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Scientific Models and Religious Myths
Words: 1935 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 13958789
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The relationship goes beyond any simple realistic or complex scientific models, because it cannot be explained through the observances of realities around us. Myth and culture can often be on the same temporal level, with one or the other being generated at different times. As such, some of the myths were actually born out of a certain culture, determined by the geographic or demographic realities of the respective culture. In other cases, culture was born out of a myth.

An important element to be analyzed in the differences between religious myths and scientific models is the introduction of variables and the type of variables in each case. The religious myth, especially the creation myths in different cultures, falls into the category of sacred myths. There is always such a distinction between sacred and profane myths or, as Eliade puts it, people "distinguish between sacred myths (cosmogony, creation of the stars,…


1. McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

2. Eliade, Mircea. 1963. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row,

McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

Ibid. Page 107

Scientific Theory in Psychology the
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 86305141
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So, just as the concept of Right has to have Wrong as its counterpart to be a truth, so does theory need evidence. Science is a method of understanding, it is an understanding of what exists, what we can determine that we know about these things, and the method by which we go about achieving that understanding. Thus, without evidence on either side of the theory, there can be no support for the theory therefore making that theory non-scientific.

The evaluation of a theory is the identification of the type of theory it is. Much like theories themselves that set out a parameter of evaluation of a measurable prediction about a particular behavior or set of behaviors, theory evaluation is the determination of the validity, structure, and use of the theory itself. Theories have two dimensions: parasitical (its reliance on other theories) and operationalizable (interpretations of the theory). The less…

Scientific Theory in Scientific Investigation
Words: 2513 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91974570
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Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.

The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.

A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.



BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008. 

Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004.

Theory Evaluation. 2008. 

Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007.

Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism
Words: 1936 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 92833628
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Scientific Thinking and Scientific Skepticism

It isn't easy to define psychology. Nonetheless, the general understanding of psychology is that it a scientific study of behavior, the mind and the brain. As a discipline, it spans several levels of analysis. A thorough understanding of psychology cannot be achieved by looking at just a single level of analysis since every level has a different set of knowledge and view point (Lillienfied, Lynn, Namy & Woolf, 2011).

Lilienfield, Lynn, Namy and Woolf (2011) are of the opinion that scientific thinking gives us skills to overcome our prejudices and biases which can distort our perception and make us ignore evidence that go against our line of thinking. Six scientific principles of thinking are particularly vital when one wants to study psychology. The first one is "Extraordinary Claims" which was proposed by David Hume, a Scottish Philosopher who lived in the 18th century. David Hume…

Integrative Approaches Entwistle D N 2004
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84316724
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Furthermore, philosophy and science can also offer religion insight in terms of the difference between 'brain' and 'mind.' Entwistle is a passionate advocate of the power of the 'mind' of consciousness that extends beyond the existence of mere brain, or physiology, although he does not deny the impact brain and body can have upon human cognitive life.

But for Entwistle, as a believing Christian, reason is something more than mere chemistry. Entwistle quotes C.S. Lewis that the seemingly innate, hard-wired desire in the human consciousness for the structures of faith and morality demonstrates the existence of something beyond the tangible, measurable world of nature. At its best, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, and religion when reflected upon in tandem can overcome the increasingly vast divide between the gulf of the sciences and the humanities. The Christian mind must be able to take on the various challenges and debates regarding religion and use…

1950s to Scientific Technology of
Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96695070
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Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:

No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.

Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.

Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.

Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.

The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…


Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell

Conselling Master Questionnaire Describe the Boolean Approach
Words: 4070 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 6118072
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Conselling Master Questionnaire

Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)

In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.

The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…


Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.

Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.

McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Scientific Investigation Includes Both Independent and Dependent
Words: 1679 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99236775
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scientific investigation includes both independent and dependent vaiables. The independent vaiable is the cause (antecedent) of the dependent vaiable, the pesumed effect (consequence). Fo the pesent study thee ae two independent vaiables: inclusive and self-contained educational pogams. The eceiving, o dependent, vaiables ae child development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC tests. Although not included in the pesent investigation additional independent vaiables could have been age, gende, and eligibility categoy.

Pupose and Design of Study Accoding to the authos the study was designed to study the effects of two diffeent types of educational pogams (inclusive vs. self-contained) fo students with significant disabilities with espect to gains and ate of impovement in levels of development and social competence as measued by the SIB and ASC on a pe and post-test basis. The autho's eseach question was stated somewhat appopiately: "What ae the effects of attending inclusive vs.…

Scientific Study
Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36266078
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Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…


Eack, S.M., Hogarty, G.E., Cho, R.Y., Prasad, K.M., Greenwald, D.P., Hogarty, S.S., Keshavan, M.S. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 674-82.

Gorczynski, P., Faulkner, G. (2010). Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12(5), CD004412.

Laan, W., Grobbee, D.E., Selten, J.P., Heijnen, C.J., Kahn, R.S., Burger, H. (2010). Adjuvent aspirin therapy reduces symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(5), 520-7.

Tandon, R., Keshavon, M.S., Nasrallah, H.A. (2008). Schizophrenia, "just the facts" what we know in 2008. Schizophrenia Research, 102(1-3), 1-18.

Differences Between Scientific Models and Religious Myths
Words: 2098 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66553046
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Scientific Models and eligious Myths

Differences between scientific models and religious myths

There are several approaches toward s the creation issue, some of them are scientific and others are religious. All the approaches are postulates towards the search for the cradle of man. They may therefore be divided into scientific models and religious myths. Although people view these theories and models from different perspectives, they too have their similarities. Therefore this paper will contain an in depth study of the two different ideologies that is from the religious view on creation and the scientific view of creation. The types of theories that will be discussed here will be the big bang theory which will be a scientific view and the creation theory which is based from the religious point-of-view. An in depth look into the evolution theory will be looked at.

The scientific theory is based on scientific modeling of…


Alister, E. McGrath. (2010). "Science & Religion" 2nd Edition

Charles Darwin, (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life,," p. 162.

Eliade, Mircea, (1960), Myth and reality. New York: Harper & Row

Futuyma, Douglas J. (2005). Evolution,. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Foundational Scientific Literature Regarding Memory and Learning
Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 6423266
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foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful, it was difficult to draw deeper, more fundamental conclusions about the learning and memory experiments. However, the rapidly advancing field of neurobiology has provided the field with a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying learning and memory.

Studies regarding memory using imagery and cognitive mapping

Imagery is often used to improve memory through the process of encoding. When the brain sees a certain image associated with a certain piece of information, it is able to encode that association into the brain. (Goldstein, 2008, p. 347). When the person is given a prompt to recall that information, the brain has an additional prompt, the image associated with that information, to aid in the recollection of that information.

Organization helps to improve the…


Dagan, R. (2011). Cognitive mapping: Definitions, examples, resources. An online journal. Available at .

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (January 01, 1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain: a Journal of Neurology, 119, 593-609.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2006). Mirrors in the Mind. The Scientific American, November 2006, 55-61.

Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Communicative Approach to Acts 25 30
Words: 3276 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15176785
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With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).

Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).

Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.

But this special awareness is also…

Reference List

Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical Interpretation for Preaching. MI: Judson


Barla J.B. (1999). Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome:

Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.

Henry M Morris' Book Scientific
Words: 1528 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38396751
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Morris seemed to not mind the fact that science would disprove (or at least seem to disprove) much of what he had written. Readers of the book would probably feel that though the statements were very controversial the evidence was incontrovertible on both sides. Many of Morris' statements could be argued from both the scientific viewpoint and the creationist's viewpoint equally well. That did not seem to stop Morris, and well it should not. The book was his attempt at saying both worlds could be right, and in fact, both worlds were right, and the information contained therein should be studied and discussed in an open an amicable way. If that was indeed the goal of Morris' work, then he accomplished it in fine manner. For those who believe that science as the only truth possible, as well as those who are adamant creationists, this book offers enough evidence for…

Mris Legal and Scientific Review
Words: 5397 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2692818
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There are three types of stimuli used, which are:

1) Targets;

2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.

These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.

Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…


Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence

Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at

Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.

Interdisciplinary Approaches to Learning How
Words: 7785 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 11517163
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65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.


What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?

Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…


About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from  / landing2_about.htm.

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:

Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Education Research the Scientific and
Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25120164
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At this stage also, a questionnaire or instrument is formulated and kinds of analysis to be conducted after data collection are determined.

These rigorous steps of developing the methodology for a research are culminated with the conduct of the data collection itself, which, in the example given earlier, the research collected data through the survey method. After collection, processing of the data would be next, followed by the analyses and interpretation of these processed survey data. After data analysis, the researcher uses his/her knowledge and experience as an expert in the field of health by interpreting the data results in the context of health and the social environment of the community. Both data analyses and interpretation are summarized and made easier to communicate through a formal report, both in oral and written modalities.

The outlines systematic approach to research inquiry, while they may appear to be very rigorous and scientific…

ayes Probability

Can ayes Confirmation Theory Give an Adequate Explanation for Confirmation of Scientific Theories?

Theorizing in science is a complex and time-consuming undertaking. The theorist uses collected evidence from some means of scientific inquiry to project a generalized case. However, there is a difficulty with this process. There is some amount of probability that the theory will be wrong. Even if this is not a harmful outcome, it is difficult for the theorist to overcome in their professional lives. So, researchers want to understand the probabilities involved in the success of their theories.

ayes theorem discusses the probability that an event will occur, which in the use proscribed for this research is whether a theory is correct or not. ayes looked at two different events one of which can be used to add to the probability that the other is correct. For example, say that a statement (any given…


R Dawd, 'Scientific prediction and the undetermination of scientific theory building', PhilSci Archive, 2008, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from 

D Garber, 'Old evidence and logical omniscience in Bayesian Confirmation Theory', J Earman (ed.), Testing scientific theories, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1983, pp. 99-132.

R Garlikov, The nature of the logic of confirmation in science, 2000, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from 

PE Meehl, 'Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox', Philosophy of Science, vol. 34, 1967, pp. 103-115.

Evidence-Based Approach to Health Care
Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7359744
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.. If one of the goals of the healthcare system is to promote health and prevent illness and injury, it may be logical to start with those who work in the system." (Yassi, Ostry, Spiegel, and Walsh, 2002, p.1)

Presently the healthcare environment is characterized by nurse shortages of 25% of the entire nursing force. It is held that the working conditions along with job stress negatively impact the nursing force and its turnover rate. Injuries are also reported by nursing staff. It is likely that the nursing shortage is the number one challenge in today's healthcare provision. The negative work environment negatively impacts the nursing professional and their decision to either leave or to potentially fail altogether to enter the profession.

Naturally when there is a shortage of any type of professional worker some area suffers their absence and when this concept is applied in the field of healthcare…


Institute of Medicine. Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2006.

Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2001.

Lewis Patricia S. And Latney, Cynthia (2003) Achieve Best Practice With an Evidence-Based Approach. Critical Care Nurse. Vol. 23. No. 6 December 2003. Online available at: 

Rundall, K. (2002) Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare: Lessons from Clinical Practice. Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy. Meeting. Abstr Acad Health Serv Res Health Policy Meet. 2002; 19: 20. Manchester Centre for Healthcare Management, Manchester Business School University of Manchester, Devonshire House, University Precinct Centre, Oxford Road,, Manchester,

Integrative Approach to Psychology and
Words: 1411 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3333240
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In her eyes, supporting religion was tantamount to supporting oppression.

Cut to another scene with the same girl, in my high school cafeteria. Now we are sitting side-by-side, talking like friends. She talks about how pressured she feels by her family to enter the field of law, but she would prefer to study something more meaningful than political science when she goes to college. She criticizes members of our generation for not caring about what is going on in the world, and our lack of social responsibility.

Ironically, it is the members of my faith community that seem to have used their belief as a touchstone of social activism to reach out and to help others. A concerned interest in the point-of-view of other people, and a desire to help them is the essence of the selflessness of faith, and it is also the essence of the dispassionate yet personally…

Political Scientific and Social Views
Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81904963
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Certainly, one could tell from your presentation that your political past and present has not yet left you, but the valid ideas remain. My discourse is structured less on what we should do, but rather on how water is both a commodity and a public good.

Moderator: Excellent, but please make sure you don't get into a fight with Paul's rigorous political approach!

Karen akker: Right, will do. We can all understand why water is a public good: because the public drinks it, washes with it and uses it for water balloons. On the other hand, there are companies who see that water can also be a commodity and, as such, they stock the water in water balloons and them sell them, either to the state, in public-private partnerships, or directly to the population. France is a good example in this sense, but then, it was also them who had…


1. Muldoon, Paul, and Theresa McClenaghan. 2007. "A tangled web: Reworking Canada's water laws." In Eau Canada: The future of Canada's water, ed. Karen Bakker, 245-261. Vancouver: UBC Press

2. Barlow, Maude. 2007. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right Water.

3. Boyd, David. 2003. Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver UBC Press.

4. Bakker, Karen. 2003. Liquid Assets. Alternatives Journal. 29 (2). P. 17-21

Meta Cognition the Approach to the Concept
Words: 1806 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12755402
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Meta Cognition

The approach to the concept is varied, for the reason that there are no strict rules for the definition of the term metacognition, although it can be seen as the approach to learning, or concepts and methods that are used by the learner to learn speedily, efficiently and inn a consistent manner. However metacognition is a concept of how to achieve the end -- namely mastering something. Human beings are not good learners, and for that matter learning is itself a subjective concept that involves many metrics like time, perception, language, system in which the education is imparted and so on. One set of strategy that is termed metacognition- for example an approach to study math by the use of pictorial or video representations may suit one set of learners who are psychologically persons gifted with learning by visualisation. It may not work with others who are more…


Blau, Francine D. (2006) "The Declining Significance of Gender?"

Russell Sage Foundation.

Butler, James. (1828) "Outlines of practical education."

Hamilton Adams, & Co, 1828.

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31510822
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In other words, one has the advantage of providing for both an objective and more interpretive and subjective approach to the research.

However, one must also take into account that both methods have certain disadvantages that must be taken cognizance of in choosing to combine these two methodological strategies in any specific research. This means that in effect the advantage of combining these two methods is dependent on the type of research that is intended and required. One would not for instance apply a mixed or combined approach to a study of patient's views and feelings, as this would be more suitable to a qualitative methodology. In other words, the central disadvantage in using a combined method lies in the possibly that such as approach would not be appropriate to the type of research being conducted. In essence this means that a combined methodology is not always the best research…


Hough, Helen, and Lorna Mckee ( 2007) "The Cultural Paradigm of the Smaller Firm."

Journal of Small Business Management 42 (4).

Myers M.D. Qualitative Research in Information Systems. Retrieved August 11,

2010 from

Counseling Approach Used Existential Perspective Issue in
Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88346174
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Approach used:

Existential perspective

Issue in Counseling:

Helping clients deal with anxiety

Many individuals experience anxiety today. ith the help of therapeutic counselors, clients learn how to cope with their anxiety-related issues, in turn allowing them to live a healthy and manageable life. Many counselors choose to use the existential method in counseling clients with anxiety. The existential approach to counseling is an approach to helping clients of all cultures find meaning and harmony in their lives. Counselor's who use this approach focus on the eternal issues of love, loneliness, suffering and death that each of us face daily. It seeks to cultivate our philosophical mindedness in relating to ourselves, others, nature, and our faith. Existential counseling has no planned endpoint but is the beginning of a search for hope, love, and meaning in life. It is applicable to all problems in living, but it is especially appropriate when…

Works Cited

Carlson, L.A., (2003). Existential theory: Helping school counselors attend to youth at risk for violence. Professional School Counseling, 6 (5), 310.

Epp, L., (1998). The courage to be an existential counselor: an interview of Clemmont E.

Vontress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20 (1), 1.

Krueger, M.J. & Hanna, F.J., (1997). Why adoptees search: an existential treatment perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75 (3), 195.

Contingency Approach to Change Contingency Approach Developmental
Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62339133
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Contingency Approach to Change Contingency Approach

Developmental transitions, task-focused transitions, charismatic transformations, turnarounds and Taylorist methods

Contingency theory suggests that there is no singular, prescriptive way of enacting change. ather, the specific circumstances must be taken into consideration. In general, contingency theory proposes that change is dependent upon the relationship between the leaders and followers, the structure of the task, and the position of the leader (Doyle & Smith 2001). For example, in a developmental or gradual transition, the leader is more likely to be in a weaker position of power and need additional 'buy-in' from employees. A major departmental overhaul may be more appropriately rendered in such a fashion, given the shock of a sudden transition along with the close-knit nature of the community. Another good example of when a developmental approach might be used is when the needed changes the organization might embark upon are uncertain. Through collaboration,…


Doyle, M.E. And Smith, M.K. (2001). Classical leadership. The Encyclopedia of Informal

Education. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at 

Smashing the clock. (2006). Business Week. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at 

Yarow, Jay. (2010). Working at Apple. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at

Ideology Philosophy Impacts on Approaches to
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57051989
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" (Strom, 1996) From the view of adult education the purpose of the liberal thinker is development of intellectual powers of the mind. Within this framework the learner is a seeker of knowledge on the conceptual and theoretical base and the teacher is the expert which transmits knowledge. The Progressive view holds that transmission of cultural and societal structure is the path to promoting change on a social level therefore the provision of practice knowledge and skills for problem-solving are necessary if society is to be reformed. From this view the learner needs, interests and experiences are primary factors in learning and the teacher is the organizer and learning experience guide, instigator and evaluator. The Humanistic philosophy holds that development of those who are open to change and ongoing learning and enhancing the personal growth and development of these individual is the path to societal reform. From this view the…


Strom, Bruce Todd (1996) the Role of Philosophy in Education-for-Work. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. Winter 1996. Online available at 

Philosophies of Adult education (1997) Lorraine Zinn in chapter three ("Identifying Your Philosophical Orientation") of Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction (1990). The tables were edited and expanded during a discussion in ADE 5080 Spring 1997. Online available at

Traditional Costing and Activity Based Costing Approaches
Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28423300
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Activity-based Costing is a potent tool for an organization and assists in obtaining accurate and efficacious cost for precluding cost misrepresentation that may give rise to sustainable development and growth. Activity-based costing (ABC) was established and has been promoted as an approach of overcoming the systematic falsifications of traditional cost accounting and bringing significance back to managerial accounting. In particular, a traditional costing system reports the amount of money that is spent and by who, but its shortcomings lie in the fact that it does not report the cost of activities and processes (Mahal and Hossain, 2015). ABC systems attain product costs that are more precise in comparison to those reported through the use of multiple cost drivers to follow the costs of activities of a manufacturing procedure of the products that consume the resources utilized in those activities. The ABC system is purposed to offer the most conceivable benefit…

Taylorism Scientific Call Centre Management
Words: 3958 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19006947
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Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'

Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century

With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.

After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…


Website information for citation:

Accel-Team.Com, (2000) Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor [online]. Available at [Accessed 23rd November 2001].

Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at . Or  [Accessed 12th June 2002].

Cantu, J. (1999) Taylorism viewed in its historical content [online]. Available at  [Accessed 23rd November 2001].

The Scientific Method and Its Importance to Research
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scientific method in the doctoral research process.

The scientific method has long been the preferred means of conducting research in most fields, including both social sciences and hard sciences. Because the scientific methods "demands that the procedures be objective," as well as clearly stated in research papers, bias is minimized (Stangor, 2012). Moreover, the statement of procedures allows for replication of experiments, something that is integral to the peer review process. eplication is crucial for the validation of scientific research at the doctoral level and beyond.

Doctoral students might develop cogent hypotheses in their research, and those hypotheses when proven over time may evolve into widely accepted theories in their field. However, repeated testing is the only means by which to solidify theories (Harris, n.d.). The doctoral student must be relatively detached from the results of research, and the scientific method enables detachment by highlighting ways the theory can be…


Babbie, E. (1990). The essential wisdom of sociology. Teaching Sociology 18(4): 526-5.30

Babbie, E. (2012). The Practice of Social Research. Nelson.

Harris, W. (n.d.). How the scientific method works. Retrieved online: 

"Introduction to Scientific Research," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online:

History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution
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history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…


Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 .

Falsifiability the Scientific Method Has
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This is one example of a falsifiable -- indeed, a falsified -- psychological theory. Many aspects of Freudian psychology have raised serious objections since Freud first advanced them, and in this instance the observations did not fit the logic of his seduction theory, so the theory was abandoned. It was logically proven to be incorrect -- or falsified. McNally also points out that falsifiability should in now way be considered the only, or even the primary, indicator of pseudoscience, as many pseudoscientific claims -- such as the belief in a flat Earth -- are logically falsifiable, which might make them seem scientific (McNally, 2003). Thus, psychologists and other practitioners of psychology must make sure that their theories are not only falsifiable, but they also need to make sure that they are built on logical deductions from repeated observations.

A lack of falsifiability also does not render a theory completely useless,…


McNally, R. (2007). "Is the pseudoscience concept useful for clinical psychology?" The scientific review of mental health practice, 2(2).

Peter, J. (2007). "God and bad theories." On philosophy, April 2007. Accessed 11 February 2009. 

Popper, K. (1992). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Popular Media vs Scientific Journal
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esults suggest that heavy multitaskers underperformed because their brains are unable to filter out irrelevant stimuli (why). The where question or the research coverage was addressed by the psychological research account but was already left out by the popular media article. The answers to most of the basic questions are already covered by the abstract of the psychological research which can be found in the first page. As such, in a glance, you can have access to the gist of information gathered by this empirical work. On the other hand, the answers to these basic research questions are gradually unraveled as you read along the popular media article.

On the Structure

The primary source article follows the usual format of a research report. It has an abstract on the first page, an introduction, clear and detailed objectives, narration of the results and discussion. One can also read about how the…


Gorlick, a. & Hubbard, J. (2009). Multitasking works? Not really, Stanford study shows.

Retrieved from  on October 4, 2009.

Nachmias, C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.

London: St. Martin's Press Inc.

Participatory Research An Approach With
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By taking this approach, not only will diabetes research be more ethical in its construction, but it will also help break down community barriers that create resistance and fear towards the health care systems, provide care to the economically disadvantaged, and thus act as a force for social change and good.

The example of diabetes treatment and research is an excellent example of research that is vital and important to a community, pertains to cultural acts and rituals like food are affected by social circumstances like the availability to exercise, and shows that a participatory approach is not merely theoretical but realistic in the field. Park's theoretical endorsement of research as a co-creative act with a potential to create social justice is not limited to health care education, but religious education as well. Elizabeth Conde-Frazier discusses how the participatory approach can bridge cultural differences even in the intractable field of…

Works Cited

Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth. (Summer 2006). "Participatory Action Research: Practical

Theology for Social Justice." Religious Education.. Retrieved 24 Feb 2007 a t 

Park, P. (1993). "What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective." In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall and T. Jackson (Eds.). Voices of change (pp. 1-19). Westport. Conn: Bergin & Garvey.

The Role of Community-Based Participatory Research: Creating Partnerships, Improving

Is it Possible to Blend Qualitative Approaches
Words: 869 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57557554
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Managing Different Perspectives in the Literature

One of the strengths of qualitative literature -- as well as one of its frustrations -- is its innate subjectivity. Different authors may present the reader with different approaches, both of which can be equally valid and still be characterized as qualitative. The variety of perspectives offered on qualitative research from diverse sources allows the individual researcher to tailor his or her approach to the specific subject of his or her research study. Unlike a quantitative, statistical approach which requires passing certain mathematical tests to be valid, the validity of a qualitative approach depends on the needs of the specific study. For example, for a primarily narrative qualitative study that is merely designed to showcase experiences, having a research question might not be particularly useful. However, for a grounded theory approach, a research question would likely be required to focus the research process and…


Creswell, J. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Sage.

Maxwell, J. Designing a qualitative study. Retrieved from:

Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
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Counselling Theories

Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach

There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).

Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…


Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-

Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.

Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications

from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.

National Regional Approach to Innovation Donna
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Baran and Sweezy agreed with Veblen's primary thesis about the "subdued conflict between workmanship and salesmanship," in which workmanship is being pursued in the interests of sales of often superfluous goods rather than those that are socially necessary. Baran and Sweezy went so far as to say that Veblen's view of the matter (published in 1923) "as a description of the situation in the 1950s and 1960s... is 100 per cent on target." (O'Hara, Anthony, 2004)

Under monopoly capitalism, true innovation, according to Veblen, is often separated from sales and profit. The engineers produce innovations that can be used by the whole community and the capitalists often destroy technological progress. Baran and Sweezy stress the sabotage of this industry by businesses wasting capitalism such as planned obsolescence, where engineers design a product, light globes, and other commodities that will break down after a certain length of time or use. Another…


Fahrer, Marion. (2005, February 1). "The innovation outlook: Graham Fletcher, a senior executive with IBM, one of the world's leading technology originators, examines the latest technologies and those ahead, as a new on-demand era of innovation emerges.(Innovation Supplement)," Journal of Banking and Financial Services.

O'Hara, Phillip Anthony;Sherman, Howard Jay. (2004, December 1) "Veblen and Sweezy on monopoly capital, crises, conflict, and the state.," Journal of Economic


Report shows Europe has trouble narrowing economic gap with United States," AP

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…


Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.

Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography in Forensic
Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 82013039
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altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.

Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).

Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.

Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.

Publishe Infomation:

The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.

Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…

references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.

Ecological Approaches Provide a Strong
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According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)

Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…


Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.

Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.

Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469

Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.

Five Approaches and Theory
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ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch

Five Approaches and Theory

Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:

Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory

Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…


Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved: 

Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

Therapeutic Theories and Approaches
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Morgan's Case Study

Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…


Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: 

Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.

Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.

Debate Between Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Approaches to Morphology
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persuade the audience using the scientific method, experimentation and data. There are two typical approaches this may take: the syntagmatic approach or the paradigmatic approach. Within the former, there is a systematic assignment of structure that is designed to logically allow for cognition of the hypothesis under consideration, while the paradigmatic approach looks at the interrelationships between events and actors throughout the entire text. Using the syntagmatic approach one categorizes themes, data sets, and variables to aid in the understanding of the materials. Using the paradigmatic approach, the reader is taken through chronology and events and then asked to make assumptions and connections between causality (Blevins, n.d.).

Paradigms, of course, are models that help us understand broader concepts and constructs. Author Blevins points out that there are a number of units that constitute paradigms, and it is dependent upon which types are linked through structures and organization that make them…

Inductive and Deductive Approaches to
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2006, p. 1054). I said to myself 'if I had a new ca, I would have less ca poblems.' While my paents had always judged the value of a ca based upon its pice and esale value, my intepetation of my own memoy and expeiences was slightly diffeent, which coloed my decision-making about puchasing a new ca: I ecalled having to have my used ca towed late at night, because it had boken down on a highway.

The moe I thought about the subject, the moe inductive athe than deductive easoning came to dominate my decision-making. I used data fom the immediate maket envionment and my pesonal expeiences. 'Anchoing' is maket phenomenon that descibes the tendency to make the same o simila decisions, based upon pevious decisions that yielded positive ewads, but in my case, the anchoing effect was elatively low egading a used ca (Hoeffle et al. 2006, p.216).…

references for beer." Psychological

Science, 17. (12) 1054-1058. Retrieved April 30, 2010 at

Behaviorism and Neo behaviorism Approaches
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Neo-behaviorism and Classical S-R Behaviorism

Behaviorism is regarded as an approach in the field of psychology that emphasizes the significant role of environmental factors in shaping people’s behavior. This approach of psychology emphasizes that environmental factors influence behavior more than intrinsic or genetic factors. Based on this school of thought, all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment and therefore focuses on stimulus-response behaviors. The behaviorist movement has attracted several varying perspectives among different psychologists including John Watson’s classical S-R behaviorism. Classical S-R behaviorism is an approach that postulates that all psychological functions can be explained through observable, overt, and measurable muscular movements, nerve impulses, and glandular secretions (Moore, 2011).

However, classical S-R behaviorism has attracted considerable criticism from various psychologists on the premise that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C.…

Communication an Ethical Approach to
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S.-based company is indeed confronted with a dilemma.

To remain competitive and ensure the survival of the enterprise, key expatriate executives are being compelled to engage in business practices that are deemed unethical in many parts of the West, but are an accepted way of doing business in other countries. To make matters even more serious and complicated for these U.S. enterprises, the Federal Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other recent legislation prohibits American companies from bribing officials of foreign governments. In response to a series of corporate bribery scandals involving foreign government officials during the 1970s, the FCPA was enacted in 1977 following inquiries by the U.S. Senate and the Securities and Exchange Commission, at which time Congress became concerned that disclosures of corrupt corporate practices seriously undermined public confidence in the business community and harmed America's image abroad (Diersen, 1999).

Clearly, though, the legislation has not had all…

Sociobiology Offers an Evolutionary Approach to Human
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Sociobiology offers an evolutionary approach to human behavior and psychology. The fundamental tenet of sociobiology is that psychological traits have adaptive functions and are often embedded in DNA. Psychological traits, like physical features, are passed down through the generations. Some traits will manifest with greater likelihood than others, and thus, traits evolve in a process of natural selection. The intellectual roots of sociobiology stem from the theory of evolution in biology, as well as from sociology and anthropology. The study of sociobiology originated with Wilson, who also refers to the field as behavioral ecology (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000). Methodologies include biological and genetics research, as well as the methods of data collection employed in the social sciences such as observation. To avoid complications with longitudinal studies and long-range data collection, sociobiologists use frequency models including those resembling game theory (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000).

Sociobiology is concerned more with how and…


Driscoll, C. (2013). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: 

Wilson, E.O. (2000). Sociobiology. Belknap.

Philosophical Roots in Husserl's Approach
Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 23487212
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Empathy and rapport with subject has to be profound, particularly where the researcher may have a priori thoughts or personal stakes with the matter at hand. If the latter exists, it may be better that she not do the research.

Analysis of the research can be somewhat daunting given the vast amount of material (interview notes, tape-recording, jottings etc.) generated by the interviews. The way one goes about this is via a brief cursory reading of the material, roughly identifying key themes and points. One then aggregates these key themes in a set of notes and organizes them with the aid of (for instance) a mind-map or post-it notes so that they become points that one then uses to review the original material again and add to or modify in order to assess whether what one has noted is correct and complete (Hycner, 1985).

Nonetheless, analysis can still be tricky…

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenolgoical research methods. Sage Pub. CA

Shea, C. (1999). The practical art of suicide assessment. Hoboken, U.S.

Wann, TW. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology. Univ. Chicago: Chicago.

Decoding Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for
Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64881066
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Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead

Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…


Alexander, A.W., Anderson, H.G., Heilman, P.C., Voeller, K.K.S., & Torgesen, J.K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193-206.

Carver, R.P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of research and theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cooper, N. (1999). Literacy today: Phonics fun. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from Literacy Trust Website: .

Dias, K. & Juniper, L. (2002). Phono-Graphix - who needs additional literacy support? An outline of research in Bristol schools. Support for learning, 17(1).

Using a Qualitative Approach
Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56533414
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negative life outcomes for inner city children, in terms of their physical, psychological, emotional, and social growth. My research will attempt to determine the extent to which crime, lack of strong public schools, the prevalence of single-mother households, and other environmental conditions have an impact upon child development. My dissertation will take a qualitative, grounded theory approach. In the grounded theory approach, a theory about the study participants' experience is created inductively, rather than deductively. In other words, I will interview my study subjects and by coding their responses to semi-structured inquiries, I will develop a theory based upon those responses regarding the experiences of childhood development in inner cities.

My subjects will be drawn from schools which are located within urban areas and have had challenges regarding student academic performance and dropout rates. Students, parents, and teachers from these representative communities will be interviewed. With the grounded theory approach,…


Trochim, W. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved from: 

Using NVivo for qualitative data analysis. (2014). Stanford University. Retrieved from:

Different Approaches to Studying the Holy Bible
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Bible in the Life of the Church Today

Today, the Holy Bible remains the mainstay of Christian churches around the world, but there remains a debate over its precise role in the life of the church. To help determine the facts in this debate, this paper reviews a series of selected essays surrounding the nature of the Bible and its use in the modern Christian church. This review includes a synopsis and description of the structure of each article, the main points of interest and an analysis concerning the extent to which the authors succeeded in conveying these main points. Finally, a description of the author's methodology and an assessment concerning the validity of each author's arguments is followed by an evaluation of their effectiveness in communicating their main themes and a summary of the research and important findings regarding the main themes addressed in these articles are provided in…


Anderson, B.W. 'Tradition and Scripture in the Community of Faith' in The Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 100, No.1 (March 1981), pp 5-21

Martens, E. A. "What Have They Done to the Bible? A History of Modern Biblical Interpretation." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 382-385.

Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Paul, M. "Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture, by Frances Young" in Shofar, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 147.

Value of the Traditional Managerial Approach to
Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63911420
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value of the traditional managerial approach to public administration?




Providing for political representation in public administration

Which of the following best describes "externalities"?

They are profits

They are always in the public interests

They are costs absorbed by the manufacturers of products

They are created by economic activities but not accounted for in market transactions

The judiciary's power to dispense with the harsh application of law is known as:


Equal protection



Comprehensively provides for federal and state administration

Comprehensively provides for federal administration

c. Contains no provisions for public administration

None of the above

Which of the following is not associated with the traditional managerial approach to public administration?

a. Max Weber

b. Paul Appleby

c. Woodrow Wilson

d. Frederick Taylor

6. Public Administration resembles private management in that:

a. It is profit-seeking

b. It regulates the public at large

c. It provides services…


Fanning, Fred. (n.d.). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results? Best of the Best Newsletter. Retrieved: 

Fessler, Pam. (2012). Struggling families lift themselves out of poverty. NPR. Retrieved:

Features of Positivist Criminology Positivist Criminology Uses
Words: 1925 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73017725
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Features of Positivist Criminology

Positivist criminology uses scientific research (primarily quantitative, laboratory, empirical experiment) to investigate the causes of crime and deviant behavior. Positivist criminology posits that the roots of deviancy are located in the physical, genetic, psychological or biological makeup of the individual and the individual, consequently, is not held accountable (or is faintly held accountable) for his deeds. Use of instruments, statistics, classification, and similar scientific instruments are used in this branch of study.

Positivist criminology is the opposite of classical criminology which sees the criminal as responsible for his actions and able to reform would he so wish. The school is closely identified with the behaviorist way of thinking, which ignores mentalism (i.e. beliefs, values, and meanings) and sees individuals as tied to external dictates of action (as, for instance, that one's environment impels one to act in a certain way; free-will is omitted from the equation).…


Coleman C & Norris C (2000) Introducing criminology, Cullomption: Wilan

Jones, T. (207) Theoretical criminology. Sage: USA

Williams KS (2008) Criminology. Oxford: UK

Newburn, T. (2008) Criminology. Willan: Cullomption.

Political Inquiry
Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 34320208
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Political Inquiry

Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive

Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).

In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…

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Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.

deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.

Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

Science Critical Examination of the
Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12853812
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The differences between the empirical inductivist approach to science and the Popperian one are immense. Based on induction, the former approach is thesis to Popper's antithesis. The Popperian approach is a response to and a rejection of the value of induction in the scientific process. This rejection pits these two approaches against one another. In the end, while the empirical inductivist approach does have some value and has a long tradition of function to back it up, this is not the same as saying that it is a rigidly scientific approach to scientific inquiry. In this case, the Popperian approach provides us with a clearer division between theories that are and are not scientific.

orks Cited

Dolhenty, J. (2005). A basic introduction to the methods of science -- part 1. The Radical Academy. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at

McKinlay, S. (1998). The problem of induction: an analysis and critique…

Works Cited

Dolhenty, J. (2005). A basic introduction to the methods of science -- part 1. The Radical Academy. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at 

McKinlay, S. (1998). The problem of induction: an analysis and critique of Sir Karl Popper's view of induction. Ontic. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at

Popper, K.R. (1963). Science as falsification. The Unofficial Stephen Jay Gould Archive. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at

Siegel, D.M. (2001, October 19). Demonstration experiments: beyond the talking head. History of Science Society. Retrieved November 7, 2005, at

Positivist Theory of Crime Lombroso
Words: 1786 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72636028
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Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso

Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory

The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.

Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)

Three Types of Positivism

Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…


Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: 

Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: 

Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from:

Field of Organizational Behavior
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Behavior Management

Scientific management can best be defined as a method for conducting business operations by implementing a scientific approach to a company's business practices. Scientific management is normally associated with the methodology used by manufacturing companies who employed assembly line workers on a large scale. The methodology emphasized the manner in which the employees were employed, especially concentrating on labor, time and measurement of performance of each employee. Early scientific management methods were also implemented in other areas (outside of manufacturing) such as; the railroads. One article states "that scientific management techniques were far more widespread in railroading than has been thought" (Aldrich, 2010, p. 503) and then went on to explain that "while most studies of scientific management in industry have emphasized incentive pay and time studies, in the railroads there were less important than standardization, production scheduling and routing, and assembly line repair methods" (Aldrich, p. 503).…


Aldrich, M.; (2010) On the track of efficiency: Scientific management comes to railroad shops, 1900 -- 1930, Business History Review, Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 501 -- 526

Koll, S.; (2009) Is bureaucracy compatible with democracy?, South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 134-145

Psychology it Has Intended to Be a
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psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.

Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.

There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…


Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.

Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.

Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.

Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Durkheim and His Study of Suicide
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Durkheim and the Study of Suicide

Emile Durkheim was primarily interested in how societies could remain coherent and integrated in present times when shared religious and ethnic background can no longer be relied on (Wikipedia 2005). Along with Herbert Spencer, he set the first scientific approaches to social phenomena that focused on social facts, instead of individual motivation. Durkheim suggested that social phenomena existed apart, independently and more objectively of individual actions and that these phenomena could be explained by other social facts other than society's, for example, climatic or ecological adaptation. This belief later came to be known as functionalism (Wikipedi).

His work, "The Division of Labor in Society," published in 1893, examined the different types of society, particularly the division of labor and how this division different between traditional and modern societies (Wikipedia 2005). He suggested a view that reversed the order of evolution among societies from a…


1. Elwell F.W. (2003). Emile durkheim's sociology. Rogers State University. 

2. Gingrich, P. (1999). Social factors and suicide. University of Regina.

3. Hewlett School (2005). Durkheim's anomie. Crime and Deviance.

4. -- . Emile durkheim: the person.