Sermon Essays (Examples)

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Freud's Writing by Socrates and Socrates' Writing

Words: 1407 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65155062

Freud's Writing by Socrates and Socrates' Writing by Freud

Socrates Commenting on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents

Sigmund Freud presents a very interesting set of principles in his work Civilization and its Discontents. Here, he describes his belief in the true identity of the nature of man. More than anything else, man is aggressive. This aggression is essentially caused out of the tension and conflict between innate primal desires and the demands of social mores. Such aggression is often channeled through the death drive, the primal need to destroy which must be released in one way or another, even in a modern context.

In this view, society then attempts to civilize that aggressiveness so that we can live together without killing each other. It redirects primal and sexual energies into more positively viewed energies and behaviors. In Freud's view, religion serves as an institute of society, and aims to tame…… [Read More]


Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Norton & Company. 1989.

Freud, Sigmund. Interpretation of Dreams. Megalodon Entertainment LLC. 2010.

Plato. Five Dialogues. 2nd ed. Hackett Publishing. 2002.

The Holy Bible. New International Version. Harper Publishing, 1983.
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Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of

Words: 2116 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37946207

Jonathan Edwards "Sinners in the hands of an Angry God"- write about your response to Edward's sermon as a member of his congregation.


Edward's "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is fascinating from a historical perspective but absolutely frightening from the perspective of someone who might have been listening to the sermon when it was delivered in 1741. The "fire and brimstone" approach to religious teachings is unpalatable. Religion should engender love and trust in humanity, not fear, anger, and near hatred. Edward seems angry, and is trying to encourage the congregation to join him by cultivating a sense of fear and self-loathing. However, I am reacting with my modern sensibilities. If I were a member of a New England congregation, I might actually be as mad as Edwards was, and receptive to his ideas. I might have come from a religious background that fomented fear of…… [Read More]

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Bible in Acts 13 Paul

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35787399

Through him everyone who believes is justified from everything you could not be justified from by the law of Moses," (Acts 13:38-39).

Peter also delivers powerful sermons in the book of Acts. Like Paul, Peter addresses his sermon in Acts 2 to a Jewish audience. There are some key differences between Peter's sermon in Acts 2 and Paul's in Acts 13. Peter uses the miracles of Jesus as a rhetorical device, as a means to prove the power of Christ and to urge his listeners to pay attention. Paul relies more heavily on the faith of the Jews in the laws of Moses, although Peter does mention the prophet Joel and notes, "In the last days, God says, I will pour out my Spirit on all people," (Acts 2:17). Therefore, both Peter and Paul show that Jesus Christ is a direct fulfillment of Old Testament prophesy. "Jesus of Nazareth was…… [Read More]

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Visiting Lakewood Church the Place

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14201307

In addition, simply from observation, there were people from a vast array of lifestyles present. One way that was obvious was in the attire that people were wearing. Some were dressed in conservative clothing, while a few people were dressed in clothing that could almost be labeled "provocative." In addition, there was a couple who were clearly bikers. There were worshippers of all ages present, though the majority of people seemed to be middle-age or younger.

I can not even begin to estimate how many worshippers were present, but the former stadium was almost full to capacity, which means that there had to have been tens of thousands of worshippers there.

Like many worship services, the service began with music. However, there was no mere choir singing at Lakewood; although a choir did sing, the day also featured a performance by a Christian-music band and a singer whom appeared somewhat…… [Read More]

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Biblical Worldview Church

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9871396


The Bible implores young people to be leaders in their spiritual communities, for youth can be the pallbearers of faith. "Don't let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith and in purity," (1 Timothy 4:12). For a church to remain relevant for today's youth, it must actively communicate with young people using the symbols, language, and activities that the current generation appreciates and understands. The challenge is to retain core church values while still packaging traditional Biblical truths in new ways. In other words, churches need to be careful not to sacrifice core values, but to always help young people see how faith and service are important parts of spiritual growth, social functioning, and overall health and happiness.

The church I currently attend does a good job of keeping young people active…… [Read More]


Huizenga, D. (n.d.). Is church relevant? Ignite Your Faith. Retrieved online: 

Taylor, J. (n.d.). Top ten reasons the church is losing our youth. Justin Taylor: Between Two Worlds. Retrieved online:

"Why Young Adults are Leaving the Church." Relevant Magazine. Retrieved online:
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Jesus Is a Question That

Words: 2855 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47169514

Yet, before one can understand Johnson's call for a taking back of the feminine Christ, one must first understand how the feminine Christ was lost.

The starting point is with the ministries of Christ and to the point of his resurrection. This short period of time is the only time that Jesus himself was in charge of defining his philosophy, although even he recognized the fact that history would define him and not himself.

Jesus' ministry involved numerous acts of kindness, preaching and forgiveness. Many of these acts are seen as miracles, or "Signs" as the Gospel of John refers to them. These included exorcisms, walking on water, turning water into wine, and raising people from the dead. According to the Gospel of John, Jesus' ministry lasted for a period of three years. The major event of the ministry phase was the giving of the Sermon on the Mount, where…… [Read More]


Cook, Michael L. Responses to 101 Questions About Jesus. New York: Paulist Press, 1993.

"Gospel of Luke." King James Bible.

Johnson, Elizabeth. (1992): Consider Jesus: Waves of Renewal in Christology. New York: Herder & Herder.

Johnson, Timothy. (1991): The Gospel of Luke. Michael Glazier Inc.
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Satisfaction According to Anselm Preserves

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1729717

The relationship of humanity and the divine merely changed and improved upon because of its newfound directness.

How might the Sermon on the Mount challenge contemporary Christians?

Jesus' words in his "Sermon on the Mount" conflict with many of the values of contemporary society, including the values of many professed Christians. The Sermon demands that the first are made last and the last made first, and the lowly are not simply honored but that the poor will be seen as greater by God in the life to come. The materialism of contemporary society and the inequality in a world of capitalist striving is seen as antithetical to what it means to be a Christian. Jesus' message is radically against the accepted tenor of the contemporary world, and requires Christians to live in conflict with the values and even the economy of modernity. The meek shall inherit the earth, and what…… [Read More]

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Gender Sexuality and Identity -- Question 2

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27269315

Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"

The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.

However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…… [Read More]

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Giotto's Method of Teaching Religious

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8167848

These remarks could be applied equally to anything in Giotto's oeuvre. The total effect of Giotto's work is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God both preached by the Church and challenged by heretics. Giotto's works, like Pisano's or Duccio's, certainly inspire religious feelings and thoughts. They are dignified, spiritual, and affirmative. They put into realistic terms the very humanity of the saints, prophets, patriarchs, and the Christ by depicting each as a real human being in a realistic setting. They emphasize the reality of the Faith -- which was being challenged already by men like yclif, and which would undergo its most formidable test yet with the coming Protestant Reformation.

In conclusion, Giotto di Bondone depicted traditional religious subjects but drew the viewer into a more personal relationship with the ideas didactically expressed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.

Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "Legend of St. Francis: 15. Sermon to the Birds." Web

Gallery of Art. Web. 1 Sept 2012.

Shearer, Robert. Famous Men of the Renaissance and Reformation. TN: Greenleaf
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Origin and Evolution of the

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88541955

In that respect, it was racism and social exclusion that isolated African-American musicians of those eras and led to the evolution of different music. In principle, African-American music of the early 20th century evolved in the same way as Darwin's famous finches of the Galapagos Islands: community isolation.

Substantially because of the effects on African-American soldiers of returning to a segregated society after their combat experiences during Word War II, racial pride popularized expressions of unity and terminology of self-elevation such as the use of "Man" among and between African-Americans. It is likely that this intensified and grew tremendously in common usage by the onset of the Civil Rights Era of American 20th Century History. In principle, African-Americans probably used "Man" as a specific way of rejecting and putting to rest the long-used pejorative "Boy" used for generations to subjugate African-American males regardless of their chronological age or their relative…… [Read More]

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Joseph Smith and the Book

Words: 6695 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24061704

On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).

At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…… [Read More]


Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004.,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html

Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993.

Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999.
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Revolutions in Romantic Literature

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86376203

Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.

In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.

Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…… [Read More]

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Dante Machiavelli Bhagavad Gita

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72365146

Dante, Machiavelli, Bhagavad-Gita

Epic Ethics

The ethics of the epic quest, as expressed in Homer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey," to take just two examples of nationalist and epic heroic sagas, are ultimately justifications of cultural dominance of a particular ruling group and set of values. Although these heroic epics may highlight occasional great moments of individual morality, they ultimately provide support, justification, and legitimating narratives for the dominant, aristocratic form of government of the day. For instance, Achilles is a great warrior because he is a decedent of the Gods. Odysseus is chosen as the legitimate focus of his own dramatic poem because Athena favors his kingship of Ithaca. Although the narrative structures of Homer's epics may 'test' these men, the narrative epic structure also validates the values of military prowess and social rewards that lie at the heart of establishing a great and epic kingdom, ruled by the few. The…… [Read More]

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Isaiah Delivered the Jubilee Message

Words: 3410 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64245856

They could only be disposed of, as it were, by leases till the year of jubilee, and were then to return to the seller or his heir."

This would preserve familial and tribal heritage as well as prevent the wealthy from being able to incur large masses of land, thus keeping certain families in extreme poverty. It gives all Israelites their liberty, as well as treats them all as equals, as the land would be regenerated every fifty years. "The chief point was that there should never be a build-up of power by a few to control the land and the people; therefore, there was redistribution of the land as it had been divided in the beginning."

Each family or tribe is given the opportunity to return to his or her land, and be renewed. "Those that were sold into other families, thereby became strangers to their own; but in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Achtemeier, Paul A., Green, Joel B., and Thompson, Marianne Meyer. Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI. William B.

Eerdmans. 2001.

Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament. New York, NY. Paulist Press. 1984.

Bruggeman, Walter. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Louisville, KY.
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Twain Incorporates Humor by Using

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32730455

They are the same age but Buck's family is wealthy and, for all intents and purposes, he should be refined but he is not.

Twain uses satire with the Grangerfords by making fun of Emmeline, who keeps a notebook full of notations like car wrecks, other kinds of bad luck, and suffering because she would later use those records to compose poetry.

The Grangeford's are also used for Twain to point out the hypocrisy of people. They are "church goers" and one of Mr. Grangerford's sermons is about brotherly love yet his family is feuding with another family for a reason no one can remember.

Examples of imagery in Chapter 19 include the days and nights swimming by, sliding along slowly. e read about the bullfrogs "a-cluttering" (323) and the cool breeze "fanning" (323) their faces. The intent on this scene is to bring the woods alive for the reader.…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Clemens, Samuel. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." The Heath Anthology of American

Literature. Lauter, Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Throned in Splendor Deathless O

Words: 1437 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41650743

The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?

Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.

If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.

The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.

Catullus ends up calling his lady…… [Read More]

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Social Times and the Culture

Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402298

They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.

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Philipians 2 5 Philippians 2 5 Begins

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21831618

After considering the particular language of Philippians 2:5, it becomes clear that one may read this clause as containing either no verbs, a single repeated verb, or a verb and a noun referring to related concepts. In all likelihood, the most accurate interpretation of this verse is a combined reading of all three, because only by considering each interpretation can one begin to understand the multifaceted state of being it attempts to describe. Appreciating how the verse serves as an introduction into the particular way Jesus managed to enact God's will through his human existence allows one to understand how the notion of kenosis refers not only to Jesus' emptying out of his own human will in order to enact God's, but also the process which is presupposed by any Christian; that is, Jesus' existence as both God and man serves as the idealized example of the Christian life itself,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carlin, David R. "Paraphrases on the Epistles to the Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians,

Colossians, and Thessalonians." The Review of Metaphysics 63.4 (2010): 918-9.

Hays, Richard. The moral vision of the New Testament. London: HarperCollins, 1996.

Karris, Robert. A symphony of New Testament hymns. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 2002.
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Christianity Confucianism and Buddhism Religious

Words: 1685 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49811141

Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. MIT Classics Archive. Last updated 2000. 

Hoad, Colin. "Chapter One: Confucianism and Christianity." 2005

Matthew: Chapter 5 The Sermon on the Mount." The New American Bible. USCCB.
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Comparison of Roman Catholics and the Calvinist in the Eucharist

Words: 3060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14143661

Eucharist in Catholicism and Calvinism

Our word "Eucharist" is derived directly from the Greek of the New Testament: etymologically, it derives from the word for grace (charis) with a prefix (eu) meaning "good" or "well," but the original Greek word "eucharistia" means, simply enough, "thanksgiving" -- like our word "thanksgiving" it is a noun that derives originally from an equivalent verb describing the action involved (i.e., the giving of thanks). The Eucharist is intended as a sort of commemoration of Christ's Last Supper. The story of the Last Supper is attested to in three of the four canonical Gospels: Matthew 26:26 -- 28; Mark 14:22 -- 24; Luke 22:17 -- 20. (John's Gospel lacks a similar account but does include relevant statements that become important to later Eucharistic practice, such as John 3:36, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life.") Yet it is the fourth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at: 

The Holy Bible. Print.

Bouwsma, William. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988 Print.

Calvin, John. Institues of the Christian Religion. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at:
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Black Churches New Pastors

Words: 4891 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99514907

There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."

In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…… [Read More]


Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical

Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-

American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:

Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
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Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He

Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95862373

Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]

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Preacher and the Ancient Text This Was

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89751888

Preacher and the Ancient Text

This was an extremely technical text which offers deeper insights for anyone who desires to have a deeper understanding of all biblical issues and literary themes. This is because this text is able to offer a more nuanced perspective of major biblical pillars in terms of their own historical and literary viewpoint, while interlacing it with strong theological content. One of the deeper insights that were gleaned from studying this text was the fact that this book offers a superb means of explaining some of these more intricate pillars.

One of the more lucid insights that were gained from studying this book was as a result of the fusion developed from the hermeneutics and homiletics and the holistic approach that was engaged in. All insights gain were as a result of the link that Greidanus is able to forge in regards to the different arenas…… [Read More]


Greidanus, S. (1988) The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing:

Grand Rapids.
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Bernard of Clairvaux and Erich

Words: 3205 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4663039

One touching simile described by Jeanie Burton in this sermon is that of a child coming into her father's room and climbing onto his lap. When the father asked the child what he could do for her, the child merely says, nothing, I just wanted to feel close to you, father. This is exactly what one will feel for God at this stage of loving Him. This shows one's ability to get out of one's own self in order to love God just for what He is. (Love Grows Up)

The fourth stage of love as described by Bernard in his 'On Loving God' is that of love of one's self for the sake of God. This is an extremely surprising and radical viewpoint, and the fact that a theologian discovered it in the twelfth century is in itself quite amazing. Jeanie Burton, the preacher of this sermon, stated that…… [Read More]


Boeree, George. Erich Fromm, 1900 to 1980. Retrieved at Accessed on 18 January, 2005

Burton, Jeanie. Love Grows Up. February 1, 2004. Retrieved at Accessed on 18 January, 2005

Factoids from Church History: The Stages of Love. Christian History Institute. 2004. Retrieved at Accessed on 18 January, 2005

Is Love an Art? Art of Loving, Perennial Classics. Retrieved at on 18 January, 2005
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Gospel of Matthew Chapter Outline

Words: 1053 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63401650

This is evidenced in the first chapter's list of Jesus' linage, recalling similar lists in the Old Testament, tracing the line of Israel. Second is the nativity gospel, or story of the hero's extraordinary origins, along the lines of Moses' story of persecution and salvation from death as a baby from Genesis. Jesus' Sermon on the Mount is a dogmatic illustration of the role of Jesus as teacher to his followers. Jesus also teaches his disciples and others through parables, through miracles, and by quoting and interpreting scripture in a prophetic style. The final genre of the Gospel of Matthew is that of the Passion story, the narrative present in all of the gospels, of Jesus' death and resurrection.

Atmosphere: The atmosphere of the Gospel of Matthew is of a world of great hypocrisy. There is a tension between the exterior world and the interior world. Jesus teaches his followers…… [Read More]

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Life and Works of Edward Taylor

Words: 2811 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71508686

Edward Taylor


Private Life


Purpose of orks

Intended audience

Central goal of writings

riting Style

Early works

Comparison between writings in England and America

Comparison to other authors

Personal Style

Use of Imagery

Major Themes

Major orks

Preparatory Meditations

God's Determinations

Other works

Taylor's orks Compared

The Life and orks of Edward Taylor

No study of Puritan literature would be complete without the works of the man often called the best Puritan writer of them all, Edward Taylor. Except for a brief few, the works of this great Puritan author remained unpublished during his lifetime. In 1939, they were discovered by Thomas H. Johnson at Yale, and have since become a valued and praised addition to the other works from the Puritan era. So important are these works that the Norton editors refer to them as "one of the major literary discoveries of the twentieth century" (Rowe). These…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Doepke, Dale. "Suggestion for Reading Edward Taylor's "The Preface." Early American Literature V.3 (1970): 80-82.

Grabo, Norman S. Edward Taylor. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.

Schuldiner, Michael. "Edward Taylor's "Problematic" Imagery." Early American Literature 13.1 (1978): 92-101.

Rowe, Karen. Edward Taylor (1642? -- 1729). Online. Georgetown University. Internet. 11 February 2002. Available
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John Knox

Words: 2756 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21374369

John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, is hailed as one of the fathers of Protestant church reform. His undying passion for his beliefs as well as a strong bond of friendship with several religious women, sustained him in his work until he died. His work comprises a number of sermons and religious writings that carry on his legacy to this day. There is some disagreement regarding the year of his birth, but critics believe this event to be somewhere in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The Dictionary of National iography for example places Knox's birth at round about 15141, while Miles Hodges places it at 15052.

According to the Dictionary, Knox was born at Cliffordgate in Haddington. An interesting fact is that he occasionally adopted his mother's maiden name, Sinclair, as an alias when he found himself obliged to hide from persecutors. His father, William Knox came from…… [Read More]


Dawson, Jane E.A. 2004. 'Knox, John (c.1514 -- 1572)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press.

Hodges, Miles. 2001. John Knox. History: the Reformation

Grimm, Harold John. 1958. The reformation era, 1500-1650 New York: Macmillan
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Redemptive Role of the Black

Words: 2354 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72409999

44). She affiliated with the African Methodist Church (AME), preaching from New York State to Ohio and down South as well. She published her autobiography in 1849 and received "strong resistance and biting criticism," according to Frances Smith Foster (1993). "Lee used her alleged inferiority to emphasize the power of her message and in so doing, she…implies an authority superior to those whom she addresses" (Foster, p. 57). Indeed, Lee used the New Testament assertion that "the last shall be first" and in her autobiography she said she was an example of God's "ability to use even 'a poor coloured female instrument' to convert sinners…" (Foster, p. 57).

Another worthy source utilized for this paper is Dr. Edward R. Crowther, Professor of History at Adams State College in Colorado. Crowther published an article in the Journal of Negro History explaining how African-Americans got away from the white man's church after…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blount, Brian K. (2005). Can I Get a Witness? Reading Revelation Through African-American

Culture. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.

Clayton, Obie. (1995). The Churches and Social Change: Accommodation, Moderation, or Protest. Daedalus, 124(1), 101-119).

Collier-Thomas, Bettye. (1998). Daughters of Thunder: Black Women Preachers and Their
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How Jesus Feed 5000 People

Words: 2757 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44775636

Jesus Feed 5000 people

Seven astounding signs are there in the Gospel of John. The first one is the process of evolving water into sweet wine. Second is the instance of curing the son of royal. Third is the instance of curing of an invalid man, suffering since thirty-eight years. Fourth one is the nourishing of the 5000 starving people. The fifth one involves strolling on the water at mid-night. Sixth one is blessings to the blind man so as to enable him to see. The seventh one involves nurturing of the dead Lazarus. These symptoms provide us sufficient grounds to raise our spiritual thinking that led to regard Jesus as God. The fourth astounding symbol in John's gospel is about feeding 5000 starving people. All such wonders were performed not to exhibit His enchanting power. These were performed since Jesus had great propelling heart for His people and desired…… [Read More]


Brow, Robert. (Aug. 1, 1999) "Matthew 14:13-21 Feeding 5,000 Families by the Power of God" Retrieved from  Accessed on 28 September, 2004

"Called to the Impossible - Luke 9:11-14" (1996) Retrieved from  Accessed on 28 September, 2004

DeLashmutt, Gary. "The Feeding of the 15,000-20,000" Retrieved from Accessed on 28 September, 2004

'Feeding of the 5,000: A Workshop Rotational Model" Retrieved from Accessed on 28 September, 2004
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Greidanus Sidney The Modern Preacher Ancient Text

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12122406

Greidanus, Sidney. "The Modern Preacher Ancient Text." Eerdmans Publishing: Grand apids, 1988. Please write separately pages shown.

Chapter eview: 1, 6 &

According to Sidney Greidanus in his book The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text, although we in modernity often like to say that talk is cheap, words are the way in which God communicates with human beings and preaching is an extension of this fact. The earliest preachers, the apostles, acted as representatives of God on earth and used words to transmit their messages. "Preaching is the proclamation of Christianity to the non-Christian world." [footnoteef:1] Preaching, however, is not merely the musings of the preacher 'off the cuff' or personal ruminations but must be securely grounded in Christian texts. It is very important that all forms of Christian preaching are yoked in their intention and scope to the Bible. [1: Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient…… [Read More]


Greidanus, Sidney. The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing: Grand

Rapids, 1988.
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Compare Two Pericopes From Mark and Matthew

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62808924

Pericopes From Mark and Matthew on Divorce

A pericope, hermeneutically speaking is defined as a selection or extract from a biblical book such as one of the gospels. It is especially used to reference a selection from the Bible, appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon used to teach or instruct upon a specific rather than a general matter of Church doctrine and comes from the Greek meaning a "cutting" or a textual extract. ("Pericope," The American Heritage Dictionary, 2004) The synoptic Gospels of Mark and Matthew show many parallels in their relating of the events of Jesus' life in their selection of such textual extracts. However the order of these two gospels is slightly different in terms of the way they set and vary the different blocks of Jesus' teachings. ("Introduction to the New Testament," p. iii)

The overall chronology of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Introduction to the New Testament." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.

"The Gospel According to Matthew." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.

"The Gospel According to Mark." The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Michael D. Coogan, Editor. Oxford University Press: 2001.

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Plea to the Hearts and Minds of

Words: 4130 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42448624

plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…… [Read More]


Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.

Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007

Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.

Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
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Deuteronomy 7 1-11 the Fifth Book

Words: 4849 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84337902

This again stresses that God's love has nothing to do with Israel's attractiveness and everything to do with God's grace.

"Kept the oath" (v. 8). God's love is faithful. We should not be surprised that God chose Israel in its weakness. This is exactly what God did in Genesis 12:1-3. The promise of children and a land made to an old, childless couple seemed impossible. Yet they conceived, and the promise of land is about to be fulfilled for Israel now, on the verge of the Jordan, attesting to God's faithfulness.

"Covenant loyalty" (v. 9) is an excellent rendering of the hendiadys "the covenant and the loyalty." (Hendiadys consists of two nouns joined by "and," expressing a single idea.) The word for "loyalty" (hesed) is of the essence in covenantal situations, since it refers to the mutual commitments pledged by each of the parties. On the human side, it becomes…… [Read More]


"Aseret Hadiberot," Cited in: 

Berrigan, D. No Gods But One: Deuteronomy. Eerdmans, 2009.

Bevan, D. Literature and the Bible. Rodopi Press, 2006.
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1960's Approximately 200 000 People in the United

Words: 2550 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55937289

1960's approximately 200,000 people in the United States claimed to be of the Buddhists sect (Nattlier). Some of these began to think of themselves as Buddhist after a personal experience such as visiting Asia, reading in depth about the religion or talking with others who had experienced the religion firsthand. However, most of them were Hawaiian residents whose parents and grandparents had immigrated from China and Japan. Today these numbers are much greater. It is estimated that somewhere between two and three million followers live in the U.S. (Nattlier). A more conservative guess represents a tenfold increase since the '60s. Some of this increase may be due to individuals coming to the United States from Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Taiwan. However, Americans of non-Asian ancestry are also becoming Buddhists. Overall, there have been two Buddhisms -- Asian immigrant Buddhism and American con-vert Buddhism -- and three…… [Read More]

References Cited

Harris, Elizabeth. What Buddhists Believe. Oxford, England: 2000.

Kraft, Kenneth. "New Voices in Engaged Buddhist Studies." Journal of Buddhist Ethics. 7-2000.

Nattlier, Jan. "Why Buddhism, Why Now?" 14, November 2005.
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Matthew 7 21-23 an Exegesis of

Words: 2162 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22742080

Theological Analysis

hat does this passage say about the relationship with God?

Robert Imperato observes that "Matthew connects Jesus repeatedly to Jewish prophecy throughout the text" (17). The point he emphasizes, however, is that the Jews had a special relationship to God, through the Mosaic covenant contained in the Old Testament.

Yet, Jesus makes it clear, according to Imperato, that He is giving "a new interpretation of the Law" (17). In fact, Jesus is fulfilling the Old Testament prophecies, identifying Himself as the Son of God, and the Messiah in whom the prophets must place their trust if they seek salvation.

Therefore, Christ sets out the guidelines for the new relationship with the Lord that all must have who do indeed wish to cry out, "Lord, Lord." The Lord, through Christ, is showing that the way to salvation is not through legalism, or through adherence only to the Old Law,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Combrink, H.J. Bernard Combrink. "The Structure of the Gospel of Matthew as

Narrative." Tyndale Bulletin vol. 34 (1983): 61-70. Print.

Hays, J.D. "Applying the Old Testament Law Today." Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 158, no.

629 (2001): 21-35. Print.
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]


Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County."  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine

Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66039005

Self-Made Man and the Recipient of Divine Grace:

Benjamin Franklin vs. Jonathan Edwards

Despite the fact that both Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Edwards are honored as two of the greatest authors of colonial America, they could not be more different in their ideological orientations. Edwards (1703-1758) is perhaps most famous for penning the image of the human soul as a spider in the hand of a merciful God, suspended above the flames of hell in his sermon "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God." All human beings, Edwards implied in his image, were essentially fallen beings. A true Puritan, Edwards believed there was no way for hard work to win divine favor; one could only hope to be the recipient of divine grace. In contrast, Franklin (1706-1790), despite living during roughly the same time period as Edwards, was the consummate self-made man. As well as being credited as one…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edwards, Jonathan. "A divine and supernatural light." CCEL. Web. 16 Dec 2013.

Franklin, Benjamin. "From Chapter VIII of The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." The

American Tradition in Literature. Perkins & Perkins (Ed). McGraw Hill.
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community principles and growth

Words: 3711 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83316472

Spiritual Transformation Through Community

Importance of Community for Spiritual Transformation


Process of Growth

iblical and Theological Foundations

Jesus Christ


Holy Spirit

Community Transformation

The broad theme that this research project will endeavor upon is to what extent is there a necessity of community within spiritual transformation. Transformation can be thought of on many different levels that include on a personal as well as a corporate level transformation. It is reasonable to assume that every individual in the ody of Christ must align themselves fully on an individual basis so they are in a position to make their optimal contribution to the community and the church can move in its fullness of power and purpose. However, it is also reasonable to believe that the power of the collective Christian community is far greater than just the sum of its parts; that ultimately, there should be a Christian community transformation…… [Read More]


American Experience. (N.d.). People & Ideas: Walter Rauschenbusch. Retrieved from God in America: 

Armstrong, C. (2008). How John Wesley Changed America. Retrieved from Christianity Today: 

Barton, R. (2011, January 6). What We Believe About Spiritual Transformation. Retrieved from Transforming Center: 

Bonheoffer, D. (1959). The cost of discipleship. New York: Simon & Schuster.
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Christ in a Consumer Society

Words: 1470 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 708358

" He is right that many Americans who call themselves Christians and who attend Christian worship services do not live their lives based on the Beatitudes. And then Kavanaugh also says "Nietzsche seems to have understood the Sermon on the Mount better than many Christians." ell wait a minute. If Nietzsche found the Sermon on the Mount "scandalous," and attacked it as "demeaning of the will to power," how can that be construed as understanding it better than many Christians?

To even bring Nietzsche into a discussion about "The Alternative Kingdom" is ludicrous. In Nietzsche's the Birth of Tragedy (p. 23) he says the "Christianity was from the beginning, essentially and fundamentally, life's nausea and disgust with life, merely concealed behind, masked by, dressed up as, faith in 'another' or 'better' life." In his essay, Human, all too Human, Nietzsche denounces the Christian idea of "...sins perpetrated against a god,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kavanaugh, John Francis. Following Christ in a Consumer Society. New York: Orbis Books,

Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press,

Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Birth of Tragedy. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
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Umc Ordination Full Membership -

Words: 4249 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18918904

..if you really want the Christ and truly love him, there is nothing that will prevent his coming and taking up his abode with you provided your love for him manifests..." through loving inner spirit of Christ instead only the outside. One may appear to be a Christian yet the Lordship of Christ in the life of the Christian means that present is love, compassion and forgiveness for others. The Christian loves the 'inner spirit of Christ because to desire only the outside of Christ will not allow Christ true Lordship in our lives. Loving the inner spirit of Christ requires loving the spirit of The spirit of forgiveness." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?


Humanity tends to only: "...desire the outside of Christ..." (Lindsey-Weinman, 19?

-2000) the Christian loves more than simply an image of Christ as 'Lordship of Christ' does not mean loving the image of Christ in his white…… [Read More]


Article I - God (2007) UMC Online available at

Article V - of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. (2007) Online the United Methodist Church available at

Free Grace: The Sermons of John Wesley (1703-1791) Global Ministries: The United Methodist Church. 2007.

Jones, Rev. Dr. Gregory (nd) the Practice of Ministry and Your Understanding of God, Divine Grace, Humanity, the Lordship of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit dean of Duke Divinity School" FIX
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Dio Providence and the Simple

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20022289

Certainly, common sense tells us that the wisdom literature of different societies is similar. Christianity must have struck a cord with the simple people of Greece as it did with the simple people of Jesus' time that lived the simple life and trusted in providence for their sustenance once that had done what they were morally obligated to. They needed to be happy and content with their station's in life. This way, they would not suffer from the anxiety of worrying about what would happen tomorrow.

While this was mentioned above, we must again state that while the Roman's may have ruled the Mediterranean world, it was the Greeks who colonized the minds of the area's inhabitants. The minds of Jewish peasants may have been against Greek pagan thought, but otherwise embraced the Greek world with a Judaism that spoke Greek. They thought more like the Greeks than they would…… [Read More]


Chrysostom, Dio., "The Euboean Discourse, or The Hunter ." Last modified 1

Nov 2010. Accessed November 13, 2011.*.html.
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City Upon a Hill Is

Words: 2007 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85223816

There are many examples in the literature of the intention and purpose of the early colonists to eradicate the Indian population. The genocidal intentions against the indigenous population of America do not however begin with the English colonists, but starts with Columbus. The following quotation refers to his second voyage to the New World.

Columbus took the title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" and proceeded to unleash a reign of terror unlike anything seen before or since. When he was finished, eight million Arawaks -- virtually the entire native population of Hispaniola -- had been exterminated by torture, murder, forced labor, starvation, disease and despair.

Genocide of the American Indian Peoples)

Historian David Stannard also states quite categorically that "the destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world." (Genocide of the American Indian Peoples) The…… [Read More]


Dorris M.A. The Grass Still Grows, the Rivers Still Flow: Contemporary Native Americans. September 19, 2005. 

Franks, C.E.S. In search of the savage sauvage: an exploration into North America's s political cultures. American Review of Canadian Studies; 12/22/2002;

Freedman, Monroe H., and Eric M. Freedman. Group Defamation and Freedom of Speech: The Relationship between Language and Violence. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Genocide of the American Indian Peoples. Accessed September 3, 2005.
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Pastoral Theology How Theology Has

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57429476

Therefore, the research conduced on the word of God can be a useful means through which a priest can become a better preacher by adapting his sermons in such a manner as to insure that he does not exclude certain parts of his community and addressing only the ones that believe or the ones than need to be shown the path of God.

Another important role played by theology for the priest is the knowledge that this exercise provides in better understanding the word of God in the way that it becomes accessible to all the community, regardless of background. More precisely, the Holy Book although speaks of generally applicable truths, has a lot of interpretations. The study of theology allows the priest to be in deep contact to these interpretations and be aware of the teachings and adapt its sermons. Also, it is important for the preacher to understand…… [Read More]


Tarazi, Paul. "The Synthesis of Interpretation and Proclamation" in Orthodox Synthesis: the Unity of Theological Thought (ed) Joseph Allen. New York: Athens Printing Company, 1981.
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Justo L Gonzalez the Story Christianity 1 Volume

Words: 2527 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19744851

Justo L.Gonzalez, The Story Christianity, 1 volume (preferably 2010 edition) ii.

The Crusades -- interpretation and history

There is much controversy regarding Crusades, their purpose, and the general effect that they left on society. Largely accepted as conflicts that started with the purpose of protecting the Byzantine Empire and Christianity as a whole, Crusades have taken place over the course of several centuries and have had a strong influence on religious ideologies in the Middle East. Although there were many individuals who actually fought in the name of what they perceived as being divinity, a large number of people took advantage of these conflicts by exploiting believers and by gathering wealth that was being brought from the East. In spite of the fact that they were religious in character, the Crusades were also meant to strengthen political and economic conditions in Europe by securing its place and influence in the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Atiya, Aziz S. Crusade, Commerce, and Culture (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1962)

France, John Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades, 1000-1300 [book online] (London: UCL Press, 1999, accessed 30 January 2012)

Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity: The early church to the dawn of the Reformation, (Harper & Row, 1984)

James, Douglas "Christians and the First Crusade: Douglas James Explain Why So Many in the Christian West Answered Urban II's Call to Arms Following the Council of Clermont in 1095," History Review, no. 53 (2005)
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Religious Field Search Ahmadis The Other Face

Words: 1889 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71154430

Religious Field Search


For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…… [Read More]


1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:

Lutterworth Press Cambridge

2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:

Simon and Schuster.
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Interview Is With Revered Dr Robert C

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90300700

interview is with evered Dr. obert C. Scott. He is a senior pastor and a native to Monticello, MS. He currently resides in St. Louis, MO. His wife is Pier Charisse Scott and they are the proud parents of a beautiful young daughter, Charis Jordyn Scott. His position as senior pastor at the Central Baptist Church comes on the present growth of the Baptist churches. Central Baptist Church represents one of the second most well-known and oldest African-American Baptist churches within St. Louis and holds a membership of almost 1,500 followers.

Some of the latest contributions the everend Scott has made include a $2.5 million dollar overhaul of educational and worship accommodations. He also delivers moving and inspiring sermons that connect the local community. A brief background on evered Scott shows he performed his first sermon at the tender age of 11. At 12, he earned his license and was…… [Read More]

References, (2014). Central Baptist Church - St. Louis - Reverend Dr. Robert C. Scott. Retrieved 17 November 2014, from

Elmer, D. (1993). Cross-cultural conflict. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
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Analyzing Mysticism and Spirituality Compare and Contrast Two Women

Words: 4276 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13339889

Mysticism and Spirituality Comparison of Two omen: Catherine of Sienna and Julian of Norwich

Spirituality and Mysticism

The relationship between mysticism and spiritualism is one question that often arises in the modern study on the concept of spirituality. In large terms, most modern estern techniques often treat mysticism and spirituality like synonyms. Spirituality means the exploration of the depth of human existence, the main purpose of life and the search for a more in-depth wisdom. Summarily, it is easier to understand spirituality when it is treated as the larger concept. Mysticism is only an aspect of Christian spirituality- a way of intensifying the spiritual path of Christianity. It is quite necessary to note that the significant role of mysticism and spirituality is quite ambiguous. Most Christian traditions like the estern Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox value most of these aspects greatly (Sheldrake 8-9).

Catherine of Sienna

Devotional Practices

Catherine, who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Prudence. "A History of Women Philosophers, Volume II." The Review of Metaphysics 44.3 (1991): 660-662.

Bernard, McGinn Julian of Norwich, "Revelations of Divine Love," in The Essential Writings of Christian Mysticism, ed. (New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2006), 242.

Dickens, Andrea Janelle. Female Mystic: Great Women Thinkers of the Middle Ages. Vol. 60. IB Tauris, 2009

Fanning, Steven. Mystics of the Christian Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2006.
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Analyzing Modern and Contemporary Style Guide

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86492850

fresh and contemporary style. And it ended up coming exactly that way. The piece has a female figure as the centre piece. The intention was to create an impression of a woman, who, although was faced with many problems, dreamt of a better future. The stresses or problems are portrayed through red colors above the woman's figure and some indications to show heat rising in the background. Then below the figure there is a shade of blue to show that she is in a dream state. However, she is never totally peaceful or stressed; she is in a kind of a limbo, which is depicted by the shade of black in the middle segment of the figure. The dream state is emphasized by the use of bright colors around the figure and drawing the figure itself in dark and dull colors. I attempted to bring about some movement in the…… [Read More]


Brett, D. (2015, August 2). Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea. Retrieved from Art of the Day:

Galbreat, D. (2014, July 26). Style Guide. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from Prezi:

Kumskova, M. (2013, March). Paul Gauguin: Vision after the Sermon. 1888. Analysis. Retrieved from Marina's Blog:

Matthew, B. (1977, September 1). The Origin of Paul Gauguin's Vision After the Sermon: Jacob Wrestling with the Angel (1888). Art Bulletin, 59(3), p. 415.
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Black Church the Redemptive Role

Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2523902

It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]


Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from
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Matthew 16 24-28 Big Picture

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13312707

In all of the Gospels, Jesus is shown flouting some of the minor conventions of Mosaic Law, although he holds fast in his adherence to the en Commandments. Jesus teaches that following laws and protocols is no substitution for having a righteous heart. Material goods and glory, even the spiritual glories of fulfilling doctrine in a technical fashion, or giving ostentatious donations to a religious organization are not as important as inner, spiritual light. One must place the world its proper context, and put aside the petty, mundane concerns of the world to live in Christ.

Section 3: Personal reflection

he idea that one cannot 'buy' one's way to heaven accumulating material goods is an important idea. All too often people believe they have 'done right' by their families if they provide their families with material rather than spiritual wealth. hey use working hard in their jobs as an excuse…… [Read More]

The idea that one cannot 'buy' one's way to heaven accumulating material goods is an important idea. All too often people believe they have 'done right' by their families if they provide their families with material rather than spiritual wealth. They use working hard in their jobs as an excuse to shut spirituality out of their lives. They may use the need to make a living as a justification for living an unethical life. But a life without a spiritual grounding is bankrupt, because it focuses on what is transitory, rather than what is eternal. The soul has no price: "What good will it be for a man if he gains the whole world, yet forfeits his soul" (Matthew 16:26).

D. Martin Lloyd-Jones, Studies in the Sermon on the Mount, (Banner of Truth, 1971), Best Commentaries, 

Donald Senior, The Gospel of Matthew, (Abington Press, 1997), Best Commentaries,
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Bar Mitzvah Experience the Bar

Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67763394

As girls were not allowed to lead religious services -- and still aren't in Orthodox congregations -- the concept of the bat mitzvah is less rotted in religious tradition and ceremony. There were often parties held to celebrate a girls entrance into Jewish womanhood, often held in their twelfth year as it was believed (and still is by many people, both religious and secular) that girls mature faster than boys. But these had no real religious significance, and were instead cultural and familial ways to celebrate a girl's coming of age. Today, bar and bat mitzvah's are conducted in much the same way in many reform and conservative congregations.

Another change that has occurred in the modern concept of the bar mitzvah beyond the addition of a major ceremony to commemorate this event, according to Judaism 101 (, is the level of involvement in the service that many bar and…… [Read More]

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Rhetorical Purpose in the Works

Words: 454 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46426897

Henry uses stirring words about the value of liberty, but he also attempts to win over people who are uncertain if revolution is the correct path: "I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past," he states, and notes a real-life event in his persuasive efforts, namely England's lack of consideration of the colonialist's recent petition, comparing England's action to the false kiss of Judas on Christ's cheek.

While Edwards and Henry's speeches were oral, and delivered in theological and political settings, Emerson's "Nature" is a written essay. While all writers use metaphors, Emerson makes use of much more elaborate metaphors, because his work is designed to be read over a long period of time, not hold the listener's attention for a short period of time. Emerson also calls upon images of liberty and faith, but his images focus on the individual reader and Emerson's…… [Read More]

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Conflict Building a New Jerusalem

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46093768

The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).

Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at 

Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at

Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at

Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at
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Epistle of John Is Unlike

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18701177

"This Epistle is marked by contrasts -- light and darkness, life and death, saint and sinner, love and hate, Christ and antichrist." (346) the messages are of complete totality, in that they build upon the idea of being either a follower or a sinner and that from the knowledge of the lord and redemption through confession, any son of Satan can become a son of God and live within the fold and love of the lord eternally. John makes clear that his word is not a word of teaching, as the word of the lord is known by his followers, instead it is the word of a reminder of the grace of the lord and the destiny of those who follow him, to live within his love and guidance for eternity. "I have not written unto you because ye know not the truth, but because ye know it, and that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

King James Version Bible New York: Thomas Nelson, 1984.

Blaney, Harvey J.S. Wesleyen Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eardmans Publishing Co. 1964.
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Bible Hebrews 3 7-17 Is a

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70498701

..hat in these last days spoken unto us by his whom also he made the worlds," thus arguing that Jesus' message is an expansion of the Old Covenant. (Ellingworth, 1993).

The Catholic interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews is that it is a firm announcement of the superiority of the New Testament revelations made by Jesus over the Old Testament revelations made by the lesser prophets. Further, the Epistle to the Hebrews successfully proves this point by comparing Jesus to the angels as mediators of the Old Covenant, Moses and Josue as founders of the Old Covenant, and by opposing the high priesthood of Christ. (Lane, 1985).

At its core, this passage is an extension of Pauline Christianity, or the version of Christianity advocated by the Apostle Paul and which survived as the dominant version of Christianity. First and foremost, as a part of the Pauline Christianity, this…… [Read More]


Ellingworth, Paul. "Commentary on Hebrews." NIGTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

Hughes, P.E. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.

Lane, William L. Hebrews: Call to Commitment. Hendrickson, 1985.
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Nature of the Parables of Jesus Used

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2587683

Nature of the Parables of Jesus

Jesus used parables as a form of teaching because, like the rabbis during this time, he wanted to convey ideas with simple word-pictures so people could understand the concept of God and the kingdom of God. Jesus used images from the world around him to recreate situations people would recognize. Jesus painted portraits with simple language because he knew a good picture could make an impact more than a lengthy sermon. He also knew that using ordinary objects, people, and situations would reveal truth more successfully than complex notions. By using ordinary things to point to another aspect of reality, Jesus could talk about hidden things that were visible to those who had eyes to see and ears to hear. Jesus knew this form of communicating was successful because it caught attention and caused people to think. Jesus was not simply telling stories when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nicholas C. Burbules, "Jesus as a Teacher." Spirituality and Ethics in Education: Philosophical,

Theological, and Cultural Perspectives, Hanan Alexander, ed. Brighton: Sussex

Academic Press. web. Information Retrieved April 24, 2011.
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Religion the Gospel of Matthew

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31866689

Religion the Gospel of Matthew

There are a number of similarities between Helmut Koester's article, The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses, and that of Marilyn Moses, also entitled The Gospel of Moses. Both of these works examine the reason and purpose that the book of Matthew was written, and explore the impact upon the immediate surrounding community of Christianity. However, in order to best summarize these works, it is necessary to do so individually, in order to gain the best understanding of these articles.

Koester's article primarily focuses on the book of Matthew's portrayal of Jesus as being directly descended from Abraham and aligned with traditional Israeli law. This is a particularly important aspect of the Koester's article (and the book of Matthew), because it verifies the fact that Jesus's teachings and works are directly in accordance with the Israeli tradition which preceded his existence, and which…… [Read More]

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Puritan Literature and the American

Words: 541 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26910685

Therefore, the lasting effect of the printing press on colonial America is to be found in its contribution to the emergence of a national identity based first and foremost on language and writing. It was first by means of publication that America declared to the world its identity as a nation and trough an effect of discourse that she defined proclaimed and projected its past, its present and its future.

With the help of Guttenberg's invention of the printing press, the identity of America was defined in many Puritan literatures. The printing press and the colonized America's identity which was contained in Puritan literatures became the means in awakening the minds of many Americans, providing them with vision of the new world and breaking out from the colony of the ritish rule. These visions, according to the Puritanism: A New World Vision online article, are embedded in the following elements.…… [Read More]


Literary Periods and Their Characteristics.

Puritanism: A New World Vision.

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Person Account of Attending an

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85657574

While I stood with the other parishioners at this church everyone began to clap, snap and rock back and forth to the best church music I have ever heard. Through my African-American studies in college I knew that the music was a combination of hymns and slave songs that have carried over in the faith for more than 200 years., closed my eyes and imagined being a slave and singing those songs outloud and proud 200 years ago while my masters looked on in amazement at the fact I would not bow down. It sent chills up my arms and for a minute was overcome with emotion.

The music was loud and long and it created a mindset that God is all powerful and the light of life. While the church I attended regularly also believed this it did not send the message out in loud screaming songs of praise…… [Read More]

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Non-Denominational Religions the New Facility

Words: 2495 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49473265

" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.

Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'History." Faith Fellowship<>.

Interview material.

"Our Beliefs." <>.

Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious< >.
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Religion Colonial Society

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15554600

religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.

The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…… [Read More]


Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.

Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.

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Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr As

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Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.

As great a figure as the Noble-prize winning civil rights leader Martin King Luther Jr. may be accounted in the annals of world and American history, and in political, religious, and social rights activism, no man's thought stands alone -- no man's thought springs from simply his own brain in isolation. Every great thinker and leader is part of a larger and complex history of human thought and social influences. Martin King Luther Jr. was a Christian minister and philosopher whose nonviolent philosophy of civil disobedience was profoundly influenced by Biblical, New Testament documents of Jesus and other Christian spiritual writers, as interpreted through the African-American tradition. King also wrote during a time period when the philosophy of the Indian nonviolent leader Gandhi had shown the world how, through nonviolence, the oppressing power's wrongful influence could unintentionally act as a public relations force of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blethen, Frank. "Diversity: the American Journey." Martin Luther King, Jr. Retrospective. Editorial. January 17, 2003. The Seattle Times.

King, Martin Luther. Jr. "I've been to the Mountaintop." April 3, 1968. AFSCME Organization. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at

King, Martin Luther. Jr. "Letter From a Birmingham Jail." April 16, 1963. Historical Text Archive. Original Primary Source Retrieved 2005 at artid=40

Norrell, Robert J. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee. Chapel Hill, UNC Press, 1985.
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Changeling Is the 2009 Film Directed by

Words: 1819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77935117

Changeling is the 2009 film directed by Clint Eastwood that looks at the complex relationship between Christine Collins and the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) as she sets out to find her son, alter, who vanished and "mysteriously" reappeared only to have been replaced by an imposter. Through her continued insistence that the child returned to her was not her legitimate son, Reverend Gustav Brieglib, who was on a personal mission to expose the LAPD's corruption, is able to demonstrate that the police department, and Captain J.J. Jones who handled the Collins' investigation, acted negligently in their investigation and the subsequent (unlawful) detention of Mrs. Collins. Through Changeling's narrative, plot, and dialogue, Eastwood is able to highlight the impact and influence of social institutions on abuse and corruption and the disempowerment -- and subsequent empowerment -- of women.

Changeling begins with Christine Collins (Angelina Jolie), a single, working mother, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abramowitz, Rachel. "The Other Son." 2008 October 18. Los Angeles Times. 27 August 2012.


Changeling. Directed by Clint Eastwood. United States: Universal Pictures, 2009. DVD.

Collins, Christine. "Letter to Mr. A. Eichoff." 1929 May 3. The Daily Mirror. 2008
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Montanism Theology Like Many Early Heresies

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Montanism / Theology

Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…… [Read More]


Gonzales, Justo L. And Gonzales, Catherine Gunsalus. Heretics for Armchair Theologians. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2008.

Saint Jerome, Letter XLI. Accessed online at:

Saint Justin Martyr, First Apology XXVI. Accessed online at:

Swift, Jonathan. A Tale of a Tub. Accessed online at:
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Clash of Cultures

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Puritans and Native Americans

What scholars call the "captivity narrative" has had a remarkable life of its own in American culture: stories about this kind of "captivity" continued to be told as entertainment, in Hollywood films like "The Searchers" or "Dances With Wolves," long after anyone had been abducted by a Native American tribe and held captive. It is worth inquiring why this particular type of story maintains its fascination for an American audience, by returning to where these narratives first came from, and how they were told in the centuries before Hollywood movies existed. In Colonial America, the life of Mary owlandson presents an excellent way to examine the clash of cultures. owlandson was born in England but came to New England as a Puritan colonist: she was then abducted during the "First Indian War" and held for several months before a ransom was paid and she was released…… [Read More]


Downing, D. (1981). 'Streams of Scripture Comfort': Mary Rowlandson's Typological Use of the Bible. Early American Literature 15(3), 252-9.

Faery, R.B. (1995). "Mary Rowlandson (1637-1711)." Legacy 12 (2), 121-132.

Rowlandson, M. (1682). A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in New England. Retrieved from:
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Language and Religion

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Language and Religion

I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according…… [Read More]

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Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of

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Speech Is a Carefully Crafted Act of hetoric

Introduction and Biographical Background

An effective speech is a carefully crafted act of rhetoric. The most artless speechless are quite often those that in reality are the most studied in their preparation. We can ourselves come to understand the reasons underlying the effectiveness -- or lack of efficacy - of a speech by studying its structure through careful rhetorical analysis. That is the purpose of this paper, to provide just such an analysis of Hillary odham Clinton' speech, "Women's ights are Human ights."

Clinton's speech can be seen as belonging to a line of similar speeches in American history, include speeches urging women's enfranchisement given by Frederick Douglass and Susan B. Anthony. She relies heavily on the idea of enfranchisement, which lies at the heart of democracy - so much so that we tend to use the word as synonymous with empowerment.…… [Read More]