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Serial murder is a thankfully rare occurrence, but not rare enough. Per the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) organization and categorization standards, in order to be classified as a serial killer, a person must have committed at least three homicides over a period of time. There are many different types of serial killers; those that kill for profit and those that kill for sexual gratification. Among the rarest of serial killers is the female serial murderer. Only three percent of all serial killers are female and those that choose to commit these crimes do so most often have financial gain as a motive. One of the most notorious female serial killers of all time was Belle Gunness who murdered not only a large number of affluent male suitors, but very likely also killed her own children and an unknown woman in order to fake her own death and…
Gibson, Dirk Cameron (2010). "Belle Gunness." Serial Killing for Profit: Multiple Murder for Money. Greenwood: Santa Barbara, CA. 35-51
idgeway is known to have specifically targeted prostitutes, with whom he had a love-hate attitude towards, and runaways, whose disappearances would not raise too many concerns. idgeway was convicted of killing 48 women, but confessed to killing 71 in the Washington state region. idgeway would strangle his victims from behind, transitioning from manual to ligature strangulation after he became worried that defensive wounds from his victims would raise suspicion. His victims were killed at his home, in his truck, or in a secluded area. idgeway is known to have contaminated his crime scenes in order to deter police and many times transported his victims across state lines. Though the exact dates of idgeway's criminal activities are unknown, he actively killed during the 1980s and 1990s, with most of his crimes occurring between 1982 and 1984 (Bell, 2011). Though idgeway was initially a suspect in the Green iver killings in 1983,…
Arrigo, B. 2006. Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. Upper Saddle Creek: Pearson
Bell, R. 2011. "Green River Killer: River of Death." TruTV. Retrieved from
Douglas, J. & Mark Olshaker. 1999. The Anatomy of Motive. New York: A Lisa Drew
Sociology and Violent Behavior
The sociological theories of violent behavior focus in assessing the interaction of and individual their with social environment to yield violent behaviors. The key aspects considered in the theories are personality, the learning process, information processing, intelligence and subsequent behavior (aggressive acts). This paper presents a discussion of the theories associated with violent behaviors and serial murder.
Theories of Violent Behavior
The labeling theory argues that the society plays a significant role in influencing an individual's conceptualization of deviance. Once the society labels and individual as deviant and reinforces the deviant label on a person by way of shunning them out of society, the individual accept the label. Since the society has already labeled the acts and the individual as deviant, the individual will have no reason to disprove the view of many. The labeling influences the individual's self-concept and subsequently drives them deeper into more…
Fonagy, P. (2003). Towards a developmental understanding of violence. The British Journal of Psychiatry. The Journal of Mental Science, 183, 190-192.
Myers, W. C., Bukhanovskiy, A., Justen, E., Morton, R. J., Tilley, J., Adams, K., . . . Hazelwood, R. R. (2008). The relationship between serial sexual murder and autoerotic asphyxiation. Forensic Science International, 176(3), 187-195.
Investigating serial murders requires both a proactive and a reactive approach. Proactive methods are generally designed to prevent future crimes from occurring by taking action now on known variables. Reactive approaches include tactics and techniques used when police respond to crimes that have already occurred. Both proactive and reactive approaches are needed when addressing the problem of serial murder.
Proactive methods used for serial murder are similar to tactics used for broader crime prevention, such as increased police visibility and presence throughout the neighborhood. Big data helps police improve the efficacy of proactive methods, by helping law enforcement identify patterns of the serial murderer’s behavior or patterns of victimization. When specific geographic areas of concern have been identified, patrols can then target those areas, helping the police department allocate resources wisely while also preventing crime using data-driven methods. To be as effective as possible in preventing future crimes, the police…
Department of Justice (2015). Police discretion with young offenders. http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/yj-jj/discre/org/styles.html
Hall, E. (n.d.). Criminology and Justice. http://criminologyjust.blogspot.ca/2011/05/investigation-into-serial-murder.html#.WqAnrJPwYWo
Morton, R.J. (n.d.). Serial murder. https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/serial-murder
“Proactive Policing,” (2015). Regina Police. http://reginapolice.ca/2015/05/proactive-policing/
Serial Killers and the Media:
How the Media Affects the Investigation and Public Perception of Serial Killers
Serial killers are one of the most widely covered criminal types in the media, even though the majority of criminals do not fit this profile. Often the psychology and methods of serial killers are sensationalized in the media. Serial killers have also figured prominently as popular characters in film and cinema. This raises some problematic questions about the coverage of serial killers, however. First, is too much attention given to them, versus other, less cinematic crimes? Secondly, does the media attention fuel the desire within some potential perpetrators to commit crimes?
Of course, the idea that coverage of violent crimes can lead to the perpetuation of violence is not a new one: As noted by Conti (2015) “….what the scientific literature has found—almost universally—is that there is a very small but statistically significant…
The year 1998 brought the highest number of murdered young girls yet and authorities arrested another man for those crimes.
Press reports from the summer of 1999 typically offered body counts between 180 and 190, sometimes coupled with a reminder that "at least 95 women" were still missing. Chihuahua authorities claimed that FBI agents had endorsed their conviction of Abdel Sharif, while El Paso G-men indignantly denied it (MUDES of the YOUNG WOMEN of JUAEZ, MEXICO (http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/predators/ciudad_juarez/)."
At that point they brought in a serial killer forensics expert who told the authorities she believed there were a minimum of three serial killers involved and that the area had simply become a safe place for serial killers to carry out their murder fantasies.
By 2001 authorities in the area were desperate and had a rumored 50 suspects in custody hoping to stop the carnage but it continued even as the suspects…
Another body found in violent Mexican border city that is site or rape-murders." Associated Press (November 20, 2001).
Brooks, Karen. "Juarez fears serial killer is still on the loose." Fort Worth Star-Telegram (November 21, 2001).
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
Thus, the justice system must clearly distinguish between mental illness and insanity. Psychiatrists and other professionals can aid judge and jury in making the distinction. Reserving the insanity plea for clear instances of psychotic breaks and other reasonable diagnoses would help prosecutors effectively try their cases.
Even if not deemed legally insane, a serial killer is certainly morally and ethnically insane. For all reasonable, non-judicial purposes, a serial killer is as insane as a human being can be. If someone who kills indiscriminately, systematically, and often with pleasure is not insane then who is? The lack of compassion for other human beings and the lack of emotion that characterizes the sociopath is one of the most chilling phenomenon of criminology. In the courtroom, a serial killer will not meet the definition of insanity even if labeled psychopathic. Therefore the definition of insanity depends on the context.
The first two murders that follow the suffocation of rs. Eagleton seem clearly connected -- one at a hospital, another at a concert. But then follows other killings accompanied by symbols that seem deliberate, like a bus driver who crashes his bus to get a transplant for his daughter. Also, despite this apparent link through symbols, Seldom points out that there is always an 'uncertainty principle,' even in mathematics. Seldom points to Gdel's Theorem which much like Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in science, suggests that despite all appearances, there is always the element of the unpredictable -- for example, the landlady could have died by natural causes. Additionally, the mathematical murder could be unsolvable, although conveniently during the narrative the once 'unsolvable' Fermat's Last Theorem is solved, acting as inspiration to Seldom and his unnamed sidekick.
Matinez, Guillermo. The Oxford Murders. MacAdam/Cage, 2005.
The Oxford Murders is the story of an unnamed Argentinean mathematician studying at Oxford. One day, while accompanied by his landlady's friend, the don and professor of mathematics Arthur Seldom, the two find Mrs. Eagleton murdered on her sofa. The only clue, other than the fact that the old woman worked on the Enigma Code during World War II, is a circle left by the killer in a mysterious note sent to Seldom, along with the lines, "the first in a series." Soon it becomes clear there is apparently 'serial' killing occurring, on a very literal level. Seldom receives a note, accompanied by a symbol, every time a murder takes place. Seldom fears that the killer is effectively parodying his mathematical work on theories of patterns or series in mathematics. One of Seldom's areas of expertise is Wittgenstein's theories about series and the possibilities for deviation in numerical series.
The solution to the murder seems to revolve around finding out the pattern of these 'series' of shapes that accompanies the series of murders. The first two murders that follow the suffocation of Mrs. Eagleton seem clearly connected -- one at a hospital, another at a concert. But then follows other killings accompanied by symbols that seem deliberate, like a bus driver who crashes his bus to get a transplant for his daughter. Also, despite this apparent link through symbols, Seldom points out that there is always an 'uncertainty principle,' even in mathematics. Seldom points to Gdel's Theorem which much like Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in science, suggests that despite all appearances, there is always the element of the unpredictable -- for example, the landlady could have died by natural causes. Additionally, the mathematical murder could be unsolvable, although conveniently during the narrative the once 'unsolvable' Fermat's Last Theorem is solved, acting as inspiration to Seldom and his unnamed sidekick.
Analysis of Psycho
Alfred Hitchcock directed a movie called Psycho in 1960. The movie is a horror laced with lots of psychological suspense. The movie storyline is developed from Psycho, a novel written by Robert Block and published in 1959. The novel, on its part, drew inspiration from Ed Gein murders. Psycho has been widely regarded as the first-ever slasher film. Although it got mixed reviews at the onset, it is now considered one of the greatest films produced by Hitchcock, and indeed one of the greatest films of all time.
Indeed, Antony Perkins, the Ed Gein (Norman Bates), was rated the second-best movie villain of all time by the American Film Institute (Gorshin, 2014). According to common parlance, Norman Bates suffers from Disassociate Identity Disorder ( DID), which was earlier known as multiple personality disorder. This view is interesting in all its weight and breadth. It is also a…
Bergstrom, A. (2012). Playing the viewer like an organ: Norman Bates as the protagonist of Alfred Hitchcock\\\\'s Psycho. Retrieved from https://3brothersfilm.com/
Dawar, Z. (2018). Diagnosis of Norman Bates: Bates motel and Psycho. Retrieved from https://reelrundown.com/tv/Diagnosis-of-Norman-Bates-Bates-Motel-and-Psycho
Dollar, S. (2018). Psycho\\\\'s shower scene: How Hitchcock upped the terror—and fooled the censors. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/news/psycho-shower-scene-hitchcock-tricks-fooled-censors
Freud, S. (1919). The Uncanny. Retrieved from http://wwwrohan.sdsu.edu/~amtower/uncanny.html.
Gorshin, M. (2014). Analysis of Psycho. Retrieved from https://mawrgorshin.com/2014/11/28/analysis-of-psycho/
Jong, L. (2016). Representation of the Serial Killer in United States Popular Culture: Evolution of the Hunter-Hero Narrative. [MA Thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen]. Retrieved from https://theses.ubn.ru.nl/bitstream/handle/
Kavka, M. (2002). The Gothic on Screen. In: HOGLE, J. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction. Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy, M. (2020). Psycho\\\\'s sequels made Norman Bates the hero (& it worked). Retrieved from https://screenrant.com/psycho-movie-sequels-norman-bates-hero-good-worked/
The perpetrator may even have a documented prior criminal history involving physical or sexual assaults of victims with some of the same characteristics as the current series of victims. More likely than not, the perpetrator is a product of a home in which children witnessed physical abuse of their mother and/or experienced physical abuse themselves.
The fact that all but one victim shows evidence that the force used in the murder far exceeded that necessary to achieve death by strangulation suggests that the perpetrator possesses a significant amount of anger, even rage, at someone represented by his victims. The fact that all but one of the victims suffered a broken neck suggests that the perpetrator is more likely under the age of 50 than older, and more likely either a large or physically robust individual or both. uggested Investigatory Focus:
Based on preliminary analysis of the behavioral evidence, it is…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas.
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
The Gambino crime family began to fall apart after the head of its founder died. It had split into two factions. This book centers on the more ruthless Brooklyn faction. Away from the scrutiny of the Manhattan police, for many years it could do what it wished. Gene Mustain and Jerry Capeci spare no details in detailing the cruel jokes these men told to one another while they engaged in their killing spree, nor the callousness of their attitudes towards their victims. The reason that these criminals were so effective at getting rid of bodies was because they were willing to do the unthinkable -- maim the corpses, and bury them piecemeal to avoid discovery. Some of the maiming they engaged in was gruesome without even a practical point to the violence. One of Roy's cousins was called Dracula, because he specialized in training the blood from the bodies.
Mustain, Gene & Jerry Capeci. Murder Machine. New York: Onyx, 1993.
That victim survived. A month later, Bundy broke into Lynda Ann Healy's room, beat her unconscious, dressed her, kidnapped her, and then took her to a location where he killed her and sexually assaulted her. Several other young women fell victim to Bundy while he was in Washington. Sometimes he faked an injury, specifically a broken arm or a broken leg, to get the women close enough to him to kidnap. When Bundy moved to Utah for law school in 1974, the disappearances in Washington stopped and a string of kidnappings, rapes and murders began in Idaho, Utah, and Colorado. While he used a variety of means to kill the women, most of them were bludgeoned to death.
In August 1975, Bundy was arrested when a police officer noticed several disturbing items during a routine traffic stop. They could not get sufficient evidence to charge him, but began building a…
Environmental determinism relies on the importance of the physical environment around the individual in relation to that individual's behavior. Applying the ideas of environmental determinism to serial murder means that one would believe the physical environment of a murderer would be the most influential factor which determines them to kill. However; this more generalized theory does not fully account for why a murderer would commit mass or multiple murders. ather, like many other generalized theories attempting to explain seemingly senseless violence, it just poses a theory for why individuals would be driven to kill in the first place.
The trauma-control model, formulated by Hickey, gives a more in depth look at why individuals would turn from murderers to serial murderers. According to this model, individuals can harbor intense feelings of depression and rejection. As these feelings are amplified throughout life, that individual's tendency to engage in abnormal behaviors would increase.…
Egger, Steven. Serial Murder: An Illusive Phenomenon. Praeger Publishers. 1990.
Purcell, Catherine E., Arrigo, Bruce a. The Psychology of Lust Murder: Paraphernalia,
Sexual Killing, and Serial Homicide. 1st ed. Academic Press. 2006.
Dennis ader (BTK Killer)
Dennis ader who is commonly as the BTK killer was born in Kansas in 1945 and was the first born of four siblings born to William and Dorothea ader. He is renowned as an American serial killer who carried out the murder of 10 individuals in Sedgwick County between 1974 and 1991 around Wichita, Kansas. Dennis ader's nickname as BTK killer or BTK strangler is derived from the method he used in killing his victims. In essence, ader used bind, torture and kill to execute his serial murders, which resulted in his nickname as BTK killer. Dennis ader derived great joy and pleasure from killing to an extent that he wanted his nickname on the list of the worst serial killers across the globe. Similar to most depraved serial killers, the BTK killer or BTK strangler covered his demon behind an ordinary human's facade.
Anderson, P. (2014, October 7). Dennis Rader -- aka the 'BTK Killer' -- Wanted His Nickname
on the List of the World's Worst Serial Killers. Herald Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/dennis-rader-aka-the-btk-killer-wanted-his-nickname-on-the-list-of-the-worlds-worst-serial-killers/story-fni0ffnk-1227082442236?nk=3951385106e690efb9c641a717d17e8a
Blanco, J.I. (n.d.). Dennis Lynn Rader. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://murderpedia.org/male.R/r/rader-dennis.htm
"Dennis Rader Biography." (n.d.). Biography. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.biography.com/people/dennis-rader-241487#synopsis
Facts about the Cheshire Murders
The Cheshire murders were the Connecticut home invasion that occurred on July 23, 2007. Jennifer Hawke-Petit, wife of Dr. William Petit and her two daughters were brutally killed. Her daughter was raped and killed while Dr. William managed to escape, although, he was injured during the home invasion. (Daily Mail). Typically, the case was the most widely publicized case in the history of Connecticut because of the nature of the killings. The two daughters of the couple were Hayes aged 17 and Michael 11, were tied to the bed, suffocated and the house was set on fire. The Haye's confession proved that the two criminals had planned to rob the house in the dark. However, the police were able to arrest the penetrator named Steven J. Hayes and Joshua A. Komisarjevsky.
Sentence Defendants Receive
During the trial, the jury deliberated on the evidence against them.…
Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."
This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…
Horley, J. (2003). Personal Construct Perspectives on Forensic Psychology. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107452916 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304
Inside the Mind of the Mind Hunter: An Interview with Legendary FBI Agent John Douglas Criminal Profiler John Douglas Will Share His Understanding of the Criminal Mind at September's APA Conference. (2007). Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10(1), 8+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027
Nichols, S. (2002). How Psychopaths Threaten Moral Rationalism: Is it Irrational to Be Amoral *?. The Monist, 85(2), 285+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99956702
summer of 1976 to the end of summer 1977, a reign of murderous terror gripped New York City - it was the year of the Son of Sam. David Berkowitz would eventually be arrested, tried, and convicted for the series of gun-attacks that left six people dead, seven wounded, and an entire city in fear. When caught, while there existed a potential for his being determined to be insane, Berkowitz pled guilty to the six murders and, under the sentencing rules of the time, was given twenty-five years to life. David Berkowitz comes up for parole next year.
The Son of Sam, while in jail, turned his crimes into profit by writing and authorizing books to be written about him.
Outrage against this led to the "Son of Sam Law" which now disallows criminals in jail from profiting from their crimes while behind bars.
Berkowitz has become an icon in…
Chesler, A. & Robb. A. (1996). Criminal Quotes. New York: Visible Ink Press.
Glaeser, E.L., Sacerdote, B. & Scheinkman, J.A. (May, 1996). Crime and Social Interactions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111. n2. p507(42).
Hollin, C.R. (Winter, 1994). Multiple Murder: A Review. British Journal of Criminology, 34. n1. p1(14).
2002). Michael J. Codd, New York City police commissioner Announces arrest of Son of Sam suspect. www.HistoryChannel.com.Online. Internet. Avail: www.historychannel.com/speeches/archive/speech_341.html. Info Acc: Nov 26, 2002. n pag.
Graysmith notes the results of a comparison of Starr's printing to the Zodiac letters, but there was no match (Graysmith 266-267). As noted, Graysmith also had an explanation for how the Zodiac might have disguised his printing, but clearly the letters have not been linked to anyone for certain. The fact that the Zodiac stopped killing has been the focus of a good deal of speculation as well, including that he could be dead, that he might be in prison for some other crime, or that for some unknown reason he just stopped. No one really knows the answer to this question, either. A killer in New York later used the name Zodiac and even claimed to be the Zodiac, but that has been discounted by most observers. Earlier killings in Riverside and elsewhere were alter attributed to the Zodiac as well, though again, no one is certain if this…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Quick Reference Guide (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Egger Steven a. Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York: Praeger, 1990.
Graysmith, Robert. Zodiac. New York: Berkley, 2007.
Green River Killings." The Seattle Times (19 Nov 2004). April 1, 2007. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/greenriverkillings/ .
" (Douglass & Munn, 1992). Furthermore, the signature aspects of a case can be more important than M.O. Or victimology in linking crimes, because criminals often change M.O. As they become more adept at committing their crimes. (Douglass & Munn, 1992). In addition, signatures can be more significant than differences or similarities between victims because "the offender expresses anger through rituals, not by attacking a victim who possesses a particular characteristic or trait." (Douglass & Munn, 1992).
The Pennell decision did not decide several related issues. For example, because the trial court limited the scope of the expert's testimony, the higher court did not have to determine whether or not profile evidence would be admissible. Although the Court did suggest that profile evidence would not be admissible, as the science of profiling becomes more advanced, such evidence may become admissible under Del. . Evid. 702 and under Frye. Furthermore, the…
Del. R. Evid. 404(b).
Del. R. Evid. 702.
Douglas, J.E. & Munn, C. (1992). Violent crime scene analysis: modus operandi, signature,
And staging. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Crime Intelligence Analysis:
To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals
Corrections/Police -- Intelligence
Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.
Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.
The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…
Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.
Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82294288/National-Gang-Threat-Assessment-2005 (accessed June 3, 2012).
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
There have been several memorable moments in the films we have watched in class. For instance, in the Leopard Man, the scene in which the killer believes to hear castanets being played and a woman walking towards him provides psychological insight into the killer's mental state; he was not only paranoid, but appeared to be haunted by his crimes. In "Cruising," the gay club scenes add to the confusion of the murderer's identity. These scenes are not only claustrophobic, but they are also loud and cause a visual overload; this further adds to confusion Steve Burns begins to feel in his life and allows the audience to see him begin to question his identity. In White Dog, the final scene where Dr. Hyde (the dog) attacks Carruthers -- the white trainer -- is impactful because it insinuates that animals can learn to rationalize and attempt to hold those…
Media's Role in the BTK Killer Case
There have been several serial murder cases which feature killers who play with the attention of the public through their manipulation of the media for various reasons. However, with the actual publication of messages supposedly from mass murderers, the ethical role of the media is put to the test. Many believe that publishing these messages increases the chances of catching the murderer in question; but in the case of the BTK Killer in ichita Kansas, the publication of such messages by a local newspaper The Eagle provided little information to law enforcement officials and an arrest was made decades after the onslaught of the murders. Examples such as these show how publishing such communications may in fact be too much information for the public to handle and at the same time just continues to encourage the killer to commit more and more violent…
Maher, Kelly J. "Media Ethics: Media's Role in BTK Case Questioned." University of Minnesota. Study of Media Ethics and Law. www.silha.umn.edu.5. May. 2008. http://www.silha.umn.edu/Winter%202005%20Bulletin/Media%20Ethics%20Role%20in%20BTK%20Case.pdf
Merritt, Davis, Mccombs, Maxwell. The Two W's of Journalism: The What and Why of Public Affairs Reporting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004.
It was also at
this period in his life that the alleged acts of molestation which may have
occurred during his childhood began to manifest in psychosexual
According to Odom, "in an interview Jeffrey once stated, 'it started
at the age of 14 or 15. I started having excessive fantasies of violence
intermingled with sex and it just got worse and worse. I didn't know how to
tell anyone, so I didn't. I just kept it all inside.'" (Odom, 1) Indeed,
the Odom article contends that Dahmer's drinking became a coping mechanism
but that his control over his violent sexual fantasies was dashed apart in
1978. Perhaps by no coincidence, the year that he graduated from high
school and his parents got divorced would be the same in which he committed
his first murder. Indications are also that Dahmer was exposed to violence
between his parents during the dissolution…
Associated Press (AP). (1995). DAhmer's Brain Kept For Research. BNet.
Montaldo, C. (2008). Profile of Serial Killer Jeffrey Dahmer. About
Crime/Punishment. Online at http://crime.about.com/od/serial/a/dahmer.htm
However, it is implied that Stampler is a sociopath; research has concluded that crimes typically committed by those that have been diagnosed with sociopathy, or psychopathy, include serial murder, mass or spree murder, and/or serial rape.
Stampler's actions were motivated by countless instances of abuse at the hands of his father and documented sexual abuse by the archbishop, which the audience is led to be believe was a trusted member of Stampler's social circle. At the end of the film, it is not Stampler's innocence that is revealed, rather Vail's. Vail's belief system is shaken to the core as he realizes that there are people in the world that are inherently evil; Vail realizes that there are instances in which crimes are committed by bad people, such as Stampler's father, the archbishop, and lastly, by Stampler. Though he must continue to operate under the concept that people are innocent until…
Arrigo, Bruce. Criminal Behavior: A Systems Approach. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:
Pearson Education, 2006. Print.
Hoblit, Gregory, dir. Primal Fear. Paramount Pictures, 2006. Motion Picture.
53). The technique has roots in various psychological concepts that examine how individuals make choices about behavior and the ways in which motivations are formed and molded. It also draws on a set of investigatory techniques broadly called environmental criminology. Environmental criminology looks at how physical space influences people to commit crimes, how what particular types of crimes are committed are related to the physical space in which they occur (for example, farming communities tend to be the site of different types of crimes than is the case in housing projects or suburban cul de sacs) and how the type of person who is likely to be victimized is also related to physical space (MacKay, 1999).
Geographic profiling has moved a long way from the old tape-a-map-to-the-wall-and-stick-pushpins in it. Geographic profilers use highly specialized software systems that produce what are called "jeopardy surfaces" or "geoprofile," high detailed three-dimensional models of…
Brantingham, P.J., & Brantingham, P.L. (1984). Patterns in crime. New York: Macmillan.
Canter, D. (2003). Mapping Murder: The Secrets of Geographic Profiling. London: Virgin Publishing.
MacKay, R.E. (1999, December). Geographic profiling: A new tool for law enforcement. The Police Chief, pp. 51-59.
Rossmo, D.K. (2000). Geographic profiling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.
Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?
a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation
b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…
I do, however, contend that appropriate rehabilitation programs will make this at least unlikely.
On the other hand, one must acknowledge that such rehabilitation programs are not always available and often not appropriate to the specific person having committed the crime. Hence, what I am suggesting is that more research be commissioned to create better ways of responding to various criminal offenses. Offenders of certain petty crimes, for example, can be required to commit a number of hours to appropriate community services along with being admitted to rehabilitation groups or programs.
While I therefore do not doubt that danger to society can be limited by removing certain offenders from the streets, I highly doubt that it is an appropriate response to all criminal activity.
Furthermore, what length of incarceration would be deemed appropriate for the removal of any given criminal to ensure that he or she does not offend again?…
Moreover, it is not necessarily even clear that capital punishment through humane means is worse than life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. The many prisoners who choose not to appeal their capital sentences and (especially) those who purposely commit capital offences while incarcerated for the express purpose of qualifying for capital punishment provide evidence that life imprisonment may be comparable in "harshness" to the death penalty.
With respect to the issue of mistaken prosecution, that represents a completely valid concern; to the extent capital punishment is justified in principle, it must be applied through procedures that preclude erroneous sentences. However, that is not a valid objection where evidence of guilt in uncontroverted. Likewise, both the general moral obligation and the U.S. Constitution require that execution of capital sentences not involve unnecessary or prolonged physical suffering. At law, that issue has long-been decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, which specifically…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Friedman, A. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Death Penalty: Right or Wrong?
For some time I have believed that the death penalty is a necessary part of our legal system, for the protection of society as a whole. In forming this opinion, I looked at Ted Bundy, who was convicted of monstrously killing four college sorority sisters and a 13-year-old girl he happened upon while she was walking home from school. He held the poor 13-year-old girl for several days in a deserted pigsty in the hot scrub woods of northern Florida before finally killing her. Some authorities think that he may be responsible for over 100 murders, and not the thirty or so he admitted to before his death. Ted Bundy tried to negotiate his way out of being put to death by hinting that the police could clear a lot more murders, but that he would only talk if his death sentence were reversed. Authorities…
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
The first of these is regarding their share of population and they have been compelled to admit that they do not have 10% share of population as has been claimed earlier. This admission was recorded at a Friends of the Court filed in the Supreme Court on March 26, 2003 for a case known as the Texas Sodomy Case identified as Lawrence v. Texas case. This was a case through which the homosexuals were trying to get the Texas law against Sodomy declared as unconstitutional. The declaration made was "The NHSLS found that 2.8% of the male, and 1.4% of the female, population identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This amounts to nearly 4 million openly gay men and 2 million women who identify as lesbian." (Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series) This is also reflected in the 2000 census figures which show that homosexuals exist in far lesser numbers…
Economic theory' and 'cultural stereotype'? 7 February, 2005. Retrieved at http://kipesquire.blogspot.com/2005/02/libertarian-professor-gays-poor.html . Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Cameron, Paul. Violence and Homosexuality. Retrieved at http://www.familyresearchinst.org/FRI_EduPamphlet4.html. Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Gay rights. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/topic/gay-rightsAccessed on 17 May, 2005
Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series. Retrieved at http://traditionalvalues.org/urban/two.php. Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
Gun control is a law or policy passed with the aim of limiting the possession and use of guns or firearms by private citizens. Gun and firearm control have been a subject of extensive debate in the U.S. The establishment of a balance between the personal rights of individuals to own and the government's commitment to maintain law and order has proved a tricky affair. The ownership of firearms and guns is an integral part in the culture and identity of the American people. The origin of gun possession can be traced to the west where the locals had to arm themselves to protect themselves from the Indians, enemies and wild animals. Consequently, the American citizens armed themselves for personal defense and as part of their culture. Additionally, guns are common in hunting, both leisure and for food and have since become a sport in the…
"Would Guns Control Reduce Suicides?." CQ Researcher 14.6 (2004): 131. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Cook, Philip J., and Jens Ludwig. "Fact-Free Gun Policy." University Of Pennsylvania Law Review 151.4 (2003): 1329. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Gorman, Linda, and David B. Kopel. "Self-defense: The Equalizer." Forum For Applied Research & Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 92. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Grier, Peter. "Elementary school shooting: What gun control laws might U.S. voters support? (+video)." Christian Science Monitor 14 Dec. 2012: N.PAG. Academic Search Complete. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Caring about any of these things may or may not be right or wrong, but it strikes me that if appealing to an unstated vision of "science" to justify the decision is the future of ethics, then both ethics and scientific inquiry are in dire straits.
Clearly, Harris wants "knowledge to count" -- that is, to have practical meaning for human lives -- but he confesses that in order to do so, "some facts must be excluded." Yet how can a scientific worldview exclude a fact? What are the criteria for doing so? Was an excluded datum ever a "fact" to begin with? Even under the time constraints of a TED presentation, this somewhat radical co-option of scientific credibility needed to be examined more closely, but Harris appears to have been uninterested in doing so.
It is likely that the points-of-view that he would like to exclude are those that…
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004
Therefore it is fair to conclude we live in an immoral time. People's good character suffers from an inability to see right from wrong. Instead of the issue being that of black or white; an eye for eye; it has become far too gray. There is too room open for interpretation. This type of thinking makes for immoral acts on both sides of the argument.
This paper examined capital punishment as a moral issue and argue the opinion that it is an immoral practice. In order to do this, this paper employed Aristotle's ethical system and explore his notion of values. This paper carefully identified and explained the premises that lead to this argument,
To do this effectively, one must also look at the flipside of the issue and create a possible counter argument. This counter argument established that capital punishment is indeed a moral practice and acceptable consequence…
Aristotle's Ethics. 10 Oct. 2005 http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/aristotle.html ..
On the surface, he was considered to be an upstanding citizen. However, unbeknownst to his wife and kids he was actively involved in a variety of hits. Some of the preferred methods that he used include: guns, strangulation, knives and poison. ("The Iceman Confessions," 2011)
During the interview, he discusses a number of hits that were committed and how he was able to conduct these crimes. Moreover, there is an emphasis on Kuklinsky's emotions and feelings about these events. For example, during Christmas Eve he was ordered to conduct a contract killing (on a man who believed that he was untouchable). After, brutally shooting the man (with a sawed off shotgun) is when he would return to his family. During the process of putting the toys together, is when he heard about these events (with little to no emotion). ("The Iceman Confessions," 2011) This is illustrating how Kuklinsky was living…
The Iceman Confessions. (2011). You Tube. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tv4c3flhSaU
He was arrested the next day, Steinhauer continues.
Meanwhile, when police were investigating Franklin's residence and his garage in back of his house, they discovered "about 1,000 photographs and hundreds of hours of video footage of women," Blankstein reported. Some of the images were just "innocent snapshots" but others showed women in "various states of undress and in sexual poses," Blankstein wrote. Because detectives feared that some of the women in those photos may have been killed too, they reviewed and researched records of unsolved murders. hen they were not able to link many of the photos (except two) to killings, the LAPD decided to release the photos to the Los Angeles Times.
In January, 2011, the Los Angeles Times printed the photos (only using the faces) of 160 women on the front page of the newspaper. The LAPD posted the photos on their ebsite. In a few days 200…
Blankstein, Andrew, and Winton, Richard (2011). Grim Sleeper didn't 'sleep,' LAPD says.
The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com .
Blankstein, Andrew, and Winton, Richard. (2011). LAPD officials doubt there was gap in 'Grim Sleeper' serial killings. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from
In his seminal work American Psycho, Bret Easton Ellis uses the character of the yuppie serial killer Patrick Bateman in order to criticize American consumer culture while simultaneously challenging the reader to confront his or her own responses to that culture, responses that Ellis seems to suggest are only removed from the sociopathic actions of Bateman in a manner of degree, rather than kind. To see how Ellis uses the character of Patrick Bateman to explore the dual role of the serial killer as liberated individual and microcosmic representation of society, one may compare Bateman to the real life serial killer John ayne Gacy, who managed to keep his multiple murders a secret for the better part of the 1970s. Examining Bateman's characterization alongside the history of Gacy's murders and seemingly normal civilian life will help to demonstrate how the fascination with the two-faced killer ultimately stems from…
Campbell, John W. "Professional Wrestling: Why the Bad Guy Wins." The Journal of American
Culture 19.2 (1996): 127-32.
Ellis, Bret Easton. American Psycho. New York: Vintage Books, 1991.
Hantke, Steffen. "the Kingdom of the Unimaginable": The Construction of Social Space and the Fantasy of Privacy in Serial Killer Narratives." Literature/Film Quarterly 26.3 (1998):
theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.
hen considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.
hile someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the…
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.
Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
Marsh, I. (2006). Theories of Crime. Routledge.
Morehead, P. (2012). The Green River Serial Killer. eBookIt.com.
Dahmer Forensic Analysis
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer
Crime Scene and Discovery
Never before has egregious police incompetence hindered the apprehension of a serial killer as in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer. When police were called to investigate an alleged domestic disturbance between Konerak Sinthasomophone and Jeffrey Dahmer on May 27, 1991. Although two women came to the aide of Sinthasomophone and urged police to look further into the alleged dispute, the police ignored their pleas and Dahmer was able to convince them that Sinthasomophone was his 19-year-old lover; if police had bothered to check Sinthasomophone's identification they would have seen that he was in fact only 14 years old (ardsley, n.d.). Having convinced the police that Sinthasomophone and he were in the midst of a lovers' quarrel, Sinthasomophone was released into Dahmer's custody and by the end of the night, Sinthasomophone would become Dahmer's 13th victim (ardsley, n.d.). Dahmer would proceed…
Bardsley, M. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from TruTV: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/dahmer/index.html
Benedict, J. (2004). No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters. New York: Harper Collins .
Copeland, L. (2002, May 31). Skeleton Keys: Smithsonian Anthropologists Unlock Secrets in Bones of Ancestors and Crime Victims. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Washington Post: http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/planes/evidence/washingtonpost_skeletonkeys.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jeffrey-dahmer/crime.html
She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.
"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…
Breslin, Jimmy. (1993). 25th Anniversary. New York Magazine, 26(16), 153-154.
Brogaard, Berit. (2012). The Making of a Serial Killer / the Superhuman Mind. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com .
Caputi, Jane. (1987). The Age of Sex Crime. Madison, WI: Popular Press.
Crossman, Ashley. (2013). Labeling Theory. About.com. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com .
Sheriff Jim Jones has a propensity to denigrate minorities. He has a team of investigating officers that all belong to the Caucasian race. It implies that Sheriff Jones has recruited his team on a racial basis rather than on professional grounds. The impact of Sheriff Jones leadership is negative, and he was a highly relationship-oriented leader. Cooperation with the FBI team regarding the recent murder has also jeopardized due to Sheriff's non-cooperation with members of the FBI team. Community relations, the objectives of investigation, and the departmental reputation are put at stake due to the immoral behavior of Sheriff Jones.
What effect would this have on his leadership role with his officers? Explain.
The dominant perspective in the contemporary world is that team diversity is an appropriate team management approach to avoid discrimination. This also leads to add variety and organizational effectiveness (Thomas and Ely, 1996) to the company. Diversity…
Bezrukova, K., Thatcher, S., Jehn, K.A., & Spell, C.S. (2012). The effects of alignments: Examining group faultiness, organizational cultures, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 77.
Brooke, J.K., & Tyler, T.R. (2010). Diversity and Corporate Performance: A Review of the Psychological Literature. NCL Rev., 89, 715-748.
Dal Bo, E., & Tervio, M. (2013). Self-esteem, moral capital and wrongdoing. Journal of the European Economic Association, 11(3), 599-663.
Dreachslin, J.L., Hunt, P.L., & Sprainer, E. (2000). Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams. Social science & medicine, 50(10), 1403-1414.
Dennis ader, BTK Killer
There are few things in society today that horrify or fascinate us as much as serial killers. Murderers like Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer fill us with fear while also inspiring us to study them and use them as subjects of fiction. Indeed, fictional serial killer Dexter Morgan has millions of fans across the world. When examining the lives an actions of these killers, it is always interesting and shocking to see how easily they blended into their social contexts before their actions were know. A common reaction to the exposure and capture of such a serial killer is often one of disbelief, accompanied by cries to the effect that "he was such a quiet, nice person." This was also the case with Dennis Lynn ader, a serial killer who committed his first murder in 1974, but was only caught, convicted, and incarcerated in 2005.
Blanco, J.I. (n.d.) Dennis Rader -- BTK Killer -- A Biography. Retrieved from: http://dennisraderbtk.blogspot.com/
Bryant, M. (2005, May 30). The Murderer Next Door. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved from: http://www.utexas.edu/features/2005/murder/
CI Network (2013). Dennis Rader: The BTK Killer. Retrieved from: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/dennis-rader-the-btk-killer /biography.html
Mann, D. (2013). Portrait of a Psychopath. WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/portrait-of-psychopath
However, this made Andrei use physical torture as means of controlling her which later lead to him killing her by hitting her head constantly. His aim was not to have a casual sex with the victim but to kill her and satisfy his physical needs, which he discovered during his previous thrilling encounter.
He also showed abnormal behaviors after sexual assault when he chewed and swallowed away one of the victim's nipples. The dead body of Larissa was found the next day with no clue of the murderer. His second victim was a thirteen-year-old girl named Liyuba Biryuk, which was followed on from a bus stop. The killing took place in June 1982 by introducing several stabs to the body including the eyes. The body was found two weeks later with no sign or clue. Two more youths were victimized in July, two in September and one in December (Jenkins,…
Askenasy, Hans. Cannibalism: from sacrifice to survival. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1994.
Fido, Martin and David Southwell. True Crime. London: Carlton, 2010.
Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder. Chicago: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
Philbin, Tom and Michael Philbin. The Killer Book of Serial Killers. Chicago: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2009.
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Douglas states that one of the most complicated in which the geography of a series of murders seemed to play a part, was that of the Zodiac killer (Profiling and Geography). Furthermore, in a study of 300 serial killers, it was found that 2.3% had turned themselves in, one way or another. However, this does not include those who might have made mistakes as a subconscious way to reveal themselves, but only those who initiated police awareness of them. There are many interpretations of their intent, and even as to their actual guilt, but it's nevertheless an error to say they never do it (the Myth).
From the evidence in this paper, it is clear that if a child is left alone, or forced to live in isolation, their minds become the object of their company, which begins the daydreams and the fantasy world (Ressler, Douglas and Burgess, 1990). Isolation…
Green iver Killer
In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green iver Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary idgeway. idgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary idgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…
Douglas, J. (2007). Interviewing murderers and suspects: Learn about the crime and the killer. The Forensic Examiner, 16(2), 44-51.
Guillen, T., & Smith, C. (2003, Nov 6). What went wrong? Police at first failed to notice a pattern. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/greenriver/1987/part1.html
Lackey, B., Jones, C., & Johnson, J. (2005). Gary Leon Ridgeway: Green River Killer. Retrieved http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Ridgway,%20Gary %20-%202005.pdf
Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The polygraph: The truth lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85-92.
Dr. Gary Kaniuk
Consultation Triage & Testimony in Forensic Psychology
Female Serial Killers -- An ntroduction
The heinous act of murder has been outlawed by various authorities, states, jurisdictions, and by many religions for thousands of years. One of the best known of the Ten Commandments ("Thou Shalt Not Kill") is explicitly clear on killing. But when the perpetrator kills more than one person, and continues the killing at intervals, it is called serial killing and that is the subject of this research.
given that only one out of every six serial killers is female, there has been a lack of understanding and also a lack of empirical research that leads to a better understanding of these hideous crime sprees by females. That dearth of knowledge should be supplemented with more research.
Female Serial Killers -- Data & Histories in the Literature
The Federal Bureau of nvestigation (FB)…
In their research the authors reference Hickey (1986) who studied 34 cases of female serial killers between the years 1795 and 1988; half of those serial killers had a male accomplice and the average age of the women was 33 years. Six of the 34 women were nurses, which fits the FBI category "angel of death" (Frei, 169). The authors also reference studies by Wilson and Hilton (1998), who analyzed 105 female serial killers; they found that the "preferred means of killing was poisoning" (Frei, 169). Meanwhile a study of 86 cases in the U.S. (Kelleher and Kelleher, 1998) found that the most common victims were "...children, the elderly or spouses"; the majority of women doing the killing in these cases were "black widows" and they had active killing sprees that lasted more than ten years (Frei, 169). Why do women become serial killers? "Psychopathic traits and grossly abusive childhood experiences" have consistently been described as reasons for these crimes in both male and female serial murderers (Frei, 169).
The Case of Aileen Wuornos
Aileen Wuornos is a notorious serial killer whose story can be found in many journals and law enforcement documents. In the Journal of Criminal Justice Research & Education the authors describe Wuornos as the "first predatory female serial killer" who was a Florida prostitute and killed the men she picked up as "Johns" (Weatherby, et al., 2008). In a twelve-month period -- from December, 1989 to November, 1990 -- it was reported that Wuornos killed seven male "johns" (Weatherby). After being charged with six
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…
Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html
Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
Crimes are classified as felonies or misdemeanors. Felony refers to serious crimes such as rape, murder, violent robbery, while misdemeanor refers to lesser crimes such as theft, fraud, or unlawful carrying of weapons.
2. eview the crimes of John Wayne Gacy. Classify his crimes and explain the classification. Examine each component of the classification modeling the examples used in the text. Use what you can find in published articles, interviews, and scholarly information on the web. Make sure to reference your sources.
John Wayne Casey was the notorious serial killer who was guilty of murdering at least thirty three young males between 1972 and 1978 in Chicago. His victims were males aged from twelve to their mid-twenties. His court trials began in 1980 after physical evidences pointed to his guilt and he had admitted to killing over thirty persons and burying them under his house. The prosecutors insisted that Gacy…
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.) John Wayne Gacy, Jr. TruTV. Retrieved from: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/gacy_1.html
Crime classifications and definitions (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://public.getlegal.com/legal-info-center/types-of-crimes
Description of sex offender criminal offenses (n.d.) the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved from: http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/index.cfm?metaSection=About&metaPage=sotrcdsoco#cp
Hawkins, K. (n.d.). The Baseline Killer. TruTV. Retrieved from:
America's sprawling territories makes it easy for people to leave their families and connections, making it easier to kill or be killed. On one hand, the inventions of the Fair and the belief in commercialism and industry makes spectacle possible in a way that is not easily replicated anywhere else, Eiffel Tower aside. More so than anywhere else, the belief in newness and self-creation seems to be a kind of religion in America. Chicago would recreate itself, and so would Holmes. Science would set America free, leaving older primitive cultures to curiosity cabinets and freak shows, and science would give Holmes the tools to create the perfect murders, and then to profit by selling the remains, letting nothing go to waste in this little 'business' he was running. For both Holmes and Chicago, eradication of the 'dark city' beneath the image of a white facade was the essence of the…
Larson, Erik. The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and Madness New York: Crown,
Erik Larson, the Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and Madness, (New York: Crown, 2003), p.4.
Movie Analysis: Psycho (1960 film)
The movie's most relevant cast for this discussion includes Norman, Norman's mother (Mrs. Bates), and Marion. After the death of his dad, Norman becomes entirely dependent on the love, attention, and support of his mother. It is for this reason that when she (Norman's mother) takes in a lover, Norman feels as if he is no longer a priority in his mother's life -- he feels as if he has been replaced. Apparently, he can't stand sharing her and as a result of his intense jealousy, he ends up killing not only his mother's lover but also his mother, through poisoning. However, he elects to preserve the corpse instead of having it buried -- in what could be seen as an attempt to perpetuate the illusion that his mother is not dead but is, instead, still alive. As a consequence, he begins to not only…
Hickey, Erick W. Serial Murderers and their Victims. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print.
The author notes that aggression is linked to temperamental, emotional, and cognitive dimensions. Interestingly, pathological aggression that manifests during childhood and tends to be consistent through the individual's youth and childhood tends to be an indicator of future antisocial behavior. Seigel and Victoroff (2009, p. 210), for example, mention "predatory aggression" as a type of aggression that does not relate to others of its kind, since it focuses on the perception of a "prey object." This in itself proves predatory offending to be far more selective in its choice of not only criminal activity (such as murder and/or rape), but also of the victim demographic.
As for general serial offending, the perpetrator is likely to be generally prone towards psychopathic tendencies. While aggression could be included in this demographic, it is less likely that any psychosocial trait takes precedence over any other. In other words, while predatory offenders are likely…
DeLisi, M.(2009). Psychopathy is the Unified Theory of Crime. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, No. 7.
Krischer, M.K. And Sevecke, K. (2008). Early traumatization and psychopathy in female and male juvenile offenders. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, No. 31.
Laurell, J. And Daderman, a.M. (2007). Psycopathy (PCL-R) in a forensic psychiatric sample of homicide offenders: Some reliability issues. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, No. 30.
Salter, a. Psychopathy
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…
"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463
Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].
Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online: http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/
La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
5. They finally track the car to the O'Brien Furniture Company, who had a boxcar present at five robbery locations, and then they find that the car always returned to San Francisco after the robberies were completed. Cussler says, "Boxcar serial number 15758 was present in Virginia City and Bisbee during the robberies. In Virginia City, its cargo manifest was listed as fifty bales of barbed wire to be transported to a ranch in Southern California" (Cussler 150).
6. San Francisco turns up again when the man who tries to murder Bell turns out to be from San Francisco, too. They now know that the Bandit is probably based somewhere in San Francisco, and that his family and friends have no idea he is the Butcher Bandit, so they go to San Francisco to check out leads. Another tie-in to the Bay Area is that thanks to some serial numbers…
Cussler, Clive. The Chase. New York: Putnam's and Sons, 2007.
This skilled use of ironic prose is also observable in "A Jury of her Peers" by Susan Glaspell, as when the woman who has just committed murder tells the investigators: "after a minute...'I sleep sound.'" the tale depicts how a group of women gradually deduce, through small and simple clues, how Mrs. right killed her husband, and why. The women's observations are more astute than the male investigator's analysis, according to police protocols. The point of the story is not murder, but the fact that the murder's quiet wifely desperation has gone ignored for so long, and that only fellow female sufferers can see this sorrow after the fact. Likewise, the point of O'Connor's story, more than the lurid aspects, are the ways that families and human beings fail to connect and communicate with one another, before it is too late.
A naysayer might sniff and ask why use murder…
Glaspell, Susan. "A Jury of her Peers." 6 May 2007. http://www.learner.org/exhibits/literature/story/fulltext.html
Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." 6 May 2007. http://www.ariyam.com/docs/lit/wf_rose.html
O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man is Hard to Find." 6 May 2007. http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~surette/goodman.html
Offenders: Alex and Derek King (12 and 13 when they killed their father)
Theory: Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
One basic premise of the Age-Graded criminology and informal social control theory was that, whilst experiences of childhood and personality traits are vital to comprehending behavioral stability, teenage and adulthood experiences can readdress criminal paths either more negatively or positively. Laub and Sampson discovered, particularly, that marital relationships and employment stability were a key factor in adult criminal change. With increased strength of familial and workplace bonds, deviancy and criminality in the non-delinquent control group as well as in criminals decreased. Further, Laub and Sampson looked keenly into qualitative narratives' ability to facilitate a more individual-centered life course examination. According to them, narratives of life history, together with quantitative techniques may be utilized for creating a more complete and richer image of why certain adult males…
Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice
Innocents Project Exoneration
On November 19, 1991, 14-year-old Cateresa Matthews left her great-grandmother's house in Dixmoor, Illinois. She was not seen again until December 8, 1991, when her body was found on a well-worn path running along I-57 as it passes through Dixmoor. "She had been shot in the mouth at close range with a .25 caliber pistol. She was also an apparent victim of sexual assault, as her body was naked from the waist down. A pair of white panties was found around her right ankle, and her jeans were draped across her chest. Seminal fluid was recovered from the vaginal and rectal swab of the victim" (obert Taylor, n.d).
The police made no arrests and apparently had no leads in the case for over ten months, until October 20, 1992. On that date, a police report specified that Keno Barnes, 15, supposedly…
Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011). Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-11-25/news/ct-met-dna-freedom-
Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man. (2011). Retrieved from http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/11/04/law-school039s-exoneration-project-helps-free-wrongly-convicted-man
Robert Taylor. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Robert_Taylor.php