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How would you consider what is to be local security vs. enterprise wide security. Should they be different, should it be enterprise wide ignoring the special needs of any particular site. Keep in mind that employees travel from one site to another often and need to access computing resources from any site to get their work done.
The classic enterprise network for most organizations used to be hub and spoke arrangement, but demand for higher bandwidth led to the decrease in the cost of leased lines and the emergence of new technologies, such Virtual Private Networks that could mesh offices together. (Enterprise ide Security on the Internet, March 2002) This created another problem, however, as the larger the enterprise, the greater the need for security, yet the larger the network, the more diverse the informative needs of the employees. The first solution that was deployed in the early…
Corporate Security on the Internet. (February 2002) News Views. http://www.newsviews.info/techbytes02.html
Enterprise Wide Security on the Internet (March 2002) News Views. http://www.newsviews.info/techbytes03.html
Airport Security System
The secure operation of the aviation system across the globe is one of the most significant factors in the security and economic development of the United States. The use of the world's airspace should also be secured because aviation has become a major target for criminals. Actually, criminals, terrorists, and hostile nations increasingly consider aviation as a major target for exploitation and attack. An example of the security threats facing this industry is the 9/11 terror attacks, which highlighted the desire and ability of enemies to generate considerable harm to the United States. Therefore, aviation security is increasingly important in order to protect the country and its citizens from such attacks. According to Federal of American Scientists (2007), aviation security is realized through combination of private and public aviation security activities across the globe. These activities are then coordinated to detect, prevent, deter, and defeat threats that…
"Aviation Transportation System Security Plan." (2007, March 26). National Strategy for Aviation Security. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Homeland Security website: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/hspd16_transsystemsecurityplan.pdf
Das, D. (2013, January 1). Total Airport Security System: Integrated Security Monitoring Platform. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://security-today.com/Articles/2013/01/01/Total-Airport-Security-System-Integrated-Security-Monitoring-Platform.aspx
Elias, B. (2007, July 30). Air Cargo Security. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32022.pdf
Elias, B. (2009, April 23). Airport Passenger Screening: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved December 23, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R40543.pdf
Vivint Home Security System
Security Systems Development Life Cycle
In the system development cycle, certain precise steps are accountable and they are all integrated into phases. As mentioned in the abstract earlier, five stages/phases are used as guidelines when developing the security system, or any other system. In the planning system, the project is reviewed to realize its applicability. In the case of Vivint home security system, the proposal of the system development has to be reviewed by experts, who go ahead to prioritize the requests brought forward in the project. In addition, in the same phase, resources are allocated and an able team is selected to oversee the entire development processes. Details of the planning phase are discussed in the proceeding paragraphs.
At the analysis stage, the team selected and responsible for the systems development conducts a preliminary analysis/investigation, and conducts a performance analysis that includes analyzing any system…
Crabtree, C. (2007). Presenting a Conceptual Model for the Systems Development Life Cycle. New York: ProQuest Publishers.
Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, J.H. (2011). Principles of Information Security. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
Rivard, S. & Aubert, B.A. (2007). Information Technology Outsourcing. New York: Sharpe Publishers
Shelly, G. & Vermaat, J. (2010). Discovering Computers: Living in A Digital World: Fundamentals. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
One of the principle threats that is found at the internal level of airport security is passengers attempting to smuggle items aboard planes that can function as weapons. In this respect, security measures must include a list of substances that passengers are prohibited from flying with (such as chemical compounds) (Staples, no date), in addition to utilizing various devices to ensure that no is violating these rules.
There are a host of technological applications that are utilized for achieving the latter objective. Most of these devices involve scanning passengers to both detect and deter them from taking potentially lethal contraband aboard planes. Metal detectors are utilized to look for typical weapons such as firearms and knives, while searches of passengers and scanning of their luggage should also be conducted to look for any prohibited materials. Other scanning devices include x-ray machines and explosive detection machines, both of which can detect…
Staples, Edward J. (No date). "The Industrial Physicist -- Safeguarding Ports with Industrial Security." American Institute of Physics. Retrieved from http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-3/p22.html .
Tyson, J., Grabianowski, E. (no date). "How Airport Security Works." How Stuff Works. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/airport-security4.htm
Computer Security Systems
The report provides new security tools and techniques that computer and IT (Information Technology) professionals, network security specialists, individuals, corporate and public organizations can employ to enhance security of their computer and information systems. In the fast paced IT environment, new threats appear daily that make many organizations to lose data and information that worth billions of dollars. In essence, the computer and IT security professionals are required to develop new computer and IT security tools and techniques to protect their information resources.
The present age of universal computer connectivity has offered both opportunities and threats for corporate organizations Typically, since corporate and public organizations rely on computer and network systems to achieve their business objectives, they also face inherent risks which include electronic fraud, eavesdropping, virus attack and hacking. In essence, some hackers use malicious software with an intention to gain access to corporate computer systems…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009. Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Osterhage, W. (2011). Wireless Security. UK, Science Publishers.
Network Security Systems for Accounting Firm
In the contemporary IT environment, the implementation of the IT tools has become an effective strategy that organizations employ to achieve competitive market advantages. In other words, the IT tools have become an effective strategy that organizations can employ to be ahead of competitors, and be first in the market. One of the crucial features of the information systems is the network connectivity that involves connecting global computer resources, which assist in enhancing effective communication systems. Thus, the network connectivity will improve the communication system for our accounting firm assisting our organization to serve the customer better.
Despite benefits that network connectivity will provide to our organization, the network connectivity is associated with inherent risks and vulnerabilities. Typically, the network systems face different vulnerabilities that include virus attacks, electronic fraud, attacks from malware, Dos attacks and electronic eavesdropping. Since our organization will…
Black, P.E. Fong, E. Okun, V. et al.(2007). Software Assurance Tools: Web Application Security Scanner Functional Specification Version 1.0. NIST. Special Publication 500-269.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Oliveira, R.A., Laranjeiro, N., & Vieira, M. (2015). Assessing the security of web service frameworks against Denial of Service attacks. Journal of Systems and Software. 109: 18-21.
Stallings, W. (2013). Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice (6th Edition). Pearson Education.
Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.
The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:
… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…
Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann
Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.
Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/98896/How_to_develop_an_enterprise_security_policy .
Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…
"An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook." National Institute of Standards and Technology, SP 800-12, (Oct 1995). Web. 24 Oct 2010.
Anti-virus Guidelines. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Culnan, M., Foxman, E., & Ray, A. "Why IT Executives Should Help Employees Secure their Home Computers." MIS Quarterly Executive 7.1 (2008): 49-56. Print.
Desktop Security Policies. The SANS Institute, 2006. Web. 24 Oct, 2010.
Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)
Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.
Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…
Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"
Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at http://www.fortify.com/vulncat/en/vulncat/index.html
Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
In the present day, organizations are reliant on information in order to continue being relevant and not become obsolete. To be specific, organizations are reliant on the controls and systems that have been instituted in place, which provide the continuing privacy, veracity, and accessibility of their data and information (Lomprey, 2008). There is an increase and rise in threats to information contained within organizations and information systems (Lomprey, 2008). There is also a rise in the intricacy of such systems and information, which places emphasis on the importance for organizations to understand and gain an understanding of how to better safeguard their information as well as information systems. As stated by Briggs (2005), globalization has instigated the world to become a global village. This, in turn, has increased the level of complexity and intricacy of the information security aspect of the organizations across the world. There is greater…
Alfawaz, S. M. (2011). Information security management: a case study of an information security culture (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
Ashenden, D. (2008). Information Security management: A human challenge? Information security technical report, 13(4), 195-201.
Briggs, R. (2005). Joining Forces From national security to networked security. DEMOS.
Chang, S. E., Ho, C. B. (2006). Organizational factors to the effectiveness of implementing information security management. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 106 (3): 345-361.
Security Finance & Payback
A strong effective information security program consists of many layers that create a "defense in depth" (Spontak, 2006). The objectives of information security is to make any unauthorized, unwanted access extremely difficult, easily detected, and well documented. Components of strong defense include firewalls, virus filters, intrusion detection, monitoring, and usage policies. Some businesses are missing the business culture, policies and procedures, separation of duties, and security awareness.
The Finance Department is critical to the security of the information system. Financial executives can set the tone, encourage compliance with security policies, and lead by example. Allowing the sharing of passwords puts the information security at risk, especially where financial, employee, and customer information is concerned. When employees are uneducated regarding compliance regulation, the organization can end up in trouble with authorities. Employees should be evaluated on information security measures, not just on customer service measures.…
Gordon, L.A. (2002). Return on information security investments: Myths & Realities. Strategic Finance, 84(5), 26-31.
Spontak, S. (2006). Defense in Depth: How financial executive can boost IT security. Financial Executive, 22(10), 51-53.
The same does apply to security metrics such that these metrics establish the performance within the organization and the effectiveness of the organization's security.
The purpose of Risk Analysis is to spot and find security risks in the current framework and to resolve the risk exposure identified by the risk analysis. The type of security risk assessment for an organization is a function of a number of available assessments. However, the most important security protocol is to protect the organizations assets. Therefore, the most important security risk assessment for this purpose is the penetration testing proceeded by the vulnerability scan (Landoll, 2006). Protection of assets is of primary concern. Assets include both physical and non-physical assets. Non-physical assets are defined as assets that are not tangible. The Security Audit is indeed imperative, as is the Ad Hoc testing and Social Engineering test.
Campbell, G. (2010, What's state-of-the-art in…
Campbell, G. (2010, What's state-of-the-art in security metrics? Security Technology Executive, 20(9), 19-19. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/823012983?accountid=13044
Campbell (2010) delves into the newest technologies currently used in security technology. Contract security guards, he contests, account for more than $16 billion in the United States, employing more than public law enforcement. Campbell proposes musing metrics developed for the senior management team as well as providing a methodology on how to determine a particular metrics application.
Institute For Security And Open Methodologies (ISECOM) Security Metrics -- Attack Surface Metrics.
The ISECOM provides information regarding the rav and its application as a metric in security protection. The attack surface metric aspect is the focus of the metrics developed and is the specific activity of the rav.
The foundation of the current private security systems may be credited to Alan Pinkerton. Born in Glasgow in 1819 Pinkerton worked for a sort time as the Cook County Deputy Sherriff before in 1849 being the first detective appointed in the Chicago Police department (Dempsey, 2010). Pinkerton also went on to investigate mail thefts as a special U.S. mail agent in 1850 (Dempsey, 2010). t was in the early 1850's that in partnership with Edward Rucker he started up his on private detective agency, located in the North-West of the country (Dempsey, 2010). After only a year his partner left, at which time the firm was renamed the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, with the tag line 'the eye that never sleeps' (Dempsey, 2010). t was this slogan which led to the term 'private eye' to refer to private investigators (Dempsey, 2010; Burstein, 1999). The agency was highly successful and became…
In the Civil War the firm offered private services to the government, including intelligence gathering and the protection of President Lincoln. The firm is credited with saving the life of Lincoln by identifying an assassination plan during covet intelligence work identifying threats to the railroads (Fischel, 1996).
Pinkertons was not the only private security firm to emerge, the latter part of the nineteenth century also saw other firms established. The need was also supported with the Railway Police Acts 1865, giving railroad the ability to protect themselves (Dempsey, 2010). The two main rivals were Binks Inc., created with the aim of protecting payroll governments, and in 1909 there was the founding of William J. Burns Inc., which went on to become the investigative unit of the American Banking Association (Burstein, 1999).
In the Private Security Task Force Report three factors were identified as ongoing drivers for the development of the industry, these were ineffective policing services, the increase in the level of crimes and increased
Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems
The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.
By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…
Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.
Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.
Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.
Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Even though there is always some form of a risk involved in the coding technique together with the deployment methods of a website, some technologies such as PHP and MySQL form some of the worst aggravators of online website security. The loopholes that exists in the use of these technologies results in some of the worst hack attacks and security breaches ever experienced in the field of web design. The internet is bustling with a lot of activities. Some of the activities that are officiated over the internet are very sensitive due to both the nature of the information exchanged or even the information stored in the database.
It is paramount that websites be provided with secure and personalized databases. One inevitable fact however is that once a site is deployed on the internet, it becomes a resource to be accessed by everyone as postulated by Kabir
Secure website development…
Bloch, M (2004). "PHP/MySQL Tutorial - Introduction." ThinkHost. .
Friedl, J (2002). Mastering Regular Expressions, Second Edition. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates Inc., 2002.
Kabir, MJ (2003) Secure PHP Development: Building 50 Practical Applications.
Indianapolis, in: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Security: Mobile Protection
As the Internet has become the dominant means of communicating, sharing information, tending to business, storing data, and maintaining records in the Digital Age, the importance of security for the digital world has become more and more realized (Zhang et al., 2017). Not only do companies have to invest in digital security in order to safeguard against threats and risks such as hacking or malware, but individuals also have to be cognizant of the threats to their personal information and property now that all things are online. This is particularly important for people to consider given that so many individuals today carry around pocket computers in the form of a mobile phone—an iPhone, a smart phone, a tablet, an iPad—all of these devices require mobile protection as they can link up to and connect to the Internet wherever one goes (so long as one is within range…
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
Internet: Security on the Web
Security on the Web -- What are the Key Issues for Major Banks?
The age of digital technology -- email, Web-driven high-speed communication and information, online commerce, and more -- has been in place now for several years, and has been touted as a "revolutionary" technological breakthrough, and for good reason: This technology presents enormous new business opportunities. For example, by moving the key element of marketing and sales from local and regional strategies onto the global stage, and by providing dramatically improved customer convenience, the Web offers medium, small and large companies -- including banks -- unlimited growth potential.
That having been said, there are problems associated with online services, in particular online banking services, and security is at the top of the list of these issues. Some of the most serious security issues associated with Web-banking keep customers away from this technology, in…
Anti-Phishing Working Group (2004), "Committed to wiping out Internet scams and fraud: Origins of the Word 'Phishing'," Available: http://www.antiphishing.org /word_phish.html.
Arnfield, Robin (2005), "McAfee Warns on Top Viruses," (News Factor Network / Yahoo! News), Available:
http://www.news.yahoo/news?tmpl=story& cid=75& u=/nf/20050104/tc_nf/29450& printer=1.
Bergman, Hannah (2004), "FDIC Offers, Solicits Ideas on Stopping ID Theft," American Banker, vol. 169, no. 240, p. 4.
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
security career is varied, offering people wishing to pursue this option with jobs like security guard, loss prevention specialist, crossing guard, deputy sheriff, even security management specialists. The cross fields and some need special training as well as a degree for a person to gain access too, not to mention, some jobs requires prior experience, at least one year. With that said, the most in demand and easy to apply and access job in the security career field is loss prevention specialist. Although it can be hard at times to catch suspected shoplifters, it will teach the person working the job, how to spot suspected criminal activity and learn how to properly detain and question criminal suspects.
Often this kind of job only requires a high school diploma and doesn't need long-term training. Furthermore, the hours are not long unless the person elects to work for a 24-hour store, which…
Fischer, R.J., & Green, G. (2012). Introduction to Security (9th Ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Nemeth, C.P. (2005). Private security and the law. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Methods of Security
Seven types of physical barriers designed to thwart a potential threat are: (1) perimeter security measures, (2) physical barriers (natural or structural), (3) fencing (chain link, barbed wire, top guard), (4) gates, (5) protective lighting, (6) doors, and (7) windows (U.S. Geological Survey Manual, 2018). Of these, I feel that the most important is to have perimeter security measures. Perimeter security measures can include virtually anything that secures a perimeter and can vary in complexity and comprehensiveness—from something as simple as a wall around one’s home to a missile defense shield that protects one’s city or state. Perimeter security measures prevent a physical assault or intrusion from occurring at the front lines. It is the first and in some cases the last line of defense.
Perimeter security also serves as a deterrent as well. One looking to gain entry will not be able to see over a…
security crisis that is plaguing e-commerce as it transforms into the epitome of global business. It attempts to analyze the possible repercussions of this problem and then put forward various possible solutions to rectify the biggest obstacle limiting the path of e-commerce progress. The ideas and references used in this proposal have been cited from five different sources.
E-commerce has changed the way the world do business, plain and simple. It has single-handedly brought more people, countries, enterprises and governments together to the same world market than all other forms of conducting methods, combined. This name, given to the electronic method of executing business, has made the task of buying every available merchandise exponentially easier and has therefore made all the more products accessible to the general population as well as businesses and industries. The boom in online trade is gaining alacrity and is destined to become the method of…
1) Ghosh, AK, 1st edition - January 21, 1998, E-Commerce Security: Weak Links, Best Defenses, John Wiley & Sons.
2) Raisinghani, M, (editor), January 7, 2002, Cases on Worldwide E-Commerce: Theory in Action (Cases on Information Technology Series, Vol 4, Part 3), Idea Group Publishing
3) Hills, R, 23 April 2003, Key risks to e-commerce security, "My IT Adviser," Retreived on 20th February, 2004, from:
Controversy Surrounding the Client
This client is not the typical, everyday individual. He is an outspoken controversial white supremacist who often engages in blatantly controversial public behavior. The client is also planning to meet with the press and speak his mind regarding the recent charges brought against him involving murder and violation of civil rights. He is currently out on a $1 million bond and going through a criminal court case. As such, he is hated by many within the larger Southern California community, considering that the city is largely made up of large minority populations. Although the client lives in Laguna Beach, a wealthy suburban offshoot of Los Angeles just to its south, the region is still easily accessible from the city. This means that minority and civil rights groups may all be a threat to his security and his estate, as they may be…
Fennelly L.J., (2004). Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention. Elsevier Butterworth. Oxford:UK.
Vellani, Karim H. (2010). Crime Analysis for Problem Solving Security Professionals in 25 Small Steps. Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Web. http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/pdfs/crimeanalysis25steps.pdf
Indeed, the problem identified above is the very technical capabilities of those designing these technical security measures, and thus any security measure could likely be overridden with a fair amount of ease by these individuals (ITSP, 2005). Human resource control must also be implemented as a security measure, then, and this is done not through technology but rather through policy. A comprehensive and detailed information policy produced b the SANS Institute (2012) lists quite clearly the responsibilities and prohibitions of all employees in regards to information access, transmission, and utilization, covering far more than the issue being examined here. There are also policies for the control of information security personnel, however, and guidelines for executives and managers to control risks and exposures as a result of employee malice or avarice (SANS Institute, 2012). Simple procedural elements such as separating the work of various parts of the information security system and…
ITSP. (2005). Every business has information security problems. Accessed 11 March 2012. http://www.it-observer.com/every-business-has-information-security-problems.html
SANS Institute. (2012). Information sensitivity policy. Accessed 11 March 2012. http://www.sans.org/security-resources/policies/Information_Sensitivity_Policy.pdf
security has become critical in almost all business functions since it can ensure that organizations conduct their businesses and deliver services to the public without any fear of threats or sabotage. The push towards securing organizational information has resulted in the need for developing better metrics for comprehending the actual state of a given organization's security infrastructure (Seddigh et al.,2004).The work of Vaugh, Henning and Siraj (2009,p.9) noted that the adoption of metrics or measures for reliable depiction of the information assurance level that is associated with a given software and hardware system is one of the unresolved problems in the field of security engineering.. In this paper, we evaluate whether devising metrics can really work for Information Assurance programs. We also find out if there is a need for taking additional steps in making sure that the metrics we are using are really measuring our IA programs and strategy.…
Chew, E., Clay, A., Hash, J., Bartol, N., & Brown, A. (2006). Guide for developing performance metrics for information security: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. Of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved October 23rd, 2012 from http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps72067/draft-sp800-80-ipd.pdf
Henning, RR et al. (2000) Information Assurance Metrics: Prophecy, Process, or Pipedream-Available online at http://csrc.nist.gov/nissc/2000/proceedings/papers/201.pdf
Seddigh, N et al. (2004).Current Trends and Advances in Information Assurance Metrics. Available online at http://solananetworks.com/documents/PST2004.pdf
Vaughn, RB., Henning, R., Siraj.,A (2003).Information Assurance Measures and Metrics- State of Practice and Proposed Taxonomy. Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences -- 2003
Information System Security Plan
The information security system is required to ensure the security of the business process and make the confidential data of the organization secure. The organization's management is required to analyze the appropriate system to be implemented and evaluate the service provided on the basis of their required needs. The implementation of the system requires the compliance of organizational policies with the service provider to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. The continuous update and maintenance of the system is required to ensure the invulnerability of the system towards the potential internal and external threats.
Data Security Manager and Coordinator
Evaluate Service Providers
Change Passwords Periodically
estricted access to personal information
Safeguard paper records
eport unauthorized use of customer information
Terminated Employees 1
3. External isks 1
3.1 Firewall Protection 1
3.2 Data Encryption 1
Baskerville, R., & Siponen, M. (2002).An information security meta-policy for emergent organizations.Logistics Information Management, 15(5/6), 337-346.
Dlamini, M.T., Eloff, J.H., & Eloff, M.M. (2009). Information security: The moving target. Computers & Security, 28(3), 189-198.
Dhillon, G., & Backhouse, J. (2000). Technical opinion: Information system security management in the new millennium. Communications of the ACM, 43(7), 125-128.
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air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
wireless Web is truly' the next major wave of Internet computing
A its potential for bringing people together and expanding commerce is even greater than that of the wired Internet."
Edward Kozel, board member and former CTO of Cisco systems (AlterEgo, 2000, p. 12)
The integration of the Internet into our modern culture as a driving force behind business, convenience, services and merchandise acquisition has created a new set of desires for modern consumers. The trend started with the ease and availability of services and products being offer4ed through radio and television advertising, and then infomercials and shopping channels. The internet brought the availability to purchase products, goods, and information from our desks and kitchens. Now trough wireless hotspots and wireless devices, society is following their desires toward a marketing distribution channel which motivates them to pay for internet access, and mobile commerce (m-commerce) anytime, anywhere, and instantly. These sets…
AlterEgo (2000). Building the intelligent internet: Making the case for adaptive network services. [www.alterego.com].
Albright, B. (2000). Mobilize this!. Frontline Solutions, May, 28-32.
Bansal, P. (1.1.2001) Smart cards come of age. The Banker.
Barnett, N., Hodges, S. & Wilshire, M. (2000). M-commerce: An operator's manual. McKinsey Quarterly, 3,162-171.
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…
Bressler, M.S. (2007). The Impact of Crime on Business: A Model for Prevention, Detection & Remedy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Burke, M.E., & Schramm, J. (2004 ). Getting to Know the Candidate Conducting Reference Checks. Alexandria: Research SHRM.
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1. While some people may be better leaders than others, all people can lead and all people can learn to lead better. Discuss some ideas of how leadership skills may be improved.
Development and education
Leaders need to develop in their position. Owing to managerial tasks’ knowledge-based nature, the word “development” has been used to describe the continuous growth in skills and cognition of executives and managers. Managerial development is promoted via education that they may acquire in various settings (Fernandez et al., 2015). Attending and taking part in programs offered by certain general management and security-related institutions may help cater to their developmental requirements.
Training and practice
A leader is required to engage in constant training and practice of leadership skills needed for improving their output, including integrity, delegation and patience, until the time they have acquired mastery over those skills.
The mentoring process entails transfer…
Security Management: The 1968 Bank Protection Act
In the 1960s, all banking was primarily done in person and in-house—i.e., a customer had to literally walk into a bank to make a transaction. This was well before the era of digital cash, when money could be moved from one place to another with the click of a few buttons on a keyboard. In the 60s, cash had to be on hand at the bank in sufficient quantities to meet demand—and that meant banks were a big target for robbers.
The 1968 Bank Protection Act was created to protect banks from robberies by establishing minimum security regulations for all banks. The Act came in response to a string of bank robberies that had occurred in the United States in the years prior—robberies that were easily being committed because banks at the time lacked basic security infrastructure, such as monitoring cameras, automatic locks…
Security Options and High Performance
As McCrie notes, “the training of employees and the development of their skills and careers is a critical and time-consuming activity within security operations.”[footnoteRef:2] For an organization like a public elementary school, employees are more than likely already stretched to the max in terms of time and ability: their primary focus is on teaching and assessing student achievement. Other stakeholders—i.e., parents—will nonetheless be concerned about safety, as Stowell points out.[footnoteRef:3] To keep stakeholders happy, managers and employees have to find ways to satisfy concerns about security—on top of doing their full-time jobs of administering and educating. That can be daunting, but to help there are security solutions that the Digital Age has helped bring into existence—tools like SIELOX CLASS, which allow teachers to communicate with administrators, access campus cameras, alert authorities, trigger a lockdown, and keep students safe by responding quickly to a potentially…
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…
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Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal "Information Theories & Applications."
1. In a civil action, how can a claim of negligent hiring have a greater chance of succeeding?
Jurisdictions have been increasingly putting laws in place pertaining to what makes organizations a potential target for a lawsuit on negligent hiring. Though in most instances, claims of negligent hiring may be effectively fended off, it proves increasingly tricky in the following cases:
· If the individual harming or injuring another is an employee of the company.
· If the employee is found guilty of harming, injuring or doing any damage to the complainant.
· If the organization was aware of, or ought to have been aware of, the employee’s tendency to inflict harm or injury.
· If the organization was inattentive when hiring the individual and failed to carry out a proper background check which could have identified the individual’s tendency to cause harm to clients or colleagues (McCrie, 57-60).…
The most appropriate products that could be used by MMC to achieve this objective would be: IP San and a Snap Lock. An IP San is a fiber optic channel that can provide secure real time data to each location. Where, software and security applications can be adapted to the current system that is being used. The Snap Lock is: a security software that can be used to provide an effective way for each location to retrieve, update and change information.
Support for why these procedures and products are the optimal approach for this organization
The reason why these different procedures and products were selected was: to reduce the overall risk exposure of the company's external threats. The current system that is being used by MMC increases risks dramatically, by having a number of different systems, where financial information is stored. If any one of these systems is vulnerable, there…
IP San (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protocols/ip-san/ip-san.html
Snap Lock Compliance and Snap Lock Enterprise Software. (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protection-software/snaplock.html
Mason, J. (2010). How to Bullet Proof Your DR Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/communities/tech-ontap/tot-data-recovery-plan-0908.html
This leaves those clients that are inside unsupervised while the guard is outside. There is also a lack of signage inside displaying rules and regulations along with directions. This propagates a lot of unnecessary questions being asked of the surety officer on duty. In order to alleviate these issues it would be essential to place distinct parking signage outside in order to help facilitate clients parking in the correct spaces. It is also necessary to place directional signage within the facility along with general rules and policies. All of these signs together would cost approximately $1,000 to install.
The last security issue that needs to be addressed is that of the security information processes that is in place. As each client arrives at the facility, their license plate numbers are recorded and they are then assigned a number. They are seen by the appropriate medical personnel based upon the order…
Conducting a Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Processor Web site:
How to Conduct an Operations Security Assessment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from eHow.com Web site: http://www.ehow.com/how_2060197_conduct-operations-security-assessment.html
Methadone Maintenance Treatment. (2009). Retrieved May 25, 2009, from Drug Policy Alliance
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). eply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure esearch, 33(3), 344.
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Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/.
Gerstein, D.M. (2005). Securing America's future: National strategy in the information age. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
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Privacy and security statement. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.basspro.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/PageDisplayView?langId=-1&storeId=10151 & cataloged=x§ion=MyAccount&pagename=PrivacyPolicySummaryDisplay.
Schlosser, E. (1998). The bomb squad: A visit…
Best practices in encryption. (2008). nuBridges.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.nubridges.com/keymanagement1/.
Bryan, H. (2001). Reply to David Scott and C. Scott Shafer, recreational specialization: AC critical look at the construct. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(3), 344.
By the numbers. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://vocuspr.vocus.com/vocuspr30/Newsroom/ViewAttachment.aspx?SiteName=basspro&Entity=PRAsset&Atta chmentType=F&EntityID=112488&AttachmentID=7f9f9eb0-2281-4066-b382- c00619b835c8.
Company overview. (2008). Bass Pro-Shops. [Online]. Available: http://www.onlinepressroom.net/basspro/ .
A system possesses authenticity when the information retrieved is what is expected by the user -- and that the user is correctly identified and cannot conceal his or her identity. Methods to ensure authenticity include having user names and secure passwords, and even digital certificates and keys that must be used to access the system and to prove that users 'are who they say they are.' Some highly secure workplaces may even use biological 'markings' like fingerprint readers (Introduction, 2011, IBM).
Accountability means that the source of the information is not anonymous and can be traced. A user should not be able to falsify his or her UL address or email address, given the requirements of the system. "Non-repudiation is a property achieved through cryptographic methods which prevents an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to data... Through the use of security-related mechanisms, producers and…
Introduction to z/OS Security. (2011). IBM. PowerPoint. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/resources/systems_z_advantages_charter_security_zSecurity_L1_Security_Concepts.ppt
Why is information security important? (2011). Security Extra. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.securityextra.com/why-is-information-security-important.html
Security Plan: Pixel Inc.
About Pixel Inc.
We are a 100-person strong business dedicated to the production of media, most specifically short animations, for advertising clients worldwide. Our personnel include marketing specialists, visual designers, video editors, and other creative staff.
This security plan encompasses the general and pragmatic characteristics of the security risks expected for our business and the specific actions that aim to, first and foremost, minimize such risks, and, if that's not possible, mitigate any damage should a breach in security happen.
The measures to be taken and the assigned responsibilities stated in this document apply to all the departments that make up the company. Exemptions can be given but will be only under the prerogative of the CEO under the consultation of the Chief Security Officer that will be formally assigned after the finalization of this document. Otherwise, there will be no exception to the security…
Internet Securit Alliance. (2004). Common sense guide to cyber security for small businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.ready.gov/business/_downloads/CSG-small-business.pdf .
Microsoft. (2004). Step-by-step guide to securing Windows XP Professional in Small Businesses. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=9faba6ed-2e9c-44f9-bc50-d43d57e17078 .
Noriega, L. (24 May 2011). Seven Cyber Security Basics Every Small Business Needs. Retrieved from: http://www.openforum.com/articles/7-cyber-security-basics-every-small-business-needs .
Teixeira, R. (4 June 2007). Top Five Small Business Internet Securit Threats. Retrieved from: http://smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/top-five-small-business-internet-security-threats.html .
Security Manager Leadership
Analysis & Assessment of Main Management Skills of Security Managers
The role of security managers and their progression to Chief Information Security Officers (CISO) in their careers is often delineated by a very broad base of experiences, expertise, skills and the continual development of management and leadership skills. The intent of this analysis and assessment is to define the most critically important management skills for security managers, including those most critical to their setting a solid foundation for attaining a senior management as a CISO in an enterprise (Whitten, 2008). What most differentiates those who progress in their careers as security managers to CISOs is the ability to interpret situations, conditions, relative levels of risk while continually learning new techniques, technologies and concepts pertaining to security and leadership. Those that attain CISO roles progress beyond management and become transformational leaders of the professionals in their department. It…
Beugr, C.D., Acar, W. & Braun, W. 2006, "Transformational leadership in organizations: an environment-induced model," International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 52-62.
Francis, D. 2003, "Essentials of International Management: A Cross-cultural Perspective," Technovation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 85-86.
Krishnan, V.R. 2004, "Impact of transformational leadership on followers' influence strategies," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 58-72.
Purvanova, R.K. & Bono, J.E. 2009, "Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams," Leadership Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 343.
S. Department of Energy).
Q3. Discuss the internet of things and its likely consequences for developing an enforceable information assurance (IA) policy and implementing robust security architecture.
The internet of things refers to the inevitable connectedness of all things in all regions of the world through the internet. "The fact that there will be a global system of interconnected computer networks, sensors, actuators, and devices all using the internet protocol holds so much potential to change our lives that it is often referred to as the internet's next generation" (Ferber 2013). Although the internet feels ubiquitous today, the internet of things refers to an even more complete merger of the virtual and the real world. "In many and diverse sectors of the global economy, new web-based business models being hatched for the internet of things are bringing together market players who previously had no business dealings with each other. Through…
Ferber, Stephen. (2013). How the internet of things changes everything. HBR Blog. Retrieved:
Heath, Nick. (2012). What the internet of things means for you. Tech Republic. Retrieved:
" (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) the key to the preservation of confidentiality is "making sure that only authorized individuals have access to that information. The process of controlling access -- limiting who can see what -- begins with authorizing users." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012) Employers are held accountable under the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules for their employee's actions. The federal agency that holds responsibility for the development of information security guidelines is the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST further defines information security as "the preservation of data confidentiality, integrity, availability" stated to be commonly referred to as "the CIA triad." (Harman, Flite, and ond, 2012)
III. Risk Reduction Strategies
Strategies for addressing barriers and overcoming these barriers are inclusive of keeping clear communication at all organizational levels throughout the process and acknowledging the impact of the organization's culture as well as capitalizing on all…
Harman, LB, Flite, CA, and Bond, K. (2012) Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. State of the Art and Science. Virtual Mentor. Sept. 2012, Vol. 14 No. 9. Retrieved from: http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2012/09/stas1-1209.html
Kopala, B. And Mitchell, ME (2011) Use of Digital health Records Raises Ethical Concerns. JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation. Jul/Sep 2011. Lippincott's Nursing Center. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/cearticle?tid=1238212#P77 P85 P86 P87
Security and Baseline Anomalies
Base lining is the performance of measuring and evaluation the presentation of a network in instantaneous situations. Provision of a network baseline calls for quizzing and reporting of physical connectivity, throughout the range of network usage. Such in-detailed network scrutiny is required in identifying problems associated with speed, accessibility, and finding vulnerabilities within the network. Predefined security settings are put in place to manage large security networks. These settings can be applied on a number of similar computers in a network. Settings and templates helps to reduce the occurrence of errors and omissions and this also helps in securing the servers.
How to obtain a baseline system
A baseline system of network behavior can be obtained through sub-netting a network. This entails dividing a network into smaller networks through a series of routers. Routers help to improve the security of the sub-nets by regulating the users…
Security Standards & Least Privilege
Security Standards and Legislative Mandates
Industries are required by law to follow regulations to protect the privacy of information, do risk assessments, and set policies for internal control measures. Among these polices are: SOX, HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GLA. Each of these regulations implements internal control of personal information for different industries. Where GLA is for the way information is shared, all of them are for the safeguard of sensitive personal information.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) created new standards for corporate accountability in reporting responsibilities, accuracy of financial statements, interaction with auditors, and internal controls and procedures (Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information). When audits are done to verify the validity of the financial statements, auditors must also verify the adequacy of the internal control and procedures. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is designed to protect personal health information held by covered entities and…
Brenner. (2007). How Chevron Met the PCI DSS Deadline. Security Wire Daily News.
Gramm Leach Bliley Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from Bureau of Consumer Protection: http://business.ftc.gov/privacy-and-security/gramm-leach-bliley-act principle of least privilege (POLP). (n.d.). Retrieved from Search Security: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/principle-of-least-privilege-POLP
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Data Manager's Public Library: http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
Tipton, K. & . (n.d.). Access Control Models. Retrieved from CC Cure.org: http://www.cccure.org/
Security on Commercial Flights
Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.
The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).
The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…
Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Many states, such as Virginia, are training private security officers in order to ensure smooth cooperation and coordination between security companies without police powers and the police and sheriff's departments. In Washington D.C., the municipal police department requires private security officers to be licensed as "special police" officers in order to legally search or arrest people. Cooperation can reach significant proportions, as in the case of the Minneapolis Police Department's "SafeZone" program, which place private security officers downtown who now outnumber Minneapolis Police Department officers there 13 to 1.
4. Industries and organizations that use special and/or commissioned officers and for what purposes
a. There is a truly broad range of industries and organizations which use special police officers. These organizations tend to have significant financial resources, large premises, and sensitive security needs which they believe cannot be met by the existing public police force. These often involve the need…
Amy Goldstein, Washington Post, the Private Arm of the Law January 2, 2007
If not, what other recommendations would you make to Harold? Explain your reasons for each of recommendations.
No, the actions that were taken by Harold are not adequate. The reason why, is because he has created an initial foundation for protecting sensitive information. However, over the course of time the nature of the threat will change. This could have an impact on his business, as these procedures will become ineffective. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until Harold will see an increase in the number of cyber attacks. At first, these procedures will help to prevent hackers from accessing the company's files. Then, as time goes by they will be able to overcome his defenses. This increases the chances that he will see some kind of major disruptions because of these issues. ("Security Policies," n.d, pp. 281 -- 302) ("Computer-ased Espionage," n.d, pp.…
Computer-Based Espionage. (n.d.). (365 -- 391).
Security Policies (n.d.). (281 -- 302).
In health care, the protection of confidential patient information is an important key in to addressing critical issues and safeguarding the privacy of the individual. To provide more guidance are federal guidelines such as: the Health Care Insurance Affordability and Accountability Act (HIPPA). On the surface, all facilities are supposed to have procedures in place for discarding these kinds of materials. ("Summary of HIPPA Privacy ule," 2102)
In the case of St. John's Hospital, they have become known for establishing practices of innovation (which go above and beyond traditional safety standards). Yet, at the same time, there are no critical internal controls governing how this information is thrown away. What most executives are concentrating on: is meeting these objectives from an external stakeholder perspective.
This is creating problems inside the facility, as the custodial staff able to go through the garbage and read this information. The reason why,…
Summary of HIPPA Privacy Rule. (2012). HHS. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
Alguire, P. (2009). The International Medical Graduate's Guide. Philadelphia, PA: ACP Press.
Johnston, A. (2012). State Hospitals become more Transparent. Times Record News. Retrieved from: http://www.timesrecordnews.com/news/2012/jan/13/state-hospitals-become-more-transparent/
Kilipi, H. (2000). Patient's Autonomy. Amsterdam: ISO Press.
The subject matter of systems administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.
The most important skill for a system administrator is problem solving. The systems administrator is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, but all systems administrators are generally responsible for the security of the systems in their keep. (Encyclopedia.com, 2011)
What is a computer network? According to McGraw Hill Online Learning Center, "a network is two…
Armstrong, L. (1995), Let's Call the Whole Thing Off
Dignan, Ars Technica, Jan 28, 2001, post 305, http://arstechnica.com/civis/viewtopic
Encyclopedia.com - Information Technology- accessed 2011/1/14
Hegel, G.W.F., the Phenomenology of Mind, (1807), translated by J.B. Baillie, New York, Harper & Row, 1967
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…
Conlon E. (2004). Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam.
Peak K. (2002). Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges. New Jersey: Prentice
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
If customers are satisfied with the services and convenience that a business provides them, a business will most likely have a desirable income. Aside from this, there is a great chance that the business will gain more customers.
Self-Checkout service is also advantageous for businesses during peak hours or peak seasons. During hours when there are many customers and the service staff are not enough to attend to their needs, self-checkout systems can provide an alternative. erman Evans, from his Retail, Management: A Strategic Approach, indicates the following other advantages of self-checkout systems.
There are quite a number of manufacturers of self-checkout systems nowadays. Following are some of the software/hardware companies that develop self-checkout systems for different companies.
Optimal Robotics Corp.
One of the leaders in Self-Checkout Systems industry and is the leading supplier of self-checkout systems in North America (FashionWindows Online, 2002).…
Evans, B. Retail Management: A Strategic Approach. http://mgtclass.mgt.unm.edu/mids/shul/Berman_ch_02.ppt.
Griffin, J., Mayer, K. (2004). World's First Hybrid Self-Checkout Installed in METRO Group's RFID Innovation Center. http://www.ncr.com/media_information/2004/aug/pr080904.htm
Wolfrom, K. (2001). Self-Checkout: Who's Got Control?
System Implementation - Oahu ase Area Network
System Implementation: Oahu ase Area Network
The wireless local area network (WLAN) in the Oahu ase Area Network is made up of several different subsystems. The inputs to the system will be desktop computers, laptop computers, and embedded systems (fixed and mobile). Each client has a wireless network card that can communicate with an access point (AP). The AP manages WLAN traffic and physically connects the wireless system to the wired local area network (LAN). The wired LAN will then send the requested information back to the access points, which will relay it to the appropriate client (Conover, 2000).
The system has three modes of operation:
Op-Mode: This is the standard operating mode for system operation. The mode consists of interaction between clients and one or more server. The clients are wireless devices such as laptops, desktops and tele-robtics platforms. Servers are access…
Conover, J. (2000, July). "Wireless LANs Work Their Magic." Network Computing. Retrieved 16, January, 2004 from Internet site http://www.networkcomputing.com/1113/1113f2.html
Curtis, G., Hoffer, J. George, J., Valacich, J. (2002). Introduction to Business Systems Analysis
University of Phoenix Custom Edition). New Jersey, NJ: Pearson Custom Printing.
Galik, D. (1998, April). "Defense in Depth: Security for Network-Centric Warfare." Chips
Third myth is "the industry is going "plug and play" or "do-it-yourself" and does not require specific integration efforts, given greater systems diversity but "although experiments are underway to use cable modems and set-top controllers for more than just entertainment delivery, the current generation of devices does not pretend to be a true systems integration controller." Project managers and architecture designers are still necessary for electrical contractors to fully integrate existing systems. (Steinberg 2005)
System engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to systems integration. It aims to provide the means "to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem." (INCOSE, 2004)
INCOSE. (2004) "hat is systems engineering." INCOSE website. Retrieved 13 March 2005 at http://www.incose.org/practice/whatissystemseng.aspx
Stiernberg, John. (2005) "Systems Integration." Sound and…
INCOSE. (2004) "What is systems engineering." INCOSE website. Retrieved 13 March 2005 at http://www.incose.org/practice/whatissystemseng.aspx
Stiernberg, John. (2005) "Systems Integration." Sound and Contractor Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2005 at http://www.svconline.com/mag/avinstall_systems_integration_appearing
The implementation stage of the iordan project may prove to be the most challenging yet, but one that is worth all the effort. It would take a team of experts in various fields to successfully see this stage successfully through to completion, it cannot be a one-man show. Several departments within the organization have to be given priority when it comes to rolling out the new human resource management system. Since this system is automated and rests on an Information Technology platform, the first two departments to consider would be the human resource management and Information Technology departments. All the teams of professionals within these departments would have to be part and parcel of the entire system design and development process. The other departments to consider would be those of finance and operations management as they too are a fundamental part of the organization's decision making framework.
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 Marciniak, J.J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
However, this still relatively young application of internet technology does come with a wide array of security concerns that highlight the ethical and legal responsibilities facing these handlers of sensitive information.
ith identify theft and hacking of open source network activities real threats in the internet age, it is increasingly important for online shoppers bankers to be aware of the risks and for online financial institutions to be armed to protect against them.
For the banking industry, which has gone to considerable lengths to continually upgrade security measures, this presents a demand which is simultaneously economic and ethical. Indeed, the transition of users from traditional to online banking methods will be a shift "resulting in considerable savings in operating costs for banks." (Sathye, 325) This highlights the nature of it risks for all companies, which must balance security concerns with the financial optimization often associated with such change.
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(%) Cross Site Scripting (XSS) errors -- by far the most common strategy hackers use to gain access to the source code of websites and the databases supporting them is to use a technique called cross-site scripting (Brodkin, 2007). Actively monitoring the percentage of XSS errors over time can determine patterns of when hackers attempt to gain access to a website's source code, database links, pricing and e-commerce systems. This is one of the most often used metrics in security dashboards used for monitoring Web-based applications and multisite installations.
(%) Incidence and Trending of Buffer Overflow Injection Flaws -- This is most commonly associated with attempts to gain access to SQL databases supporting a website by forcing a buffer overflow condition (Brodkin, 2007). This is one of the most effective hacking strategies there are as it forces a system to fail and allow access.
(%) Authentication Soft and Hard Errors…
Brodkin, J.. (2007, October). The top 10 reasons Web sites get hacked. Network World, 24(39), 1,16-17,20.
Su, M., Yu, G., & Lin, C.. (2009). A real-time network intrusion detection system for large-scale attacks based on an incremental mining approach. Computers & Security, 28(5), 301.
Xiong, K., & Perros, H. (2008). Trustworthy Web services provisioning for differentiated customer services. Telecommunication Systems, 39(3-4), 171-185.
Security Failures and Preventive Measures
Summary of the Case
The Sequential Label and Supply company is a manufacturer and supplier of labels as well as distributor of other stationary items used along with labels. This company is shown to be growing fast and is becoming highly dependent on IT systems to maintain their high end inventory as well as the functioning of their department.
The case started with the inception of a troubled employee who called up the helpdesk agent to resolve the issue he is facing. Likewise, other employees start calling in to launch similar complaints. Later, the technical support help desk employee, while checking her daily emails, accidentally opened an untrusted source file sent from a known work colleague. This led to a number of immediate problems in her network computer which led to her being not able to access the information over the network and the call…
Baker, W. (2007). Is information security under control?: Investigating quality in information security management, Security & Privacy, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4085592
Chapin, D. (2005). How can security be measured, information systems control journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://naijaskill.com/cisa2006/articles/v2-05p43-47.pdf
McAdams, A. (2004). Security and risk management: a fundamental business issue: all organizations must focus on the management issues of security, including organizational structures, & #8230;, Information Management Journal, retrieved October 14, 2011 from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Information-Management-Journal/119570070.html
Zeltser, L. (September 2011). Social Networking Safety. OUCH! The Monthly Security Awareness Newsletter for Computer Users. etrieved September 18, 2011 from http://www.securingthehuman.org/newsletters/ouch/issues/OUCH-201109_en.pdf
The SpyEye Hacking Toolkit ingeniously is being promoted online as an Android application that will guard against exactly what it does, which is steal online logins and passwords. What makes this application so state-of-the-art and unique is that it uses an Android client application on smart phones and other devices running the operating system to transmit data to the command and control (C2) server. The hackers then have the ability to capture logins and passwords and without the user's knowledge, transmit them to the server completely independent of any action taken by the user (Keizer, 2011). While this threat is most predominant in Europe and Australia, the potential exists for it to become global in scope within days due to the pervasive distribution of Android…
Keizer, G. (2011, September 13). SpyEye hacking kit adds Android infection to bag of tricks. Computerworld. Retrieved from: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9219963/SpyEye_hacking_kit_adds_Android_infection_to_bag_of_tricks
Security Sector eform
Overview of the relevant arguments regarding Security Sector reform
The objective of security sector reform has to take care of the threats to the security of the state and the safety of its citizens. These arise often from the situation within the state and military responses may not be suitable. This leads on to an analysis of the government. The second article talks in a wider, more theoretical and less action oriented tone. It says that "existing constitutional frameworks have been used to maintain status quo than promote change." This much is certainly true and it is true not only of the countries with a security problem, but also of even United States wherein recently a justice of the Supreme Court was appointed, though she had no experience of being a judge, but she was a friend of the Chief Executive of the country. There are and…
Anderson, Major Will. Wiring up Whitehall: Ensuring Effective Cross -- Departmental
Activity. Journal of Security Sector Management. Volume 3 Number 3 -- June 2005. Retrieved from http://www.jofssm.org/issues/jofssm_0303_AndersonW_Wiring_up_whitehall_2005.doc?CFID=939029& CFTOKEN=57506392 Accessed 6 October, 2005
Ball, Nicole. Enhancing Security Sector Governance: A Conceptual Framework for UNDP. 9
October, 2002. http://www.undp.org/bcpr/jssr/4_resources/documents/UNDP_Ball_2002_SSR%20Concept%20Paper.pdf Accessed 6 October, 2005