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Case Scenario 1: Security Breach
Hospitals have the opportunity and responsibility to integrate sound policies and procedures in relation to the protection of the confidential client information (odwin, 2010). St. John's Hospital in no different to this notion has the organization seeks to enhance the security and confidentiality of the information of its clients. The organization is a role model to other institutions within the geographical area on the essential need to integrate valuable security issues with reference to patient data privacy and security. Currently, the organization faces critical security breaches as printouts in the restricted-access IS department are not shredded. It has come to the attention of the personnel who serve late into their routine that most cleaning staff read the printouts.
This is a reflection of invasion into private information of the patients thus affecting their confidentiality. It is essential for the organization to adopt and…
Rodwin, M.A. (2010). Patient Data: Property, Privacy & the Public Interest. American Journal
Of Law & Medicine, 36(4), 586-618.
Prehe, J. (2008). Exploring the Information Management Side of RIM. Information Management
Journal, 42(3), 62-67.
Computer Security Breaches
Internal Controls and Receivables
On December the 19th arget publicly acknowledged they had suffered a data breach, which had resulted in the loss of 40 million customer payment card details, along with their names, expiry dates, and the encrypted security codes (Munson, 2013), At the time this was one of the largest security breaches, with the firm suffering not just because they were targeted by criminals, but as a result of the failure of their internal controls.
he problem started when, in the run up to hanksgiving, malware was installed on the payments system of arget (Riley, 2014). BlackPOS, which is also known as Kaptoxa, is malware designed for use on point of sales systems which operate on Microsoft Windows (Krebs, 2014). he Malware operates at the point of sales, when the customers' cards are swiped on an infected point of sale, the malware becomes active and…
The plan to overcome this needs to build in the detection, with the development of a strict protocol for what actions should be taken and by whom where is a security breach, including who does what, with time scales and specifics responsibilities.
Firms will take a number of issues into consideration when assessing whether or not to extend credit to customers. The first consideration may be the internal position of the firm and the resources that have which may or may not support the extension of credit. Where credit is extended to customers, and funding by the firm, this can increase significantly the level of accounts receivable outstanding and result in a significant increase in capital tied up in inventory. The firm will also have to allow for the potentials for bad debts (Howells & Bain, 2007). The firm may aid cash flow with the use of factoring firms. The firm may also need to look at other internal resources such as the personal and systems, to ensure they can
The next thing is to immediately contact the FOIP Coordinator, Privacy Officer, esponsible Affiliate as well as any other person who is responsible for the organization's it security.
Evaluation of the isks Associated with the Breach
There is a need to evaluate the risks associated with the privacy breach. This should be done with a consideration of personal as well as health information (Social Insurance Number, financial information or any other sensitive information) that are involved, the cause as well as extent of the privacy breach, the individuals who have been affected by the breach as well as the operations that have been affected by the breach.
In this stage, the team must decide whether or not to notify the people who have been affected by the privacy breach.
At this stage, all the necessary steps are taken to prevent the system from any further privacy breaches. The…
Clifford, RA (2006). Employees Can be Liable for Violating Patient Confidentiality.Available online at http://www.cliffordlaw.com/news/attorneys-articles/archive/employees-can-be-liable-for-violating-patient-confidentiality
Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner (2010). Key Steps in Responding to Privacy Breaches.Available online at http://www.oipc.ab.ca/Content_Files/Files/Publications/Key_Steps_in_Responding_to_a_Privacy_Breach.pdf
See Bagent v. Illini Community Hospital, and Misty Young, No. 4-05-0495 (4th District, decided March 3. 2006).
Today only a General Manager of a distribution center can gain access to the databases where customer records are kept and only by role access privileges can they even see them, which were a requirement of customers who were outraged by the breach (Shine, 2012).
Providing Greater Security for Customers: Two Alternatives
The most effective security strategy Amazon can take in light of the breach of their confidential data from internally is defining more rigorous role-based authentication to the data level. This would alleviate the threat of anyone in the warehouse hacking into the data sets, and would even require multiple access privileges to even see customer data (McDonald, 2011). The technologies behind these authentication techniques would also audit and report any and all potential hacking attempts including those that are unsuccessful. As second approach to minimizing threats is to completely redefine the underlying security architecture, forcing authentication through standardized…
Hsieh, T. (2010, Zappos CEO on going to extremes for customers. Harvard Business Review, 88(7)
Letzing, J. (2012, Jan 16). Zappos says customer database hacked. Wall Street Journal (Online)
McDonald, S. (2011). Delivering happiness: A path to profits, passion and purpose. American Economist, 56(1), 127-128.
Shine, C. (2012, Jan 18). Zappos customers express anger, support, and frustration over security breach. McClatchy - Tribune Business News, pp. n/a.
Lessons Learned From Zappos' Security Breach in January, 2012
On January 16, 2012 Zappos' experienced its first major security breach through a compromised server at its recently opened Kentucky Distribution Center, with an experienced hacker gaining access to potentially 24 million customer records. The Zappos' internal ordering systems had encrypted passwords for safety as part of its basic architecture, yet the last four digits of credit cards, complete customer histories and contact information were all compromised (Letzing, 2012). Zappos is the world's leading online store selling women's men's, and children's shoes and accessories, and was recently sold by founder and CEO Tony Hsieh to Amazon.com for $800 million (Hsieh, 2010). As part of the sales of this massive website and online business, Tony Hsieh successfully negotiated to retain control over the logistics, supply chain and innovative approaches to warehouse management that drastically reduces the time to complete an order (McDonald,…
Hsieh, T. (2010, Zappos CEO on going to extremes for customers. Harvard Business Review, 88(7)
Letzing, J. (2012, Jan 16). Zappos says customer database hacked. Wall Street Journal (Online)
McDonald, S. (2011). Delivering happiness: A path to profits, passion and purpose. American Economist, 56(1), 127-128.
iPad Security Breach
Assessing the Impact of the Apple iPad Security Breach
Discuss Goatse Security firm possible objectives when they hacked into AT&T's Website.
Goatse Security and firms like them are on a mission to expose what they see as lies and misleading claims of companies who claim to have much greater levels of security and stability in their products than they actually do. While the accounts of the iPad incident have been dismissed as business development efforts on the part of Goatse by AT&T Chief Security Officers and the Wall Street Journal, the reality of it is Goatse and other firms like them perform a valuable service, ironically, for the companies who claim their activities are illegal (Wall Street Journal, 2010). Goatse is actually doing a series of audits on new products that may not have been completely tested before launch. Apple, who is known for having exceptional control…
Spencer E. Ante. (2010, June 10). AT&T Says iPad Owners' Email Data Was Breached. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1.
Spencer E. Ante & Ben Worthen. (2010, June 11). FBI to Probe iPad Breach - Group That Exposed AT&T Flaw to See Addresses Says It Did a 'Public Service'. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1.
Carr, D.. (2010, December). iPad IN THE ENTERPRISE. InformationWeek,(1286), 49-52,54.
Dwyer, D.. (2009). Chinese cyber-attack tools continue to evolve. Network Security, 2009(4), 9-11.
iPad Security Breach and Corporate Ethics
In the course of this short essay, the author will demonstrate hacking into a eb site is almost never justifiable unless the hackers are acting with a warrant and under the direction of law enforcement agencies. e will see this applied to a real world case, in which Goatse Security and Gawker Media hacked into iPAD email records stored on an AT&T server in June of 2010. In fact this is probably the best example that can be found. The author will also create a corporate ethics statement for a computer security firm that would allow activities like hacking only under the most extreme of circumstances.
In this author's viewpoint, if hacking results at all, the perpetrator must be able to defend himself in front of a judge or the police because it is a basic violation of the sacred right of privacy. Furthermore,…
Fbi investigating at&t iPad security breach. (2010, June 11). Retrieved from http://www.abcactionnews.com/dpp/news/science_tech/fbi-investigating-at&t-iPad-security-breach1276268393157
Tate, Ryan. (2010, June 12). At&t fights spreading iPad fear. Retrieved from http://gawker.com/5559725/att-fights-spreading-iPad-fear
Tate, Ryan. (2010, June 10). Steve jobs bragged about privacy -- days ago. Retrieved from http://gawker.com/valleywag/5560295/steve-jobs-bragged-about-privacydays-ago
Top ten security questions for ceos to ask. (2011, February 11). Retrieved from https://www.infosecisland.com/blogview/11576-Top-Ten-Security-Questions-for-CEOs-to-Ask.html
Sony Security Breaches
It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click ord Count.
Sony Corporation has had a series of very public security breaches in the past few years. Despite a long history of Internet presence, including a clunky website, social networking, and "stealth" marketing, Sony was not very tech-savvy when it came to securely storing data -- even though Sony used that data very well to market its products and services. However, Sony seems to have stepped up its game when it comes to security, making the third wave of attacks much less damaging.
Sony has traditionally had a flashy website that was difficult to shop on. It's divided…
Aune, S.P. (2011, June 2). Sony Hacked Again, Over 1 Million Passwords Compromised. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from TechnoBuffalo: http://www.technobuffalo.com/companies/sony/sony-hacked-again-over-1-million-passwords-compromised/
Buchanan, M. (2010, February 4). Sony Still Loses Money on Every PS3 They Sell. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from Gizmodo: http://gizmodo.com/5464610/sony-still-loses-money-on-every-ps3-they-sell
Krotoski, A. (2006, December 11). New Sony viral marketing ploy angers consumers. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from Guardian News and Media Limited: http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gamesblog/2006/dec/11/newsonyviral
McMillan, R. (2011, September 22). Alleged LulzSec Sony Hacker Arrested. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from CIO.
VA Security Breach
The Veteran's Affairs department has had several notable security breeches in recent years. In one 2006 incident, patient data was downloaded onto an unsecured laptop and stolen. Patient records at the VA were unencrypted at the time. "If data is properly encrypted there is no data breach. The device can be stolen but no data can be accessed" because the thief lacks the 'key' to decode the data (Johnson 369). But since the data was not encrypted, patient records could be easily downloaded onto an unsecured computer that was later removed by the thief.
However, simply encrypting data is not enough, since the person possessing the key can potentially steal the data. First and foremost, adequate screening of employees is essential -- individuals that have access to sensitive data such as Social Security numbers should have to pass the standards for at least minimum security clearance. Secondly,…
How serious was this e-mail security breach? Why did the Kaiser Permanente leadership react so quickly to mitigate the possible damage done by the breach?The e-mail security breach by the KP online Pharmacy was grave because it violated various HIPPA and State laws that protect patients from health information disclosure without prior consent. Moreover, such a breach of confidential and private information could cause harm and affect the patients' dignity. For instance, disclosing a patient's health data could result in embarrassment, stigma, or discrimination (Drolet et al., 2017). Protection of patients' information usually promotes quality care by enhancing effective communication and information sharing between physicians and patients. Furthermore, according to HIPPA security rule, Kaiser Permanente's mandate is to adopt applicable procedures and policies that ensure that patients' information is contained, protected from any form of a security breach. Also, that such policies and procedures can detect and correct any attempt…
Cohen, I. G., & Mello, M. M. (2018). HIPAA and protecting health information in the 21st century. Jama, 320(3), 231-232.
Drolet, B. C., Marwaha, J. S., Hyatt, B., Blazar, P. E., & Lifchez, S. D. (2017). Electronic communication of protected health information: privacy, security, and HIPAA compliance. The Journal of hand surgery, 42(6), 411-416.
Internet isk and Cybercrime at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Today, the mission of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as taken from President Lincoln's second inaugural address is, "To care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan." To this end, this cabinet-level organization provides healthcare services through the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to nine million veteran patients each year. In an effort to improve the quality of these healthcare services, the VHA has implemented a number of technological solutions including electronic healthcare records and a nationwide communication network. These solutions, though, have also introduced a number of security risks and a number of high-profile security breaches have drawn increased scrutiny on the VHA in recent years. This paper provides an overview of the VHA and what types of Internet-related security threats it faces. A discussion concerning…
Annual budget submission. (2016). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov/budget/products.asp .
Ball K., Haggerty K., & Lyon D. (Ed.) (2012). The Routledge handbook of surveillance studies. London: Routledge.
Barlow, J.P. (1990). Crime and puzzlement. Retrieved from http://www.sjgames.com/SS / crimpuzz.html.
Bell, D. (2001). An introduction to cybercultures. London: Routledge.
Network Security Controls and Issues
The many challenges of network security can be understood by realizing who needs access to the network itself. Access to secure networks should be accompanied by a certain need or reason by a person who has the authority to view, manipulate or reproduce information and data contained within that network. Access problems arise when there are no clear boundaries or guidelines as to who should have access to the network.
Within many commercial work settings, information held on networks can be very valuable to many non-employees of that workplace. For instance, many companies have their pricing levels contained within these systems. Competitors would very much like to know the financial situation of its rivals and security should not be overlooked in this manner.
Since networks are very mobile and can be accessed from various points and places, security from non-employees must be designed in a…
Both types -- qualitative and quantitative -- have their advantages and disadvantages. One of the most well-known of the quantitative risk metrics is that that deals with calculation of annual loss expectancy (ALE) (Bojanc & Jerman-Blazoc, 2008). ALE calculation determines the monetary loss associated form a single occurrence of the risk (popularly known as the single loss exposure (SLE)). The SLE is a monetary amount that is assigned to a single event that represents the amount that the organizations will potentiality lose when threatened. For intangible assets, this amount can be quite difficult to assess.
The SLE is calculated by multiplying the monetary value of the asset (AV) with the exposure factor (EF). The EF represents the percentage of loss that a threat can have on a particular asset. The equation, therefore, is thus: SLE=AV*EF. Applying this practically, if the AV of an e-commerce web server is $50,000 and a…
Bojanc, R. & Jerman-Blazoc, B. (2008), An economic modelling approach to information security risk management. International Journal of Information Management 28 (2008) 413 -- 422
Chowdhary, A., & Mezzeapelle, M.A. (n.d.) Inforamtion Security metrics. Hewlett Packard.
Pedro, G.L., & Ashutosh, S. (2010). An approach to quantitatively measure Information security 3rd India Software Engineering Conference, Mysore, 25-27
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…
The first substantial action that could be taken to help ensure future breaches do not occur is a reorganization of the FBI's security and intelligence functions. The Webster Commission compared the FBI's organization of its security functions with the rest of the Intelligence Community and found that, "in sharp contrast to other agencies," the FBI's security and intelligence functions "are fragmented, with security responsibilities spread across eight Headquarters divisions and fifty-six field offices" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). This fragmentation of security functions dramatically increases the likelihood of a breach because it means that the overall security apparatus is that much more porous, with adequate, lacking, or inconsistent oversight depending on particular Headquarters or field office.
To combat this phenomenon, the Webster Commission recommended that the Bureau establish an Office of Security tasked with, among other things, consolidating security functions under a senior executive" in order to "prompt management to focus on security, resolve conflicts between operational and security objectives, and foster Headquarters and field coordination" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). The FBI did not establish an Office of Security, which would have meant a high level office reporting directly to the deputy director, but rather in 2005 established the National Security Branch, a lower-level division responsible for Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, Intelligence, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Holder, 2011, & FBI, 2012). Even with the consolidation of these security-related functions under one Branch, the FBI's security functions still remain fragmented and ultimately lacking. For example, while Counterintelligence and Intelligence are both divisions of the National Security Branch, a Security Division still remains under the control of the Associate Deputy Director. Furthermore, the Bureau still lacks one of the most important assets recommended by the Webster Commission: a unit dedicated to information system security, clearly an important aspect of overall security considering that much of Hanssen's success depended on being able to use the FBI's automated databases without fear of being flagged for suspicious behavior, or even identified at all (Webster, 2002, p. 4).
Just as the FBI's security issues prior to Hanssen's arrest were microcosmic of the larger problems facing the Intelligence Community prior to the attacks of September 2001, so too is the FBI's failure to institute necessary reforms while exacerbating existing problems microcosmic of the difficulties facing the Intelligence Community in its attempts to institute the intelligence reforms passed in the wake of 9/11. Though the FBI's National Security Branch was born out of a presidential directive and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence out of an act of Congress, both organizations represent attempts to fix security and intelligence
The confidentiality of medical and personal information of every patients or other individual is a serious issue in the health sector. However, governments such the United States and European Union have put into operation data breach notification rules that cover the health care fraternity. Therefore, breach notification can be defined as rules and regulation which protects or control the unlawful access to data of an individual (Jim Tiller, 2011).
Mostly data breach normally occurs when there is a loss or theft of or access to unauthorized information with sensitive private information which might result to comprise of confidentiality or integrity of the data. Therefore, the United States (U.S.) and the European Union (EU) enacted laws to regulate the breach of personal data of patients. (Gina Stevens, 2012). For example, in the United States, "HITECH Act, Pub L. 111-5 Title XIII," was the first federal health breach notification law…
Patrick Kierkegaard (23 March 2012) Medical data breaches: Notification delayed is notification
Gina Stevens (2012)Data Security Breach Notification Laws
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
The most appropriate products that could be used by MMC to achieve this objective would be: IP San and a Snap Lock. An IP San is a fiber optic channel that can provide secure real time data to each location. Where, software and security applications can be adapted to the current system that is being used. The Snap Lock is: a security software that can be used to provide an effective way for each location to retrieve, update and change information.
Support for why these procedures and products are the optimal approach for this organization
The reason why these different procedures and products were selected was: to reduce the overall risk exposure of the company's external threats. The current system that is being used by MMC increases risks dramatically, by having a number of different systems, where financial information is stored. If any one of these systems is vulnerable, there…
IP San (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protocols/ip-san/ip-san.html
Snap Lock Compliance and Snap Lock Enterprise Software. (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protection-software/snaplock.html
Mason, J. (2010). How to Bullet Proof Your DR Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/communities/tech-ontap/tot-data-recovery-plan-0908.html
Security Manager Leadership
Analysis & Assessment of Main Management Skills of Security Managers
The role of security managers and their progression to Chief Information Security Officers (CISO) in their careers is often delineated by a very broad base of experiences, expertise, skills and the continual development of management and leadership skills. The intent of this analysis and assessment is to define the most critically important management skills for security managers, including those most critical to their setting a solid foundation for attaining a senior management as a CISO in an enterprise (Whitten, 2008). What most differentiates those who progress in their careers as security managers to CISOs is the ability to interpret situations, conditions, relative levels of risk while continually learning new techniques, technologies and concepts pertaining to security and leadership. Those that attain CISO roles progress beyond management and become transformational leaders of the professionals in their department. It…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W. & Braun, W. 2006, "Transformational leadership in organizations: an environment-induced model," International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 52-62.
Francis, D. 2003, "Essentials of International Management: A Cross-cultural Perspective," Technovation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85-86.
Krishnan, V.R. 2004, "Impact of transformational leadership on followers' influence strategies," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 58-72.
Purvanova, R.K. & Bono, J.E. 2009, "Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 343.
This leaves those clients that are inside unsupervised while the guard is outside. There is also a lack of signage inside displaying rules and regulations along with directions. This propagates a lot of unnecessary questions being asked of the surety officer on duty. In order to alleviate these issues it would be essential to place distinct parking signage outside in order to help facilitate clients parking in the correct spaces. It is also necessary to place directional signage within the facility along with general rules and policies. All of these signs together would cost approximately $1,000 to install.
The last security issue that needs to be addressed is that of the security information processes that is in place. As each client arrives at the facility, their license plate numbers are recorded and they are then assigned a number. They are seen by the appropriate medical personnel based upon the order…
Conducting a Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Processor Web site:
How to Conduct an Operations Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from eHow.com Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_2060197_conduct-operations-security-assessment.html
Methadone Maintenance Treatment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Drug Policy Alliance
If not, what other recommendations would you make to Harold? Explain your reasons for each of recommendations.
No, the actions that were taken by Harold are not adequate. The reason why, is because he has created an initial foundation for protecting sensitive information. However, over the course of time the nature of the threat will change. This could have an impact on his business, as these procedures will become ineffective. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until Harold will see an increase in the number of cyber attacks. At first, these procedures will help to prevent hackers from accessing the company's files. Then, as time goes by they will be able to overcome his defenses. This increases the chances that he will see some kind of major disruptions because of these issues. ("Security Policies," n.d, pp. 281 -- 302) ("Computer-ased Espionage," n.d, pp.…
Computer-Based Espionage. (n.d.). (365 -- 391).
Security Policies (n.d.). (281 -- 302).
Security Finance & Payback
A strong effective information security program consists of many layers that create a "defense in depth" (Spontak, 2006). The objectives of information security is to make any unauthorized, unwanted access extremely difficult, easily detected, and well documented. Components of strong defense include firewalls, virus filters, intrusion detection, monitoring, and usage policies. Some businesses are missing the business culture, policies and procedures, separation of duties, and security awareness.
The Finance Department is critical to the security of the information system. Financial executives can set the tone, encourage compliance with security policies, and lead by example. Allowing the sharing of passwords puts the information security at risk, especially where financial, employee, and customer information is concerned. When employees are uneducated regarding compliance regulation, the organization can end up in trouble with authorities. Employees should be evaluated on information security measures, not just on customer service measures.…
Gordon, L.A. (2002). Return on information security investments: Myths & Realities. Strategic Finance, 84(5), 26-31.
Spontak, S. (2006). Defense in Depth: How financial executive can boost IT security. Financial Executive, 22(10), 51-53.
Security Standards & Least Privilege
Security Standards and Legislative Mandates
Industries are required by law to follow regulations to protect the privacy of information, do risk assessments, and set policies for internal control measures. Among these polices are: SOX, HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GLA. Each of these regulations implements internal control of personal information for different industries. Where GLA is for the way information is shared, all of them are for the safeguard of sensitive personal information.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) created new standards for corporate accountability in reporting responsibilities, accuracy of financial statements, interaction with auditors, and internal controls and procedures (Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information). When audits are done to verify the validity of the financial statements, auditors must also verify the adequacy of the internal control and procedures. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is designed to protect personal health information held by covered entities and…
Brenner. (2007). How Chevron Met the PCI DSS Deadline. Security Wire Daily News.
Gramm Leach Bliley Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from Bureau of Consumer Protection: http://business.ftc.gov/privacy-and-security/gramm-leach-bliley-act principle of least privilege (POLP). (n.d.). Retrieved from Search Security: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/principle-of-least-privilege-POLP
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Data Manager's Public Library: http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
Tipton, K. & . (n.d.). Access Control Models. Retrieved from CC Cure.org: http://www.cccure.org/
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
CMU. 2003. Risk Management. Carnegie Mellon University: Software Engineering Institute. Online at http://www.sei.cmu.edu/risk/index.html
Comptroller of the Current, Administrator of National Banks (CoC). (2005). Authentication in an Internet Banking Environment. Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Online at .
Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian Consumers: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17(7), 324-334.
Stoneburner, G; Goguen, a. & Feringa, a. (2002). Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems. NIST 800-30.
Even though there is always some form of a risk involved in the coding technique together with the deployment methods of a website, some technologies such as PHP and MySQL form some of the worst aggravators of online website security. The loopholes that exists in the use of these technologies results in some of the worst hack attacks and security breaches ever experienced in the field of web design. The internet is bustling with a lot of activities. Some of the activities that are officiated over the internet are very sensitive due to both the nature of the information exchanged or even the information stored in the database.
It is paramount that websites be provided with secure and personalized databases. One inevitable fact however is that once a site is deployed on the internet, it becomes a resource to be accessed by everyone as postulated by Kabir
Secure website development…
Bloch, M (2004). "PHP/MySQL Tutorial - Introduction." ThinkHost. .
Friedl, J (2002). Mastering Regular Expressions, Second Edition. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates Inc., 2002.
Kabir, MJ (2003) Secure PHP Development: Building 50 Practical Applications.
Indianapolis, in: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Security Plan Target Environment
Amron International Inc.
Amron International Inc. is a division of Amtec and manufactures ammunition for the U.S. military. Amron is located in Antigo, Wisconsin. Amron also manufacturer's mechanical subsystems including fuses for rockets and other military ammunitions as well as producing TNT, a highly explosive substance used in bombs.
Floor Plan Target Environment
The target environment in this security plan is the manufacturing operation located in Antigo, Wisconsin, a manufacturing plant with personnel offices adjacent to the facility. The work of Philpott and Einstein (nd) reports the fact that more than 50% of U.S. businesses do not have a crisis management plan and for those who do have a plan, it is generally not kept up-to-date. Philpott and Einstein states that even fewer businesses and organizations "have integrated physical security plans to protect the facility and the people who work in it.
The challenge is reported…
security and governance program is "a set of responsibilities and practices that is the responsibility of the Board and the senior executives." This is the procedures by which the company ensures information security in the organization. The program consists of desired outcomes, knowledge of the information assets, and process integration (ITGI, 2013). Security of information is important because of the value of information, especially proprietary, in today's business world. The biggest differentiator between governance and IT security is that the latter is about the physical constructs of the IT program but governance incorporates everything include spoken communication so any form of information creation or handling.
The first thing is the desired outcomes. The company has to know what it wants to accomplish with this program. Ideally there is alignment between the information security strategy and the organization's overall strategy. There should be risk management, so understanding the different risk and…
ITGI. (2013). Information security governance. IT Governance Institute. Retrieved November 29, 2013 from http://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Research/Documents/InfoSecGuidanceDirectorsExecMgt.pdf
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
" (Muntenu, 2004)
According to Muntenu (2004) "It is almost impossible for a security analyst with only technical background to quantify security risk for intangible assets. He can perform a quantitative or qualitative evaluation using dedicated software to improve the security of the information systems, but not a complete risk assessment for the whole information system. Qualitative assessment based on questionnaires use in fact statistical quantitative methods to obtain results. Statistical estimation represents the basis for quantitative models." Muntenu states conclusion that in each of these approaches the "moral hazard of the analyst has influence on the results because human nature is subjective. He must use a sliding window approach according to business and information systems features, balancing from qualitative to quantitative assessment." (2004) qualitative study of information systems security is reported in a study conducted in U.S. academic institutions in the work of Steffani a. urd, Principal Investigator for…
Burd, Steffani a. (2006) Impact of Information Security in Academic Institutions on Public Safety and Security: Assessing the Impact and Developing Solutions for Policy and Practice. Final Report." NCJ 215953, United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Oct 2006.
Muntenu, Adrian (2004) Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma
Full text PDF: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/215953.pdfMunteanu , Adrian (2004) the Information Security Risk Assessment: The Qualitative vs. Quantitative Dilemma. Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions.
Security in Healthcare
The recent advances in technology -- databases that store personal medical records and information -- are bringing tools to patients, doctors and other healthcare professionals that were simply not available just a few years ago. There is hope that eventually, a doctor in Hawaii that is treating a medical emergency for a tourist from Florida, will be able to access the digitally kept medical and healthcare records for that injured tourist. In other words, there will likely be in the foreseeable future a national database -- that perhaps links state databases with each other the way the FBI and local law enforcement agencies are linked -- that will be of enormous benefit to citizens and their healthcare providers.
But before that nationally linked database can become a reality, there are a number of potential problems that need to be ironed out. For example, legislation needs to be…
Dogac, Asuman, and Laleci, Gokce B. (2005). A Survey and Analysis of Electronic
Healthcare Record Standards. ACM Computing Surveys, 37(4), 277-315.
Glaser, John, and Aske, Jennings. (2010). Healthcare IT trends raise bar for information security.
Healthcare Financial Management, 64(7), 40-44.
security crisis that is plaguing e-commerce as it transforms into the epitome of global business. It attempts to analyze the possible repercussions of this problem and then put forward various possible solutions to rectify the biggest obstacle limiting the path of e-commerce progress. The ideas and references used in this proposal have been cited from five different sources.
E-commerce has changed the way the world do business, plain and simple. It has single-handedly brought more people, countries, enterprises and governments together to the same world market than all other forms of conducting methods, combined. This name, given to the electronic method of executing business, has made the task of buying every available merchandise exponentially easier and has therefore made all the more products accessible to the general population as well as businesses and industries. The boom in online trade is gaining alacrity and is destined to become the method of…
1) Ghosh, AK, 1st edition - January 21, 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, John Wiley & Sons.
2) Raisinghani, M, (editor), January 7, 2002, Cases on Worldwide E-Commerce: Theory in Action (Cases on Information Technology Series, Vol 4, Part 3), Idea Group Publishing
3) Hills, R, 23 April 2003, Key risks to e-commerce security, "My IT Adviser," Retreived on 20th February, 2004, from:
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
For a criminal investigator, analyzing key evidence is an important part in being able to establish a pattern of behavior for the suspect. The film the Breach, is discussing the obert Hanssen case and its long-term impacts on U.S. national security. To fully understand how criminal investigators were able to catch him requires carefully examining the film. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the facts of the case, the parties involved, the victim's information, the suspects, the evidence, investigative mistakes, procedural errors, interview mistakes and the life of obert Hanssen. Together, these different elements will highlight how a series of critical blunders led to one of the largest national security breaches in U.S. history.
The Facts of the Case
In the film, Eric O'Neal is assigned to work undercover as a clerk for obert Hanssen. Set in the late 1990s, O'Neal's job is to keep an eye on…
Breach. (2010). IMDB. Retrieved from: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0401997/synopsis
Barkin, S. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…
Bressler, M.S. (2007). The Impact of Crime on Business: A Model for Prevention, Detection & Remedy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Burke, M.E., & Schramm, J. (2004 ). Getting to Know the Candidate Conducting Reference Checks. Alexandria: Research SHRM.
Deitch, D., Igor, K., & Ruiz, A. (1999). The Relationship Between Crime and Drugs: What We Have Learned in Recent Decades. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs .
Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory. (2004). Personnel Security Guidelines. U.S. Department of Homeland security. Idaho Falls: Idaho national Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory.
ecurity Management Plan
Privacy of client information is an assurance that every patient wants and this assurance is what the hospital can build patient confidence on. The lack of it therefore may have consequences such as loss of confidence in the hospital, loss of clientele and the emergence of a poor reputation. This paper looks at the t. John's Hospital which has experienced the leakage of confidential information a problem that needs to be addressed. It highlights the steps the hospital must take in its management plan. In the first step, hospital must identify how widespread the problem is and where exactly there are weaknesses in the system. econdly, the hospital's staff must receive adequate training in methods to deal with confidential information especially its destruction. A culture must be developed to deal with this information discreetly. In this same breadth breach must be understood by all staff…
Shred it (2013), Security Breach, Shred --It making sure it is secure, http://www.shredit.com/en-us/document-destruction-policy-protect-your-business (Retrieved 16/11/2015)
Scallan T. (2013), Disaster recovery solutions underscore the importance of security, Health Management Technology, http://www.healthmgttech.com/disaster-recovery-solutions-underscore-the-importance-of-security.php (Retrieved 16/11/2015)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (2000), Health information privacy, HHS.gov, http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/srsummary.html (Retrieved 16/11/2015)
In health care, the protection of confidential patient information is an important key in to addressing critical issues and safeguarding the privacy of the individual. To provide more guidance are federal guidelines such as: the Health Care Insurance Affordability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). On the surface, all facilities are supposed to have procedures in place for discarding these kinds of materials. ("Summary of HIPPA Privacy ule," 2102)
In the case of St. John's Hospital, they have become known for establishing practices of innovation (which go above and beyond traditional safety standards). Yet, at the same time, there are no critical internal controls governing how this information is thrown away. What most executives are concentrating on: is meeting these objectives from an external stakeholder perspective.
This is creating problems inside the facility, as the custodial staff able to go through the garbage and read this information. The reason why,…
Summary of HIPPA Privacy Rule. (2012). HHS. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
Alguire, P. (2009). The International Medical Graduate's Guide. Philadelphia, PA: ACP Press.
Johnston, A. (2012). State Hospitals become more Transparent. Times Record News. Retrieved from: http://www.timesrecordnews.com/news/2012/jan/13/state-hospitals-become-more-transparent/
Kilipi, H. (2000). Patient's Autonomy. Amsterdam: ISO Press.
The same does apply to security metrics such that these metrics establish the performance within the organization and the effectiveness of the organization's security.
The purpose of Risk Analysis is to spot and find security risks in the current framework and to resolve the risk exposure identified by the risk analysis. The type of security risk assessment for an organization is a function of a number of available assessments. However, the most important security protocol is to protect the organizations assets. Therefore, the most important security risk assessment for this purpose is the penetration testing proceeded by the vulnerability scan (Landoll, 2006). Protection of assets is of primary concern. Assets include both physical and non-physical assets. Non-physical assets are defined as assets that are not tangible. The Security Audit is indeed imperative, as is the Ad Hoc testing and Social Engineering test.
Campbell, G. (2010, What's state-of-the-art in…
Campbell, G. (2010, What's state-of-the-art in security metrics? Security Technology Executive, 20(9), 19-19. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/823012983?accountid=13044
Campbell (2010) delves into the newest technologies currently used in security technology. Contract security guards, he contests, account for more than $16 billion in the United States, employing more than public law enforcement. Campbell proposes musing metrics developed for the senior management team as well as providing a methodology on how to determine a particular metrics application.
Institute For Security And Open Methodologies (ISECOM) Security Metrics -- Attack Surface Metrics.
The ISECOM provides information regarding the rav and its application as a metric in security protection. The attack surface metric aspect is the focus of the metrics developed and is the specific activity of the rav.
A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).
Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…
Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/resources/systems_z_advantages_charter_security_zSecurity_L1_Security_Concepts.ppt
Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.securityextra.com/why-is-information-security-important.html
Security Plan: Pixel Inc.
About Pixel Inc.
We are a 100-person strong business dedicated to the production of media, most specifically short animations, for advertising clients worldwide. Our personnel include marketing specialists, visual designers, video editors, and other creative staff.
This security plan encompasses the general and pragmatic characteristics of the security risks expected for our business and the specific actions that aim to, first and foremost, minimize such risks, and, if that's not possible, mitigate any damage should a breach in security happen.
The measures to be taken and the assigned responsibilities stated in this document apply to all the departments that make up the company. Exemptions can be given but will be only under the prerogative of the CEO under the consultation of the Chief Security Officer that will be formally assigned after the finalization of this document. Otherwise, there will be no exception to the security…
Internet Securit Alliance. (2004). Common sense guide to cyber security for small businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/business/_downloads/CSG-small-business.pdf .
Microsoft. (2004). Step-by-step guide to securing Windows XP Professional in Small Businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=9faba6ed-2e9c-44f9-bc50-d43d57e17078 .
Noriega, L. (24 May 2011). Seven Cyber Security Basics Every Small Business Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.openforum.com/articles/7-cyber-security-basics-every-small-business-needs .
Teixeira, R. (4 June 2007). Top Five Small Business Internet Securit Threats. Retrieved from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/top-five-small-business-internet-security-threats.html .
S. Department of Energy).
Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.
The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…
Ferber, Stephen. (2013). How the internet of things changes everything. HBR Blog. Retrieved:
Heath, Nick. (2012). What the internet of things means for you. Tech Republic. Retrieved:
Security Failures and Preventive Measures
Summary of the Case
The Sequential Label and Supply company is a manufacturer and supplier of labels as well as distributor of other stationary items used along with labels. This company is shown to be growing fast and is becoming highly dependent on IT systems to maintain their high end inventory as well as the functioning of their department.
The case started with the inception of a troubled employee who called up the helpdesk agent to resolve the issue he is facing. Likewise, other employees start calling in to launch similar complaints. Later, the technical support help desk employee, while checking her daily emails, accidentally opened an untrusted source file sent from a known work colleague. This led to a number of immediate problems in her network computer which led to her being not able to access the information over the network and the call…
Baker, W. (2007). Is information security under control?: Investigating quality in information security management, Security & Privacy, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4085592
Chapin, D. (2005). How can security be measured, information systems control journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://naijaskill.com/cisa2006/articles/v2-05p43-47.pdf
McAdams, A. (2004). Security and risk management: a fundamental business issue: all organizations must focus on the management issues of security, including organizational structures, & #8230;, Information Management Journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Information-Management-Journal/119570070.html
Aer Lingus, 2012a ()
No security breach has even been recorded on the Aer Lingus website so the website can be thought to be tightly secure and that all the necessary steps have been taken to ensure that the personal information of their customers is kept safe.
Methods for ensuring greater security for customers
One of the ways which the company can ensure that they continue maintaining this record of security and providing greater security for customers is to make sure the company has a security work team. This will be a team that is involved in checking the security of the company's website and other online products as their daily activity.
The second method is to ensure they keep up-to-date with changes in the technological world. Technology changes pretty fast therefore the company needs to keep up with these changes especially in the online security field. This will ensure…
Aer Lingus. (2010). Annual Report 2010: Aer Lingus.
Aer Lingus. (2011). Company Profile Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from http://www.aerlingus.com/aboutus/aerlingusmedia/companyprofile/
Aer Lingus. (2012b). Contact Us Retrieved February 23rd, 2012, from http://www.aerlingus.com/help/contactus/
Chief Security Officer:
As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…
"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.
Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2013/08/16/data-security-breach-at-ferris-state-university/
Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,
CT: Cengage Learning.
Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Ohio: Cengage Learning.
Jin, D.Y. (2010). Global Media Convergence and Cultural Transformation: Emerging Social Patterns and Characteristics. Hershey: Igi Global.
Kim, T., Adeli, H., Fang, W.C., Villalba, J.G., Arnett, K.P., & Khan, M.K. (2011). Security Technology:…
Boone, L.E., & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Ohio: Cengage Learning.
Jin, D.Y. (2010). Global Media Convergence and Cultural Transformation: Emerging Social Patterns and Characteristics. Hershey: Igi Global.
Kim, T., Adeli, H., Fang, W.C., Villalba, J.G., Arnett, K.P., & Khan, M.K. (2011). Security Technology: International Conference, SecTech 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011. Proceedings. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Essentially, the most successful it security systems will rely on a fragmented structure; they may look to third-party or other external local hosting service providers for data that is not as crucial to keep secret. Thus, enterprises must plan for space for "machine rooms that afford high availability and reliability to departmental server resources as well as appropriate network security for these resources" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 7).Then, for more restricted data, in-house servers can provide an extra layer of security to help ensure that such sensitive data remains in proper hands. To protect such restricted data, proper identity management strategies should include "a cross functional client and technical team abstracted requirements for updates" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 5). Thus, enterprise organizations must rely on a tiered network infrastructure that provides a number of different levels of security for various elements of the enterprise organization.
Security plans are a necessary…
Arconati, Nicholas. (2002). One approach to enterprise security architecture. InfoSec Reading Room. SANS Institute. Web. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/policyissues/approach-enterprise-security-architecture_504
Clotfelter, James. (2013). ITS technology infrastructure plan. Information Technology Services. University of North Carolina Greensboro. Web. http://its.uncg.edu/About/ITS_Technology_Infrastructure%20Plan.pdf
Glynn, Fergal. (2013). What is penetrating testing? VeraCode. Web. http://www.veracode.com/security/penetration-testing
SANS Institute. (2011). Understanding intrusion detection systems. InfoSec Reading Room. Web. http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/detection/understanding-intrusion-detection-systems_337
Campus Security Measures
The impact of mass shooting at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) on April 16, 2007 continues to be felt across the United States and internationally due to a massacre that killed 27 students and five faculty members. Following the weeks after the shooting, the university conducted several extensive reviews and analysis to better understand the attack and provide strategies to prevent future attacks in the university. In response to the tragedy at the Virginia Tech and other shooting tragedies across the colleges and universities in the United States, IACLEA (the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators) develops comprehensive recommendations that the colleges and universities should follow in enhancing safety and securities. (Thrower, Healy, Margolis, et al. 2008). Apart from the comprehensive safety procedures against shooting, the university authorities also have the obligations to protect the life and properties against event such as fire,…
Guardly (2012). Assessment of Emergency Response Times on Campus when using Guardly Safe Campus ™ versus Existing
Methods of Reporting, Monitoring and Responding to Incidents. Industry Higher Education.
Randazzo, M.R. & Plummer, E. (2009). Implementing Behavioral Threat Assessment on Campus. A Virginia Tech Demonstration Project. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Thrower, R.H. Healy, S.J. Margolis, G.J. et al.(2008). Overview of the Virginia Tech Tragedy
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…
Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.
Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.
Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.
Sequential Label and Supply
nist sp 800-50, "Building an Information Technology Security Awareness and Training Program"
Sequential Label and Supply
After a recent failure of the computer systems at Sequential Label and Supply, it has become clear that current security provisions are inadequate
The IT security team is under-funded and understaffed
There is a lack of respect for the IT team
Problems are dealt with as they present themselves rather than are anticipated and prevented
Agency IT security policy
At present, there is no formal security policy and problems tend to be addressed on an ad hoc basis. For example, when a disc brought in by an employee infected all of the computers with a virus, the ability to use such software was disabled: no fundamental reforms were made
There is a need to create a consistent, coherent security policy for the entire company, in all roles
Whitman, M. & Mattord, H. (2005). Readings and cases in the management of information security. Cengage.
Wilson, M & Hash, J. (2003). Building an information technology security awareness and training program. NIST. Retrieved from:
Less satisfied knowledge dealing processes like keeping copies of old as well as unused spreadsheets which have several Social Security numbers instead of transmitting such data to long period and safe storage- persistently involve data at vulnerable stage. (Schuster 140-141)
Security concerns are associated with primarily to the system security, information security and also to Encryption. Taking into consideration the system security, it is applicable that what is pertinent to make sure that a system is quite secured, and decrease the scope that perpetrators could break into a website server and change pages. System security is a real responsibility particularly if one regulates one's owned Website server. (Creating Good Websites: Security)
There are two primary concerns in system security. One is in the application of passwords that ought to be selected and applied securely. But however protected a system could be, it is ordinarily exposed to the world if the…
Cavusoglu, Huseyin; Mishra, Birendra; Raghunathan, Srinivasan. The Effect of Website security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Website security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 9, no.1, Fall 2004. pp: 70-104.
Creating Good Websites: Security. http://www.leafdigital.com/class/topics/security / de Vivo, Marco; de Vivo, Gabrieal; Isern, Germinal. Website security attacks at the basic level. SACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, vol. 32, no. 2, April 1998. pp: 4-15.
Farmer, Melanie Austria; Hu, Jim. Microsoft not alone in suffering security breaches.
October 27, 2000, http://news.com.com/Microsoft+not+alone+in+suffering+security+breaches/2100-1001_3-247734.html
Information Technology Security
Over the last several years, the Internet has evolved to the point that it is a part of any organizations activities. As both governments and businesses are using this new technology, to store as well as retrieve significant amounts of information. However, this heavy reliance on various IT related protocols are having adverse effects on these organizations. As they are facing increasing amounts of threats from cyber criminals that are seeking to exploit a host of weaknesses. A good example of this can be seen by looking at statistics that were compiled by the FDIC. They found, that in third quarter of 2009 there was $120 million stolen (from governments and corporations), out of this number small business lost $25 million. This is significant, because it shows how the tremendous reliance on IT-based technology, is increasing the overall vulnerability that these organizations are facing. To fully understand…
6998 Storage System. (2011). LSI. Retrieved from: http://www.lsi.com/storage_home/products_home/external_raid/6998_storage_system/index.html
The Effects of Spyware, Malware and Botnets. (2010). Billboard Drama. Retrieved from: http://www.billboardmama.com/blog/blog1.php/2010/12/15/the-effects-of-spyware-malware-and-botne
Guide to NIST Information. (2010). National Institute of Standards. Retrieved from: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/CSD_DocsGuide.pdf
RAID Products for System X. (2011). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/storage/product/systemx/scsi_raid.html
Job Advertisement for a Security Manager
Cincom Systems is a leading provider of Enterprise esource Planning (EP), Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Quality Management and Compliance (ECQM) systems and platforms for aerospace and defense manufacturers globally. The continued investment in advanced surveillance technologies by the U.S. And foreign governments has led to continued rapid growth for Cincom, as more aerospace and defense manufacturers rely on their software than any other software provider globally. More Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)s are manufactured using Cincom's software than any other enterprise software company serving the aerospace and defense industry today.
Cincom's profitable growth is leading to expansion of manufacturing facilities globally and the need for an Enterprise Security Manager to ensure secure, safe operation of its development center in San Diego, California. A DOD-complaint facility, the San Diego esearch and Development Center is world-known for its advanced research into…
Atkinson, W. 2005, "Integrating Risk Management & Security," Risk Management, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 32-34, 36-37.
Baxter, H.C. 2012, "Don't Be Left Behind: Improving Knowledge Transfer," Public Manager, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 39-43.
Booker, R. 2006, "Re-engineering enterprise security," Computers & Security, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 13-17.
Fay, J. 2005, Security's Role in Enterprise Risk Management, Cygnus Business Media, Inc., Park Ridge.
These different elements show the overall nature of possible threats that could be facing a variety of organizations and how to mitigate them. This is important, because given the rapid changes in technology and the way various threats could occur, requires all entities to be watchful of different situations. Where, those who implement such strategies will be able to adapt to the various challenges that they are facing in the future; by understanding the nature of the threat and how to address it. Over the course of time, this will help to keep an organization flexible in addressing the various security issues, as the approach will require everyone to remain watchful and understand new threats that could be emerging. This will prevent different weakness from being exploited, by knowing where they are and then fixing them.
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
eaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical…
Safety, Security, and Physical Plant Systems. (n.d.)
Beaver, K. (2010). Introduction to Ethical Hacking. Hacking for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 11.
Gallagher, M (2008). Security Tools and Methods. Cyber Security. Cheltenham: Elger. 45 -- 46.
Meyers, M. (2007). Malicious Software. Mike Myers A + Guide. San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill. 18.
EP and Information Security
Introduction to EP
Even though the plans of information security include the prevention of outsiders to gain access of internal network still the risk from the outsiders still exists. The outsiders can also represent themselves as authorized users in order to cause damage to the transactions of the business systems. Therefore, strict prevention measures should be taken to avoid such situations.
The threats of both the hackers have been increased with the software of the enterprise resource planning (EP) (Holsbeck and Johnson, 2004). By performing acts of deception, the system privileges are neglected by them and take old of the assets which are mainly the cash. Its continuous integration has not succeeded in eliminating the threat of hackers who are either the insiders or enter through the perimeter security.
Considering the financial losses caused from the system-based frauds, errors and abuse by business transactions, new ways…
Bell, T., Thimbleby, H., Fellows, M., Witten, I., Koblitz, N. & Powell, M. 2003. Explaining cryptographic systems. Computers & Education. Volume 40. pp 199 -- 215.
Blosch, M. & Hunter, R. 2004. Sarbanes-Oxley: an external look at internal controls. Gartner. August.
CobiT Security Baseline. IT Governance Institute. http://www.itgi.org
Dhillon, G. 2004. Guest Editorial: the challenge of managing information security. International Journal of Information Management. Volume 24. pp 3 -- 4.
In September 2002, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) formed the Pipeline Security Division to manage pipeline security at the federal level. The Department of Transportation also operates the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. These homeland security teams help to prevent disaster and offer protocols for response. However, pipeline security requires astute public-private partnerships. According to the TSA, virtually all of the country's critical pipeline infrastructure is owned and operated by private entities (Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). Pipeline security is a matter of financial importance to industry stakeholders, but also integral to national security and environmental integrity.
Pipelines transport about 75% of all crude oil, and 65% of its refined petroleum products, natural gas, and other liquids in the United States (Parfomak "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs," Transportation Security Administration, "Pipeline Security"). The full extent of the pipeline network in the United States, including the pipelines…
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security and Monitoring: Protecting the Industry." Pipelines International. March 2012. Retrieved online: http://pipelinesinternational.com/news/pipeline_security_and_monitoring_protecting_the_industry/067023/
Fielding, Adrian. "Pipeline Security: New Technology for Today's Demanding Environment." Pipeline and Gas Journal. Vol. 239, No. 5, May 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.pipelineandgasjournal.com/pipeline-security-new-technology-today%E2%80%99s-demanding-environment
Parfomak, Paul W. "Keeping America's Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress." CRS Report for Congress. Jan 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41536.pdf
Parfomak, Paul W. "Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs." CRS Report for Congress. Feb 18, 2010. Retrieved online: http://pstrust.org/docs/CRSRL33347_000.pdf
Second, the specific connection points thoughout the netwok also need to be evaluated fo thei levels of existing secuity as well, with the WiFi netwok audited and tested (Loo, 2008). Thid, the Vitual Pivate Netwoks (VPNS) and the selection of secuity potocols needs to be audited (Westcott, 2007) to evaluate the pefomance of IPSec vs. SSL potocols on oveall netwok pefomance (Rowan, 2007). Many smalle copoations vacillate between IPSec and SSL as the copoate standad fo wieless connections, defining the advantages and disadvantages as the table below has captued.
Table 1: Technical Analysis of Diffeences between IPSec and SSL
Site-to-site VPN; mainly configued in a hub-and-spoke design
Authenticates though digital cetificate o peshaed key
Dops packets that do not confom to the secuity policy
Authenticate though the use of digital cetificates; dops packets if a fatal alet is eceived
Lin, Y., Chen, S., Lin, P., & Lai, Y.. (2008). Designing and evaluating interleaving decompressing and virus scanning in a stream-based mail proxy. The Journal of Systems and Software, 81(9), 1517.
Robert Loew, Ingo Stengel, Udo Bleimann, & Aidan McDonald. (1999). Security aspects of an enterprise-wide network architecture. Internet Research, 9(1), 8-15.
Loo, a. (2008). The Myths and Truths of Wireless Security. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 51(2), 66.
OpenReach (2002) IPSec vs. SSL: Why Choose?. Jan. 2002. Open Reach. Security Tech Net. 20 Mar. 2007. Accessed from the Internet on October 6, 2009 from location:
International Ship and Port Security (Isps) Code on Maritime Security
Impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts…
Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)
Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.
Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…
Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"
Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html
Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
IT Security Assessments (Process of matching security policies against the architecture of the system in order to measure compliance
The systems security assessment is the method of creating a security policy that would be complimentary to the architecture of the system and the method would allow for the measure of compliance. Security assessments are activities that belong to the phase of the design cycle, and that is because it is very difficult to assess the risk of a system that is already functioning. Assessing risk alone does not make the process true. The issues of costs, and the types of security architecture and many other necessities that are outside the actual security measures need to be considered because they come into play. (amachandran, 2002) There is also the complexities of the networks itself to consider. Modern internet-based systems have created hybrid network configuration that brings the problems of scalability. One…
Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M; Agha, Khaldoun A; Pujolle, G. (2005) "Mobile and wireless communication networks" Springer.
Chakrabarti, Anirban. (2007) "Grid computing security"
Merkow, Mark S; Breithaupt, Jim. (2005) "Computer security assurance using the common criteria" Thomas Delmar Learning.
These can be layered by razor spiral at the top all around the perimeter wall. There could also be a second perimeter wall after the main one as well as security personnel patrolling the perimeter wall to handle any intrusions once detected. This type of perimeter wall works effectively in the layered security model since it gives the detection systems an inhibition backing to prevent intruders from accessing the business.
The intrusion can also come in the form of attempted access through the legitimate means like through the gate where the intruder will come in as any expected traffic. The layered physical security mode will have several choke points at the entry areas. There is the first heavy steel gate where vehicles stop for thorough and systematic checks. Electronic devices are used to check the vehicles and the visitors on foot are expected to go through metal detectors.
Pagoria B., (2004). Implementing Robust Physical Security. SANS Institute. Retrieved May 3, 2014 from http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/physcial/implementing-robust-physical-security-1447
Taylor B., (2002). Physical Security Vs. Information Security: Redefining the Layered Information Security Models. Retrieved May 3, 2014 from http://www.giac.org/paper/gsec/1792/physical-security-vs.-information-security-redefining-layered-information-security-model/109158