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iblical passages - interpretation
Romans 8:28 This scripture emphasizes the fact that people are more likely to improve their personal condition as long as they concentrate on loving God and being faithful to Him while living their lives. One can assume that the passage is meant to say that individuals who fail to acknowledge the importance of praising God are going to worsen their condition. As a consequence, people apparently need to change in order to experience better lives.
Romans 10:17 This scripture is intended to provide people with the chance to understand that they need to interact with the divine on a more frequent basis in order to be able to truly become believers. A more complex message might relate to how people need to be able to understand exactly what God expects from them in order to effectively become Christians. As long as one fails to understand…
"English Standard Version (ESV Bible)," Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/English-Standard-Version-ESV-Bible/
Their methods also include a great deal of logical reasoning as well as faith-based interpretation, all of which are appropriate means of engaging in investigations and forming conclusions in relation to scripture. The evidence that the authors used also seemed to be fairly accurate, insofar as it was verifiable; the Biblical passages cited were definitely on point, and many interpretations and criticisms that the authors cited seemed familiar and reliable. The fact that much of the book is argumentative and based on logical conclusions adds to the appearance of accuracy in the text, and the authors unquestionably manage to convince the readers of their conclusions. The evidence itself highly supports the author's conclusions, but it is more so the way in which this evidence is presented to the reader and the degree of logical certainty that seems an inherent part of their argument that is especially convincing, as the evidence…
Pinnock, C. & Callen, B. (2006). The Scripture Principle: Reclaiming the Full Authority of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.
" In fact, he and others instead see the gospel as a condemnation of the Jews who chose insurrection. Mark saw the choice between Barabbas and Jesus, as it was told and not necessarily as it happened, as one that symbolized the dramatic fate awaiting Jerusalem.
In Greek, the technical term for such a rebel bandit is lestes, and that is exactly what Barabbas is called. He was a bandit, a rebel, an insurgent, a freedom fighter - depending always, of course, on your point-of-view." (Crossan, 143.)
He continues to relate the story of Pilate's choice, one of either Barabbas or Jesus, to not the hatred of the Jews but instead to the historical realities of the day, those from which the Markan author was distinctly temporally separated.
But Mark was written soon after the terrible consummation of the First Roman-Jewish War in 70 C.E., when Jerusalem and its Temple…
St. Iranaeus of Lyons. Against the Heresies. New York: Newman Press, 1991.
Rhoads, David M. Mark As Story. London: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 1999.
Schnelle, Udo. The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.
Moral Theology and Scripture
The Second Vatican Council stated that scripture should be the soul of moral theology. This study will discuss and illustrate how scripture can be properly used in moral theology. According to the work of Curran (1999) Catholic moral theology "has only recently begun to ask explicit questions about the use of Scripture in moral theology. In the manuals of moral theology before Vatican II the primary source of moral wisdom and knowledge was human reasons and the Scriptures were often used in a very uncritical way primarily as proof texts to support a point that was grounded in human reason." (p.49) Curran reports as an example of this "uncritical use of Scripture" is the question concerning killing an individual when that individual threatens one's life. It is reported that it has been proposed by "some manualiststhat one could, as a last resort, kill a person who…
Blankenhorn, B (2007) Two Paradigms of Catholic Moral Theology. Retrieved from: http://www.blessed-sacrament.org/twoparadigms.htm
Curran, C. (nd) The Role and Function of the Scriptures in Moral Theology.
Curran, CE (1999) The Catholic Moral Tradition Today: A Synthesis. Georgetown University Press. 5 Apr 1999. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books ?id=HlrI8btG2wEC&dq=how+scripture+can+be+properly+used+in+moral+theology.&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Faith and Culture in Conversation: Another Theologian at Work.(2010) Australian eJournal of Theology 16.1. Retrieved from: http://aejt.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/436107/AEJT_16_BR_1.pdf
Argument from Scripture: God's existence cannot be proven by the presence of the concept of God within the text of the Holy Scriptures
Does God exist? Some would argue that this is the most fundamental question posed by any religion. However, even this assertion is somewhat problematic, since this assumption of God as a unified, theologically cohesive being that intervenes, but sometimes does not intervene in worldly affairs is itself problematic and a cultural construction of the major estern traditions of religious thought. There are those who would appeal to scripture for a proof of God's existence, such as the Catholic theologian and saint Anselm, who said that because scripture and the human mind could conceive of a 'something greater' existing, therefore it must exist. In other words, because the higher ideal of God was recorded in the Bible, filtered through the less perfect collective consciousness of the…
Kent, T. "Anselm." (2004) The Catholic Encyclopedia. [Available online]
Lataste, J. "Pascal." (2004) The Catholic Encyclopedia. [Available online]
Faith, Tradition, And Scripture
Lewis played an integral part in spreading the Christian faith in the 20th century. His numerous works have explored the ideas of Faith, Tradition, and Scripture and helped identify what it means to be a Christian. And yet the Church has always taught according to Sacred Faith and Sacred Tradition -- these two being the guiding lights of the Magisterium. Even the Second Vatican Council has stated, "Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church" (Dei Verbum). Faith, Tradition, and Scripture, therefore, play an integral role in the formation of Christian identity and culture. This paper will analyze the Faith, Tradition, Scripture formula and show how it has developed through the centuries.
The Deposit of Faith
Vernon Staley (1894) states that "it is upon the authority of the Church, and upon that alone, that we know…
Lewis, C.S. (2001). Mere Christianity. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
New Revised Standard Version Bible. (2009). New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Canonical Scriptures: Development of Christianity
There were a number of decisions that were made in the forming of the canonical scriptures as they appear today. These decisions were largely based on the events that took place in the first four centuries of the development of Christianity (Noll, 2012, p.66). Additionally, since it was during this time period that the administration, circumscription, and focus of Christianity was actually developing, concerns related to these matters played a profound impact upon the selection of scriptures which reinforced this religion. In this way, the role of the canonical scriptures was designed specifically to reinforce and, in many cases, actually prove some of the key points of Christianity. Thus, the reason and rationale for the canonical scriptures was to both solidify and buttress important ecclesiastical and pragmatic concerns regarding the way Christianity is practiced.
In terms of the ecclesiastic or spiritual elements of Christianity, certain…
Noll, M. (2012). Turning points: Decisive moments in the history of Christianity. (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. ISBN-13: 9780801039966 (Available as print text only)
Oppenheimer, M. (2011). Focusing on the Jewish story of the New Testament. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/26/us/a-jewish-edition-of-the-new-testament-beliefs.html?_r=0
Shelley, B. (2008). Church history in plain language (3rd ed.). Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. ISBN-13: 9780718025533 (Available as print text only)
Indeed, it is as if the U.S. Congress or president were to decide what constituted Christian doctrine and scripture, and everyone went along at the peril of their lives, according to idstrup.
The result of the ible's origins as selected parts of whole bodies of scripture, written by at least a hundred and fifty different people in dozens of different places at different times, many centuries apart, and for different reasons, colors what its authors wrote. However, that simple fact is widely ignored, both by people who naively follow what they read in it as the inerrant word of God, and by more liberal scholastic theologians, who seek to understand its historical context as well as a body of doctrinal scripture, which they often blindly follow, even though they know full well its messy origins. (idstrup, 2001)
As a result, the scripture basis for Christianity is much more varied than…
Dominguez, J. (2004) Religions in China: Taoism. www.religion-cults.com.
Armstrong, Karen, "A History of God" New York: Ballantine Books, 1993, pp. 10-11.
Refuge-Outreach.com. (2001). Taoism. www.refuge-outreach.com.
Mack, Burton L., "Who Wrote the New Testament?" New York: Harper Collins, 1996, p. 40.
Orthodoxy and the Establishment of the Canon
The fact that the early leading churches, from Antioch to Alexandria to Rome, were separated by many miles and had their own issues and problems that were directly addressed in letters (that would go on to be recognized as part of the Sacred canon of Scripture) surely played a part in the difficulty that arose when the Gnostics and other heretical sects began to interact with the looseness of the organization. It was, however, this challenge that established the need for a Church-recognized official canon of Scripture. Identifying the precise "principle" that went into the "selection of the New Testament writings and their recognition as Divine" is one challenge that even theologians throughout history have been divided upon.[footnoteRef:1] Some early Church Fathers based the divine source of Scriptures upon their Apostolic origin, recognizing their writers as being in the same vein as the…
Green, Bradley. Shapers of Christian Orthodoxy. IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 2010.
Irenaus, "Against Heresies," Gnosis.org. Web. 1 Jun 2016.
Kruger, Michael. Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New
Testament. IL: Crossway, 2012.
Israelite history and religion from the patriarchal period to the second temple contains a number of covenants, laws, prophecies, moral lessons, relations with Canaanite culture and larger empires like the Roman Empire (which eventually tore down the second temple under Titus). The history of the Israelites is contained within the pages of the Hebrew Bible or the scripture of the Old Testament, as Christians call it. This information reveals an evolution of a group of people and their relationship with their God as well as with other peoples in the areas where they settle. It contains extraordinary depictions of covenants between God and man, such as the Adamic covenant, that Abrahamic covenant, the Mosaic covenant, and the Davidic covenant. To Moses, the books of the Hebrew Bible tell us, God gave a set of laws -- 10 Commandments -- that the Israelites were meant to follow, and based on these…
Brown (1994) offers an astute Christological analysis via a close and critical reading of scripture. A close reading allows for the contextualization of each Gospel, to resolve issues like conflicting or inconsistent imagery and anecdotes. With inconsistencies between the Gospels, it becomes imperative to piece together Jesus's core intentions and the meanings behind both His words and His actions. The need to understand scripture historically and linguistically is also apparent in the Brown analysis. In fact, Brown (1994) also points out the importance of historical and cultural context in interpreting Scripture. For example, attributions of "magical action," which is beyond "miracle," corresponds with the Greek "miracle worker" stories during the time Scripture was being codified (Brown, 1994, p. 35). Brown notes that the Gospel portrayal of Jesus's miracles was indeed qualitatively different from either magical powers attributed to Greek "miracle workers" or to similar Levantine pagan concepts.
It may also…
Belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist is rooted explicitly in Scripture, while the devotion known as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament was not practiced until the early 14th century (McBrien). hile the belief in Christ presence will forever remain a part of the deposit of faith as a Tradition, the tradition of Benediction may disappear without consequence (McBrien).
The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation teaches that Scripture and Tradition form one sacred deposit of revelation and that Tradition encompasses the "whole life, witness, teaching and worship of the church," thus Tradition is a living, dynamic reality that "develops in the church with the help of the Holy Spirit" (McBrien).
According to Catholic theologians, Tradition is never independent of Scripture, therefore is something is not found in Scripture, then it is not in Tradition, even if it is a legitimate tradition of the Church (McBrien).
Catechism of the Catholic Church. Preparation for Internet by Charles Borromeo Parish,
Mississippi. Retrieved June 10, 2006 at http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3.htm
Divine Tradition and Sacred Scriptures. The Augustine Club at Columbia University.
1999. Retrieved June 10, 2006 at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/a/sola_scriptura.html
Describe an experience of faith in your own life where you were aware of an encounter with God. How does this encounter illustrate some of the concepts which Haight and arth bring out in their chapters on faith?
Encountering God, if one is lucky, is possible at any time. The unknown nature of spirituality, combined with the material presence of existence, necessitates a faith of some sort. There are many theological and philosophical views that pertain to varying ideas of faith. Haight (2001) interpreted faith as a symbolic, yet personal journey that leads to many benefits for those seeking spiritual guidance. He additionally believed that all of humanity is destined to come to some understanding of faith. I can appreciate this interpretation in my own personal experiences dealing with God and theology. For me, symbolism represents the unknown and helps me relate what's going on in the real world…
Barth, K. (1959). Dogmatics in Outline. Harper Books.
Dogmatic Constituion on Divine Revelation (1965). Die Verbum.
Gibson, D. (2009). The vatican levies further penalties on Roger Haight, SJ. Commenweal 2 January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealmagazine.org/blog/?p=2644
Haight, R. (2001). Dynamics in Theology.Orbis Books.
Scriptures of James and Hosea
There are a few poignant similarities between the messages in the scriptures of James 2: 8-11 and Hosea 11: 1-3. A thorough analysis of these passages indicates that they each adhere to the same thematic issues and deal with similar subject matter. However, there appears to be a hierarchy in the way that these two scriptures relate to one another. The passage in James sets forth a specific principle in which the passage in Hosea provides an example.
The dominant theme found in the aforementioned verses from James is for individuals to heed the word of God. The word of God is law, and is referenced in this passage as royal law -- which is an allusion to the Ten Commandments. In buttressing this theme, the author of this passage expressly forbids favoritism and keeping some, yet not all, of God's commandments. However, the principle…
Akers, T. (2005). How to read the bible for all its worth. Grace Communion International. Retrieved from http://www.gci.org/book/feestuart
James (1973). James 2: 8-11. www.biblegateway.com Retrieved from http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=James+2&version=NIV
Hosea (1973). Hosea 11: 1-3. www.biblegateway.com. Retrieved from http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Hosea+11%3A1-3&version=NIV
Thomas, R. (1994). Introduction to biblical interpretation. Master's Seminary Journal. Retrieved from http://www.tms.edu/JournalBookReview.aspx?ID=252
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html
Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
"All those ascetics and brahmins who construct systems about the past or the future, or both, who hold theories about both, and who make various assertions about the past and future, are all caught in this net of sixty-two subjects. There they are, though they plunge and plunge about. There they are caught in the net, though they plunge and plunge about." The apparent elaborateness of the scheme becomes clearer when it is analysed. The views fall into two classes, speculations about the past and about the future:
I. There are those who hold views about the beginnings of things in eighteen ways: (1) Some hold in four ways 2 that the self or soul (?tman) and the universe (loka) are eternal. (2) Some hold in four ways that the self and universe are in some respects eternal and in some not.(3) Some hold that the universe is finite, or…
Miller, F.M. editor Davis, T.W.Rhys Translator Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Sutta Pitaka, Digha Nikaya, Brahmajala Sutta, 1956, [electronic version, ND] http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/01-brahmajala-e.html#q-001
Morgan, Kenneth W., ed. The Path of the Buddha Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists. New York: Ronald Press, 1956.
Thomas, Edward J. The History of Buddhist Thought. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1933.
The interpretation of "spiritual truths" can largely influence how a disseminator selects a particular message, and can also be a particular lesson taught to disciples -- to aid them in their own ability to interpret spiritual understanding. This intrinsic sense of what is necessary to be communicated to an audience (Mitchell, 2010) should also be taught to an audience itself, so that it can understand and become closer to the spirit of God -- which is one of the main goals of virtually any disciple-maker's message.
y utilizing the aforementioned sources to impart this particular message -- to help further the understanding of the voice and spirit of God for disciples, so that they may heed and live a life in accordance to it -- it then becomes necessary to utilize the proper form to communicate this message. Of the four most widely used forms of communicating a message (the…
Barna, George. Growing True Disciples: New Strategies for Producing Genuine Followers of Chris.t Colorado Springs: WaterBrook Press. 2001.
Bloomberg, Craig, 1st Corinthians NIV Application Commentary. Michigan: Zondervan. 1995.
ESV Bible. "1 Corinthians 1-2, 2 Peter 1, and Romans 15-18." Crossway. http://www.esvbible.org / (accessed November 10, 2011).
Mitchell, Dr. Michael. Leading, Teaching, and Making Disciples. (Kindle Locations 6432-6459). Bloomington: CrossBooks. 2010. Kindle Edition. Chapter 9
1000 Years of evelation 20:1-6
Evangelical Christian perspective on 1000 years of evelation 20:1-6 (the Millennium)
Evangelical view of the millennium is dependent on hermeneutical approach towards the Bible as a whole, as well as our way of interpreting the book of evelation. Since realized millennialism is at times suspected for not adopting the "literal" approach, this becomes extensively misleading. An evangelical Christian can affirm the literal-nature of Scripture and also recognize all metaphors pertaining to a text, which recognize the fact that all the prophecies of Old Testament were fulfilled by Jesus. Our debate revolves around interpreting Scripture rather than concerning the commitment to Scripture (Jupp, 2009).
The interpretation of evelation 20 in the light of entire counsel of God is imperative as evelation tends to be the only book present in New Testament which discusses millennium. Charles Hodge believes the explanation of obscure passages to be essential in…
Bebbington, D. (2007). Evangelicals and Eschatology in Britain. Unpublished Paper Presented at St. Andrews University.
Benware, P.N. (2006). Understanding End Times Prophesy: A Comprehensive Appoach. Chicago: Moody Publishers.
Hodge, C. (1997). Systematic Theology. Originally published 1872. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
Hoekema, A.A. (1977). Amillennialism. In Robert G. Clouse, ed., The Meaning of the Millennium: Four Views. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity.
After Jefferson incorporated the committee's revisions into a second draft. The committee edited that draft and presented a "fair copy" of this document to Congress, which made more revisions of its own. After printing the document eventually approved by Congress, the printer, Dunlap, probably threw that draft away. (It makes one wonder what the printer was thinking. "Oh, this is just a draft of some nonimportant paper that these guys are writing up. I'm sure they have another one floating around.")
Apparently Dunlap was right, if he actually did think this. Jefferson saved the second draft, that indicated some revisions by Ben Franklin and Adams in their own handwriting, and the changest that Congress made later. This is the document now on display. Jefferson also made six annotated longhand copies of the official congressional draft explaining the ways in which his draft had been "mutilated." (The editor burned by a…
Integrating Faith in usiness
The objective of this work is to describe how it is to work with difficult bosses and to discuss the discoveries made in this present course relating to this specific issue specifically emphasizing iblical principles. This work in writing will deliberate through research and reflection about how the Christian Scriptures and faith relate to the issue of a difficult boss and ways that one can live out the choices and changes in order to work with the difficult boss.
The work of Cohen (2012) addresses what it is like to work with a difficult boss and examines the various types of difficult bosses that exist. Included in these are the following types of difficult bosses: (1) the micromanager; (2) the incompetent; (3) the sabotage; and (4) others. (Cohen, 2012) The micromanager type boss is described as the type of boss that "often believes he's doing the…
Mark, Pastor (nd) How to Work For a Difficult Boss Col. 3:22-25. Hope Fellowship. Retrieved from: http://www.hopefellowship.com/sermons/difficult%20boss.htm
Cohen, Julie (2012) Dealing with a Difficult Boss. Evan Carmichael. Retrieved from: http://www.evancarmichael.com/Work-Life/1763/Dealing-with-a-Difficult-Boss.html
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Calvin also taught that another way God begins to deal with a person to make him/her restless is knowledge.
Under the influence of the Spirit of God, a person is borne upward; traveling upward toward the knowledge of God. Conscience, as far as human understanding reaches, is a source which constitutes the unconditional starting point for the beginning of knowledge of God; for the revelation of Jesus Christ.
For Calvin, "revelation is not immediately revelation of Jesus Christ. But revelation of the harsh judgment of God, although this is certainly finally oriented to Christ."
Basically, Calvin did not have any revelation problem as the center of his theology. He began with the reality that a person is alienated from God, but that God seeks the individual out and entices him/her to a way in which community with God may be discovered again. Calvin argued sin has damaged human reason; that…
Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)
Lewis: A iography
This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.
CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.
In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…
Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.
Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.
C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).
C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.
Structure and Tradition within Catholicism
The concept of Scripture in Catholicism
There was not for all time, a ible. ut when was the time that was 'before scripture', before there was a ible? Without a doubt, in the foggy olden days of the human race, prior to Abraham, prior to the origins of Israel: then there was as thus far no holy scripture. However, when we say 'before scripture', we are talking of the instance of the ible itself. In what we describe 'biblical times', or in a good deal of them, there was as yet no ible (John, 2000).
The people of the ible were, as we at the present see it, occupied in the procedure out of which our ible in the end would materialize, however, they themselves had no ible: at that occasion, evidently, the ible as we recognize it was not at that time there (John,…
John E. Thiel. Senses of Tradition: Continuity and Development in Catholic Faith. Oxford University Press, 2000.
David Brown. Tradition and Imagination: Revelation and Change. Oxford University, 1999.
James Barr. Holy Scripture: Canon, Authority, Criticism. Clarendon Press, 1983.
David Brown. Tradition and Imagination: Revelation and Change. Oxford University, 1999
The process of studying Scripture usually requires and involves more than reading surface text because an individual has to conduct an in-depth study. An in-depth study of text is a necessary process towards understanding the meaning of a passage from Scripture and grasping it fully. In essence, for an individual to gain a rich understanding of the meaning of a passage from a Scripture from different perspectives, it is important to conduct an in-depth study rather than just surface reading of the text. One of the most important aspects of gaining understanding of the meaning of a text is identifying who or what determines the meaning of that passage from the Bible. There are several exegetical methodologies and methods for Biblical interpretation that help in in-depth study of Scripture in order to know its meaning.
There are different methods of Biblical interpretation that are utilized to help…
He describes a battle of the wills in the formation of his faith: "So my two wills, one old, one new, one carnal, one spiritual, were in conflict, and they wasted my soul by their discord" (168). Only when he was listening to Ponticianus describe the monastic joys of serving God in chastity did Augustine see the damage that his carnal indulgences had done to his soul. He saw in his mind's eye that he was "crooked, filthy, spotted, and ulcerous" (173).
Not that the bodily urges did not serve a good purpose as well as an evil one in Augustine's philosophy. Central to his faith was the idea that all things come of God, and that all things that come of God must be good. This includes the senses and their desires. He conceded that sexual activity does indeed have its place in the creation of children, but only…
Origen. The Writings of Origen. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds. Edinburgh: Elibron, 2004.
Augustine. The Confessions of St. Augustine, trans. Rex Warner. New York: New American Library, 1963.
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
marriage must always precede ordination and whether priests and widowhood may be allowed to remarry after widowhood or divorce was one of the topics of discussion at the revolutionary 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, which aimed to produce reform-oriented results that would allow the Orthodox Church to be better adapted to the new realities of the world in the period after World War I.
On both issues, beyond any economic or social arguments, the discussion should always revert back to the Scriptures and to what the Scriptures say about these elements. For example, the Congress agreed that the Scriptures allow for marriage after ordination (or, in fact, that there is nothing in the Scriptures that prohibits that, meaning, by extrapolation and law principle, that whatever is not prohibited, is considered to be in line with the canonical law).
In his initial analysis, Viscuso also makes an important note on why that is:…
1. Viscuso, Patrick. A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church. Berkeley, 2006.
260). This cosmological discussion is one reason Origen is said to have "created, indeed embodied, the first model of a scientific theology;" his approach to the notion of metempsychosis, like nearly all of his theological work, is rooted in a steadfast determination to distinguish "between the dogmata of the church tradition and the problemata which were to be discussed" according to reason, logic, and a prototype of the scientific method (Kung 1994, pp. 48-49). As will be seen, Origen's focus on not-yet-determined points of Christianity would ultimately contribute to his condemnation as a heretic, because could be considered genuine, innocent investigation in the third century would rapidly become dangerous propaganda to the Church's ruling powers.
Origen's description of an ultimate, total reunification should not be taken to mean that he is arguing that the actions one takes within the temporal world is meaningless, since everything will ultimately be united once…
Bovon, F. 2010, "The Souls Comeback: Immortality and Resurrection in Early Christianity,"
Harvard Theological Review, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 387-406.
Bowen, F. 1881. "Christian Metempsychosis." Princeton Review, May, pp. 316-341.
Clergymen of the Church of England. 2010. Reincarnation and Christianity. Kila: Kessinger
The Breath of Life
Throughout scripture the concept of breath represents life. Genesis 2:7
It is evident that we need to breathe to live and that without our respiratory system, we would die. But why is this? Can we know why other than to say that this is how our Creator designed us to be? Perhaps an understanding of our own respiratory system can help us to better understand our Creator? I think so.
What do we find in our nose? A kind of filter that keeps out of our lungs harmful particles and spores that would otherwise pollute them. This can be a symbol of how we should filter our minds of impure thoughts so as to keep our souls clean. It can also be a symbol of how important God's grace is in our souls -- it is to our souls as oxygen is to our bodies.…
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sheen, F. (1951). Three to Get Married. Princeton, NJ: Scepter Publishers.
Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.
" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.
Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…
'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.
"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.< http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).
Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.
But this special awareness is also…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical Interpretation for Preaching. MI: Judson
Barla J.B. (1999). Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome:
Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.
hile Powlison may not agree with those approaches, he does acknowledge their existence. Therefore, in the second part of his book, Powlison examines psychological knowledge of human behavior and motivation.
However, it is important to keep in mind that the Bible is the basis for all of Powlison's discussions. hile he may develop a personality theory, it is a personality theory based on Scripture. According to reviewer Bob Kelleman:
"the strength of this section is found in Powlison's insistence on building a view of human nature not coram anthropos (from the perspective of humanity), but coram Theos (from the perspective of God). e can understand people via people, or we can understand people via God. Powlison rightly chooses to understand the creature not through the creature but through the Creator (Kelleman).
To do this, Powlison uses x-ray questions, which he says reveal what God sees when he looks at an…
Cross, F.L., ed. "Atonement." The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York:
Oxford University Press. 2005.
Kelleman, Bob. "Book Review: Seeing with New Eyes: Counseling and the Human Condition
through the Lens of Scripture." Discerning Reader. N.p. 2 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Oct. 2010.
...social conditioning was effected in such a way, that any thing that was considered primal, pagan, or unchristian, was frowned upon... [leading to] persecution of the Druids, Witches, Gypsy, and Jewish cultures that still continues today." Curiously, it may be that very historical hostility towards the primal which has corroded the power of Catholic sacred music and turned new catholics and protestants alike against it.
In the Jewish ritual, music of all sorts has long played an important part. The majority of each service is sung. The Jewish Encyclopedia described the history of this tradition and describes the way that (in antiquity) the singers-of-songs were slowly absorbed into the priesthood because of the importance of their role. From the ancient days cantors (those who sing the Torah scriptures) have received tunes from their ancestors and embellished them to fit the present eras. Thus one can see in such Jewish rituals…
Brown, Karen McCarthy. "Drum Is the Ear of God: Africa's Inner World of Music." Harvet Moon. http://www.harvestmoon.net/Vodou/Articles/Women/women.html
Hull, Arthur. "RHYTHMACULTURE: The Birthing of American Rhythmaculture," Percussion Source Magazine, Spring 1997. http://www.drumcircle.com/arthurian/rhythmaculture.html
Jewish Encyclopedia (1901). archived at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/index.jsp
Schiller, Benjie-Ellen. "Some notes on the future of Jewish sacred music." Union for Reform Judaism. http://urj.org/worship/letuslearn/s9sacredmusic/
Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian ook of the Dead
The Egyptian ook of the Dead is a western title for an ancient collection of Egyptian manuscripts, the majority of which were funerary in nature. These collected writings have also been referred to as the Egyptian ible or identified by the names of the scribes who penned them. The Papyrus of Ani comprises the most significant contribution to these texts, though there are some other minor sources which are often included. In the original languages, these works were more accurately entitled the ooks of Coming Forth y Day. One of the greatest challenges to English-language speakers when confronting all the great scriptures is the language gap. Unless one has the time and inclination to learn Arabic, Hindi, Hebrew, Greek -- or in this case, Egyptian Heiroglyphs -- it becomes necessary to read the scriptures in translation. The farther removed one's own…
Budge, E.A. Wallis et al. (Trans.) The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani. http://www.touregypt.net/bkofdead.htm
Ellis, Normandi (Trans.). Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988.
Seawright, Caroline. "The Book of the Dead" Tour Egypt Feature. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/bod.htm
Sophia Society for Philosophy. "Genetico-cognitive features of the ante-rational mind." Sophia Society for Philosophy. http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/cognition.htm
Revelation 20:1-6 (the Millenium)
The objective of this study is to examine the 1000 years of Revelation 20:1-6 (The Millennium) an exegetical and theological topic therefore the review will be extended beyond only the biblical in terms of research and will examine the views of other scholars in this area of inquiry.
The lue Letter ible states the following in the ook of Revelations, Chapter 20, Verses one through six:
"Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent of old, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed; after these things…
Christianson, D. (2014) Revelation 20: 4-6. The Millennial Kingdom. Retrieved from: http://www.bibletrek.com/files/revelation20.pdf
Four Views on the Millennium (2014) the Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved from: https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/mill.cfm
The Millennium: Thousand Years Reign of Christ (2014) Apttoteach. Retrieved from: http://www.apttoteach.org/Theology/End%20times/pdf/908_Millennium.pdf
Thomas, Robert L. Revelation 8-22: an exegetical commentary. WEC. Chicago: Moody, 1992, 1995.
He indicates that even what Paul writes to people through his epistles is the Word of God. He is (again presciently) aware that the words might be twisted and misunderstood). But he has no doubt that Paul's writings (more prolific that his own were) as well as his own are divinely inspired Scripture. Paul, writing in Corinthians sums up the closeness of the role of the Holy Spirit in the furtherance of God's Words. He indicates that what he preaches does not come from him. hey are not his teachings, but directly the teaching of the Holy Spirit, which manifests itself in the form of words.
In recognizing Scriptures as the unadulterated Word of God, one must also consider biblical references of what Jesus, his apostles, prognosticators and epistle-writers thought of scripture. Simply put, what do the primary characters of the New estament think of the Old estament? Several centuries…
The astronomical notions of the earth being the center of the Universe are false. Not only are there several universes and galaxies, the Sun is the center of our universe. (Armstrong 1996) the school of thought indicates that the bible writers were influenced by pagan religion followed at the time. The pagans specifically believed in the flatness of the earth and the centrality of the earth and this is reflected in the Bible. (Swindler n.d.) Archeological evidence is also lacking to prove inerrancy. A lot of this comes from the Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus. Stories about the existence of Palestine, the towns of Beersheba and Canaan are anachronistic. Their existence has been historically and archeologically shown to be after the time period that the Bible describes when these places existed. This means that the books of Exodus and Leviticus were written much later than they originally claimed.
The evolution of religion as it is practiced with society has taken place for the better. From a socio-cultural standpoint, strict adherence to the Bible for all time would be detrimental to members of society. Indeed, we call people who do not evolve as backward and primitive. The Bible makes mention of corporal punishment, non-acceptance of homosexuality, intolerance towards other religions, required that a wife be a virgin by the time of her wedding on penalty of death (by stoning), capital punishment for adultery and a variable acceptance of slavery. If we adhered to these issues mentioned in the Bible as inerrant, practicing Christians would not be able to survive in today's society. At least from this standpoint then, most reasonable people will agree that the dictates of the Bible cannot be eternally binding.
..if you really want the Christ and truly love him, there is nothing that will prevent his coming and taking up his abode with you provided your love for him manifests..." through loving inner spirit of Christ instead only the outside. One may appear to be a Christian yet the Lordship of Christ in the life of the Christian means that present is love, compassion and forgiveness for others. The Christian loves the 'inner spirit of Christ because to desire only the outside of Christ will not allow Christ true Lordship in our lives. Loving the inner spirit of Christ requires loving the spirit of love...faith...compassion... The spirit of forgiveness." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
Humanity tends to only: "...desire the outside of Christ..." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?
-2000) the Christian loves more than simply an image of Christ as 'Lordship of Christ' does not mean loving the image of Christ in his white…
Article I - God (2007) UMC Online available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1654
Article V - of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. (2007) Online the United Methodist Church available at http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=1649
Free Grace: The Sermons of John Wesley (1703-1791) Global Ministries: The United Methodist Church. 2007.
Jones, Rev. Dr. Gregory (nd) the Practice of Ministry and Your Understanding of God, Divine Grace, Humanity, the Lordship of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit dean of Duke Divinity School" FIX
exegesis and demonstrate what is needed in order to do a proper exegesis of a passage of scripture. In doing so name at least three different methods of scriptural criticism and explain how they assist in the exegetical task.
In a strictly definitional sense, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, to conduct an "exegesis" merely means to embark upon a critical explanation or analysis of a text. (American Heritage Dictionary, exegesis, 2000) However, this neutral term contains, within its innocent sounding syllables, contains a long history of contentiousness, regarding scriptural interpretation. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis" within the context of scriptural criticism is the branch of theology that investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture. (Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis," 2001) The true sense is not merely understood, even by the devout, as a unified study, however.
To conduct an appropriate exegesis one must first understand the literal meaning…
Bokenkotter, Thomas. "The Creed: Faith Essentials for Catholics." From Catholic Update.
"Exegesis." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000.
"Exegesis." The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05692b.htm
Guinan. "Christian Spirituality"
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…
Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.
Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.
Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.
Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
Homosexuals Should Not Be Ordained Into the Christian Ministry
To believe that the laws written in the Bible came directly from God, as Christians do believe, is also to accept that all the laws stated in the Bible should be obeyed and that it is not up to man to decide what laws in the Bible should be obeyed and which can be ignored. hile some attempt to justify lifestyles by stating the Bible does not apply to the modern world, these individuals fail to understand the consequences of these views. Though many have chosen to accept homosexuality and argue that same sex marriages and even ordination to the ministry should be acceptable, 1 Corinthians states, "Don't you realize that those who do wrong will not inherit the Kingdom of God? Don't fool yourselves. Those who indulge in sexual sin, or worship idols, or commit adultery, or who are male…
Davis, John Jefferson.2004. Evangelical Ethics. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
Frame, John M. 2008. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. Philipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing.
Hekminiak, Daniel A., Ph.D. What the Bible Really Says about Homosexuality. Episcopal Bishop of Newark NJ. 1994
Siker, Jeffery S. Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate. Westminster John Knox Press Louisville, Kentucky. 1994
Religion: How Universal is the Christian Church?
Given all the variations of Christian denominations and different religions, how is it that the Church can still claim to be universal? "The name refers on one hand to the inclination towards uniformity (universus) existing in different things, in virtue of which different things may be represented by a single idea applicable to all in the same way and on the other hand to this one idea which is applicable to the different things (unum vs. alia)" (Universals pg). As used in the Nicene Creed, Catholic means 'universal' or 'all-embracing,' thus, Jesus Christ intended his church to embrace all people, just as he embraced all people, demonstrating in his own ministry to Greeks and Jews, rich and poor, woman and man, free person and slave alike (Schreck 89). The term 'catholic' in reference to the church is first recorded in a letter of…
Akin, James. "THE TWO CANONS: SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION." http://www.ewtn.com/library/ANSWERS/2CANONS.htm .(accessed 01-23-2003).
Schreck, Alan. Basics of the Faith: A Catholic Catechism. Servant Books. 1987; pp. 69, 70, 89, 90, 110, 112, 120, 265.
Universals." New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15182a.htm .
A accessed 01-23-2003).
Christian Counseling Theories
Christian authors present the very unique set of principles and strategies aiming at helping empower individuals going through counseling. Examining Christian literature and theory illustrates clear assumptions that different authors share, yet also pulled out some clear differences as well. For example, Backus and Chapain (2000) present fluidity, while Adams (1986) suggests Scripture. Still, these authors do all show that the word of God is a crucial element to the spiritual healing needed in modern counseling.
Backus and Chapain (2000) present a very simple, that individuals are plagued with discomfort and unhappiness because they think incorrectly. Essentially, when one does not think the proper manner, negative results come from it. Thus, ill-natured thoughts lead to anxiety, unhappiness, and depression, all of which are the main causes for people seeking counseling in a modern context. In order to combat these ill thoughts, Backus and Chapain present when is…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Paul's Early Life (birth, Upbringing, And Early Education)
Paul's early life can be dated back from 1-33 A.D. His upbringing comprised of being born in Tarsus of Cilicia, where he was raised under another name, Saul. He was raised in a Jewish, strict household. Because Paul was Jewish, he received abbinic training in Jerusalem from abbi Gamaliel. As he received his training, he also learned the traditions of the Pharisees. Later on in this period, Paul worked with the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem as well as adopting the Sanhedrin policies. The Sanhedrin were in opposition of the church and so was Paul. Including Jewish culture, Paul received immersion into Hellenistic culture of the era, which meant he went to the gymnasium, attended Greek dramas at the Amphitheatre, and was knowledge on the various schools of Greek Philosophy. Gamaliel taught Paul the Scriptures including the traditional lessons of the Pharisees. This meant…
GCU Media,. (2014). Paul Timeline. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://lc.gcumedia.com/bib380/documents/paul-timeline-map-v1.1.pdf
Greg, P. (2014). Paul through Mediterranean eyes: cultural studies in 1 Corinthians. International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 38(3), 163-164.
Parable,. (2014). Life Application Study Bible. Retrieved 15 December 2014, from http://cdn-parable.com/content/preview/9780310434481.pdf
Polhill, J. (1999). Paul and his letters. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman.
Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.
In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…
references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: "...in Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."
Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.
In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."
One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."
The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even…
Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.
Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…
Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.
Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.
Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.
Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
There are three major religions that have established themselves in China: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; and of the three, only Buddhism is not indigenous to China. Buddhism found its way to China along the Silk oad, brought by missionaries from India. For centuries, the three religions have co-existed with many Chinese adopting elements of each in their daily lives. Whatever similarities, or symbiotic elements each contains, the three religions have also competed with each other for prominence and prestige within Chinese society. At different times each has been the dominant religion, fully supported by the Imperial Court, however, Buddhism, since it's incorporation into Chinese society, has viewed itself as the superior religion. While most Buddhists are completely comfortable with the idea of other religious ideals in society, and even embrace certain aspects of them, they still feel that Buddhism is superior. One piece of Chinese literature, generally accepted as…
Hodus, Lewis. (2006). Buddhism and Buddhists in China. New Vision Publishers.
Qiancheng Li. (2004). Fictions of Enlightenment: Journey to the West…. USA:
University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books
Wu, Cheng'en. (n.d.). Journey to the West. Retrieved from http://www.chine-informations.com/fichiers/jourwest.pdf
Turning the Tide: Chapter Reviews and Summaries
"the Rising Tide"
In Chapter 1 of Turning the Tide, author Charles Stanley writes about what he considers the main problems of America, namely a lack of civic engagement and religious family values. The first subtitle of the chapter is "The Story of Our Storm." Stanley makes an explicit analogy between the swelling of the ocean from an unexpected storm and the various crises that are occurring in America. Unlike the natural ebbs and flows of the ocean, Stanley states that the difficulties America is currently facing are man-made.
Stanley identifies a wide variety of troubles currently afflicting America, only some of which are explicitly religious in nature. These include the rising bankruptcy and mortgage default rate; the escalating divorce rate; challenges to traditional values; even the rise of actual storms and extreme weather. Stanley also fingers more explicitly religious problems, such as…
New International Version (NIV). Bible Gateway.
< http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/New-International-Version-NIV-Bible/ >
[28 Jan 2013]
Stanley, Charles E. Turning the Tide. Kindle Edition. Howard Books, 2011.
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…
Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.
Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007
Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.
Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
Doctrine of the Holy Trinity
The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:
Servetus, Milton, Newton
The Doctrine of the Trinity
The Arian Heresy
Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus
Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton
Sir Isaac Newton
The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…
Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Catholic Encyclopedia, "Nicene Creed." http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm (accessed 21 March 2011).
Grudem, Wayne. Sytematic Theology. Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1994.
Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: Viking, 1978.
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
The masses are in most occasions determined to understand a particular matter by comparing it with something they already know. This is not possible with the rahman, as it involves all the characteristics which cannot be understood by humans. One should not attempt to understand the rahman in order to believe in it, as it can be appreciated by meditation. It is incorrect to recognize the rahman as a form of god, as a god is understood and praised for what it is, whereas the rahman is infinite and does not necessarily need worshiping. Instead, people can learn more about it by experimenting spiritually. Trying to understand the rahman can lead to confusion, as it becomes obvious that it is everything and nothing at the same time. People want to understand the rahman as a form of deity ruling from a heavenly location. However, consequent to discovering the rahman through…
1. Molloy, Michael. (2009). Experiencing the World's Religions: 5th Revised edition. McGraw Hill Higher Education.
2. Van Voorst, R.E. (2010). Anthology of World Scriptures: 7 edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Critical interaction with author's work
Four Views in Hell is an anthology of four different kinds of views on Hell. The book was published in 1996 (originally in 1992) and was edited by William Crockett. The views presented in this book are literal, metaphorical, conditional, and purgatorial. All four authors have described the subject from different directions. Views are all based on teachings of ible and the four theological concepts which are somewhat different from each other. The four views are John Walvoord's 'the literal view', William Crockett's 'the metaphorical view'. Zachary Hayes' 'the purgatorial view' and Clark Pinnock's 'the conditional immortality view'. The book 'Four Views on Hell' is an interactive book in which every author has presented a view on Hell, and every author has also defended the view against all the counter arguments put forward by the others.
John F. Walvoor has presented the…
Crockett, W. And Gundry, S. (1996). Four Views on Hell. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Elwell, W.A. (2001). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker.
Erickson, M.J. (2007). Christian Theology 2nd. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…
Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
To many people The Bible is the word of God and its status as the word of God means that it is infallible and its origins should not be questioned. However, such an approach to the Bible ignores facts that are known about its history and how it is written. A better, more informed approach examines the history of the Bible, when it was written, how it was written, the original books in the Bible, and how modern books have been selected or omitted. Furthermore, one also has to consider that there are actually multiple versions of the modern Bible, so that it is virtually impossible for any person to say what the contents of the Bible are. This fact should be enough to demonstrate the fact that the Bible is a living document, which has changed throughout time, and will continue to change as Christianity continues to develop…
According to Aiken, this liberation is only achieved after twelve years as a monk and eight rebirths. Souls who do not achieve liberation are either reborn as another life on earth or suffer punishment in one of the eight levels of hell.
Once a householder undertakes the path to liberation of the soul, according to the Jain Center of America, he must take and follow the five vows:
Ahimsa -- nonviolence
Satya -- truthfulness
Asteya -- not stealing
Brahmacarya -- celibacy or monogamy
Aparigraha -- detachment from material possessions 'All the venerable ones (arhats) of the past, present and future discourse, counsel, proclaim, propound and prescribe thus in unison: do not injure, abuse, oppress, enslave, insult, torment, torture or kill any creature or living being' (Uttaraadhyayan Sutra)
Hibbets explains that ahimsa (nonviolence) is the most fundamental value to the Jains. Because they believe that all living things (animals, plants, insects,…
Aiken, Charles Francis. "Jainism." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. Web. 5 May 2011.
Anonymous. "Jainism." ReligionFacts. N.p. 18 January 2008. Web. 5 May 2011.
Hibbets, Maria. Extremists for Love: The Jain Perspective on Nonviolence. Beliefnet. N.p. Web. 5 May 2011.
"Jainism." Jain Center of America. Web. 5 May 2011.
As Spong has closed his career as a formal minister, retiring from the bishop position in 2000 have has become even more controversial than ever before:
Spong believes in a transcending reality at "the very heart of life" that presses toward life and wholeness. He describes God as the "Ground of Being" and "universal presence" that undergirds all life and is present in all that is. He regards heaven as a symbol standing for "the limitlessness of Being itself," describes Jesus as "a God presence" whose burning awareness of God made him a doorway to divine reality, and believes that the divine source of life calls human beings to live fully, love wastefully, and have the courage to be. Spong describes his project in classic liberal terms -- walking the "razor's edge between orthodox overbelief and losing the 'Christ experience'..."I do so not because I reject the church, but because…
The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: Revised Standard Version. Rev. ed. Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1952.
The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments: King James Version. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984.
Bakker, Jay. & Brown, Marc. "What the hell happened to Christianity?"
December 18, 2006 CNN.com at http://www.cnn.com/2006/U.S./12/13/bakker.brown.commentary/index.html
Isaac and ebekah seemed to have a happy and healthy functional marriage. While it is never overtly stated in the text, the implication is that the two love one another. However, despite what one assumes is a fairly active sex life, ebekah is unable to conceive and they do not create a child during ebekah's childbearing years. She passes into old age, which makes one believe that she will never be able to conceive, making her conception of Esau and Jacob even more extraordinary.
Furthermore, though her mother-in-law Sarah also experienced barrenness, she did not have the same tension about conception as ebekah. Sarah always had God's favor; she was a major component of God's plan for Abraham. Therefore, there was some understanding that she would eventually have a child to continue the nation of Israel. In contrast, ebekah was not considered an essential part of Isaac's story. As a…
Carole Armstrong. Women of the Bible. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).
Alice Ogden Bellis. Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes: Women's Stories in the Hebrew Bible.
(Louisville: John Knox Press, 1994).
Eryl Davies. The Dissenting Reader: Feminist Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. (Bodmin:
St. Justin was one of the earliest Christian apologists, and his Apology of the second century helps trace the laying of the Christian dogmatic foundation. The faith, as expressed by Justin, contains several of the elements that established the Christian religion as a religion founded by God Himself -- and as Justin composed his Apology as a defense of Christianity against paganism, it takes pains to explain exactly what Christians were expected to believe. Justin is mentioned by Tertullian as being both a philosopher and a Church martyr who, along with a handful of other early Christian martyrs, was slain in ome for defending the Faith. That Faith was largely recorded in Justin's First Apology, one of the earliest records of Church teaching on the subject of the Eucharist. Justin's writings survive today because they like so many others were preserved and collected along by the early faithful and the…
Barnett, P. (2003). Is the New Testament Reliable? IL: InterVarsity Press.
Lindberg, C. (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Robinson, J.A.T. (2000). Redating the New Testament. Eugene, or: Wipf & Stock