. (2012b). Race to the Top District Competition draft. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www.ed.gov/race-top/district-competition .
ED. (2012c). Race to the Top -- District Competition: Final requirements and criteria. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/2012-fast-facts.pdf .
ED. (2012d). Race to the Top -- District guidance and frequently asked questions. ED.gov. Retrieved 4 Nov. 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-district/faqs-add-1.pdf .
local education plan best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA? Why?
One of the two main components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the grant program that provides federal funding to the states ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). Under the provisions of the Department of Education, funding is provided on a per-student basis, based on total enrollment. However, additional issues such as poverty levels, are also taken into account ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). The state and local education plans can best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA by focusing on ongoing support services and statistical tracking of student performance. The fundamental requirements of IDEA…
Kingston, M., et al. (2014). Learning education reform initiatives. Office of Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS). ERIC Id: ED560128
Smith, T.E.C. (2005). Idea 2004: Another round in the reauthorization process. Remedial and Special Education 26(6): 314-319.
"What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.aasbo.com/pdf/CSFOMarch2014_Highfield.pdf
Educational Technology Plan 2014-2017
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies
TIP 2: Needs Assessment
TIP 3: The Planning Process
State Goals and Objectives with Local Strategies and Measures
TIP 4: Implementation: Timetable and Budget for Goals, Objectives and Strategies
TIP 5: Executive Summary
TIP 6: eferences
TIP 1: Vision, Mission, Goals and Strategies of Imaginary County Public Schools
The Imaginary County Public Schools District seeks to empower students with the latest technological resources and training to provide them with the knowledge to take advantage of educational and professional opportunities throughout their communities -- and the rest of their lives.
Vision: The vision of the Imaginary County Public Schools District is to enable students to become vital contributing members to the surrounding society with the most effective and modern methods indicative of the 21st century.
Goals and Strategies
Goal 1: Students must have a safe environment…
Harper, J. (2014). Mobile data governance. www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/mobile-data-governance/
Hogan, K.. (2013). The Edtech era. Tech & Learning. 33(8), 4.
Sangani, K. (2013). BYOD to the classroom. Engineering & Technology.8(3), 42-45.
Savitz, E. (2012). How we can use technology to transform the classroom. www.forbes.com. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2012/11/27/how-we-can-use-technology-to-transform-the-classroom/
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Chicago's School Systems
"CPS recommends closure of four underperforming charter schools" is about the recent determination that four charter schools in the Chicago area will be closed. The reason for shutting down these schools is that they are underperforming, and not adequately serving the students that they are supposed to provide a quality education. Specifically, three of the schools -- Amandla Charter High School, Shabazz/Sizemore Academy Elementary School, and Larry Hawkins High School -- were on the Academic Warning List last year. As such, they were tasked with designing and implementing remediation plans to help their students to perform better. A review of those remediation plans, however, determined that they were not sufficiently implemented during the present school year. Subsequently, Chicago Public Schools has decided to revoke the charter for these institutions. The fourth school, Bronzeville Lighthouse Charter Elementary School, will not get its charter renewed because it has failed…
You have these, I don't.
2006 report showed that Regional Occupational Centers and Programs (ROCP) were effective in a number of ways; primarily assisting students who might not otherwise feel the desire to continue their education. The report showed the "importance of underlying competencies such as motivation, self-awareness, eagerness to learn and the ability to reflect upon, monitor and guide ones' learning and practice" (Curry, Johnson, Mathias, 2006, p. 22). That ROCP's are conducive to enhanced educational endeavors can be considered a foregone conclusion in some regards, but that does not mean that the great state of California has, or can make available, the funds necessary to continue these effective programs. In fact, last year funding for educational programs in California were slashed by 20% across the board, including the ROCP's which some experts believe are the most effective programs in the state.
Funding for the ROCP's is deemed important by many of the school…
Adler, L.; (2007) ROP: Good news no matter what students plan for the future, Leadership, Vol. 37, Issue, 1, p. 35
Curry, D.; Johnson, B.; Mathias, C.; (2006) What you need to know about human service training, Policy and Practice, Vol. 64, Issue 4, p. 22
Scott, R. & Birdsall, P.; (2009) ROCP: Connecting thinking and doing, Leadership, Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 28-38
e: Bill 672, Public and Nonpublic schools -- Student Diabetes Management Program
My name is ____ ____ and I am writing to ask that you vote in support of Bill 672, which would authorize the Student Diabetes Management Program in Maryland public and nonpublic schools. As a nurse, I have a lot of experience with diabetes patients, and pediatric patients. I have seen in my career a dramatic increase in recent years of pediatric diabetes patients, and this trend has reached alarming levels.
As you may be aware, childhood diabetes comes with a whole host of negative health outcomes. Type 1 diabetes, or juvenile insulin-dependent diabetes, in a genetic condition requiring constant care, which poses significant challenges to our educational system. Our educators are trained to educate, but must also play the role of safeguarding the health of our children, a role that is challenged by…
Mayo Clinic. (2015). Type 1 diabetes in children. Mayo Clinic Staff. Retrieved March 11, 2015 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes-in-children/basics/definition/con-20029197
Berhan, Y., Eliasson, M., Mollsten, A., Waernbaum, I., Dahlquist, G.. (2015). Impact of parental socioeconomic status on excess mortality in a population-based cohort of subjects with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care.
Lyons, S., Becker, D. & Helgeson, V. (2014). Transfer from pediatric to adult health care: Effects on diabetes outcomes. Pediatric Diabetes. Vol. 15 (1) 10-17.
Guttu, M., Engelke, M. & Swanson, M. (2004). Does the school nurse -- student ratio make a difference? Journal of School Health. . Vol. 74 (1) 6-9
principal of the school has the most power at any given time. Ahead of the principal is the superintendent, but since that authority figure is not a constant presence in the school, the superintendent does not count. Because the principal was assigned the job due to experience (both formally and informally) the principal assumes the position of power legitimate power. Legitimate power imbibes the authority figure with the ability to make demands of an expect obedience from others within the workplace. Although the school gives the principal legitimate authority, the principal also has expert power.
Expert power means the person has the capabilities and knowledge to outperform others. A person must be highly qualified in order to attain the position of principal. Although the principal is not a celebrity, the principal also demonstrates referent power. This is because the majority of the staff and students in the school admire and…
Kirst-Ashman, K. (2011). Human behavior in the macro social environment. Belmont, Calif.: Brooks/Cole.
Roloff, M. (2012). Communication Yearbook 22 (p. 22). Routledge.
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
The environment at School1, were I am employed revolves around the many different standards of behavior and conduct. While much of this conduct is derived by local customs and habits, the imposing of law and order also significantly contributes to what is and what is not allowed. The purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship with both state and federal laws and School 1. This essay will explore the law and its applications to my school by examining key points and relevant issues related to these interactions.
Background Of Trenton School District
It is important to understand the starting point of this discussion in order to see the bigger influences that state and local governments have on the school district. According to the districts website, the mission of this school district is " All students will graduate with a vision for their futures, motivated to learn…
Burlington School Comm. V. Mass. Dept. Of Ed. (1985)
Compensation for learners with extraordinary requirements that is not provided in the states education laws bring costs to parents and the laws do not provide for compensation of this. Termed 'compensatory education' courts have exercised their jurisdiction in awarding costs to claimants and the courts have been relying on sec.20 USC 1415(2) (B) (ii) for students. The Burlington School Committee V Massachusetts Dept. Of Education 1984 heralded the change in the definition and eligibility for the compensatory education. The salient awards pertain to the recognition of the power of courts to grant reimbursement to the applicants from private school education that was not included in the 'Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act' -- IDEA.
Following this judgment, courts held that where the parent was able to afford the private school education, the reimbursement was shown to be the remedy. Further, for…
Luker, Tricia; Calvin. B. (2011) "Compensatory Education" Retrieved 14 February, 2012
Rothstein, Laura F. (2002) "Disability law: cases, materials, problems"
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…
Chapman, C. (2009). The history of the Internet in a nutshell. Retrieved from http://sixrevisions.com/resources/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/
Chapman, G. (2000). Federal support for technology in K -- 12 education. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, pp. 307 -- 343. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_education_policy/v2000/2000.1chapman.html
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Moore, R. (2006). Cybercrime: Investigation high-technology computer crime. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Surveys by the National Association of Independent Schools last year indicated that the issue relating to money management in the schools was among the most pressing issues and challenges facing school leadership. The questions were related to re-thinking financing the schools for proving quality and cost effective education to students efficiently. Last fall, National Business Officers Association held a meeting of school heads, trustees, business managers, and advancement professionals to begin to explore the possibilities of re-engineering the ways schools approach financing. Preliminary thinking from that symposium led to the offering that until schools can manage their own funds the quality of education is unlikely to improve.
Schools in the 21st century require, among other things, thoughtful leadership in the domain of financing. Such leadership will engage schools in serious financial modeling, projecting forward five years to produce differing financial scenarios in an attempt to develop the preferred educational…
Guthrie, James W. "Implications for Policy: What Might Happen in American Education If It Were Known How Money Actually Is Spent?" In Where Does the Money Go?" Resource Allocation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, edited by Lawrence O. Picus and James L. Wattenbarger. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1996. Pages 253-68.
Odden, Allan, and William Clune. "Improving Educational Productivity and School Finance." Educational Researcher 24, 9 (December 1995): 6-10.
Odden, Allan. "Raising Performance Levels Without Increasing Funding." School Business Affairs 63, 6 (June 1997): 4-12.
Picus, Lawrence O. "Does Money Matter in Education? A Policymaker's Guide." In Selected Papers in School Finance 1995, edited by William J. Fowler. 19-35.
This analysis only represents break-even analysis. If the school wishes to make profits, it can increase prices to accommodate this factor, However, the caveat in this move is that as prices go up, the number of prices sold may go down (Cebrzynski, 2008). Therefore, further studies, will have to be conducted to determine the price elasticity of the students within the school. In this case, supply is constant, therefore the only two factors that can change are price and demand. This program is expected to be highly dependent upon price factors.
There are several factors that may affect the accuracy of the information used for this analysis. The first is that the actual school budget is not available, Therefore, representative figures had to be obtained from other sources. Prices may differ from state to state, which could affect the results of this study. However, even if the numbers changed by…
Amonline.com (2008). Average School Lunch cost Jumps 10% in One Year. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008 at http://www.amonline.com/online/article.jsp?id=22636
Cebrzynski, F. (2008).
Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The quality of education at the U.S. has remained high, but there have been disturbing signs of erosion, nevertheless. The widening gap between the UC and the best private university has been alarming because the UC competes for the top teachers and students with these private universities. This widening gap should be a critical concern to the state and the federal governments because even excellent private universities are too small to meet California's or the nation's needs for a well-educated workforce in the future, to come up with innovations needed to fuel the economy and to generate jobs, and to introduce medical advances for the use and care of the sick and disabled. In the past decade, California's private research universities, Stanford,…
Clinton, P. (2002). The student aid conundrum. University Business: 4 pages.
Professional Media Group LLC
Darling, B.B. (2005). Hearing testimony. 5 pages. California Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education. Retrieved January 26, 2007 at http://www.ucop.edu/uersvp/speeches/Speier_Hearing_Nov_9_2005.pdf
Dervarics, C. (2006). Congress approves cuts to student loan programs. 1 page. Diverse Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews and Associates
Existing Funding Infrastructure
Education financing in Florida is at a crisis point. The current system for K-12 financing in Florida features a combination of state and local funds. Approximately $7.75 billion is contributed by the state. This comes from general revenues, which puts this financing at risk should there be significant changes to state revenue levels. There have been stories in the news media in the past year where different bodies of expressed concern about the sustainability of Florida's ability to finance its K-12 system (Times-Union, 2012). The education system has seen its funding cut several times in recent years. As a result, the performance of Florida's schoolchildren has been poor.
At the state level, the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) is "the primary mechanism for funding the operating costs of Florida school districts (FLDOE, 2012). The formula on which Florida state financing is organized is based on…
FLDOE. (2012). 2012-2013 funding for Florida school districts. Florida Department of Education. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from www.fldoe.org/fefp/pdf/fefpdist.pdf
Stiefel, L. & Schwartz, A. (2010). Financing K-12 education in the Bloomberg years, 2002-2008. Wagner and Steinhardt Schools, NYU. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/lah431/StiefelSchwartz_AIR_Nov2010_presentation.pdf
Times-Union. (2012). Florida's education funding still lags. Jacksonville Times-Union. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://jacksonville.com/opinion/editorials/2012-04-20/story/funding-floridas-education-still-lags
Allocation of funds for education as a model is a notion that is looked at in the academic construct. This work emphasizes this paradigm. The issues of this construct will be viewed as an exemplar. The issue of an equitable and justified funding incorporating the ideas herein will be developed. The paradigm concept and conceptual themes of meme and the paradigm will be concurrently explored to clarify the allocation of fund allocation sought.
A 'meme' (even in English, demonstrated on quality, disconnected and not to be mistaken for the same French) is a component of cultural connotation (illustration: an idea, a propensity, a data, a marvel, a demeanor, and so forth), reproduced and transmitted by the impersonation of the conduct of a single person by a group. The Oxford English Dictionary characterizes 'meme' as a component of a Culture (taken here in the feeling of human evolution) can…
(2012, 3) .Dawkins And Kozol Researchomatic .Retrieved Nov 26, 2014 from http://www.researchomatic.com/Dawkins-And-Kozol-120063.html
Eckl, C., & Pattison, S. (n.d.). A New Funding Paradigm For Higher Education. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://agb.org/sites/agb.org/files/u3/NewFundingParadigm.pdf
There is no evidence yet that federal involvement in the education system has improved outputs, which would be a prerequisite for efficiency. Part of this problem is data deficiency -- it is simply too early to tell if students reared under NCLB are more competitive because the first wave have barely left school, if they have left at all.
ith respect to Liberty, certainly federal involvement in education funding has constricted liberty. Even a small amount of federal funding can result in a strong federal influence on policy (Shelley, 2007). This influence on the system contributes to the erosion of state control. hile the states control the curriculum de jure, they are subject to varying degrees of influence from the federal government, depending on their dependence on Title I financing.
US Department of Education website. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-org-us.html
No author (2007). Congress to eigh 'No…
US Department of Education website. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-org-us.html
No author (2007). Congress to Weigh 'No Child Left Behind'. CBS News. Retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://cbs2chicago.com/politics/No.Child.Left.2.278792.html
Shelly, Bryan. (2007). A Small Lever: Federal Funding and State Compliance to No Child Left Behind. Wake Forest University. Retrieved April 21, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/9/8/5/6/pages198564/p198564-1.php
chool districts across the country are experiencing shrinking budgets. One way to increase the funds available for education is to apply for educational grants. They can take many forms, including those requiring rigorous research designs as well as others that might provide funds for equipment or the money to implement promising but unproven programs.
Two organizations that provide educational grant money are the Beaumont Foundation of America and the Institute of Education ciences.
The Institute of Educational ervices (IE) requires an extensive application and applies rigorous scientific research principles when considering which applications to fund. Their specific focus is to increase the body of knowledge regarding best practices in education. Their goal is to fund research being done in the "practice community" -- that is, schools and school districts (IE, 2005). They have a preference for rigorously controlled studies that involve students from multiple schools who are randomly…
Beaumont Foundation of America (BFA). "2005 Education Grant Guidelines." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
Institute of Education Sciences (IES). "Grant Application Submissions for 2005." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
Some of those are as follows:
1) Affect the environment;
2) Either save or expend energy;
3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.
4) Affect student learning;
5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)
Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:
Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;
Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;
Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;
Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/
Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf
Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html
Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…
Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.
Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.
Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…
(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.
(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.
(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.
Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.
Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).
The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…
"Gun control." On the issues. 2008. June 5, 2010.
Kinzie, Susan. "GWU adds ethical focus to business school." The Washington Post.
September 15, 2008. June 5, 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/15/AR2008091502975.html
Property tax relief is a subject that arises when the elderly or poor struggle to meet their property tax burdens. If they are long-term residents, they can be caught up when their neighborhood sees a dramatic increase in property values. There are sometimes mechanisms that governments use in order to provide relief.
Both tax credits and rebates can be used to help return some of the money paid or that is owing from eligible property owners, in order to help relieve from of the burden. This method is direct, and puts the money back into the hands of those who need it. However, this method relies on being able to determine who needs relief. People often have control over their financial situation so an inability to pay does not necessarily reflect somebody with a lack of opportunity to pay. It can be hard to qualify people for relief because of…
TLC. (2006). State roles in financing public school facilities. TLC Research Division. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/pubspol/OnlineFinancePubSch.pdf
Pennsylvania Department of Education. (2012). Property tax reduction allocations. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335
Law Enforcement Funding
Police departments, along with other urgent and vital agencies like fire departments and other public safety divsions, enjoy the luxury of being among the last departments to be cut when funding is tight due to the necessity of keeping fire and crime prevention agencies in full effect. That being said, police departments can absolutely use other means other than tax dollars to fund their efforts, and often at the expense of criminals. While there can be limits, it is entirely possible and practical to fund police activities and duties without using public dollars and many are already in full effect in many departments.
One quick and easy to fund police activities is to seize assets used in the commission of felonious behavior and auction it off to the highest bidder. The proceeds can then be used to fund police activities. Examples of items that can be seized…
O'Brien, Tim. "Speeding ticket plea plan on fast track." Times Union. N.p., 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
O'Matz, Meagan. "Cops. Cash. Cocaine. How Sunrise police make millions selling drugs. - Sun Sentinel." Sun Sentinel. N.p., 29 Nov. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
Petke, Craig. "Fleets of sleek new police cruisers roll in to replace Crown Vic." Central Kentucky News. N.p., 28 June 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
PLC'S: TEACHES, SCHOOLS, & CULTUES
PLC's Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
PLC's: Teachers, Schools, & Cultures
The PLC story that I choose for this paper is "Winning Streaks" by the principal of Washington Elementary School in Vancouver, WA. I chose this story because I appreciated the gradual change and progress that this school saw. Some of the most valuable excerpts of this story had to do with the struggles and the dedication of the teachers and staff at the school. For them, changing over to a PLC system was easy in theory and arduous in practice, yet they persisted through the change and came out, as the principal says, winning. It is also valuable that the teachers and staff saw value in the assessments, but did more than just obey and implement them blindly. They truly deconstructed the assessments from the perspective of the students as well as from…
Hunter, J. (2011) Professional Learning Communities. Available from http://johunter.pbworks.com/f/PLC.pdf . 2012 June 02.
McMillan, T.S. (2012) Winning Streaks. Available from http://www.allthingsplc.info/wordpress/?page_id=2620 . 2012 June 04.
Pension Fund Analysis
The school was founded in 1839 and is Missouri's largest research university offering more than 280 degree programs (Mizzou, N.d.). The school is also the largest employer in the area with more than thirteen thousand full-time employees. The Retirement Trust and the Other Post-Employment Benefits (OPEB) Trust hold the assets of the Retirement Plan and the OPEB Plan. The university is require to fully comply with the GASB reporting requirements and the Trusts are managed by external firms that are restricted to investing in certain asset sectors.
The externally-managed Trust funds are allowed to invest in asset sectors such as U.S. And international equity, emerging markets debt and equity, absolute return strategies, private equity, real estate, global fixed income, high yield fixed income, bank loans, and Treasury inflation protected securities (University of Missouri, 2011). This fund represents the pension and OPEB benefits for a wide…
Kiley, K. (2012, August 7). Unbalancing Sheets. Retrieved from Inside Higher ED: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/08/07/gasb-changes-could-upset-university-finances
Mizzou. (N.d.). About Mizzou. Retrieved from University of Missouri: http://www.missouri.edu/about/index.php
University of Missouri. (2011). Financial Report. Retrieved from University of Missouri System: http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/BusinessPolicyAreas/FinancialStatements/2010/University_of_Missouri_System_2010.pdf
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.