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Sex Education in Schools: The Comprehensive vs. The Abstinence Approach
The emergence of the Information evolution has led to profound discoveries that have resulted to the development and improvement of living conditions in the human society. Limitless and various information about anything can be found in a second, through the help of Internet technology and other innovations generated by new technologies and research in science. Cures for serious illnesses, news about current events, and other issues important and significant are available within our reach through the media. However, as human civilization embark into yet another momentous year of Information evolution, there have been little said and documented about sex education and awareness in the society, especially among the younger generation of the society, comprised of the adolescents and early adults of the society.
This particular social group in the society is the targets of the society's campaign for the proliferation…
Forrest, S. "Teacher-Led Sex Education -- Pupil Engagement and Discomfort Explored." Winter 2003. Sex Education Matters Magazine.
Hobden, J. "Giving Young People A Voice -- and Listening to What They Say." Spring 2002. Sex Education Matters Magazine.
Santrock, J. "Psychology" (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 2001.
Sex Education." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Sex education is an important aspect of youth welfare and health programs. Given the highly active sexual life of high school teenagers in our nation it is only judicious to stress the importance of using condoms in reducing the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Nationwide statistics reveal a startling increase in sexual activity among teenagers as reflected by the huge surge in teenage pregnancies and abortions. The widespread epidemic of AIDS and the increasing prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases have further made it imperative for us to act in an efficient manner. Safe sex is a matter of urgency and high priority. However, there are some groups who question sexual education on the premise that it would only provoke young students into early sexual activity. Under these circumstances, sex education for high school children has become a much-debated topic. Let us have some statistical insight into the problem so…
Bradley Buhro, "A Report on Teenage Sexuality," Accessed on May 9th 2004, http://www.geocities.com/pastorbuhro/sermons/report.htm
Global Strategy Group, "Memorandum: recent Polls in Washington," Accessed on May 9th 2004, http://www.ppww.org/Public_Affairs/memorandum%20on%20sexual%20health%20poll.pdf
Sex Education Annotated Bibliography
One of the most divisive topics in education is undoubtedly the debate over the degree to which sexual health education should be incorporated into public schools. The topic attracts a great deal of impassioned argument for perspectives at either end of the spectrum of inclusion, ranging from advocacy of sexual education being left to the domain of family-based education in the home to the inclusion of contraceptive method teachings in order to promote healthy sexual behaviors.
While the opposition to including sexual health education into the public school curriculum is not entirely faith-based, the resurgence of the religious right-wing in the United States has resulted in a great deal of the anti-sexual health education theory and rhetoric having overtly Christian overtones. The promulgation of the benefit of the inclusion of sexual education does not have as cohesive a philosophical stance, with arguments in its favor ranging…
Weinstein, Rebecca B.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Ward, L. Monique. "Testing a New Measure of Sexual Health Knowledge and Its Connections to Students' Sex Education, Communication, Confidence, and Condom Use" International Journal of Sexual Health 20.3 (2008).
< http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/19317610802240279 >
For almost a century, sex education has been taught in schools across various countries worldwide in different forms to an extent that it has become a major feature of many schools. However, the specific aspects of sex education that should be taught generally vary between countries though most of them address physiological development, the basics of reproduction as well as sexual health, safety, and practice. Actually, some countries have made sex education a compulsory part of schooling, a legislation that has generated huge criticism, especially from religious groups. These critics have raised their opposition on the basis that sex education is permissive for the sexual relationships of young people and therefore ethically corrosive. On the contrary, supporters of sex education in schools have argued that it delays the age of initial intercourse, prevents sexually transmitted diseases, provides helpful information about sexuality and sexual expression, and prevents teenage pregnancy.…
Bibby, A. (2010, April 29). Schools, Not Parents, Should Teach Kids About Sex. Retrieved
September 13, 2012, from http://www.care2.com/causes/schools-not-parents-should-teach-kids-about-sex.html
Masland, M. (n.d.). Carnal Knowledge: The Sex ed Debate. Retrieved September 13, 2012, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3071001/ns/health-childrens_health/t/carnal-knowledge-sex-ed-debate/#.UFHnDFHILIU
McLane, M.N. (2007, January). The Crucible: What's at Stake in the Sex-ed Wars. Boston Review, 32(1), 27-30.
These ae vey impotant changes since they signal that the individual is now eady to have childen. Howeve, while they may be physically capable of conceiving a child, adolescents at the beginning of pubety ae not mentally o emotionally eady fo the esponsibility of childcae and management.
Thee ae othe physical changes associated with the peiod of pubety. These physical changes ae called the development of the seconday sexual chaacteistics. This athe long-tem efes to some specific physical changes that visibly signify that you ae no longe a child but you ae becoming an adult. Fo gils these changes include the development and enlagement of beasts, the pesence of pubic hai, functioning sex glands, pimples may become pesent on the face, and they may acquie hai in the pits of the am. Anothe moe noticeable change is that of the shape of the gil, the hips become moe ounded and…
references. There may also be feelings that they are unloved and sometimes there is rebellious behavior. Therefore, conflict with parents is often a part of this time. Both the adolescent and the parent need to realize that this is a temporary phase, brought on by hormones and other emotional challenges. If it is taken in this light the period can be less stressful for both parties (Sex education 2010).
Masturbation amongst boys is a very popular feature of this period. Masturbation provides boys with an outlet for their sexual urges. Masturbation is not as popular among girls and is often not a concern for many girls. Boys however are often terrified by stories about what may happen to them if they masturbate. All these stories are unfounded. There is no truth to them. Masturbation is a healthy practice and can often be a legitimate release for young persons who do not desire to engage in sexual intercourse.
Masturbation is also found in animals who would rub their rubbing their sexual organs against trees. Masturbation and wet dreams are a natural part of keeping the sex organs functioning and of assisting in sexual control. Masturbation is not a major problem for females because the sex hormone estrogen does not produce intense feeling of sexual stimulation, as opposed to the male hormone testosterone, which does (Prabhu 2010).
An important part of sexuality education is the impartation of values.
Values are things that we hold in high esteem or have very strong feeling about. These are the beliefs we have about critical issues in our lives. Values are important because they give direction to behavior and assist in decision-making. As it relates to sexuality, it is important to have the correct set of values. These values include respect for you, respect for members of the opposite sex, an acceptance that sexuality is natural, normal, and healthy, along with the view that all persons are sexual beings. Additionally, individuals may express their sexuality differently and respect for others means respect for their sexual choices. It is important to remember that your sexual decisions will have effects and consequences for both you and your partner. Finally when thinking about preventing pregnancy and avoiding STI's the most effective method is still abstaining from intercourse.
Curriculum must provide principals special powers to organize the events overstepping conventions. (Burke, 1970)
There could be widespread programs that could be conducted by NGOs. The NGO or the Non-governmental organization is ideal and charitable enough for providing seminars group therapy counseling and sex education outside the school hours or in special meetings. One to one counseling for children is also possible. Such activity will also bring about not only education but facts of child abuse, wrong company and abuse by children of drugs and other evil practices.
Benefits of the Programs
The sex education program will in the light of what it has achieved in the western countries partly succeed in removing premarital unprotected sex and make the youth aware of the consequences of the actions. More importantly it could remove the spreading of AIDS and other diseases. (Burke, 1970) Since group activities tend to end in criminal actions,…
Blake, Simon; Katrak, Zarine. (2002) "Faith, Values and Sex and Relationships
Education: Addressing the Issues National Children's Bureau" NCB.
Burke, Susan. (1970) "Responsible parenthood and sex education: proceedings of a Working Group held in Tunisia, November 1969" International Planned Parenthood Federation.
Chant, Sylvia H; McIlwaine, Cathy. (1998) "Three generations, two genders, one world: women and men in a changing century" Zed Books.
(Speaking Out About Sex Ed) look at some other countries and their greater success in implementing a program to address the unwanted pregnancy and risk of infection in teenagers may provide the answer to this controversy. In countries like England, Canada, Sweden, France and Holland, where the age at first intercourse is similar to that of the U.S., they have managed to keep the teenage pregnancy rates less than half the level as seen in the U.S. These countries have sex education in their schools and it is comprehensive in that it includes a policy totally in favor of sex education, frankness and openness about sex, consistent information throughout society and access to contraceptives. It is also seen that it is better to start sex education at the lower class levels, maybe even as early as kindergarten. (Does Sex Education Work?)
In conclusion policy makers, parents and those in the…
Back to School with the Religious Right. -Sexuality Education." Retrieved at http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=3647Accessed on 18 November, 2004
DeCarlo, Pamela. "Does Sex Education Work"? Retrieved at http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/sexedtext.html . Accessed on 18 November, 2004
Health and Care in Schools: The State of Sex Education in American Schools." (February 2004) Volume: 4; No: 12. Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/ejournal/2004/feb2.htm . Accessed on 18 November, 2004
Parker, J. Terry. "School-Based Sex Education: A New Millennium Update." Eric educational Reports. Retrieved from www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pric/is_200112/ai_1121132764-25k Accessed on 18 November, 2004.
ex education, which is sometimes called sexuality education or sex and relationships education, is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It is also about developing young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behavior, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education, partly because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against abuse, exploitation, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / AID. (Forrest, 2003)
In contemporary times, it has come to everyone's knowledge through the media that children are not safe, as several of them have been sexually abused. The biggest reason for this happening is not just the working of ill-minded adults who take advantage of gullible children, but also a lack of awareness…
Forrest, S. (Accessed on 19-11-2003) Sex Education that Works.
Whitehead, B. (1994) The Atlantic Monthly; October 1994; The Failure of Sex Education.
Koop, E. (Accessed on 19-11-2003) Middle Childhood at http://www.brightfutures.org/bf2/pdf/pdf/MC.pdf
Thus, the issue of gender bias in sex education has been implied and touched upon by scholars and the public alike. Some studies, theories, and popular viewpoints seem to suggest that comprehensive sex education is biased toward women because it portrays birth control as a woman's issue, placing the burden to practice safe sex on her alone. Others claim that this is not the case, and that men are concerned about birth control and are campaigning for more birth control options. Similarly, some suggest imply that the abstinence-only programs taught in schools portray men as aggressors who only want sex, while females are portrayed as innocents who need to learn to say no, putting the burden on men to be less aggressive and sexually engaged, while others argue that this portrayal of men is unfair.
Although it is scant, research data collaborates the thesis that sex education is…
American Psychological Association. (2005). Based on the Research, Comprehensive
Sex Education is More Effective at Stopping the Spread of HIV Infection, Says APA Committee. Retrieved November 2, 2008, at http://www.apa.org/releases/sexeducation.html.
Browin, Susan and Shukla, Renu. (September 26, 2000). Sex Ed Nearly Universal for Teen Boys. Retrieved November 3, 2008, at http://www.urban.org/publications/900039.html .
Carter, J.B. (2001). Birds, Bees, and Venereal Disease: Toward an Intellectual History of Sex Education. Journal of the History of Sexuality. 10(2), p.213-249.
Here again, the importance of sex education is imperative.
I decided to talk about the importance of sex education because sex education is not readily available in our schools today. Many schools integrate sex education classes into their curriculum, some schools focus on abstinence-only sex education classes, but many schools are also discouraged from having sex education classes due to parental pressure. Many parents assume that it is the responsibility of parents to educate their children about sex and sexuality. But while the parents share the responsibility of educating their children, as a powerful agent of socialization, schools also need to teach sex education. School environment is important for children and youngsters' development of attitudes toward sex. Many young people learn about sex from their peers, and that is partly the reason why they so often have misleading and false assumptions about sex. "I have been asked questions such as…
Allerston, Sue and Graham Davies. Sex Education. Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes, 2001.
Blosser, Rianna. "The Importance of Sex Education." 8 Aug. 2007, Web 21 Feb. 2011
Magoon, Kela. Sex Education in Schools. Edina, MN: ABDO Publishing Company, 2010.
"Sex Education in America," NPR, Web 21 Feb. 2011
Sex education is conducted in schools, but can be a controversial part of the curriculum. There is constant subject as to what should be taught, and at what age. This paper will outline the key issues with respect to sex education in high school.
Sex education in America is taught either in high school or in middle school. The timing and content of sex education is in the hands of individual school districts, and therefore varies considerably around the country. The intent of sex education is to promote sexual health in general. Recognizing the reality that sex is part of human life, the aim to teach students about the realities and risks of sexual activity, and to prepare them with the knowledge that will help them to reduce those risks. This is born of the widespread social recognition that things like HIV / AIDS, teenage pregnancy and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs)…
Tortolero, S., Johnson, K., Peskin, M., Cuccaro, P. & Markham, C. (2011). Dispelling the myth: What parents really think about sex education in schools. Journal of Applied Research on Children. Vol. 2 (2) 1-19.
Whelan, C. (2013). A survey of grade 10 learners. Africa Centre for HIV / AIDS Management. Retrieved May 9, 2013 from scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/80037/whelan_survey_2013.pdf?sequence=2
In a report that aimed to give recommendations to the American Academy of Pediatrics' updated teen pregnancy policy, pediatric obstetrician-gynecologist at the University of Louisville, Dr. S. Paige Hertweck said "Teaching abstinence but not birth control makes it more likely that once teenagers initiate sexual activity they will have unsafe sex and contract sexually transmitted diseases." (the Associated Press; 2008).
Scientific studies point that adolescents benefit greatly from comprehensive medically accurate sexual education. Demonstrated positive effects of such programs include increased awareness, delay in onset of sex, reduction in frequency of sex and increased use of contraception. One study conducted from 2005 to 2006 surveyed 1,209 teens who completed abstinence-only programs in rural and urban areas and 848 teens in the same communities who had not. It turns out there the two groups' behavior was practically identical as far as sexual behavior is concerned (Mathematica Policy esearch, Inc.; 2007).
The Associated Press (2008). Doctors denounce abstinence-only education.
Collins, Chris, et al. (2002). Abstinence-only vs. comprehensive sex education. AIDS Policy Research Center & Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, AIDS Research Institute, University of California.
Friedman, Ann. (2008). Let's talk about sex.
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (2007). Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs.
Assumptions, Expectations and Roles
Freud’s influence began in Europe in the early 20th century. Europe, especially in the region of Germany, was changing dramatically. WWI was brewing as a result of Germany’s rise to power at the end of the 19th century. England, France and Russia felt threatened by Germany’s resurgence. At the same time, the Romantic era was coming to an end, and the modern era was fast approaching—an era in which the Old World characteristics were completely rejected. This occurred, for instance, in Russia with the Bolshevik Revolution (Fitzgerald, 2000). The same revolution was threatening to overthrow the German government during the Weimar Republic. The rise of Hitler in Germany was a direct response to the spread of Communist ideals, which were in direct opposition to the old world values that Hitler wanted to restore to Germany follow the country’s defeat in WWI (Paxton, 2005). For all of…
Bloch, M. N. (1992). Critical perspectives on the historical relationship between child development and early childhood education research. Reconceptualizing the early childhood curriculum: Beginning the dialogue, 3-20.
Fitzgerald, S. (2000). Everyday Stalinism. UK: Oxford University Press.
Goebbels, J. (1928). Around the Gedachtniskirche. Germany History Docs. Retrieved from http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=3860
Gordon, M. (2006). The Seven Addictions and Five Professions of Anita Berber: Weimar Berlin’s Priestess of Debauchery. LA: Feral House.
Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido dominandi: Sexual liberation and political control. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press.
Paxton, R. (2005). Anatomy of Fascism. NY: Vintage.
Pederson, T. (2018). Economics of Libido. New York, NY: Routledge.
PBS. (2015). The Case for Starting Sex Education in Kindergarten. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/spring-fever
Sex Education in Schools
To what extent should the schools be responsible for teaching sex education? To what extent should sex education be left to parents? Who should handle education about STDs?
Sexual education cannot be relegated to parents alone. Schools have a responsibility to educate the next generation, including in personal health. Schools also have a responsibility to educate children in societal norms. While parents are free to indoctrinate students at home in whatever religion parents choose, just as parents can educate their children in whatever particular political philosophy parents choose, it is impossible to instill children with a completely objective and values-free education. Just as schools teach students to be good citizens, they also must teach students about responsible sexual practices, including the need for contraception. There is so much misinformation about contraception, particularly given the proliferation of dubious health information on the Internet, students need to learn…
Jackson, E. (2013). Stress relief: The role of exercise in stress management. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 17(3): 14-19. Retrieved from: https://journals.lww.com/acsm- healthfitness/Fulltext/2013/05000/STRESS_RELIEF__The_Role_of_Exercise_in_Stress. 6.aspx
When it comes to developing and implementing a sexual education curriculum for minor children, that sort of thing has to be done in a particular and delicate way. However, it is something that can and should be done. Indeed, it is important for children of all ages to know what they need to know before they learn on their own or from the wrong sources. Either one of those can lead to important things being missed and very big mistakes being made. Rather than allow for an information void to lead to a unplanned pregnancy or the contraction of a sexually transmitted disease, it is obviously preferable to inform the children what is important so that they are armed with the information when the time comes rather than after the fact.
There are a few important dimensions and facets of a sexual education program that must be defined and…
Advocates for Youth. (2017). Effective Sex Education. Advocatesforyouth.org. Retrieved 22
August 2017, from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/component/content/article/450 -
Sex Education Between Public and Private School
A person's appreciation of sexual activities of human beings impacts one's own discernment and the capability to recount with others. Every person ought to be slowly made aware of one's sexual feelings. Sex and sexuality should not be viewed distinctly. If education relating to sex remains restricted to the hardnosed regulations controlling some activities devoid of relating to the complete individual and his or her interaction to other individuals, it is considered insufficient. Sex education cannot afford to be unethical, which means devoid of remarks to a proper or principled regulation.
Contemporary society has by now endured a lot from incidents, which establishes the uselessness of realistic education devoid of allusion to a principled system that encourages individual accountability, answerability and restraint. If properly trained, education of sex and progress can very well become a branch of any other curriculum. More significantly, maybe,…
Caron, Sandra L; Moskey, Eilean. (28 July, 2004) "Family Life Education in Maine Public Schools: A Ten-Year Look at changes in topics, policy and procedure" Journal of Human Sexuality Volume 7; No; 1;
Donovan P. (1998) "School-Based Sexuality Education: The Issues and Challenges" Family Planning Perspectives. Volume: 30; No: 4; pp: 188-193
Grunseit, A. et al. (1997) "Sexuality Education and Young People's Behavior: A Review of Studies." Journal of Adolescent Research. Volume: 12; No: 4, pp. 421-453
Guttmacher, S; Lieberman, L; Ward, D; Freudenberg, N; Radosh, A; Jarlais, D.D. (September 1997) "Condom Availability in New York City Public High Schools: Relationships to Condom Use and Sexual Behavior. American Journal of Public Health. Volume: 87; No; 9 pp: 1427-1428
An abstinence rate of 92% was reported among students who were not sexually active at the beginning of another program called 'Loving Well'-a literature-based program.
Similarly Elayne Bennett, a faculty member of the Georgetown University Development Center, developed another abstinence program in 1987. This was called Best Friends and it focused on character building of young girls in public schools. Girls would enroll in this program during 6th grade and continue till they graduated. In an independent evaluation of the program in 1995, participants in the program were compared with their classmates who had not participated in the program. The results were highly encouraging. Compared to 26% of the girls who had not participated in the program and became pregnant, only 1% of the participants had conceived. As for sexual activity, 63% of the non-participants were engaged compared to only 5% of Best Friends participants (Charen, 1998).
The Journal of…
Centers for Disease Control. (1998). Youth risk behavior surveillance, 47, SS3.
Howard, M., & McCabe, J.B.(1990). Helping teenagers postpone sexual involvement. Family Planning Perspectives, 22, 21-26.
Khouzem, H.R. (1995). Promotion of sexual abstinence: Reducing adolescent sexual activity and pregnancies. Southern Medical Journal, 88, 709-711.
Kirby, D. (2002). Effective approaches to reducing adolescent unprotected sex, pregnancy and childbearing. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 51-57.
Social Cost of Abstinence-Only Sex Education
Comprehensive Sex Education
The High Social Cost of Abstinence-Only Sex Education in the United States
The American Abstinence-Only Movement
In the United States there has been a social and legislative movement favoring abstinence-only sex education over the past 30 years (reviewed by Starkman and ajani, 2002). Abstinence-only sex education programs do not include information on the purpose and use of contraceptives and by default promote chastity as the only method for avoiding pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Only 18 states and the District of Columbia require schools to include information on contraception in their sex education courses (Guttmacher Institute, 2011), despite a 1999 nationwide poll revealing that the majority (93%) of respondents supported instruction on such methods in school sex education programs (Starkman and ajani, p. 616).
Part of the blame for this discrepancy can be attributed to the passage of the Adolescent…
Guttmacher Institute. (2011). In brief: Facts on American teen's sources of information about sex. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-Teen-Sex-Ed.pdf
Starkman, Naomi and Rajani, Nicole (2002). The case for comprehensive sex education. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 16(7), 313-318.
Wang, Bo, Hertog, Sara, Meier, Ann, Lou, Chaohua, and Gao, Ersheng. (2005). The potential of comprehensive sex education in China: Findings from suburban Shanghai. International Family Planning Perspectives, 31(2), 63-72.
Dr. Philip G. Zimbardo has been a professor of Psychology at Stanford University since 1968 and is one of this nation's most famous psychological researchers. In 1970, his Stanford Prison Experiment dramatically illustrated the capacity of ordinary individuals to develop abusive and even sadistic impulses in a classic experiment that has been widely taught to undergraduate Psychology students for nearly four decades. More recently, Dr. Zimbardo was enlisted by the U.S. government in connection with understanding the abuses that transpired at the now infamous Abu Ghraib prison facility.
Discussion of Findings:
Even in contemporary U.S. society, a homosexual, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender identity is not well received and exposes the individual to intense social ostracism (Herek, 1998 p21-22). Even worse, outright violence against homosexuals is extremely common, partly because homophobia is largely condoned and even encouraged in many ways, notwithstanding public proclamations of the importance of social tolerance (Herek, 1998…
Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 2007.
Henslin, J. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2002.
Herek, G.M. Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice against
Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998.
graduating high school student enters college he or she is perceived to be a young responsible adult in thought and action. However, the college environment is one in which there exists no curfews, parents, or other restrictive elements to curtail an individual's activities and decisions. As such it is important that those students arriving at college have the necessary maturity and life experience background to receive and enjoy an optimal college experience. Many of the elements that are needed for a successful university experience, as well as for an adult life outside of college, may be somewhat elusive but many are also learned during the formative high school years. The present research investigation proposes to address the impact of single sex high schools on those who attend them with respect to their influence on college success The investigator will review previously published literature with respect to single sex high schools…
Clinton, Sen. Hillary (June 7, 2001) Congressional Record, S5943.
Erickson, Bette LaSere and Weltner, Diane Strommer's (1991) Teaching College Freshmen. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 3-23.
Flanagan, Gregory (2001). "Sex gender education." Liberation Journal August.
Lee, Valerie E. And Helen M. Marks, (1990). "Sustained effects of the single-sex secondary school experience on attitudes, behaviors, and values in college." Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 82, No. 3.
Background: Why Teach Sexual Education?
With about half of all high school students admitting to have already had sex, and only 60% of those students claiming they used a condom, sexual education can be considered a public health imperative (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2019). Unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are the most important health-related reasons to teach sexual education in public schools. Research has shown that “when sex education is comprehensive, students feel more informed, make safer choices and have healthier outcomes — resulting in fewer unplanned pregnancies and more protection against sexually transmitted diseases and infection,” (“America’s Sex Education: How We Are Failing Our Students,” 2017, p. 1). Children will seek out and find information related to sex outside the classroom, such as on the Internet, opening them up to potentially poor sources of information. Compounding the problem is that only 13 states currently require sexual education…
Children Learn Better in All Boys' or All Girls' Schools? Examining Potential Benefits of Single-Sex Education
Students are inundated with a wide number of distractions while in school. This often takes away from the success of their learning experience, and can result in lost opportunities, both academically and professionally. This has been the source of a great debate based on the concept of single-sex education in modern practice. This current research uses the Lock Model to explore the issue further. After reviewing the discourse, several conclusions can be made in regards to potential benefits of single-sex education combined with other factors like small class sizes and high teacher engagement.
The underlying research explores various factors in modern student experiences. It examines empirical studies, legal reviews, and previous contributions to the discourse. The underlying research question is: Do children learn better in a single-sex educational environment?
Hubbard, Lea & Datnow, Amanda. (2005). Do single-sex schools improve the education of low-income and minority students? An investigation of California's pubic single-gender academies. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(2), 115-131.
Robinson, Pamela & Smithers, Alan. (1997). Should the Sexes be Separated for Secondary Education? University of Buckingham. Web. http://wordpress.buckingham.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/ssreport.pdf
Sherwin, Galen. (2005). Single-sex schools and the antisegregation principle. NYU Review of Law & Social Change, 30(35), 35-88.
Simson, Gary J. (2005). Separate but equal and single-sex schools. Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 17. http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/lsrp_papers/17
Role of Sex Education within Schools
The sex education protocols and regulations in Florida are based on “abstinence-only-until-marriage programs” and the state is only allowed to teach abstinence (Dodge et al., 2008, p. 71). Schools are required to follow protocols when teaching about sexually transmitted diseases. These protocols stress that abstinence is the expected standard that all students should be expected to follow, abstinence is the way to avoid the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, and that students have the power to control their own personal behavior. High school students are taught about HIV/AIDS and must take a Life Management Skills course.
The age at which children should be exposed to sex education topics is judged differently according to nation, state and culture. In Canada, sex education is begun as early as elementary school. In Florida, sex is taught as something that young persons need to avoid. The realities of…
However, with the current world social trends co-educational institutions provide a holistic body to the social development of a student. To break the barriers of race and gender inequality, any form of segregation will be hypocritical especially in the education sector. In countries and institutions where they advocate for single-sex education, it has been noted that their doctrine is aimed at controlling morality but on the other hand it ends up leading to the objectification of a specific gender, especially the women. It thus clear to see that co-educational schooling is the best approach to follow for our society to achieve its goal of integration of all peoples (Sullivan et al., 2010).
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.. (2010). Handbook of Gender esearch in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic…
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic review. Washington, DC: Department of Education.
Park, H., Behrman, J., & Choi, J. (2012). Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, PSC Working Paper Series.
13. I also think that field experiences in the community are extremely necessary for success.
14. I don't think enough teachers complete their practicum or student teach in minority schools, and I think this area is underserved and not supported enough by administration and community in many areas.
15. I don't think many teachers would want immersion, living and teaching in a minority community, and I think this is far underserved in the educational community.
16. The group-setting model is very prevalent, and it does make for more challenge and support throughout college.
Almost all of these elements are extremely relevant to the 21st century learner, teacher, and total school environment. As classrooms become more diversified and unique, today's teachers must make more attempts to understand the different blends of students and cultures that fill their classroom, and educational curriculum is key to this basic understanding. Classrooms are not going…
Coballes-Vega, C. (1992). Considerations in teaching culturally diverse children. Retrieved from the Eric Digests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-4/diverse.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Willis, a.I. (2000). Critical issue: Addressing literacy needs in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Zeichner. (1993). 16 key elements of effective teacher education for diversity. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/presrvce/pe3lk5.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…
Bell, Susan G. Women: from the Greeks to the French Revolution. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1973. Print 181-209
Rice, Eugene F., and Anthony Grafton. The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Print. 77-109
Their recommendations, which focused on prevention and response to campus emergencies such as the deadly shootings at Northern Illinois University, included suggestions for detecting early signs of and treating mental illness. esearch has indicated that the risk of violence may increase when other risk factors are involved, such as substance abuse. Training should be targeted to campus security forces and first responders, health services personnel counselors, resident advisers, coaches, and student/minority affairs staff according to the report. The group surveyed more than 112 higher education institutions in Illinois and found that about 64% have mental health counseling services. The task force's other recommendations for colleges and universities in Illinois included: becoming part of the federal government's standardized incident management process called the National Incident Management System, implement methods such as e-mail and speaker systems to alert students of an incident on campus, engaging in practice emergency drills at least twice…
Campus Security. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from U.S. Department of Education Web
Chen, Grace. (2008). Campus Safety on Community Colleges. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www.communitycollegereview.com/articles/53
Colleges Confront Shootings with Survival Training. (2008). Community College Week. 21(2),
Sex and Violence in V
Sex and Violence on V and in the Movies:
Should Sex and Violence Continue to be Restricted for American Audiences?
here are many things that our society has been exposed to, especially with the advent of technology, and many of these things have not been positive. For instance, the new generation's constant obsession with sex and violence, one may state, is not exactly healthy. Yet younger and younger children know, from the internet, video games, and television shows, about sex and violence, and how these are portrayed in daily life. hough children must be aware of various things, sometimes, they need not learn of such topics at a young age. his paper will, therefore, argue that sex and violence on television and in the movies should continue to be restricted to minors, as it currently is, and will provide various opinions and facts on this…
The movie ratings of today vary in severity. The MPAA website explains, very clearly, why it chooses to restrict various movies, and why ratings are necessary. For instance, on its website, it clearly includes a page that has all ratings, which vary from G (General Audiences) to NC-17 (No One Under 17 and Under Admitted). It is important, due to the gruesomeness of some films and television shows, as well as due to sexual nature, that parents do follow these guidelines, thereby allowing children to learn, at their own pace and at a proper age, rather than in an unrealistic way, often portrayed by television and movies, what sex and violence truly means and how harmful these can sometimes be to society, as well as how they can affect it. This can mean that parents should truly try to abide by the ratings given by the MPAA, which, again, include G (General Audiences a.k.a all ages), PG (Parental Guidance Suggested a.k.a some material may not be suitable for children), PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned, no minor under 13 without parents admitted), R (Children under 17 Require Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian), and NC-17 (No One 17 and Under Admitted).[footnoteRef:1] There is a reason why these guidelines are in place, and for this reason, parents should follow them. [1: "What Each Rating Means." Motion Picture Association of America. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
The reason why this paper argues so strongly pro-censorship and the need thereof is not just because of those individuals who have already instituted this system for a certain purpose, but also because there are various articles and studied written on the topic as to how widely and negatively children can be affected by being exposed to the harshness of humankind from a young age, especially with regard to violence and sex. The Parents Television Council, for instance, has many papers from which to start.[footnoteRef:2] And yet another website offering advice with regards to this topic is Parenthood in America.[footnoteRef:3] In this latter website's article, "Protecting Children from Harmful Television," it is clear to see why ratings are necessary. As the article states, "Much research suggests that television viewing is related to a host of negative outcomes in children. Studies have found that television viewing is associated with aggression, a "desensitization" to violence, and increased fear […] Given that children's exposure to television is inevitable, parents may wonder what they can do to protect their children from experiencing these and other negative effects. The purpose of this paper is to discuss one option for controlling children's television viewing: the use of television ratings. More specifically, this paper will briefly describe the history and development of television ratings, discuss three of the major problems associated with television ratings, and then finally point out some of the other methods that are available to help parents cope with the presence of television in their children's lives."[footnoteRef:4] [2: "Studies on Violence and Sex in the Media - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [3: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ] [4: "Protecting Children from Harmful Television: TV Ratings and the V-chip." Parenthood in America. 15 Oct. 1998. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
To further cement these facts and conclusively argue that children should be protected from sex and violence on TV and in movies, one need only to look at some examples in which children were exposed to such instances at a young age. One such example refers to the 2004 Super Bowl, which TV rating company Nielsen "estimates that 6.6 million kids 2-11 were watching at about the time that CBS's little halftime fiasco developed when Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece of Jackson's bodice, exposing her right breast to the nationwide audience. Another 7.3 million teens 12-17 were tuned in at that time as well."[footnoteRef:5] For these reasons, one should not throw caution to the wind and not care about children watching harmful television, but should rather make a point to protect children from these harmful effects for as long as possible, at least until they have reached an age at which they can truly understand how sex and violence affect society, and what is good and bad about these issues. [5: "Sex, Violence, and Profanity in the Media Fact Sheet, TV Statistics - Parents Television Council." Parents Television Council - Because Our Children Are Watching. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. . ]
Education and Society About Gender
The Perception of Gender Value Among Children
In Myra Sadker's book, Failing at Fairness, gender issues in the classroom are studied to evaluate how sexism is presented and to what extent it impacts female self-esteem. In a study entitled, "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl," the response to the hypothetical consideration of gender change was examined for eleven hundred Michigan children between 1988 and 1990. When asked what life would be like if they experienced a change to the opposite sex, the general conclusion that was drawn found that both girls and boys recognized weaknesses with the female sex as compared to males. This raises concern over the social impact of sexism that appears to exist even at a young age as the value of the female gender is compromised by views that males present the more advantageous sex. Thus, the evidence of sexism among…
Sadker, Myra. "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl." Failing at Fairness. New York: Scribner, 1994.
The button downs made for men tend to accentuate and broaden different areas than for women, for example, the shoulders. Both genders accessorize in different ways and one way is through shoes and bags. Women tend to wear high heels while men don't, and the former tend to carry a purse while the latter accessorize with a cross-body or messenger bag. Hair is another way to accentuate the gender difference for men and women fashion it differently, whether it is in terms of length or cut. As well, women tend to shave their hair in places men may not, for example, underarms and legs. Men may just shave their facial hair should they choose not to grow a beard.
Body modification or plastic surgery varies in both genders. Women may choose to get breast implants while men opt for pectoral implants. As well, in various cultures, certain body changes are…
Construction of Gender Identity. (n.d.). New York College | Catholic College | The College of New Rochelle. Retrieved November 5, 2011, from http://www2.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/socialization.html
Gender Identity. (n.d.). UNC. Retrieved November 5, 2011, from www.unc.edu/~pnc/strat/4-13-06.ppt
Hernandez, K. (n.d.). Cultural attempts to accentuate sexual dimorphism - by Krystle Hernandez - Page 3 - Helium. Helium - Where Knowledge Rules. Retrieved November 5, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1307063-cultural-attempts-to-accentuate-sexual-dimorphism?page=3
Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)
The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…
Andersen, Margaret L; Taylor, Howard Francis. (2005) "Understanding a diverse society" Cengage Learning.
Moore, Melinda; Forst, Martin Lyle. (1996) "AIDS education: Reaching diverse populations" Greenwood Publishing Group.
Murphy, Raymond. (1997) "Sociology and Nature: Social Action in Context." Westview
Press: Boulder, CO.
Sex and Marriage:
When a person gets married to another, one of the first rules is that there should be 'exogamy' in the selection of the partner, which also means that the partner has to belong to a well defined outside group, or there should be 'endogamy', which means that the partner must be within some large defined group of people, and both of these two rules work within any given society at any given time, so that there are limits maintained as to the preferability and the acceptability of the marriage partner. The number of spouses that an individual is allowed to marry, however, is generally dictated by the culture and the religion to which the individual belongs. In most of Europe as well as in America, the general rule followed by almost everyone is that of 'monogamy', and this means that one person is only allowed one spouse…
Definitions. Retrieved From
http://academic.regis.edu/areich/definitions.htm Accessed on 20 March, 2005
Glossary of Terms. Retrieved From
http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship/glossary.htm#bilineal_descent Accessed on 20 March, 2005
Sex Lives of Cannibals
The book Sex Lives of Cannibals gives clear examples and instances of ethnocentrism to varying degrees and in different forms. Indeed, in various areas around the world, ethnocentrism manifests in different ways that can be both positive and negative for the people engaging in the behavior as well as what is experienced and felt by outsiders as a result. emote and shrouded enclaves of humanity, whether it is their choice or just how life and civilization have panned out for them, are the most pertinent and applicable examples of this in motion and the peoples of Tarawa as depicted in the Sex Lives book are a sterling example of ethnocentrism in all of its forms and functions. While the general act of ethnocentrism is not inherently evil, it can lead to hurt feelings and bad blood on a number of different levels.
Bizumic, B., & Duckitt, J. (2012). What Is and Is Not Ethnocentrism? A Conceptual
Analysis and Political Implications. Political Psychology, 33(6), 887-909.
Jae-Woong, Y., Samsup, J., & Jaemin, J. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 42(1), 89-96. doi:10.2224/sbp.2014.42.1.89
Sex, Body, and Identity: How the Language of Metaphor Functions in Various Physically-Challenged Individuals' Expression of Identity and Selfhood
In her memoir aist-High in the orld: A Life Among the Nondisabled [sic], author Nancy Mairs, who writes about how having Multiple Sclerosis (MS) had impacted her self-image, body image, and day to-day life, observes that:
In biblical times, physical and mental disorders were thought to signify possession by demons. . . People who were stooped or blind or subject to seizures were clearly not okay as they were but required fixing
Mairs's detailed, often painfully honest reflections on dealing with (in her case, progressive) physical disabilities, e.g., difficulties with walking, sitting, standing straight; brushing her teeth (capabilities most take for granted) shed light on the myriad physical, psychological, emotional, and other challenges that daily fill the lives of those with physical disabilities. Narratives written by individuals with physical disabilities ranging…
Fries, Kenny. Body Remember: A Memoir. New York: Dutton,1997. Retrieved
July 26, 2005, from: .
Hockenberry, John. Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Retrieved July
26, 2005, from: .
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
Education 520 Business Law
To avoid an anti-discriminatory lawsuit regarding hiring practices, an employer should declare him or herself an 'equal opportunity employer.' To be compliant with the laws enforced by the EEOC, an employer must not discriminate based upon race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The employer should also not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy, age, disability or genetic information (Laws enforced by the EEOC, 2012, EEOC).
If the institution wishes to pursue a strategy of affirmative action regarding the hiring and promoting of employees he or she should state it clearly in employment literature, usually in the form of the phrase that 'members of historically discriminated-against groups are encouraged to apply.' However, the employer must be careful not to use a quota system, or set a goal for how many members of such groups will be hired to positions, based upon their…
Affirmative action. (2012). Labor employment law. Retrieved:
Laws enforced by the EEOC. (2012). EEOC. Retrieved:
" "This agent of RE/MAX blatantly discriminated against Latinos," said NFHA President and CEO Shanna L. Smith. So, the bottom line of that story is Latinos may be getting good jobs in some cases but finding appropriate housing near one's place of work can be a minefield of bias and deception.
Meanwhile, to answer the question, what effects does being Latino have on seeking a professional career, a study by the AFL-CIO shows that "...three of four Latino workers say workplace rights need more protection" (www.aflcio.org).Accordingto the AFL-CIO research, called "the most exhaustive study ever conducted on worker's rights," nearly one-third of Latinos interviewed on the job said they have faced "workplace discrimination based on their ethnicity" (AFL-CIO). The Peter D. Hart Research Associates group conducted this research for the AFL-CIO; the research sampled 1,792 adult Latinos and Asians. It was called "orker's Rights in America: hat orkers Think About…
FindLaw.com. (2008). Employment Discrimination in Alabama. Federal Law Prohibits
Employment Discrimination. Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://library.findlaw.com .
Forbes.com. (2009). Department of Justice Settles Racial Discrimination Lawsuit Against RE/MAX Franchisee and Agent: National Fair Housing Alliance & HUD
Investigations Determined Discrimination. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.forbes.com .
(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.
Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,
2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.
Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…
and Customs Enforcement agents that they were promised good jobs and a better life in the United States, so they came to the U.S. with high hopes. But when they arrived it turned out that they had to work in the bar for $20 a day until they paid off their "smuggling fees" of around $4,500. Part of their job was to have sex with customers "for money."
Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from the Monitor http://www.themonitor.com .
WTOV9.com. (2010, Feb. 14). Report: Human Trafficking Big Business in Ohio. This article on WTOV9 tells the story of how teenager Theresa Flores was raped and had photos taken of the act of being raped. The attacker said unless she submitted to being a hooker for his gang, her photo would be on the Internet and everyone would know she had sex (even her priest) So she went along for 2 years. Moreover, the story claims that as many as 1,000 children born in Ohio each year are forced into sex slavery. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from http://www.wtov9.com/news/22553109/detail.html .
Scaflik makes the claim that these types of tactics from networks mean that the network believe that violence is what attracts viewers the most.
Finally, shows such as Law and Order and Dark Shadows manage to show minimal amounts of violence and in inappropriate context, while they ultimately showcase the violence in a de-contextualized manner in the promos (Scaflik 2004). Scaflik points out that this is a serious problem for many different reasons, including the fact that viewers will get the wrong impression from the show and that viewers may also believe that there is a great deal of action and then will later be disappointed when only two or three minimally violent scenes are shown throughout the film or show.
The other problem is that violent promos are often times run during showtimes targeted towards children. Sometimes shows that have absolutely no violence in them at all will use…
Abelard, (1999-2008), Children and Television Violence, Retrieved from http://www.abelard.org/tv/tv.php
Cantor, Joanne, and Suzanne Stutman, Victoria Duran, (1996), What Parents Want in a Television Rating System: Results of a National Survey, National Survey Report, Retrieved from http://yourmindonmedia.com/downloads/parent_survey.pdf
Chandra, Anita, and DrPHa, Steven C. Martino, PhDb, Rebecca L. Collins, PhDc, Marc N. Elliott, PhDc, Sandra H. Berry, MAc, David E. Kanouse, PhDc, Angela Miu, MSc, (October 31, 2008). Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. PEDIATRICS, Vol. 122 (No. 5). Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/5/1047
Moran, Mark, (July 6, 2007), Govt. Seeks Ways to Reduce Kids' Exposure to TV Violence. Psychiatric News, Vol. 42. (No. 13)(Pg. 5). Retrieved from http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/42/13/5.1.full
These researchers define poverty based on different thresholds and determine the child poverty rates resulting from these thresholds. The researchers found that in the three years studied, about 5.7 per cent of all Australian children were poor in all three years of the study, and this represented between 28 and 41 per cent of those in poverty in the first year. The study also suggested that there may be differences in the characteristics of families of children in persistent poverty and those in poverty in only one of the three years, with the families in persistent poverty representing the greatest problem to be addressed in any reduction effort.
However, as Bradbury (1999) states, the industrialized nations of the world have been more successful in reducing poverty among the aged, but in many countries the last two decades there has been a re-emergence of child poverty. ates vary widely, but evidence…
Abello, a. & Harding, a., 2004, the Dynamics of Child Poverty in Australia, Discussion Paper no. 60, University of Canberra, http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/pubs/dps/dp60/dp60.html .[University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia]
Barrile, S., 2993, May, Managing successfully... managing diversity, Business 11(2), pp. 5-7.
Bradbury, B., 1999, Spring/Summer, Child poverty across the industrialized world, Family Matters 54, pp.65-69.
Connell, R.W. & White, V. (1988). Citation missing.
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
Single-Sex or Co-Ed Schools
In the UK, the debate over whether single-sex or co-educational schools are more beneficial for students’ development is one that has seen good arguments from both side of the fence. This paper will examine the advantages of both single-sex and co-ed schools as well as the disadvantages of each. It will show that both types of schools have their benefits, and each has its limitations. However, there is no strong argument one way or another that one is better than the other. At the end of the day, it all comes down to preference.
Single-sex schools have several advantages: they provide students with an environment free of distractions from the opposite sex which can help them to improve their learning (Johnson & Winterbottom, 2011), give students an opportunity to bond with peers (Booth & Nolen, 2012), and in the case of women can help…
Sometimes as the authors mention, could be done with looking at movies that are considered romantic or even things that are just on the television. Some even feel that being in a setting that feels romantic or just looking at somebody that might be friend or even a stranger.
The authors do a thorough job in mentioning how sensuous inputting that can come from within. Maybe there is no particular event or situation that may stimulate a person's sexual desire, instead a person's sexual awareness could possibly grow out of relaxing and also body oriented time.
The chapter also makes the point that spending time with your spouse is what will most likely get you to get interested in a sexual way. As the chapter relates, this is mostly true if a person's sexual experience is normally fulfilling and void of and free anxiety. The chapter makes the point that…
Balswsick, J. a. (2007). Authentic Human Sexuality: An Integrated Christian Approach. Boston: IVP Academic.
Martindale, E. (2009). Things to Know Before You Say Go. New York: Courage To Bloom; 2nd edition.
Penner, C.P. (2003). The Gift of Sex: A Guide to Sexual Fulfillment. Boston: Thomas Nelson; Rev Upd edition.
Rosenau, D.D. (2005). A Celebration of Sex for Newlyweds. Boston: Thomas Nelson.
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Moral development. Retrieved:
Social learning theory. (2009). National Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention.
The churches play a particularly important role in both the African-American and the Hispanic communities. They have both the charter and the means to assist teens and their families to provide a moral and ethical underpinning to their teachings about sexuality.
Beil, L. "Abstinence Education Faces an Uncertain Future." New York Times 18 jULY 2007: N.P.
Campbell, J. Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1995.
A de la Garza, R.O. "Latino Politics." Annual Review of Political Science (2004): 91-123.
Dreweke, J. Review of Key Findings of "Emerging Answers 2007" Report on Sex Education Programs. ashington: Guttmacher Institute, 2007.
First Things First. "Out of edlook Pregnancy Fact Sheet." 2007. First Things First. 3 December 2007 http://firstthings.org/page/research/out-of-wedlock-pregnancy-fact-sheet.
Harris Poll. "The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans." Harris Interactive 29 November 2007: n.p.
Harris, F.C. "Something ithin: Religion as a Mobilizer of African-American Political Activism." The…
Beil, L. "Abstinence Education Faces an Uncertain Future." New York Times 18 jULY 2007: N.P.
Campbell, J. Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1995.
A de la Garza, R.O. "Latino Politics." Annual Review of Political Science (2004): 91-123.
Dreweke, J. Review of Key Findings of "Emerging Answers 2007" Report on Sex Education Programs. Washington: Guttmacher Institute, 2007.
According to Fulbright (2010), parents are the people best qualified to teach their children about sex and intimate relationships. The theory behind Fulbright's (2010) proposition is that parents and their children gain a more honest and open relationship, which fosters healthier identity and sexual development than if parents shun their children's questions or avoid discussing sensitive matters like these. Moreover, children will receive incorrect, patchy, and conflicting information when they rely only on friends, rumors, and formal sex education in schools. Parents teach from their own experience, and can confer not only values but also valuable practical information. In many cases, the child's experiences in terms of biology and social interactions will parallel those of the parents, which allows for more intimate and meaningful discussions than what would take place in the more generalized setting of a school. While I still believe in the importance of formal sex education…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Sexual health. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/sexualhealth/
Fulbright, Y.K. (2010). Who Better Than You? Sexuality Source [Audiobook].
Pawlowski, W. & Hamilton, G. (n.d.). Stages of adolescent development. Retrieved online: http://www.cicatelli.org/tctp/Files/Stages%20of%20Adolescent%20Development.pdf
Planned Parenthood (2012). "Half of All Teens Feel Uncomfortable Talking to Their Parents About Sex While Only 19% of Parents Feel the Same, New Survey Shows." Retrieved online: http://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/half-all-teens-feel-uncomfortable-talking-their-parents-about-sex-while-only-19-percent-parents-40375.htm
The Age Group for Which Curriculum is Being Developed
Other parents' organizations and experts urge parents and schools to talk to children at least by the age of 10 about sex, even though they squirm. Young children today have a great need for sex education. The influence of the internet and television creates false rumors and sex gossip among children this age. Sexual predators look for ignorance when they are looking for a child to abuse, so knowledge and a vocabulary to match are important. Experts claim "this is the most crucial time to talk" (Hickley, p. 34).
It is important for children to learn about sex from teachers at school, as most parents are not well educated in this area and are usually hesitant to discuss such things with their children. Courses for preadolescents should be taught by teachers familiar with the subject who are able to couch…
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…
The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.
5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.
The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
Women's Education 1840s
An Analysis of Women's Education in the 1840s
Women in both Britain and America were set to receive greater attention in the realm of academia in the 1840s than they had in decades prior. The Bronte sisters had both begun their writing careers that same decade and Elizabeth Gaskell's first novel was published at the end of it. Mary Shelley had been writing for nearly three decades already -- Frankenstein being published a year after the death of Jane Austen. Women of letters had obviously received an education -- but from where? This paper will look at women's education in the 1840s and show how it was changing.
Jane Sherzer (1916) notes that "in West Virginia, in Southern Indiana and Illinois there were no schools for the higher education of women up to 1840" (p. 1), however, she adds that "early in 1840, in Indiana there…
Sherzer, J. (1916). The Higher Education of Women in the Ohio Valley. Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly 25(1): 1-22.
Solomon, B.M. (1985). In the Company of Educated Women. Yale University Press.
Tennyson, A.L. (1847). The Princess: A Medley. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields.
Public schools' incorporation of sexual education and family planning courses have led to a decline in teen-age pregnancies.
Sexual education curriculum
Background of history of school incorporation
Who takes the classes
What is taught
Perceived effects on teenagers thoughts about sexuality
Knowledge of sexually transmitted disease
Impact on self-esteem
Peer pressure to engage in sexual acts
Forms of preventing pregnancy
Forms of birth control
School's role in providing information
Family's role in providing information
Comparison of number of teenage pregnancies from 20, 10 and 5 years ago V. Conclusion
Government-funded health agencies have recorded a dramatic drop in teenage pregnancies over the past decade reaching an overall record low according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This decrease is related directly to the inclusion of sexual education in public junior high schools and high schools.
Although sex education was first proposed in the early 1950s, the…
homosexuals in the school system. The writer explores how the mindset of the system as well as the attitudes of fellow students impacts their self-esteem, and their educational experience. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
America is recognized worldwide for its acceptance and encouragement of diversity. One of the final frontiers along those lines has been in the arena of homosexuality. Advocates of the homosexual community have lobbied for the equal treatment of homosexuals in the work place, in civic duty and even in the legal recognition of couples. With all of the advances that have been made in the area of homosexuality there is still a stigma for homosexuals within the American school system. From dealings with administrators, to the bullying that occurs to the bias in general education regarding gender issues, homosexual students are often caught in a compulsory system that makes them feel self-conscious…
ATTWOOD Steve, Headmaster blasts gay school report., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-31-1996, pp 8.
Gay-books sale hits opposition, Gay-books sale hits opposition., The Washington Times, 07-22-2002.
Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom, Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom., The Washington Times, 05-25-2002.
Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say, Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say., The Washington Times, 05-07-2002.
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…
Barbezat, D.A. (1987). 'Salary differentials by sex in the academic labour market', Journal of Human Resources, 22(3), pp. 422-28.
Becher, T. Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines, Milton Keynes: Open University Press/SRHE. (1989).
Blackaby, D., Booth, A. And Frank, J. (2005). 'Outside offers and the gender pay gap: empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market', The Economic Journal, 115, F81-F107.
Tim Brighouse. "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?," Forum 45:1 (2003).
sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.
One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…
Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. n addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. f those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the…
In addition, King's aggressive upbreeding led to tremendous improvements in equine stock. The King Ranch had upbreeding programs for both thoroughbreds and quarter horses. For example, Assault, the 1946 winner of the Triple Crown, was the result of the King Ranch's breeding programs. More widely known and recognized are the quarter horses on the King Ranch. Visitors to the Ranch can observe some of the best examples of quarter horses that exist today, and they can also learn about Wimpy and Mr. San Peppy, two of the early quarter horses that helped establish the superiority of King Ranch equines. Even more importantly, visitors to the ranch can watch modern cowboys work these quarter horses in the same way as their ancestors, and learn, first-hand, what makes a quarter horse a champion. Students should be asked to observe and report on five characteristics of quarter horses that make them ideally suited for ranch work.
Domestic stock forms only a portion of the animals on the ranch. One of the lessons that students can learn at the ranch is about wildlife. The ranch features an impressive array of wildlife, which can be observed by visitors to the ranch. These animals include bobcats, deer, coyotes, quail, turkey, and wild hogs. Students can learn about innovations that the King Ranch pioneered to help protect wildlife, including providing water to wildlife, providing shelter for quail and other wildlife, and promoting the growth of plant species necessary to sustain wildlife. In addition, an industrious teacher may be able to get students to speak with the scientists involved in two ongoing wildlife research projects, the South Texas Quail Project and the South Texas Buck Capture Project. If those scientists are unavailable, a teacher may be able to get his students involved in one of the King Ranch's ongoing projects, which are mainly game surveys. The ranch also provides students with the unique opportunity to learn about and possibly observe several endangered or threatened species, including the Texas indigo snake, aplomado falcon, Harris' hawk, and the ferruginous pygmy-owl.
Wildlife management is only one aspect of the environmental stewardship that students can learn upon visiting the ranch. One of the most important lessons one can learn at the ranch is that farmers and ranchers have an obligation to look after the land. Students can view the best practices used on the ranch, which are aimed at limiting the impact of the ranching on the land. These practices include soil conservation, minimum-impact grazing programs, water conservation, and the limited and controlled use of pesticides. Students can learn about and explain why each of these programs helps the environment.
sexual relationships figure in the construction of a transgendered person?
Sexual relationships or sexual preferences tend to be the elements that are usually accepted as defining factors in the sexual and social identity of an individual. This means that sexual relationships are often seen to be the determining factors that constitute the very psychological and social identity of the person. This view of sexuality presents a number of problems -- particularly with regard to the transgendered person. Firstly, as the following definitions of transgender will make clear, there are many variations and ambiguities to the term transgendered, which can be confusing. Secondly and more importantly, there is an ongoing debate which revolves around opposing views of what constitutes sexual identity. One point-of-view sees sexual relationships and identity as innate or "naturally" constituted. This view is opposed by the social construction theory which sees sexual identity as a "construction" engineered by…
Bockting, W.O. 1999. Accessed August 9, 2005. (SIECUS Report, 1999. 28(1), 3-7.) http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3781/is_199910/ai_n8875386#continue
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Foucault: Sex, Power and the Politics of Identity." Interview by Bob Gallagher and Alexander Wilson. In Foucault Live: Collected Interviews 1961-1984, ed. Sylvere Lotringer. New York: Semiotext (e), pp. 382-390. Originally published in The Advocate, No. 400, August 7, 1984. Interview conducted in June, 1982.
Groenewald, D. The Man Question: Foucault and the Politics of Male Sexuality. August 9, 2005. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/sociol-anthrop/staff/kibbymarj/foucault.html
identity institutionalized in mainstream culture?
Belonging to a group differentiated by character and trait best defines the identity of an individual. Identity can also be distinguished in a qualitative and quantitative approach by means of identifying the disposition and similarity of a person. The state of being as "I'm" denotes the individuality of a man in a common state within a group since the individual is all but one. Such that, a man can be qualitatively identical to another man by means of his trait but can never be identical to another man in terms of individuality or the state of being one. Wikipedia further explains this by citing:
"Examples of this might be two wine glasses made in the same wine glass factory on the same production line ... (at least, for a relaxed standard of exact similarity)
For example, Clark Kent is numerically (quantitatively) identical with Superman in…
Identity-Norms-Individual, Wikipedia (2005),
Extracted, Aug. 15, 2005 Website
Personal Identity (2003), Stanford Education (2003-2005)
hen it comes to pedagogy, the art of teaching, there are many different interrelationships among different theories of knowledge, theories of learning, conceptions of curriculum and approaches of broad inquiry for the purposes of schooling. Every teacher is faced with a challenge to effectively convey his or her message of knowledge and inspire today's youth. It takes a certain amount of passion and consistency to pursue such a career.
This paper will argue the validity of Nel Noddings' groundbreaking work on the notion of care and take a look at her book Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. The thesis born out of the reading will also touch on her other works as well. To pursue a just argument that the notion of care works today, this paper will also look at Aristotle's Ethics. By examining his work, the paragraphs below will conduct a theoretical conversation…
Aristotle. (1976). Ethics (J.A.K. Thomson, Trans.). London: Penguin Classics.
Cunningham, L.L., & Mitchell, B. (1990). Educational Leadership and Changing Contexts
in Families, Communities, and Schools. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Esquith, R. (2003). There Are No Short Cuts. New York: Pantheon Books.
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…
Brookfield, Stephen. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4). Web. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Learning.cfm?RenderForPrint=1
Farmer, Lesley S.J. (2010). Gender impact on adult education. Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education. IGI Global. P 377-394.
Hopey, Christopher. (1999). Technology and adult education: Rising expectations. Adult Education, 10(4), 26-27.
Jarvis, Peter. (2004). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Routledge Falmer.