" (How is it diagnosed?)
The second theory that has support among medical practitioners is that "...postnatal external pressures are exerted on the spine after birth, perhaps due to an infant being positioned on his/her back for extended periods of time in the crib." (How is it diagnosed?) This theory is supported by the high incidence of this condition in Europe where there is a tradition of carrying infants on the back.
Another view of the cause of this condition that is attracting attention is that scoliosis is largely genetically determined. This is supported by the view that this condition tends to occur within certain families; which suggests the possibility of a genetic component. This view is also supported by research that suggests that the gene that leads to scoliosis has been discovered. A recent report states that a defect in a certain gene known as CHD7 can lead to,…… [Read More]
The parents should also be informed about relevant data related to the risk factors involved with the diagnosis of scoliosis.
Second, the patient should be monitored over the next year. If the scoliosis shows no sign of improving or has worsened, then treatment interventions may be warranted. The most effective treatment intervention for adolescent scoliosis is bracing. "Bracing appears to prevent about 20% to 40% of appropriately braced curves from progressing 6° or more," (sher & Burton, 2006). Using a brace will prevent the scoliosis from worsening, which could entail more dangerous interventions like surgery.
Utilization of the Nursing Process
Consultation with the patient and family ensures that treatment proceeds in an honest and ethical manner. The family should be aware of treatment interventions that do not work and which could also be harmful, such as "chiropractic care, biofeedback and electric stimulation, "(Reamy & Slakey, 2001). Working with the patient…… [Read More]
disease (coliosis ) (name, location, pathophysiology)
coliosis is actually a derivative of the ancient Greek term skoliosis "obliquity, bending" (Online Etymology Dictionary)
coliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine looking somewhat like the letter C. Or . And affects approximately 7 million people in the United tates (coliosis Research ociety website). It is most common during childhood and particularly in girls.
coliosis is called different names depending on the stage of development that it hits.
In children aged 3-4, it is called infantile scoliosis
In children age 4-10, it is called juvenile scoliosis.
In adolescents (or kids age 11 -- 18) naturally it is called adolescent scoliosis.
coliosis most affects females and the curving generally increases during the growth spurt. It is most similar to Kyphoscoliosis which is another abnormal curvature of the spine but Kyphoscoliosis or Kyphosis (for short) is distinct form scoliosis in that its representation is…… [Read More]
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]
In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.
On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…… [Read More]
This became more so with the advancement of molecular iology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent elgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the erlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the erlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…… [Read More]
defects that can affect the vertebral column, some clinically serious, others that can be corrected by surgery and still others that denigrates the affected individual's lifestyle to a high degree. Such deformities and maladies as spina bifada, scoliosis and chordoma can all be debilitating on the individual. Due to the complexity of the vertebral column, it is often difficult to diagnosis and treat many of the afflictions that present in many patents. One recent study determined that "due to the sporadic occurrence of congenital vertebral malformations, traditional linkage approaches to identify genes associated with human vertebral development are not possible" (Giampietro, Raggio, Reynolds, Shukla, McPherson, Ghebranious, Jacobsen, Kumar, Faciszeski, Pauli, Rasmussen, Burmester, Zaleski, Merchant, David, eber, Glurich, Blank, 2005, p. 448). Of course, that particular study was conducted almost a decade ago and great strides have been made since that time, but it is still a very difficult maneuver to…… [Read More]
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]
This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett
A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.
Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide
Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.
First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999
Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well
Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages
A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder
Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide
Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person
Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months
Unexplained…… [Read More]
The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.
In most cases, the patient gets…… [Read More]
More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.
Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate…… [Read More]
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]
controversy persists concerning the use of medicinal marijuana for patients with debilitating and/or terminal diseases such as HIV / AIDS, cancer, Crohn's, etc. According to the Associated ress, states such as California, Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington (state) are all in favor of medicinal marijuana, although the federal government retains ultimate power to enforce federal laws concerning marijuana, its growth, and the use thereof. Many state political authorities argue that the federal government should not have the power to "bust" marijuana users who grow the drug, if the user(s) is/are prescribed the drug by his/her doctor. As only one-fifth of the states of the United States have voiced an opinion on the issue, the states that have, offer many seemingly legitimate reasons why the issue should be left in the hands of each individual state, while the federal government argues that it should maintain control.…… [Read More]
Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.
Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.
Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.
Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.
Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…… [Read More]
The Hearing officer was presented with two separate and different plans for providing an education for the Student. In arriving at his decision, he did not decide between these competing plans. He found that task would have been difficult if not impossible, partly because of the lack of research on Rett Syndrome. He found instead that the law required him only to decide whether or not the plan put forth by the School District would be reasonably calculated to provide educational benefit to the Student. In other words, the question regarding the standard was whether there was a preponderance of evidence that the program the School District offered (a) would provide an educational benefit for the student, or (b) would be reasonably calculated to provide an educational benefit to the Student. The Hearing Officer decided that because of the difficulty in deciding which program was better, the Parents' or…… [Read More]
Nursing Personal Statement
It took me a while to understand what a seizure really was. To my five-year-old mind it just meant that Faye, my aunt, writhed and convulsed spastically for several minutes at a time. It also meant that she might die, my mom told me, and I had to look out for Faye and make sure she didn't fall. I believe that I became a nurse when I was five years old, caring for my aunt during her illness and helping her to life a fulfilling life in spite of it.
I, too, have lived a fulfilling life in spite of a potentially dangerous disease. When I was diagnosed with severe curvature of the spine, scoliosis, at the age of fifteen I faced a surgical procedure that could have left me completely paralyzed. I had more than one nurse doting over me in the hospital: from the one…… [Read More]
Hence, genetic factors underlie the stability or continuity of psychological traits.
Mutations play a vital role in genetics, although they cause different disorders living things. Sometimes heredity causes disorders that affect the normal genetic development. Genetic processes control how humans develop from a single cell to adult human beings. Genes control the nervous system cells, and re-growth of skin and hair cells. Genes make humans dynamic organisms capable of development, growth and change.
Parents pass most genes to the children, at birth through genetic inheritance processes. At conception egg and sperm combines and each has unique characteristics from the parent. Each has 23 chromosomes, with threadlike structures in the nucleus with genetic material. The chromosomes combine producing 23 chromosomes (autosomes). The 23rd chromosome is the X or Y chromosome, either determines the sex of the child. The chromosomes have deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), which have chemical compounds that cause…… [Read More]
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…… [Read More]
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?
Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).
What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?
Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…… [Read More]
In 1896, the pediatrician Dr. Antoine Bernard-Jean Marfan described the exceptionally long, slender limbs and physique of a 5-year-old girl, Gabrielle P., in front of the Medical Society of the Hospital of Paris (Enersen). It is unknown whether Gabrielle P. actually suffered from what is now known to be Marfan syndrome, but Dr. Henricus Jacubus Marie eve was recognized as the first person to use the term 'Marfan syndrome' to describe this common genetic disorder.
In the decades leading up to Dr. eve's use of Marfan syndrome to describe a patient's symptoms in 1931, other physicians had begun to document their encounters with this disease with the benefit of radiological images (Enersen). Drs. Henri Mery and Leon Baonneix studied Gabrielle P. anew using this new technology in 1902 and noted a misaligned spine, thoracic asymmetry, long digits, cardiovascular abnormalities, and dislocation of the ocular lens. During the same…… [Read More]
Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, And isks
As one of the oldest treatment modalites, the therapeutic effects of heat have been experienced for several hundred years. In order to use heat in the treatment of deep muscle injury, diathermy treatment is the therapy of choice. Diathermy uses high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heating results in pain relief, increased blood flow, and increased flexibility. esearch has demonstrated evidence both for and against the effectiveness of diathermy treatment. Attention must be given, however, to risk factors predisposing some patients to serious adverse effects due to diathermy treatment.
Diathermy: Uses, benefits, and risks
Diathermy refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heat increases the flow of blood to the area, which in turn, speeds up recovery. The term diathermy is a derivative of the Greek words therma, meaning heat, and dia, meaning through. Therefore,…… [Read More]
Stress in the Workplace
The research topic under discussion is Stress at Workplace. Stress comes with different definitions, one of which is that stress is a 'physical, chemical or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension.' Emotional stress relates to job burnout, tension and strain and many scholars have called it a psychological process and linked it with the individual and the situation that he is in (American Psychological Association, 2009). The global economy has become very competitive and demands a lot of work from the employees which puts a lot of pressure on them. These increased expansions and demands of the traditional workplace have put a lot more pressure on the workers (Lokk & Arnetz, 1997; Soylu and Campbell, 2012).
The International Labor Organization and World Health Organization have recognized many different effects of stress that are harmful to the person. These effects include physical problems, psychological problems,…… [Read More]
According to Gutmann et al. (2017) neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions whereby tumors grow in the nervous system. These conditions are neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis. It is considered to be a genetic disorder of the nervous system. Neurofibromatosis mainly affects the development and growth of nerve cell tissue. The tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous systems including spinal cord, brain, and nerves. These tumors are mostly noncancerous, however, there have been instances when they do become cancerous. The most common condition is NF1. Schwannomatosis is the most recent and it is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. Little is known about schwannomatosis.
NF1 manifests at birth or in early childhood. It is characterized by multiple café-au-lait (light brown) spots that are concentrated in the groin and underarms (Gutmann et al., 2017). It is also manifested by benign tumors under the skin.…… [Read More]