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They felt that it was time the people were let free to practice what they believe and express their views and the only way to achieve this was to adopt democracy since theocracy did not provide a chance for such freedom. The other factor that probably led the founding fathers to rebel against theocracy was the fact the Church of England was being controlled by the king (Simpson, 1955). The experiences they had with Great Britain made them to relate with them in any way and had no desire of following their footsteps. Since theocracy was identified with the Great Britain then definitely America would reject it wholly. The last and very important factor that led to the separation of the church and the state was the diminishing influence of puritans during the American evolution. When Puritanism was first introduced it strongly influenced the citizens and they believed in its…
Fray, H.R. (2004). Theocracy in America: Its History and present danger, retrieved on October
6, 2010 from http://www.arockinmyshoe.com/p_theocracy.html
Schuldiner, M., (1994). Puritanism in America: The seventeenth through the nineteenth, New
York: Edwin Mellen Press.
Freed from original sin, the City of God is the perfection of harmony between God and human beings. In his book, Augustine then finally dispels the idea of the Roman Empire being the earthly establishment of God's kingdom. It was simply too imperfect. Hence, he promoted the separation of Church and state as entities with two distinct purposes on earth.
ecause of this separation, Augustine holds that Christians cannot feel fully at home in any society. ecause these societies are imperfect, they are but temporary homes for Christians. ecause they are imperfect, no society has the purpose of eternal salvation. Furthermore, Christian hope does not rely on any form of society or political program.
Human imperfection for Augustine meant that the Gospel was a permanently unsettling force to prevent total Christian identification with the social order. For these reasons, the heavenly Jerusalem as described by Augustine cannot exist on earth.…
Augustine. City of God. Retrieved from http://augnet.org/default.asp?ipageid=260&iParentid=960
Cantor, N.E. The Civilization of the Middle Ages, Harper Press, 1995.
" 1 January 1802. Library of Congress. 19 September 2010 .
Primary source document from the Library of Congress, the original text of the correspondence between Jefferson and the Danbury Baptists.
Johnston, P. "A Historical Argument Against the Separation of Church and State." January 2008. Right Remedy. September 2010 .
Authored by a clergyman, this website collected quotations from a number of political figures, legal documents, and primary source materials to show that there is a tie between Christianity and the United States.
Maclear, J. Church and State in the Modern Age. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Scholarly reference that presents virtually every major document associated with the manner in which the Church has been viewed by various political and cultural segments. This also includes State and Federal Constitutions from most countries; and supplies bibliographic references in a cogent manner.
Paschal, G. "The Constitution of the United States Defined…
Feldman, N. Divided by God. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
Written from a legal perspective (Feldman is a Law Professor at New York University), the book examines the balance between religion and state power over 200 years. This was the attempt for a new government, whose population was made up of many different religions, figured out a way to compromise so that both could survive. The book is not polemic, and in fact asks the nation to move beyond a battlefield where the secular and religious forces aggressively pursue their own mutually exclusive goals, and instead to seek a deeper understanding of what values we all hold in common, and to recognize the importance of engaging in constructive debate in order to find and define that commonality together.
Hamilton, M. God vs. The Gavel: Religion and the Rule of Law. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Written primarily for the lay audience, Hamilton investigates numerous contentious religious issues-from headline cases in which Catholic clergy have sought clerical immunity for alleged acts of child abuse to obscure episodes in which Sikh parents have protested against school policies preventing sons from carrying ceremonial knives. But all of the various episodes Hamilton chronicles ultimately underscore one simple thesis: Americans' right to believe whatever religious doctrines they choose deserves absolute protection; Americans' right to act on religious belief should end whenever such actions harm or endanger others.
Wade, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa v. Casey; Stenberg v. Carhart, where the courts, with public concurrence, have debated the question of whether or not a partially birth child is indeed a person whose right to live should be challenged.
The separation of powers should have prevented the courts from taking on the moral question of abortion. The elected representatives should have been responsible for legislating laws that would govern the protection of human life. That the courts and the public has arrived at this point in time where the Supreme Court must decide the issue of whether or not it is acceptable to terminate a partially birthed life is unthinkable. Abortion is not a matter of Constitutionality, but a moral one, and one that does not belong before the Supreme Court.
Fields, Suzanne. "Barbie Gets Busted." The Washington Times 2 Dec. 1996: 17. Questia. 22 May 2007…
Norrander, Barbara, and Clyde Wilcox. "Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy." Policy Studies Journal 27.4 (1999): 707. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001889368 .
Randolph, a. Raymond. "Before Roe V. Wade: Judge Friendly's Draft Abortion Opinion." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 29.3 (2006): 1035+. Questia. 22 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015545898 .
Separation Church State
Study by NORC which was held at the University of Chicago reveals that although abruptly divided, people's attitudes towards homosexuals are changing swiftly, young generation leads the way. Hence there is greater acceptance and positivity. Majority of public is not just in favor of same-sex relationships and marriages but they do also support elementary civil liberties and independence of expression of homosexuals overwhelmingly. This fact goes totally in contrast to strident division on these concerns in the 1970s (Harms, 2011). However, author of the NORC report named "Public Attitudes toward Homosexuality" and director of the GSS at NORC, Tom . smith concluded from studies that there is a growing trend of greater tolerance towards homosexuality. The supporting level for same-sex marriages rose dramatically over the last 20 years. Percentage went from 11% positive in 1988 to 46% in 2010 after surveying more than 2000 people (Harms, 2011).…
Harms, William. UChicago News. 28 September 2011. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/09/28/americans-move-dramatically-toward-acceptance-homosexuality-survey-finds
Human Rights Campaign. 2012. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.hrc.org/resources/entry/stances-of-faiths-on-lgbt-issues-american-baptist-church-usa
Johann, Hari. The hidden history of homosexuality in the U.S. 22 June 2011. The Independent. 01 September 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/johann-hari-the-hidden-history-of-homosexuality-in-the-us-2300636.html
Mohr, Richard D. A More Perfect Union. Boston, 1994
eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment
The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…
Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,
NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."
In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…
Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical
Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-
American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:
Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
As a result, private schools will teach above and beyond the minimum state standards. Where, students will learn the basic subjects and then specialized skills that they can use later on in life. (Messerli, 2009)
The school vouchers program has its fair share of drawbacks the most notable would include: they are a violation of the separation of church and state. ecause the majority of private schools are religious orientated, means that any kind of public funding that is used in these schools is a violation of this principal. This affects the overall education that students are receiving, because of the increased amounts of influence that religion will play in their education. (Messerli, 2009)
A second criticism that many opponents make about the school voucher program is: there is a lack of regulation for these types of schools. The public school system is highly regulated; this means that all standards…
Messerli, J. (2009, May 24). Should Government Vouchers Be Given to Pay for Private Schools. Retrieved March 13,
2010 from Balanced Politics website: http://www.balancedpolitics.org/school_vouchers.htm
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Identifying and Associating With Professional Coalitions:
Vaccinations and the State of Florida
For school-age children, the state of Florida, according to the most recent data on its website (2018) requires a relatively standard battery of immunizations, including inoculations for diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (Tdap), measles mumps and rubella (MMR), polio (IPV), Hepatitis B, chickenpox (Varicella). Some of these vaccinations have incurred controversy over the years, including claimed links to autism. Currently, for children medically able to be vaccinated Florida only permits religious exemptions from vaccinations. In other words, parents cannot opt their children out of vaccines purely due to personal conviction and stated fears. All 50 states permit vaccine exemptions for medical reasons (“Vaccination Exemptions,” 2018). These may include children with compromised immune systems or children with allergies to ingredients in the vaccines.
However, only three states—Mississippi, West Virginia, and California—only permit medical exemptions to vaccines. The other 47 states…
liberal and conservative are generalized blanket words used to describe political leanings. Generally, the term conservative refers to the desire to preserve existing social norms and values; whereas liberals are defined by openness to change and diversity. In politics, though, the division between liberal and conservative can assume more specific meanings. Identification with specific political stances on certain issues can be determined by one's status as being liberal or conservative. In the United States, the liberal moniker tends to connote support for social services through taxpayer money, greater regulation on corporate greed, and the promotion of civil liberties through the elimination of gender, racial, and other types of discrimination. Conservatives, on the other hand, are distinguished by their preference for patriarchal gender norms, espousal of free market economics and unbridled economic growth, and a minimal investment in social services or quality of life boosters.
While both liberals and conservatives in…
Christina, G. (2015). 7 things people who say they're 'fiscally conservative but socially liberal' don't understand. Alternet. Retrieved online: http://www.alternet.org/news-amp-politics/7-things-people-who-say-theyre-fiscally-conservative-socially-liberal-don 't
"Conservative vs. Liberal," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Conservative_vs_Liberal
"Conservative vs. Liberal Beliefs," (2010). Student News Daily. Retrieved online: http://www.studentnewsdaily.com/conservative-vs.-liberal-beliefs/
Second mendment to the Constitution of the United States can often be as prevalent and potentially divisive as the First mendment, which covers freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the establishment caused which has come to justify the perceived separation of church and state. While there are practical and common-sense applications for gun ownership and rights, there are some weapons that probably shouldn't be in the hands of normal civilians and some people should not be allowed to own guns period due to things like felonious history, mental health issues and other similar conditions.
There has always been a butting of heads regarding what the Second mendment refers to and what it does not. To be precise, the ratified version of the Bill of Rights that was signed by Thomas Jefferson stated it "a well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of…
A map that shows where concealed carry is allowed and which states allow reciprocity with others.
Washburn, Michael. "Our Favorite Weapon." The New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Jan. 2012. Web. 9 May 2014. .
A profile of prolific gun maker Glock and their ubiquity in the United States gun culture and the homes of owners.
This led him to start the second major religion in Germany -Protestantism. This makes it clear that there were views of religion being also something other than pure belief in a path to reach God even in those days.
The strength of the Protestants increased in North Baden and northeast Bavaria, and was not at a very high level till Germany was unified under Prussian leadership in 1871. The leaders of Germany at that time were under Otto von Bismarck and he was seeking a method to weaken the leadership of oman Catholics and their influence. This led to the start of Kulturkampf in the early 1870s. Other direct steps were also taken like prohibiting the Jesuit order in Germany and expelling the members of Jesuits from Germany. The entire procedure was outlined in Prussia under the "Falk laws" which were named after Adalbert Falk who was the minister of…
Barrett, Lois. (25 October, 1996) "Thinking Theologically about Church and State" Annual
Restorative Justice Conference. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=2794Accessed on 6 August, 2005
Carter, Stephen. L. (October 11, 2000) "Beyond Neutrality" The Christian Century. pp. 996-
1001. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1964Accessed on 6 August, 2005
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
The work of Snyder entitled: "Gay Marriage and Democracy: Equality for All" states that the understanding of what is viewed as discrimination has evolved over time." (2006) This may be true since the founding of the United States resulted in laws that treated men and women unequally and which denied women the right to vote and resulted in the identity of a woman legally to essentially become "invisible upon marriage" as well as "subjecting married women to the authority of their husbands in a variety of ways…" (Snyder, 2006) There are stated to have been few "visionaries" who saw the inequality as being inherently against democratic principles. However, visionaries in today's debate surrounding the issue of same-sex marriage are in reality those who see same-sex marriage as a hindrance and an affront to the principles of democracy and this is due to the principle of the separation of the…
Bidstrup, Scott (nd) Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. Online available at: http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Harold, James (2003) Separation of Church and State: Let Religion Define Matrimony. San Francisco Chronicle 6 Aug 2003.
Marus, Robert (2003) Is Gay Marriage Debate a Church-State Issue? Christian Century. 6 Sept. 2003. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_18_120/ai_107760341/
Rupli, Robin (2004) Proponents of Gay Marriage in U.S. Compare Issue to Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. National Black Justice Coalition. 19 Mar 2004. Online available at: http://www.nbjcoalition.org/news/001029.html
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
eligion and Politics
Some groups hold the view that faith groups and other institutions have a very significant role to play within the political arena and that they have a duty to enter the political fight and they expect the government to remain supportive of this obligation. However, the argument of this article suggest that religious / faith groups and institutions should never have the chance of forming political parties and they should never try to posses influence in the workings of government for their views as well as values by finding their way to the realm of political discourse and any attempts to elect their own politicians.
Different countries have their varying degrees of separation between government or politics and religious institutions. A number of countries have moved a head and set up explicit barriers between church and state since the 1780s. The constitution of the United States has…
Daniel L. Dreisbach (2006) "The Mythical "Wall of Separation": How a Misused Metaphor Changed Church -- State Law, Policy, and Discourse." Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2006/06/the-mythical-wall-of-separation-how-a-misused-metaphor-changed-church-state-law-policy-and-discourse
James Leon Holmes and Jeremy Holmes (2003) From Aristotle to Jefferson: Christianity and the Separation of Church and State. Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://cssronline.org/CSSR/Archival/2003/Holmes%2520article.pdf
Jefferson, Thomas (1802). Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists. U.S. Library of Congress.
Locke, John (2002). Political Writings. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.Ed. Mark Goldie. CUP: Cambridge, Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke-po/
" Still, a judge has ordered the State Board of Education "not to enforce the new law while a suit filed by the father of a public school student proceeds" (Keen, 2007). Barry Lynn of the group Americans United for Separation of Church and State said the judge realizes "...that there is no motive for a moment of silence except a religious one." The First Amendment comes into play here because it prohibits government from promoting religion.
TO: (Gun control): Recently the governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger signed legislation that prevents the use of lead ammunition in California Condor - a severely endangered species - recovery zones. The law thus requires hunters of game like deer and coyote to use copper bullets, because when lead bullets kill a deer, for example, the hunter normally leaves the guts of the carcass on the ground, condors feed on those guts, and if…
Abrams, Jim. (2007). House Ok's right to protect sources: White House rips media shield bill.
Boston Globe. Associated Press report. Retrieved Nov. 15, 2007, at http://www.boston.com .
Environmental News Network. (2007). Schwarzenegger Approves Condor Protection Bill.
Retrieved Nov. 15, 2007, at http://www.enn.com/press_releases/2201/print .
There are many reasons for accepting the rights and legitimacy of gay couples to marry. The most important of these is the right to personal freedom. The misunderstanding that homosexual stereotypes project are an element that prevents the understanding of gay marriage.
idstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEUNKING STEREOTYPES: AOUT GAY & LESIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Kolasinksi. a. The SECULAR CASE AGAINST GAY MARRIAGE. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1082190/posts
Same-sex couples deserve exactly the same benefits and protections under the law as everyone else. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.soyouwanna.com/site/pros_cons/gaymarriage/gaymarriage3.html
Shell, S.M. The Liberal Case against Gay Marriage. 2004. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.thepublicinterest.com/archives/2004summer/article1.html
Wright, M. In Favor of Gay Marriage. 2003. Accessed…
Bidstrup. K. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. 2004. Accessed February 9, 2005. http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm
Card. O.S. Homosexual "Marriage" and Civilization. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://www.ornery.org/essays/warwatch/2004-02-15-1.html
DEBUNKING STEREOTYPES: ABOUT GAY & LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://www.geocities.com/WestHollywood/Heights/5883/debunking.html
Gay Marriage. Pew Forum.2005. Accessed March 6, 2005. http://pewforum.org/docs/index.php?DocID=39
Orthodox Church is indeed in a state of canonical disarray and this paper aims to put together a set of plausible arguments in favor of this statement. The best place to start is likely with Viscuso's study "A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress," which looks back at the 1923 as a quintessential moment in the process of reform that the Orthodox Church could have embarked on at the beginning of the 20th century.
This reform process could have positively affected the development of the church, including by making it more adaptable to the requirements of the 20th century. Some of the initiatives that Melenios put forward at the Congress were, in fact, targeting organizational needs. With the expansion of the Orthodox creed on new continents, including North and South America, his goal was to concentrate leadership in the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople…
1. Lossky, Vladimir. Orthodox Theology: An Introduction. New York, 1978.
2. Allen, Joseph J. Orthodox Synthesis -- the Unity of Theological Thought. New York, 1981.
3. Viscuso, Patrick. A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church: The 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress. Berkeley, 2006.
A group of our town's most prominent Christian leaders has come to the Mayor's office, asking that we allow them to erect a Nativity scene on the city property in honor of Christmas.
At one time this was considered a complex issue involving separation of Church and State. However, that issue has been settled by the Supreme Court recently, when they required that the Ten Commandments, something used by major non-Christian religions as well as Christian ones, from a courthouse, because it implied a religious connection to the judicial system.
At the same time it seems silly to completely ignore the fact that at least 80% of this town's population celebrates Christmas in one way or another. The Mayor's office feels that it should support all people in our multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-religious town, but that this should be done in a way that shows respect for all…
Speech by a Teacher
Teachers in public schools are not permitted to invoke specific Biblical theories, parables, or otherwise invoke the word of God -- either denominationally or generally -- in their classes. The constitutionally imposed rule -- separation of church and state -- is widely considered appropriate and important to the American democracy within the secular and legal community.
Moreover, the rules of public schools make it clear that it is psychologically, morally, constitutionally and socially unacceptable to stealthily (or otherwise) attempt to interject God's word or God's prophets' narrative into an educational setting.
But a competent, alert and effective Christian teacher today need not break those rules in the process of presenting information God would approve of. hy? That is because there are values that God has emphasized in the Holy Bible that can be presented to students without ever identifying them as having come from God Himself.…
Cable News Network -- CNN. "Innocent man freed after serving 15 years in prison." KPLCTV.
Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.kplctv.com .
Cumming-Bruce, Nick. "U.N. Says Syrian Refugee Numbers Are Surging." The New York
Times. Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
God Bless America
(or is it still all right to say that?)
The Limitation of Judeo-Christian Beliefs
by Liberal Interpretations of the Law
In the interests of preserving the civil rights of all Americans, legislation over the past few decades has mandated a conspicuous absence of Christian or Jewish symbols, prayers or teachings from public places: the classroom, the sports arena, the courts, public buildings of all sorts. Yet followers of these faiths make up the majority of Americans. In the wake of the tragedy of September 11, and the previous shocking incidences of student violence at Columbine and other schools, Americans feel the need for increased, rather than decreased, emphasis on religion in the classroom and everywhere their children go. What can be done to protect the rights of these citizens to observe the dictates of their beliefs in their daily walk of life outside of their homes…
Rep. Ernest J. Istook, Jr. (1999). The Religious Freedom Amendment. http://religiousfreedom.house.gov/
Anti-Defamation League Annual Report (1998). Protecting Civil Rights. http://www.adl.org/annual_report/1998
Americans United for Separation of Church and State (1999). Rep. Istook Reintroduces Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer. http://www.au.org/press
Boston, R. (1998, July). Istook Amendment Defeated. Church and State, 51, pg. 8-10
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…
Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. Essex: Pearson, 1997.
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
The papacy of Pope John Paul II is indicative of this inevitable clash occurring. During his reign the pope refused to change the Catholic Church's conservative stance towards various social issues despite facing increasing dissent from within. When he allied himself with conservative Muslim leaders in an attempt to influence the outcome of the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo he was regarded by the secular world as having caused a major controversy ("John Paul II," 2005). This example reveals how due to lack of compromise church and state will continue to experience conflict so long as issues such as the practice of homosexuality, abortion, "artificial" methods of human reproduction and birth control, and euthanasia remain up for debate within secular societies.
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard…
John Paul II" (N.D.) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
In these very conservative Islamic countries, and even those less conservative like Jordan and Egypt, we see symbols of capitalism. This gives rise to the question of whether or not these countries can in fact be a part of a world economy without surrendering their theocratic rule to more liberal forms of democratic rule; or whether they reject - as Iran has done - Westernization completely.
At this point the outcome is unknown, but this does help explain the conditions in the Middle East today, and why the situation in Iraq has become so violent. The question becomes one of whether or not the fundamental principles of Islam can survive against the fundamental principles of democracy; the answer is predictably no. This is what has given rise to Islamic fundamentalism in the region; those Muslims who - and perhaps rightfully so - under stand the threat of over exposure to…
Individual liberty, the right to bear arms, and keep government out of the business of violating civil issues. A proper government, according to Jefferson, was one that prohibited individuals from assaulting other individual rights, but also ensured that it did not diminish liberty in its quest for regard, power, or law (Ellis, 1998).
Jefferson and his followers were more Statist in their views; they opposed a strong central government, linking it with the authoritarian regime they opposed in England. For instance, in The Articles of Confederation, the large, more populated (urban) states held more power. Jefferson supported the Constitution, but did not support Hamilton in his quest for a strong central bank, central control over taxation, and above all, the State being able to usurp (his view) individual rights in order to better the Union. Essentially, it comes down to the Constitutional interpretation from Jefferson and his allies:
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
"a Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony" by John Demos
John Demos' A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony takes place in the New Wold with the settlement of the Plymouth colony. Although quite a significant potion of the text is dedicated to the mateial aspects of the settlement, Demos outlines fom the beginning of the foewod, his intentions to take an intimate look at the family in an emotional, psychological, and socio-cultual way. Demos maintains that pio histoy of this time peiod focused moe on an oveview of the actual settlement vs. A day-to-day look at the life of the settles themselves. Demos uses the notion of a little commonwealth as a metapho fo analyzing and addessing the family in the 1600's, as both a foundational component of Pilgim society and of the lage society as well. As such, what will be outlined in the text…
references that have shaped the way so many regard this particular time period. The lifestyles of the early settlers and the settlers of Plymouth Colony were not remarkable. Much of what Demos depicted was a closer look at everyday life, family structure, and the context in which family lived in relation to the larger society. What is striking, however, about this time, is the seedlings of separation based on differences in belief being exercised; and the precipitous nature and foretelling of things to come in American history that up until Demos' writings, were summarily left out. The original settlers seemed to hold on to a form of structural functionalism as a mode of operation; wherein the collective was seen as more important than the individual components that comprised the collective.
Any effort to move toward individualism, free thinking, moving away from religiosity, and focusing on self related interests was frowned upon, but somehow did not dissuade these activities from occurring. Movement away from collective thought and religiosity is something that continues today.
Moreover, the debunking of the patriarchal myth proves very important when looking at the contextual framework of the role of women. It sets into a different perspective the feminist movement, and the lack of originality of that line of thinking as clearly established through Demos writings, women did maintain equal rights, if you will, in the context of the Plymouth Colony; which means, that in the later centuries, women lost before they gained what is to now be considered as equal rights.
Given the work that Demos has done, a closer look needs to be taken into the matters of gender issues, religion, and the relationship between the state and the church. Just as he was able to uncover, through a look at everyday life, some compelling characteristics of the real lives of early settlers, more stands to be learned and uncovered that will shed a more balanced and realistic light as to how this country was truly established. Additional scholarly and critical research into these areas as well as others that may be revealed may help to change the contextual framework of the very foundations, tenants and principals of the country.
Death Penalty II
The Death Penalty and the Bible
The Bible is an important and valuable book providing a wealth of information, and it should be used as a determination as to whether the death penalty should be chosen for certain, specific crimes, despite the often-cited issue of separation between church and state.
f. Other Crimes
The Death Penalty
ansom From the Death Penalty
The Separation of Church and State
The death penalty has been around since biblical times, during which it was commonly used for a number of offenses. It is important to point out, however, that these offenses were punishable by death, meaning that the death penalty could be used. That does not mean that it had to be used, and there was discretion available. Here, several common crimes will be looked at in the context of biblical death…
Anderson, B.W., Bishop, S., & Newman, J. (2006). Understanding the Old Testament. NY: Pearson.
Anderson, E. (2007). If God is dead, is everything permitted? In Hitchens, Christopher. The portable Atheist: Essential readings for the nonbeliever. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press.
Dershowitz. (2000). The Genesis of Justice. NY: Grand Central Publishing.
Freedman, D.N., Myers, A.C., & Beck, A.B. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. NY: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…
Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.
Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.
Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.
Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.
The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.
However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…
ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp
Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html
Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html
Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Muslim reaction to the Enlightenment was less harsh than that of the Catholic Church, yet less adoptive than that of Protestantism. One such reaction, posited by S.H. Nasr, holds that the Enlightenment was not as widely embraced in traditional Muslim countries because there is no inherent separation of reason and religion within this faith, and that Islamic science has always included divine revelation. Another Islamic viewpoint of the Enlightenment, most convincingly stated by Ziauddin Sardar, contends that many principles of philosophy, math, and science, including the very University concept known in Arabic as the adab system, actually come from Islamic countries and indicates their significant contribution to the movement.
But if the Muslim world contributed a majority of the intellectual concepts which gained popularity during the Enlightenment, the Christian world can be thought to have taken some necessary logistical measures to implement them by downplaying the Church's value and further…
1. Tillich, Paul. "The History of Chrisitan Thought." Religion-Online. n.d.
2. Sardar, Ziauddin. "The Erasure of Islam." TPM: The Philosopher's Magazine. n.p. June 11, 2009. Web.
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
Bishop, Members of the Diocese of Utopia, Ladies and Gentlemen!
It's an honor and privilege to me having the opportunity to speak before this distinguished audience. It's an extreme privilege to have you, Dear Bishop, as a private person attending this event. I think that all of us in this room extremely appreciate this! I am here to speak to you not only as a female candidate for the office of the President of the United States, but also as a private person, e.g., a Roman Catholic, a wife and a mother of three children. When I prepared this speech, I asked myself, what is it that might get your attention not only during this short meeting but might also support my candidature for the U.S. presidency during the upcoming elections? Is it my broad view of foreign or domestic politics, my plan of how to help this country recover…
Kennedy spoke for most Irish-Americans when he said:
believe in an America where the separation of Church and State is absolute -- where no Catholic prelate would tell the President (should he be a Catholic) how to act.... If my church attempted to influence me in a way which was improper or which affected adversely my responsibilities as a public servant, sworn to uphold the Constitution, then I would reply to them that this was an improper action on their part, that it was one to which I could not subscribe, that I was opposed to it, and that it would be an unfortunate breach -- an interference with the American political system. I am confident there would be no such interference (Howard, Doyle, et al., 84).'"
The recent election of Barack H. Obama as the first black president of the United States, has enfranchised the population of black Americans…
Howard, Con, David Noel Doyle, and Owen Dudley Edwards, eds. America and Ireland, 1776-1976: The American Identity and the Irish Connection: the Proceedings of the United States Bicentennial Conference of Cumann Merriman, Ennis, August 1976. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9623779 .
Neuhaus, Richard John. "Contract and Covenant: In Search of American Identity." National Review 30 Apr. 2007: 39. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021374584 .
Brien, Conor Cruise. "Edmund Burke and the American Revolution." America and Ireland, 1776-1976: The American Identity and the Irish Connection: the Proceedings of the United States Bicentennial Conference of Cumann Merriman, Ennis, August 1976. Ed. Con Howard, David Noel Doyle, and Owen Dudley Edwards. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980. 3-13. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9623797 .
Religion and Abortion
hen a hospital's moral and ethical decision making process comes into conflict with the source that provides funds for the hospital -- or goes against the grain of the values of the funding source -- the results can expected to be controversial at best and harmful to humans at the worst. Indeed, to be specific, when the Roman Catholic Church provides funds for a hospital, the Church expects that its tenets, canons, codes of belief and moral values will be reflected in the policies of that hospital. Is this fair to the doctors and nurses in the hospital who have their own oaths to guide their professional actions? And is it fair to the patients who come to the hospital with urgent healthcare needs that to them, supersede any spiritual values or creeds that hospital funding sources might expect to be followed? The answer to both of…
American Civil Liberties Union. "Tamesha Means v. United States Conference of Catholic
Bishops." Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.aclu.org . 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops Sued Over Anti-Abortion Policies at Catholic Hospitals." The New
York Times. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Christianity in Europe
The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present
The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.
Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…
Israel, Jonathan. Radical Enlightenment Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-
1750. UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN: St.
Augustine Press, 2000.
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…
Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting
Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.
Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.
Instead, considering the more empirical medical and social considerations at hand, the Supreme Court established the position that stands today.
In spite of this precedent, pro-life groups have mounted powerful, ongoing and determined opposition to this constitutional position. Indeed, the political relevance of abortion can mostly be attributed to this determination, which reflects a belief on the part of the conservative population of the United States that abortion is wrong, that it should be regarded as murder and that the failure of the nation to intervene on the behalf of its unborn children is a fundamental sin. This is a view which has resonated with many Republican office-holders and Christian community leaders in recent years, who have battled aggressively to shift the public perspective to a place of rejection of these values.
However, most of the evidence available to us suggests that abortion is a critical right which must be…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: • Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Dreaper, J. (2007). Divisions Deep Over Abortion Ban. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7041048.stmCalifronia Mecianl
Todd Quintard: Civil War Doctor, Preacher, Soldier and Friend
Personal Chronology (Todd Quintard was born in Stamford, Connecticut, 22 December, 1824. His father, Isaac, was born in the same house, and died there in the ninetieth year of his age. Todd was a pupil of Trinity school, New York, and he studied medicine with Dr. James . Wood and Dr. Valentine Molt. He graduated at the University of the City of New York in 1847. He afterward removed to Georgia, where he began to practice medicine in Athens. Elliot, 2003) in 1851 he accepted the chair of physiology and pathological anatomy in the medical college at Memphis, Tennessee, and became co-editor with Dr. Ayres P. Merrill, of the Memphis "Medical ecorder."
In 1855 he took orders as a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was advanced to the priesthood in the following year, and in January, 1857, became rector…
Noll, A. (ed.), Doctor Quintard, Chaplain C.S.A.... Sewanee, Tennessee, 1905.
Cunningham, H. Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Service. Louisiana State University Press, 1958
Quintard, Charles Todd. 1824-1898, comp. By The Confederate Soldier's Pocket Manual of Devotions. Charleston: Evans & Cogswell, 1863.
Linderman, G. Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War. 1989.
Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.
Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…
First Amendment, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court
Freedom of and from religion and freedom of speech are the distinct provisions of the First Amendment; it gives citizens of the United States the unalienable human right to assembly and speech. However, the language is intentionally vague. The framers of the Constitution, anticipating unknown applications of the amendment, gave power to the Supreme Court to act as ultimate arbiter in matters involving its provisions. The Constitution of the United States is a living document and the interpretation of its amendments by the Supreme Court changes over time. Freedom of speech and the press, and religious freedom, are exercised according to the Supreme Court's rulings in cases that come before it. Exploration of these cases illuminates the evolving meaning of the First Amendment and the freedoms granted therein.
The First Amendment to the Constitution is partially designed to protect journalists and news-content…
Abrams, F. (2005). Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York, NY:
Penguin Group (USA).
Campbell, D.S. (1990). The Supreme Court and Mass Media: Selected Cases,
Summaries, and Analyses. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…
Bright, John. (1959). A History of Israel. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.
Noll, K.L. (1999). Looking on the Bright Side of Israel's History: Is There Pedagogical Value in Theological Presentation of History? Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary
Approaches, 7, 1-27.
his was a very powerful show. Watching and listening to Howard Zinn talk about what he believes and what he hopes for was an amazing experience. Seeing clips from the History Channel documentary ensured that I will go in search of the entire show. he actors who represented the historical figures gave poignant readings that truly brought that time in history to life and -- importantly -- made it possible to understand how the individual portrayed were catalysts to incredible change. It was interesting to listen to Zinn's comments about the Obama and his comparison of Obama to Martin Luther King. he comparison seems a bit unfair as Martin Luther King was not an elected official. Rather, Martin Luther King's comments were entirely in alignment with his role as a pastor and a change agent. Indeed, in retrospect, Zinn's comments were pertinent to the criticism of Obama at the…
The GOP no longer represents the American working public -- it represents Wall Street and those who make their living through investments, through self-serving positions of corporate control, through the economics of the war machine, and through the cronyism associated with the "imperial presidency" that Moyers named. The more conservative members of the GOP and the Tea Party members are facades behind which wealthy Republicans conduct their war on the middle class. Moreover, conservatives seem entirely comfortable insisting that their religious beliefs are a legitimate basis for lawmaking. The way that issues of abortion and reproductive rights are playing out in this country is a perfect example of this problem. The argument for separation between church and state has somehow become separated from the argument for separation between religion and politics. Are they really different? Martin Luther King certainly had very strong religious beliefs and though he may have made reference to God in his speeches, his actions could be seen to derive from a very secular human rights basis. Many conservatives seem to engage in magical thinking -- if they don't want to believe in global warming, for instance, because it can impact their investments, they just don't. That is so ignorant.
It is really good to see that Americans have not lost sight of the importance of protest. I really liked the song that John Blasingame sang at the end of the show. He is right that people do have an obligation to protest and to raise their voices when there are wrongs to be righted. Protest is how America came to be -- it is in our blood, it is our heritage, and it must be our legacy. When there are great inequalities in a country, they tend to grow greater not smaller. The fundamental driver of this is so obvious that I am surprised that more people do not recognize it when it happens all around them. People -- except for saints and religious zealots and a few remarkable people like Mahatma Gandhi -- are unwilling to give up any privilege or advantage that they have. This is true even when it means that they must trample on the rights of others in order to maintain their personal gain. This group of Iowans understands this dynamic, and they also get that they will benefit by supporting other people when they are in need. But rather than just seeking personal gain, they are interested in protecting a very American way of life in which community matters. It was terrific to see farmers quoting famous historical figures. Rosa Parks is a name all Americans are likely to know, but these farmers obviously read more widely than the average American history book. It seems that the Citizens for Community Improvement (ICC) not only get their group charged up, but they educate them, too. Or perhaps those who gravitate to the ICC are veterans of the civil rights the anti-war protests of the 1960s who have a clear idea of just what a determined group of people can accomplish if they set their minds to it. Larry Ginter says, "Revolution begins in a peasant hut." And John Blasingame said that, Louis Brandeis, the Supreme Court Justice is said to have asserted that "You can have great wealth concentrated in a few hands or you can have democracy -- but you can't have both." John Blasingame believes Justice Brandeis is right. And so do I.
Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…
Proponents of stem-cell research believe that it may be the secret to curing infertility, genetic imperfection and neurological degeneration, and on the premise of this supposition, have lobbied vigorously to prevent legislation that would protect embryos from harvest and use in research, espousing the idea that:
"Criminalizing human reproductive cloning in the United States will only make it less safe and more costly for these infertile couples. They will be forced to travel outside the United States to pursue their dream of creating a family. After all, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), infertility is a disability and reproduction is a major life activity for the purposes of the ADA (Bragdon v. Abbott, 118 S.Ct 2196; 1998). In light of this, it is the right of each and every American citizen to bear a child." (Speeches, 21)
In spite of this, there were very few legislative efforts which…
Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary
Perspectives. New York; Seven Bridges Press, 2001.
Brownback, Sam. James Greenwood. Symposium. Insight on the News.
Vol. 17, Issue
To a culture that didn't use calendars, giving a certain medicine at a certain hour of the day was incomprehensible. Neil and Peggy didn't consider that a somewhat less effective, but easier-to-follow drug regimen may have been better given the state of affairs. Instead, the estern idea of doing as much as medically possible for as long as medically possible prevailed. hen Nao Kao and Foua failed to comply, Neil and Peggy viewed them as unable or unwilling to follow what was to them, directions that could save Lia's life. If Neil and Peggy had asked Nao Kao and Foua why they didn't comply, perhaps a productive dialog could have been created. hen the author asked Peggy and Neil about it, they said that they had had no idea that Nao Kao and Foua would even consider traditional medicine, because they looked so Americanized.
Despite Neil and Peggy's perceptions, Nao…
Management Sciences for Health. (2005). Techniques for Taking a History. Retrieved December 7, 2011, from Reducing Health Disparities in Asian-American and Pacific Islander Populations: http://erc.msh.org/aapi/tt10.html
Rabin, R.C. (2010, November 2). Respecting Muslim Patients' Needs. The New York Times .
Yurkiewicz, S. (2011, April 8). "What Do You Think Caused Your Disease?." Retrieved December 7, 2011, from This May Hurt A Bit: PLoSBlogs: http://blogs.plos.org/thismayhurtabit/2011/04/08/what-do-you-think-caused-your-disease/
Divorce is no longer taboo at all. It is not unusual, but almost expected, for couples to marry, have at least one child, and subsequently separate. About half of American children are being raised in single-parent households or in households where there is a revolving door of partners for their custodial parent. Divorce is not the only issue that threatens the institution of marriage in America; approximately one in four people are currently in an abusive marriage. Furthermore, if a woman in America is murdered, the odds are overwhelming that her husband is the killer. Domestic violence does more to provide a real threat to more marriages in America than same-sex marriage ever could. As far as threatening individual marriages, the legalization of gay marriage would probably promote individual relationships. If homosexuals had the opportunity to marry their chosen partners, they may feel less pressure to remain in the closet,…
Daniels, Cora. "Not the Marrying Kind." New York Times Magazine. 4 Apr. 2004.
Dominus, Susan. "Growing Up with Mom and Mom." New York Times Magazine. 24 Oct. 2004. NYTimes.com. 15 Mar. 2005 http://www.nytimes.com /2004/10/24/magazine/24KIDS.html?ex=1111035600&en=656b9a5c2df4044b&ei=5070&ei=5087&en=f38f090206fd0295&ex=1101441600&rd=hcmcp?p=048CcD048Cea4Jyc_012000mzPv%24zPwK&nl=ep&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1110899159-NQx7RMeEtns2Jxp+R4YdZQ.
Garrow, David J. "Towards a More Perfect Union." New York Times Magazine. 9 May 2004.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
upreme Court Case-- Engel v. Vitale. Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.. 421 (1962) [Establishment of Religion - Prayer in Public chools].
Year of the Case -- 1962.
Author of the majority opinion - Justice Hugo Black
Members of the Court at the time of the decision:
Felix Frankfurter, Byron White, Potter tewart, William O. Douglas, William Brennan, Jr., John M. Harlan, Hugo Black, Tom Campbell Clark (Members of the upreme Court of the United tates).
The parties to the case
The parties in the case include the William J. Butler, who argued the cause for petitioners, with him on the briefs was tanley Geller. The petitioner was teven Engel and four other parents from the earington Elementary chool in the Herricks school district in New York (DeWan).
Bertram B. Daiker argued the cause for respondents. With him on the briefs was Wilford E. Neier. These attorneys…
School Prayer: A Community at War. "Important School Prayer Rulings." 1984 - Equal Access Act. 1999. Log in Productions 2 June 2003. http://www.schoolprayer.com/courts/rulings.html.
Supreme Court of the United States. Engel Et Al. V. Vitale Et Al. 3 June 2003. http://www.nationalcenter.org/cc7252.htm .
Supreme Court of the United States. " Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962) (USSC+)." Syllabus.
At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.
For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…
Augustine of Hippo, Saint. City of God. Accessed 26 April 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120104.htm
Romans. New International Bible. Accessed 27 April 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%2013
520). Viewpoint neutrality ensures that funding is equally allocated to all registered student groups, and that registered student groups use their allocated funds in neutral ways.
or instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted…
For instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted to instate an opt-out policy for the collection of student funds, but are not obliged to do so. Courts have determined that obliging a university to permit opting out would be seriously disruptive to achieving First Amendment objectives.
Student organizations are prohibited from discriminatory practices, and universities are not obliged to recognize or fund student organizations that practice discrimination. In rare cases, student organizations are permitted to use affirmative action policies if such policies can be shown to serve the ultimate function of increasing minority student participation. Similarly, religious student organizations are permitted to restrict membership to those who profess belief, protected by the First Amendment freedom of expression clause that guarantees religious organizations the right to exist and practice their religion freely (Kaplan & Lee p. 528). However, religious student organizations may not discriminate against persons on the basis of race, gender, or sexual orientation simply by claiming a right to do so under the freedom of religion or the freedom of speech clauses (Kaplan & Lee p. 528).
Religious organizations sometimes claim protection under the freedom of speech clause rather than the freedom of religious expression clause, however. In Widmar v. Vincent (1981), a religious student organization vied for the use of public campus facilities for the purpose of prayer: which was framed as freedom of speech more so than freedom of religious expression. The Court also ruled that equal access to the school's public facilities trumped the need for strict separation of church and state (Kaplan & Lee p. 530). Simply using campus facilities was not deemed to be an endorsement of any particular religion.