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The seemingly elusive quality of self-respect is the subject of Joan Didion's article, "On Self-espect." Beginning with a background anecdote about how she recovered emotionally from not making it into Phi Betta Kappa, Didion proceeds to show how she salvaged her sense of self-worth by meditating on the core components of self-respect. Basing her self-worth on tests, external measures, and memberships to clubs was like a spiritual and psychological poison. Didion concludes that one cannot build a solid core of self-respect by external measures or the judgments of others. For Joan Didion, self-respect is "that sense of one's intrinsic self-worth," which confers on the individual the power to take control over one's emotional and behavioral responses to life. Life will always be filled with uncertainties and threats. Self-respect allows the person to navigate through the tricky waters of cowardice, on the one hand, and recklessness on the other. Didion…
Didion, J. (2010). On Self-Respect. Published online: http://profacero.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/joan-didion-on-self-respect/
Finding a career path that is both financial rewarding and personally satisfying can be a trying process. hile many workers find positions that are either financial rewarding, or personally satisfying, ultimately the two goals are subtly linked. hen a person settles for a career path that is financial rewarding, but exists outside the scope of their personal values or talents, the career can produce feelings of unhappiness in the individual, and lead to the 40-40-40 syndrome. A person works forty hours per week, for roughly 40 years, and tops out at a 40K per year salary. On the other hand, a person who finds the career he or she loves can spend a lifetime building personal accomplishments, which will quite often lead to expanded opportunity and expanded earning potential. Finding the ideal path for the career minded individual is a function of matching the person's desires…
The Self-Directed Search Assessment. (2003) Self-directed-search.com. Accessed 22 Oct. 2003. http://www.self-directed-search.com/aboutsds.html .
Self-Directed Search-What is the Self-Directed Search? (2003) Career Counseling Ready minds.com. Accessed 22 Oct 2003) http://www.readyminds.com/cc/program/sds.html.
Reardon, Robert, and PAR Staff General. (2001) The Self-Directed Search Interpretive Report.
Gottfredson, G.D., Holland J.L., & Ogawa, D. K (1982). Dictionary of Holland occupational codes. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Self and Other
George Herbert Mead is one of the pioneers of American philosophy as well as among the founders of Pragmatism. His work was published in several papers during his lifetime and even after his death. After his death, his students published four books in his name from his unpublished work. Mead's work has significantly influenced the 20th century social sciences. His theory of the emergence of mind and self is considered as a milestone in social philosophy. His contributions were not limited to social philosophy but his work also contributed in other areas of philosophy such as philosophy of nature or philosophical anthropology. Because of his significant contributions, he was being considered one of the greatest thinkers of his time.
The Self According to Mead:
According to the theories presented by Mead, self is characteristically different from physiological organism. Self is not present in an individual by birth…
George Herbert Mead & Charles W. Morris: Mind Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist: Chicago: University of Chicago: 1934.
George Herbert Mead: The Social Self: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods: 10, 374-380: 1913
George Herbert Mead: The Mechanisms of Social Consciousness: The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods
George Herbert Mead: A Behavioristic Account of the significant symbol: Journal of Philosophy: 1922
He does his share of complaining but he does little else to remedy the situation. The truth of the matter is that Gregor did not enjoy much of his life away from work. He never expresses a desire to have more in his life nor does he express any regret, until he is a bug. In "A Hunger Artist," our hunger artist chooses to live a considerable amount of his life behind bars being a public spectacle. hile he can communicate with onlookers, he is separated from them by the bars and the setting in which he finds himself only forces him to interact with individuals for a short amount of time. Once they have become satisfied with his spectacle, they move on and leave the artist to his own thoughts. Our hunger artist is aware of the world that exists around him but it does not seem to affect…
Freed, Donna. The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. New York: Barnes and Nobel Books. 1996.
Goldfarb, Sheldon. "The Metamorphosis." Short Stories for Students. 2001. Gale Resource Database. 1963. Site Accessed November 22, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Kafka, Franz. "A Hunger Artist." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 779-86.
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 740-78.
Ellis' belief was that individual who could take charge of their emotions would be rational thinkers and thus would approach conflicts confidently, working towards compromises, minimalizing risks and willingness to sacrifice immediate needs for the more important long-term benefits.
Skinner also provides insight into the issue of individual self-confidence. According to Skinner, individual's act in accordance to their heredity and environment. In other words, underlying all behavior is the assumption that individual behavior is predetermined by learning and reinforcement. In order to acquire new skills, one has to be taught. Thus, individuals can be taught self-confidence through positive reinforcement. For example, if an individual's action results in a positive outcome, they will be more likely to continue to repeat this behavior because it builds confidence. On the other hand, if the outcome is negative, self-confidence is decreased and that individual is less likely to repeat the behavior.
According to Skinner,…
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. And the rest is history.
Considering her past, childhood and experiences and positive outlook in life, she didn't let anything deter her from reaching her goal and becoming successful. In fact, she uses them to inspire and reach out to others.
Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect.
Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result of focusing too much on the unrealistic…
Self-Confidence. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/New_Site/defaultwinter.html
Dr. C. George Boeree. (2006). B.F. Skinner, Personality Theories. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Oprah Winfrey. (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oprah_Winfrey
Alfred Adler, Core of Personality. Retrieved April 26, 2007 from http://psych.eiu.edu/spencer/Adler.html
Still, Mason indicates that the opposite is often true in public education settings, where educators, parents and institutions collectively overlook the implications of research and demands imposed by law. Indeed, "despite the IDEA requirements, research results, teacher perceptions, and strong encouragement from disabilities rights advocate, many youth have been left out of IEP and self-determination activities. For example, 31% of the teaches in a 1998 survey reported that they wrote no self-determination goals, and 41% indicated they did not have sufficient training or information on teaching self-determination." (Mason et al., 442)
This is a troubling finding, and one which implicates the needed paradigm shift discussed already in the research endeavor. Clearly, as the matter is framed by Mason et al., educators and researchers have already acknowledged the value in the strategies addressed here. By contrast, institutional change has been hard won, with schools and administrators balking at making broad-based alterations…
Beresford, B. (2004). On the Road to Nowhere? Young Disabled People and Transition. Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6).
Department of Education (DOE). (2007). Guide to the Individualized Education Program. United States Department of Education. Online at http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html .
Katsiyannis, A.; deFur, S. & Conderman, G. (1998). Transition Services -- Systems Change for Youth with Disabilities? A Review of State Practices? The Journal of Special Education, 32(2), 55-61.
Mason, C.; Field, S. & Sawilowsky, S. (2004). Implementation of self-determination activities and student participation in IEPs. Council for Exceptional Children, 70(4), 441-451.
One of the fundamental concepts of any free, democratic society is the idea of the individual's right to self-defense -- that one may use any means at one's disposal to protect one's person or property from assault from another. However, there are important stipulations and limitations that define the allowable limits an individual may approach -- and crossing over these limits can make the difference between being a justified victim and an outright criminal.
According to the legal definition of self-defense, the use of force is allowed when an individual "reasonable believes that it is necessary for the defense of oneself or another against the immediate use of unlawful force. However, a person must use no more force than appears reasonably necessary in the circumstances." This means that one can only employ enough force to remove the present threat. For example, one may only use lethal force in self-defense…
Kopel, David B. (2000) "The self-defense cases: Howe the United States Supreme Court confronted a hanging judge in the nineteenth century and taught some lessons for jurisprudence in the twenty-first." American Journal of Criminal Law. Summer, 293.
Lectric Law Library. 2002. "Self-Defense." Web Site. Retrieved from Web site on March 31, 2004 http://www.lectlaw.com/def/d030.htm
Starr v. United States 153 U.S. 614 (1894).
Wallace v. United States.162 U.S. 466 (1896).
Cindy said she could see herself managing a fashion boutique, makeup studio, or retail store. This would use her flair for design, knowledge of business, and also her astute knowledge of people. Although she might need some additional education in beginning her own business, this would not be as extensive as going back to school, which Cindy feared she would have to do, to remain competitive in the working world.
Application of data to client
Cindy is a 'people person' at heart. Hopefully, this forced career change will be the proverbial blessing in disguise and allow her to explore previously hidden internal aspects of her vocational self. Although Cindy was frequently called upon to show leadership of other administrative personnel, she was often relegated to a supportive capacity at her previous place of employment. At the helm of her own business, in an occupation she loved, this would not be…
Bolles, Richard. (2009). What color is your parachute? Ten Speed Press.
Keirsey, David. (1987). Portraits of Temperament. Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
Shavik, Andrea. (2002). Passing synchometric tests. How to books.
Straker, David (2008). . Changing minds: In detail. Syque Press.
" Young children are more likely to benefit from tasks and activities that offer a real challenge than from those that are merely frivolous or fun." (Katz) Children can help prepare meals, care for pets, and do other projects that are productive. The child will be able to translate that the parent trusts him or her with a truly important task -- not just a make-believe one -- into a sense of being trustworthy, useful, and able to accomplish things. When children show interest in a parent's activities, if that parent includes him or her in that activity and takes that interest seriously, it can be a strong self-esteem boost. Encouragement is vital, and it is important to acknowledge progress as well as rewarding achievement.
Parents also show trust in the child to accomplish things by setting a few reasonable rules for even toddlers to follow; "Knowing that certain family…
Hart, Louise. "Self-Esteem: The Best Gift You Can Give Your Child -- and Yourself." Mothering Magazine. Spring, 1989. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n51/ai_7512259
Henry, Sarah. "Ten Ways to Build Your Child's Self-Esteem." ParentCenter Medical Advisory Board. http://parentcenter.babycenter.com/refcap/preschooler/pdevelopment/65569.html
Katz, Lilian. "How Can We Strengthen Children's Self-Esteem?" ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Summer, 1995. http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/strengthen_children_self.html
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
bad about yourself! Self-Esteem may not be all it has been reputed to be!
Baumeister, Roy & Jennifer D. Campbell, Jochim I. Kurger and Kathleen D. Vohs. (20 December 2004) "Exploding the Self-Esteem Myth." Scientific American. Article retrievable in full text on the World Wide Web at http://www.sciam.com/print_version.cfm?articleID=000CB565-F330-11BE-AD0683414B7F0000
According to the popular science periodical Scientific American, a number of long-standing scientific studies on the correlation between high or low self-esteem and positive or negative forms of social behaviors shows that there is little indication that low self-esteem is at the root of individual and societal problems and dysfunctions. his flies in the face of a 1989 study whose results appeared in a volume entitled he Social Importance of Self-Esteem. his previous, influential study stated that "many, if not most, of the major problems plaguing society have roots in the low self-esteem of many of the people who make up society."…
The authors of the study stressed that they were mindful to avoid the assumption that a correlation between self-esteem and some desired behavior establishes causality, in contrast to studies of the past. For example, high self-esteem may seem to bring about certain positive outcomes, such as vocational success. But correlations between self-esteem and success may mean simply that a positive self-image is a result of success or good behavior. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.2) In fact, in a literature review by the authors, self-esteem and high self-perception could not show that a link between good self-image leads to occupational success in terms of causality, and even hinted artificially boosting self-esteem may lower subsequent performance. In terms of relationships, the only positive correlation was that individuals with high self-esteem were more likely to leave relationships they found unfulfilling or did not reinforce their perceptions of themselves as competent. (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.3)
Even correlations between low esteem and drug use are inconclusive. Of course, on all of these measures "people with a healthy sense of self-respect" may be "lumped with those feigning higher self-esteem." Thus it is not surprising the results of studies of self-esteem investigations may always produce "weak or contradictory findings." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.4) The only statistically significant correlation found by the researchers was that "and high self-esteem emerged as the strongest factor in overall life satisfaction," but again it is "even possible that happiness, in the sense of a temperament or disposition to feel good, induces high self-esteem." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5)
"We have found," write the authors little evidence to indicate that "indiscriminately promoting self-esteem in today's children or adults, just for being themselves, offers society any compensatory benefits beyond the seductive pleasure it brings to those engaged in the exercise." (Baumeister et.al, 2004, p.5) Yes, students enjoy self-esteem building exercises, but they do not necessarily benefit in the concrete, measurable terms that were once claimed for such programs, and an overall fostering of competence, rather than high self-esteem in the abstract may be equally as effective as the promotion of the value in the first place.
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
Okonkwo is a typical tribesman living and adapting to his surroundings. He is actually no different from anyone else in that he acts according to his heart. He truly believes he is doing the right thing and that is what matters.
Okonkwo is not a bad man; he simply makes mistakes and this makes him human. He does not set out to do evil. Upon hearing about Ezeudu's death, Okonkwo is saddened along with the rest of the tribe. Ezeudu was a noble man in the clan and he was also the oldest tribesman. At the funeral ritual, Okonkwo's gun explodes, killing Ezeudu's son. This is a shocking event because nothing like this had happened before. Okonkwo had to obey tribal law and leave the clan because it was a "crime against the earth goddess to kill a clansman's son" (124). The law of the land dictated Okonkwo could return…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books. 1959. Print.
Individuality and Community
How Self is Integrated into the Global Whole as an Ethical Entity
The ethics of social justice is wrapped in the ideas of how individuals within a society are trained as ethical beings, and how they regard other outside of their immediate society (Jackson, 2005). Appiah uses the final two chapters of his book The Ethics of Identity to discuss how individuals are given an ethical soul and also how people are members of something larger than either their nations or themselves. This paper is designed to give the reader an understanding of one person's understanding of the four concepts of social justice, soul making and rooted cosmopolitanism, and how all of those concepts tie into one another.
Four Conceptions of Social Justice
Like most other concepts, social justice is not the purview of a single theoretician or set of ideas. Many people, beginning in ancient…
Akhtar, S. (2011). Liberal recognition for identity? Only for particularized ones. Politics, Philosophy, Economics, 10(1), 66-87.
Appiah, K.A. (2005). The ethics of identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clark, A. (1995). Hobbes' theory of human nature: A warning to libertarians. Philosophical Notes, 35, 1-2.
Freedman, J. (2005, June 12). 'The Ethics of Identity': A rooted cosmopolitanism. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/12/books/review/12FREEDMA.html?pagewante d=all
Not only is the phrase self-love used as synonymous with the desire of happiness, but it is often confounded with the word selfishness, which certainly, in strict propriety, denotes a very different disposition of mind." --Slewart. [Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary]
The novel "Things Fall part," by Chinua chebe, is a shocking account of the life and extinction of an frican tribe called the Ibo. The light is mainly on the main character, Okonkwo, who begins his search for self-perfection at a very young age. He was highly unimpressed with his father and vowed to never to be like him. Okonkwo and his family suffered through trying times but he eventually beat the odds and was very successful as the leader of the tribe. However, on beating his wives, he disobeyed the gods by refusing to offer animal sacrifice. The gods gave him a severe punishment. He was extremely selfish…
A movie based on the theme of self-love is the animated comedy called Shrek, about an ugly green ogre who's on a quest to rescue a princess for the egocentric lord who simply wants her because he feels she is perfect for his kingdom. However, Shrek sees the inner beauty in the princess and they develop mutual respect and also fall in love. Although, this movie is based on the concept of self-love, it also deals with the importance of couples accepting each other as they regardless of the faults they have in each other.
As for myself, I always willingly acknowledge my own self as the principal cause of every good and of every evil which may befall me; therefore I have always found myself capable of being my own pupil, and ready to love my teacher.
Giacomo Casonova. [Quotes on self-love, available at http://www.freedomsnest.com/cgi-bin/q.cgi?subject=self-love]
Self and Others
The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…
Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., Demoulin, D.F. & Reiger, R.C. (2000). Identifying high school freshmen with serious atypical behavior and mental health problems for delinquency prevention purposes. Education, 121(2), 257.
Cryder, C.E., Lerner, J.S., Gross, J.J., & Dahl, R.E. (2008). Misery is not miserly: Sad and self-focused individuals spend more. Psychological Science, 19, 525-530
Nielsen, D.M. & Metha, A. (1999). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem in clinical and nonclinical samples. Adolescence, 29(115), 525-527.
Pierce, G.R., Sarason, BR. & Sarason, I.G. (1996). Cognitive interference: Theories, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
The idea of remaining silent when faced with accusation has historical religious and legal roots. Moses teachings', transformed to written form by the ancient Talmudic law had a complete ban on self-incrimination. The self-incrimination law could not be changed because it was viewed to contravene the natural instinct for survival. The ancient common law rule also had it that confusions must be voluntary. When the right to remain silent was included in the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. constitution, it was tied to a complicated and controversial history. The Supreme Court has applied three tenets in the constitution to evolve rules that govern police interrogation and the confession process. These three include the Sixth Amendment on the Right to Counsel, the Fourteenth Amendment clause on due process and the Fifth Amendment on Self-incrimination clauses. Each of these provisions has led the police to handle interrogation and confessions in varying ways…
There are primarily two different connotations of the term self organization. The first pertains to the way that a system found in nature or in any natural state organizes itself. If there is no central authority or mediator involved, and the state is able to organize itself into patterns of production at a localized level, then self organization has been achieved. Perhaps the best example of this fact is found in the way a flock of birds create a singular formation when they take to the sky. There is no central authority, yet simply from the interactions between the birds that are closest to one another the entire mass moves in a uniform pattern.
The second denotation for the term self organization pertains to computer systems, programming languages, and the computerized models upon which those models are based. With this dimension of self organization the computer provides a state or…
Self-Worth and the Need to Belong
Juvenile Delinquency Paper
The self-help author Wayne Dyer once wrote that, "Self-worth comes from one thing…thinking that you are worthy." This quote captures the functional role of gangs: they exist because they serve a purpose. Gangs are attractive to recruits because they promise a variety of benefits. Though many members reap material benefits from joining, it is the psychological benefits which play a critical role in the decision to join a gang, particularly as it relates to self-worth and the need to belong. While some gang members often portray themselves with great machismo, think highly of themselves and are proud of what they have become, the majority of youths who join gangs suffer from a negative self-image (Miller, 2001). Opportunities to feel good about themselves in their family or at school are few and far between. Yablonsky (1997) tells us "The gangsters'…
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Miller, J., Maxson, C., Klein, M. (2001). The Modern Gang Reader. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M.S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Shelden, R., Tracy, S., Brown, W. (1997). Youth Gangs in American Society. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth Publishers.
Do I choose things that are primarily in my best interest or do I choose based in what is best for society and then trust that the end result will be in my best interest?
There are so many choices in life and I do at times become nervous about making the right choices, however, I think with the right education and spiritual guidance I will find the path that allows me to be my best self while at the same time making the world a better place for others as well as me.
Like osa Parks, and countless others who daily make choices that produce change, it is those who will dare to dream of a better life, those who will risk failure, those who will make the right choices who will change themselves, their families, their businesses and organizations and yes, even their world! The ability to choose…
Here is something very refreshing indeed:
March 3, 2000 Bush Is Catching the Spiritual Wave by Larry Kudlow
I have a plan for my own life as well, and this plan is aligned with my current efforts, including my leadership studies. I may not be the most charismatic leader, but I will have good plans that when implemented will lead to success.
I am generally open to change, and I enjoy experiencing new things. I am cautious with respect to making major changes, because I want to evaluate what the impact of those changes might be, but for minor changes I am usually willing to try new things. I am less an influencer, however. I tend to feel that others should make up their own minds with respect to change -- forcing people out of their comfort zone is not something that I do much. I will need to be more assertive with respect to motivating others to make changes, however. Doing so will make me a stronger…
Hamlet, however, is full of hesitation. He does not experience the type of confidence Antigone does and suffers because of it. These characters are not abnormal; they are exaggerated or comical in a way audiences cannot relate to them. They are uniquely human and that is why they are still popular today -- because they are real enough that audience members feel as though they have known these types of personalities before. Through these characters, the playwrights show the audience how important it is to be true to self above all else. From Creon, who loses his sense of self when he sells out to power to Hamlet, who loses his sense of self when he falls into depression, to Antigone, who gladly gives her life for what she believes, we see the power of the sense of self and the importance of how it should be respected.
Blits, Jan. Introduction to Deadly Thought: 'Hamlet' and the Human Soul, pp. 3-21. Lanham:
Lexington Books, 2001. Information Retrieved July 01, 2010.
Sophocles. Antigone. Three Theban Plays: Antigone, Oedipus the King, Oedipus and Colonus.
Robert Fagles, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1980.
An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…
Cushman, P. (1990). "Why the Self is Empty: Toward a historically Situated Psychology." American Psychologist. Vol. 45 (5), 599-611. doi: 003-066X/90
This is another weaker area I aim to work harder on - always trying to picture myself out carrying his or her burden or sharing his or her joy. This will make me more appreciative of people I hold dear and less judgmental or condemnatory to those I do not have much liking for.
But how do we really get to know a person? I believe it is only through open lines of communication that relationships grow and nourish.
So from now on, I aim to breed the habit of telling people how I feel, as our actions are bound to be misinterpreted and what we are trying to portray could be very contradictory to their observations. Likewise, opening yourself up to people around you makes them comfortable to show their inner selves to you, too. This could also be achieved through listening, another skill I would like to master.…
Gray, John. (2000). Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. Harper Collins.
Wood, Julia T. Communication in our lives.
Wood, Julia. (1997). Communication Theories in Action. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…
Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile
Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today
Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
" (p.15) but his father cannot stop criticizing his son, even the way Tommy eats and looks at the breakfast table. Just like the camera was critical of Tommy, so is the unsparing gaze of his father. His father continues to call him by his old name, ilky, which Tommy has rejected. Tommy, once attractive enough to solicit the attention of a Hollywood scout, has become overweight and lethargic, and has trouble breathing because of the great, oppressive weight of the past that is now pressing down upon him. Rather than being reborn anew, Tommy is drowning in the sea of misery he has created for himself.
Erasing his father by changing his name, fleeing back to his father -- nothing works. Tommy says that he fears he will spend "second half" of "life recovering from the mistakes of the first half," but really this attempt to start anew is…
Bellow, Saul. Seize the Day. Originally published 1957. New York: Penguin Reissue,
Self-Interest: Is it Good or Bad for the Economy?
Self-Interest, Does it Produce Wealth and Create Jobs?
There has been raging debate amongst economists on whether or not self-interest really promotes economic growth. In 1776, Adam Smith, the father of economics, asserted the important role of self-interest in the economy through his popular statement, "it is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner…, but from their regard for their own self-interest." Smith's argument has, however, been brought to question severally, and as a result, it has become increasingly difficult for philosophers to reach common ground on the issue. Three decades ago, for instance, in his article titled 'The Tragedy of the Commons', Professor Garrett Hardin demonstrated, using the open pasture metaphor, that if everybody acts in their own self-interest, the economy suffers in the long-term. According to Hardin, if all…
Self-Justification and Organizational Project Commitment
Self-justification is an underlying motive for decision makers who remain committed to failing projects. However, as Steinkuhler et al. (2014) indirect, it may also be described as an indirect cause of escalation of commitment. The way in which justification is manifested in the decision making process requires the medium of new cognitive constructs that assist the decision maker in the process of renewing commitment. These constructs can consist of selective perception, sunk cost effect, and over-optimism. In many cases, these are not isolated constructs but work in tandem to help bring about the justification which the decision maker wishes to evince regarding the project. This paper will summarize the study by Steinkuhler et al. (2014) and show how the construct of selective perception has been utilized by the international organization known as the SSPX -- a fraternal priestly Society within the Catholic Church -- as…
Anand, V., Ashforth, B., Joshi, M. "Business as usual: The acceptance and perpetuation of corruption in organizations" Academy of Management Executive, 19, no. 4 (2005): 9-23.
Beshears, J., Gino, F. (2015). Leaders as decision architects. Harvard Business Review.
Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2015/05/leaders-as-decision-architects
Boaz, N., Fox, E. A. (2014). Change leader, change thyself. McKinsey Quarterly: 1-11.
Self-Help Group Observation
The purpose of the group (diabetic group) is basically to educate patients on how to sustain a healthy lifestyle in case they are diabetic. The main aim for patient education is for individuals suffering from diabetes to enhance their knowledge, confidence and skills, allowing them to have increased control of their condition and incorporate effectual self-management into their day-to-day lives. High quality structured education could have an intense impact on health outcomes and considerably enhance the quality of life (Tidy, 2014). Some of the potential benefits that patient education could have on individuals suffering from diabetes are:
Enhancing health, knowledge, beliefs, and lifestyle changes
Enhancing patient outcomes, for instance, smoking, weight, and psychosocial changes like depression levels and quality of life
Enhancing physical activity levels
Minimizing the need for, and potentially better targeting of drugs together with other items like blood testing strips.
Educational events, like community…
Mensing, C. R., & Norris, S. L. (2003). Group education in diabetes: effectiveness and implementation. Diabetes Spectrum, 16(2), 96-103.
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., ... & Vivian, E. (2015). Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Diabetes Educator, 41(4), 417-430.
Tang, T. S., Funnell, M. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2006). Group education strategies for diabetes self-management. Diabetes Spectrum, 19(2), 99-105.
Team Care Approach for Diabetes Management (n.d.). Retrieved 25 February 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ndep/pdfs/ppod-guide-team-care-approach.pdf
Biases in Person Perception-Self-Verification
Biases in Self-Perception
"O wad some Pow'r the giftie gie us ... To see ourselves as others see us," wrote Scotland's bard obert Burns, asserting the oft-believed truism that we would all like to have the power to know exactly what it is that other people are saying and thinking about us. And yet, as the poet continues on to say, the more we think about this idea the less wholeheartedly we might well be to embrace it: Thinking about how others see us (and especially if they so precipitate as to tell us their precise thoughts) carries a very high degree of social and psychological risk. The high degree of risk so incurred arises in no small part from the fact that when we consider the idea that other people know what we are "really" like rather than the self-deception with which we cloak ourselves…
London, M. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of self-verification: Implications for individual and group development. Human Resource Development Review 2(3), 273-293.
Pasupathi, P. & Rich, B. (2005) Inattentive listening undermines self-verification in personal storytelling. Journal of personality 73(4).
Swann, W.B. & Ely, R. (1984). A battle of wills: Self-verification vs. behavioral confirmation. Journal of personality and social psychology 46(6), 1287-1302.
After completing the self-analysis in Hackman & Johnson's (2008) book Leadership: A communication perspective, I have evaluated myself as follows: For competence I rated myself as being skilled, informed and trained. In regards to trustworthiness I evaluated that I am honest, kind and friendly. For dynamism, I regard myself as assertive and active. This paper will summarize the results that I found and discuss what those results illustrate or reveal about my leadership communication behaviors.
I rated myself as skilled, informed and trained when it comes to competence. When it comes to leadership, the higher the individual is in a leadership role, the more important communication competence becomes. I rated myself as skilled because I have been in leadership roles where I have had to communicate information effectively. Being in these positions helped me hone my leadership communication skills. I feel that being in smaller leadership roles were good…
Hackman, M.Z. & Johnson, C.E. (2008). Leadership: A communication perspective. (5th edition). Waveland Pr Inc.
Formation of Self
The central unifying theme for the readings analyzed for this particular assignment is the effects of culture on the individual. Moreover, culture specifically affects a number of crucial cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors for people (Markus and Kitayam, 1991, p. 225), as they pertain to an individual's perception of (his or her) self. Some of the facets of culture include "a distinct language; a distinct customs…and distinct beliefs" (Galotti, 2007, p. 574). Personally, I can identify with many of the concepts introduced in the readings pertaining to what essentially is how an individual defines his or her self. I am fairly fiercely attached to my own individuality, and was pleased to read a number of works which essentially discussed varying factors that contribute to individuality. However, it is somewhat of a paradox to consider the fact that culture specifically contributes to individuality, since one of the precursors…
Akechi, H., Senju, A., Uibo, H., Kikuchi, Y., Hasegaw, T., Hietanen, J.K. (2013). Attention to eye contact in the west and east: Autonomic responses and evaluative ratings. PLoS One. 8(3), 1-10.
Furuya, S. (2013). Dual-task interference. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). The accuracy of memory. Saybrook University.
Furuya, S. (2013). Unconscious mental contexts. Saybrook University.
Dibs in Search of Self by Virginia Mae Axline is such a profoundly interesting book because it demonstrates one of the most challenging cases I've ever encountered within the realm of child psychology and an effective yet, gradual method of dealing with this case. Dibs to me represents a child stifled and overcome with emotions. He is so choked with emotions he's become almost completely uncommunicative. He did not socialize with other students in his class, and would not engage with any adults except by way of hysterics or tantrums. Dibs in many respects had checked out of life and out of all social situations: he would not speak, but would hide under tables or in isolation from the groups. Axline makes this apparent from the start of the book; the example that she uses in this case is extremely well representative of the behavior that Dibs engages in as…
Axline, V. (1964). Dibs in search of self. NY: Ballantine Books.
Berger, K.S. (2012). The developing person through childhood and adolescence (9th ed.).
NY: Worth Publishers.
Mearns, D. (2003). Developing Person-Centred Therapy. Thousand Oaks: Sage
Exercise promotes higher self-esteem in individuals of all ages and/or physical capabilities as long as the individual enjoys the particular exercise program or feels there are definite and measurable benefit to participating in the program.
Professional athletes are some of the most self assured individuals in our society. There have been many studies that have shown that these individuals are highly paid yet the majority of them would continue to work at their sport for free. One of the main reasons for these phenomena is that these specialists really enjoy what they do and they feel they get an obvious reward for doing what they do. They literally get paid for exercising.
Exercise provides many benefits. These athletes receive a unique benefit that many laymen simply are unaware that it comes with the turf so to speak. Professional athletes get the benefit of added self-esteem. "Speculation regarding the interactions…
Boyd, Michael and Yin, Zenong. "Cognitive-Affective And Behavioral Correlates Of Self-Schemata In Sport" Journal of Sport Behavior (1999).
Douthitt, Vicki L. "Psychological Determinants Of Adolescent Exercise Adherence" Adolescence 22 Sept. 1994.
Gavin, Jim, and Avi Mark Spitzer. "The psychology of exercise: studying recent trends in exercise psychology research gives clues on how to promote participation." IDEA Health & Fitness Source 01 Nov. 2002.
Guthrie, Sharon R. "Defending the Self-Martial Arts and Women's Self-Esteem [Part 1 of 3]" Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal (1997).
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
This article provides the findings of a study that sought to examine how leadership and follower characteristics influence self leadership behaviour in followers. Two hypotheses were formulated: H1) empowering leadership positively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy; and H2) directive leadership negatively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy. Longitudinal data was collected from a large defence company with operations in the U.S. The data was collected at two points in time with an interval of 10 weeks. At Time 1, the sample comprised 404 followers in 75 groups, while Time 2 involved 313 followers in 72 groups.
Employing hierarchical linear modelling, the study found that follower self leadership behaviour was substantially influenced by both empowering and directive leadership styles as well as follower’s desire for independence. More specifically, a leadership style in which the leader empowered followers was…
Innovation comes into the picture when a leader has the self-knowledge and self-confidence to devise innovative solutions. Leaders without a high level of self-confidence will typically be more conservative in their approach, and that can make it more difficult for those leaders to adjust. Innovation, therefore, comes from having a high level of confidence in one's abilities -- and that in turn comes from understanding your skills and how they can be best put to use in a given situation.
The article is insightful with respect to the role that emotional intelligence, particularly with regard to oneself, plays in decision-making. While managers often see themselves as highly rational, we all use our intuition more than perhaps we realize. The lesson to take from this is not that intuition should be suppressed, but that we should better understand the processes that affect that intuition. The more we know about ourselves, how…
Goleman, D. (no date). Working with Emotional Intelligence. Random House/Bantam.
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
They perceive their self-worth mainly in connection with those achievements and their confidence in social situations is largely dependent on the knowledge that others recognize them for those attributes (Branden, 2007).
The Shift from False Confidence to Self-Efficacy
I experienced a period during my later childhood and adolescence where I now realize I had substituted unjustified fears and apprehensions with unjustified confidence and positive beliefs about myself that exceeded my actual abilities. My parents meant to instill in me a sense of self-esteem by inflating my self-image. However, in doing so, they actually infused me with what I have more recently learned to recognize as false confidence. Because I was taught to "be confident" I became equally confident in situations where I knew almost nothing as I was in situations where I deserved to be confident. On several occasions, I allowed myself to become argumentative even after realizing that I…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:
Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
Myers, D.G. (2010). Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
espect in Personal and Professional Consideration
espect is defined by one author as "a concept used to connote dignity, reverence, and regard" (Milton, 2005). This concept is not confined by what an individual does toward others, but also how they treat themselves and other treat them (Nursing World, 2010). The ethics involved speak mainly to the first part, how nurses treat patients, but there is also much ethics literature that suggests that people will give respect if they receive it and feel it for themselves. This short paper discusses how nurses view respect in its different forms and how these different forms compare and contrast.
The fact that respect for other stems from respect for self is not just a platitude that is thrown around to ensure that nurses remain mentally healthy; it is a statement with regard to proper ethics within the nursing community. It…
Hanford, J. (2001). Bioethics for nurses from a faith-based perspective. Ethics & Medicine, 17(2), 69-73.
Milton, C.L. (2005). The ethics of respect in nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 18(1), 20-23.
Nursing World. (2010). Code of ethics for nurse with interpretive statements. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/CodeofEthics forNurses/Code-of-Ethics.aspx
Paris, L.G., & Terhaar, M. (2010). Using Maslow's pyramid and the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators ™ to attain a healthier work environment. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(1).
My plans for fixing this area of ethical weakness is simply t more carefully observe the behavior of the individuals within my organization, and to feel more open in expressing any concerns I have. I also think I should become more proactive in my dealings with other administrators, specifically in the areas of encouraging individual community service and organizational involvement in community health needs and opportunities. These are issues I am strongly committed to, and though I do not view my reticence as unethical, my opinion will only do good when voiced, so in a way I suppose I am doing a disservice by not speaking out more often.
2) Personal, organizational, and global ethics are different only in scope. The basic premise of most ethical systems can be expressed by the Golden Rule: "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." Though the specifics of the…
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to reaction formation might tell him that despite ample scientific evidence that arousal from erotic imagery is normal and even healthy and that the majority of people who view such material still remain within the confines of acceptable adult morality, that the average lesser individual might react to erotic material by committing adultery, raping or acting sexually aggressive toward someone, turn deviant (i.e. gay), or the worst case scenario inappropriately touch a child. All of these fears are aspects of reaction formation,…
Leader You: Self-Assessment / Johari Window the Johari Window emphasizes aware . Others things unwilling admit. One improve personal relationships increase . The (2) behaviors key improving personal professional relationships: •Openness Feedback -- recognize things aware accept information provide.
I see myself as an individual who is unhesitant about getting actively involved in activities that are innovative but that I consider beneficial for me and for the team as a whole. As a manager I've learnt that decision making is an essential step in assisting the community experience progress and I thus feel that it is always important for me to be prepared to make right decisions, regardless of the gravity of a situation. y being well-acquainted with strategies I can use in critical conditions I consider that I am better trained to deal with situations that others might interpret as having no solution whatsoever.
My life experiences shaped…
Philips, Jean M., Morris Gully, Stanley, "Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success," (Cengage Learning, 07.01.2011)
Robins, Stephen, "Self-assessment Library 3.4: Insights Into Your Skills, Interests and Abilities," (Pearson South Africa, 01.07.2008)
Delving deep within one's own mind provides opportunity for personal growth and this intention may be useful in attaining potential. Accumulating certain valuable personal skills throughout a lifetime has given me an opportunity to reflect on these experiences and summarize them in an educational manner, useful for gaining understanding into these practices. Leadership seems at times a very interesting phenomenon that has varying consequences and originations. My own personal leadership skills, I believe, are a clear and true reflection of my authentic self and provide a useful and cathartic method of displaying this authentic self towards others. The purpose of this essay is to explore my authentic self and describe how my authentic leadership skills are derived from this source. I will explore my strengths and weaknesses and examine how they relate to my value system and other learned behaviors. I will also discuss how I have improved…
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…
Of course, the timeline for the defensive line of attack or its initiation during the armed assault is also a determinant of whether the line of attack can be called defensive or a new attack. A good example of this could have been 9/11 where the U.S. government could have reacted with an armed line of self-defensive attacks if they feared that the first attack on the World trade centre would be followed by a series of similar attacks elsewhere. In other words, the anticipatory self-defence is perhaps most useful when there is clear cut evidence of a series of attacks. The downside, of course, is that if the state launches a defensive attack and is not able to present concrete evidence for it then that state would have to face serious repercussions from the international law and hamper its overall image in the international community. The important thing to…
D'Amato, a. (1983). Israel's Air Strike Upon the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor, 77 AM. J. INT'L L. 584.
Rothwell D.R. (2005). Anticipatory self-defence in the age of international terrorism. Law Journal of University of Queensland. 2-3.
Anticipatory self defence in international law
If customers are satisfied with the services and convenience that a business provides them, a business will most likely have a desirable income. Aside from this, there is a great chance that the business will gain more customers.
Self-Checkout service is also advantageous for businesses during peak hours or peak seasons. During hours when there are many customers and the service staff are not enough to attend to their needs, self-checkout systems can provide an alternative. erman Evans, from his Retail, Management: A Strategic Approach, indicates the following other advantages of self-checkout systems.
There are quite a number of manufacturers of self-checkout systems nowadays. Following are some of the software/hardware companies that develop self-checkout systems for different companies.
Optimal Robotics Corp.
One of the leaders in Self-Checkout Systems industry and is the leading supplier of self-checkout systems in North America (FashionWindows Online, 2002).…
Evans, B. Retail Management: A Strategic Approach. http://mgtclass.mgt.unm.edu/mids/shul/Berman_ch_02.ppt.
Griffin, J., Mayer, K. (2004). World's First Hybrid Self-Checkout Installed in METRO Group's RFID Innovation Center. http://www.ncr.com/media_information/2004/aug/pr080904.htm
Wolfrom, K. (2001). Self-Checkout: Who's Got Control?
Right to Carry Handguns for Self-Protection:
The right to carry handguns for law abiding citizens has been a continual social and political debate about the restriction or availability of firearms within the country. Actually, the right to carry handguns has developed to become one of the major controversial and intractable issues within the social and political environments in the nation. The main reason attributed to the development of this controversial issue is the constitutional provision regarding firearms and the government's responsibility to prevent criminal activities, maintaining order, and safeguarding citizens' well-being. The debate has been characterized by different reasons that have been raised by intellectuals, social activists, and advocates in support and opposition of the controversial issue.
The debate regarding the right to carry and keep firearms can be traced to the inception of the gun culture, which explained the affections of American's citizens in adopting and celebrating…
Arnold, Larry. "The History of Concealed Carry, 1976-2011." Texas Concealed Handgun Association. Texas Concealed Handgun Association, 25 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
"THE FACTS: WHY RIGHT TO CARRY IS RIGHT FOR MISSOURI!" MOCCW - The Fight for Concealed Carry in Missouri. MOCCW.org, 9 May 2006. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
"National Right to Carry Reciprocity Act of 2012" Introduced in U.S. Senate." USA Carry. USA Carry, 14 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
"Right-To-Carry 2012." NRA-ILA: Insitute for Legislative Action. National Rifle Association of America. Institute for Legislative Action, 28 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. .
We are more than welcome to assist any client who has trouble understanding anything. However, we do not offer to meet with clients whose first language is not English to decipher communications that they might not understand. Making this effort goes a long way toward promoting client health and well being.
We do have bilingual staff but Spanish is the only language besides English that is well-represented. It would be more helpful to hire people who have some command of other languages that our clients might speak. One of the areas I believe we do well in is sensitivity to diverse views of family and health. We allow extended members of the family to visit and consult with them too. I understand that people from different cultures grieve differently, too. Finally, I would be better off reading peer-reviewed journal articles as to the most current best practices that take cultural…
SEAT: a Case for Self-Defense
Literature plays many roles in our lives; it entertains us, frightens us, and thrills us, but if written well it also teaches us and gives us a greater understanding of ourselves and human nature as a whole. hen an author puts pen to paper he should have a story to tell or information he feels he must impart to the world at large so that the reader has a greater understanding of the life that surrounds him. Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston does that very well. Delia, the protagonist, attempts to live a moral and upright life, never dreaming of taking a life. Yet ultimately to save her own life she must use self-defense at the expense of her husband's life. Following this theme Hurston uses religious symbolism throughout her story to emphasize good and evil and the effect our choices have on our lives.…
Borkat, Roberta F.S. "The Evil of Goodness: Sentimental Morality in The London Merchant." Studies in Philology 76.3 (1979): 288-312. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Harold, James. "Infected by evil." Philosophical Explorations 8.2 (2005): 173-187. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Hurd, Myles Raymond. "What Goes Around Comes Around: Characterization, Climax, and Closure in Hurston's 'Sweat'." Langston Hughes Review 12.2 (Fall 1993): 7-15. Rpt. In Short Story Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 80. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Literature Resource Center. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Hurston, Zora Neale. "Sweat." E. Fictions. (2003). Ed. Joseph F. Trimmer, Wade Jennings, and Annette Patterson. London: Heinle & Heinle. Print.
Authentic Representations of Self universal theme of transitional literature is the sacrifice of self. Many characters, within some of the greatest works of literature express longing as a main theme, as if they are living a life that is not quite what they had in mind. DH Lawrence, Virginia oolf, Beryl Bainbridge and Doris Lessing, all develop characters within their works that establish the idea of a denial of authenticity of self. The four works and the four characters which best describe this sort of sacrifice of self are: Lawrence's Paul Morel in Sons and Lovers, oolf's Clarissa Dalloway in Mrs. Dalloway, Lessing's Susan Rawlings in To Room Nineteen and Charlie from Bainbridge's Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie.
Even from the start Paul Morel from Sons and Lovers was different. More delicate than other children and the expression of grief through depression that brought on tears is a foreshadowing of…
Bainbridge, Beryl. "Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie." In Collected Stories. London, UK
Penguin Books, 1994. Pgs. 81-88.
Lawrence, DH Sons and Lovers. Ed. Trotter, David. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen." In The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1985, pgs. 2026-2054.
The family clearly regarded it as important and meaningful, as reflected in the careful attention to detail expressed in the layout of the table, but not as an extraordinary, anticipated event like Passover or Christmas for Christians. The family's good dishes and napkins were used, and everyone was dressed to denote the fact that this was a formal occasion. However, the very 'best' china was not used, as it would be for a High Holy Day in Judaism. On one hand, this sense of formality combined with informality made me feel more at ease. On the other hand, I was aware that I was intruding into a private family ritual, albeit one connected to a larger cultural tradition.
My preconceived notions about the observation of the Jewish Shabbos were that it was or should be a profoundly religious experience, and one that was very different from my own observance of…
A nutrition who views evaluating a person's nutritional health the way a builder would build a bridge - doing one's job and then leaving for the next client - is unlikely to have any real impact on a person's health.
Because people are such complex individuals, nutritionists must understand people well. For a person to follow a nutritionist's advice, he or she must be able to make a compelling case for the dietary changes recommended. The nutritionist must also be personable and able to talk to others in a way that is supportive. It will be an ongoing process for most people to take dietary advice and translate it into changes in eating behavior. So, in addition to a solid background in nutrition, a nutritionist must be an excellent communicator who is willing to work with a person over time. This will support the kinds of permanent dietary changes that…
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory
There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.
Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory
Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It…
CurrentNursing.com (2016). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
Parkes, W., Lasker, L. & Marshall, P. (1990) Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures.
Rhodes, V., Watson, P., Hanson, B. (1988) Patients' descriptions of the influence of tiredness and weakness on self-care abilities. Cancer Nursing. Vol. 11 (3) 186-194
Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).
Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.
Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.
Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)
In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…
Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-127058183.html . Bell, Judith. (1998). Vincent treasure trove; the van Gogh Museum's van Goghs. Vincent van Gogh's works from the original collection of his brother Theo. World and I. News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings
There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (CurrentNursing.com, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.…
CurrentNursing.com (2012). Nursing theories: Dorothea Orem's Self-care deficit theory. Nursing Theories.com. Retrieved April 7, 2016 from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_theory.html
Geyer, N., Mogotlane, S. M., & Young, A. (2009). Juta's manual of nursing. Lansdowne, SA: Juta.
Parkes, W. (Producer), Lasker, L. (Producer) & Marshall, P. (Director). (1990). Awakenings (motion picture) United States: Lasker/Parkes Productions/Columbia Pictures
Rice, R. (2006). Home care nursing practice: Concepts and application. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Conversely, those who are psychologically insecure, mistrustful of others without cause, and who regularly project negative expectations onto social interactions tend to make other uncomfortable and to provoke negative responses from others (Maxwell, 2007; Fitch, 2010).
This point can be illustrated by the following example. A male Soldier (PVT John Doe) arrives to his first unit after graduation from basic training. He hasn't taken any initiative within his team, does only what he is told, and fails to show any leadership qualities. A female Soldiers reports to the same unit during the same time and is promoted ahead of her peers because she take the initiative and gets the mission accomplished.
Those who lead with anger does more damage than the good they were hoping for. It tears down the fabric, the pride that unite an organization are costumed to having. The command climate of an organization is a true…