Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Sex Offender Civil Commitment
Civil Rights or Societal Rights
Civil commitment is a legal process typically introduced into society for the mentally ill, or those individuals whom the Court or other professionals believe are a danger to themselves or others. Society realizes that, at times, an individual may pose a danger to themselves or to society and be unable to make rational decisions. In fact, in most jurisdictions in the modern world, involuntary commitment procedures are specifically applied to individuals who have manifested some form of serious mental illness that acts to impair their reasoning to such extent that they are unable to make cogent and logical decisions. herefore, at these times the state (the Court system) must intercede to find ways to make the appropriate decisions under a legal template. Involuntary commitment may have, in the past, been used in certain situations, inappropriately, but the statutory criteria that indicates…
The idea of civil commitment is not just a legal or political issue, but a moral and ethical philosophical debate within society. This is a scholarly volume, intended for a scholarly audience that asks several pertinent questions about the role that the political process plays within decisions that are uncomfortable for society -- among which defining sexual predation is one.
Troyer, J. (2003). The Classical Utilitarians - Bentham and Mill. New York: Hackett Publications.
Also a scholarly publication, this book describes the evolution of utilitarian thought from Ancient times to the 19th century. It is a standard text that helps one understand the differences between utilitarianism and deontology, and also analyzes why the good of society can be a cultural issue that can change over time.
The website explained that the law's necessities turned on a person's finding of guilt alone a fact that a person had already had a procedurally protected occasion to challenge. Even if the person could show that he was not liable to be presently harmful, Connecticut had determined that the registry knowledge of all sex offenders had to be openly revealed. The offender had relied only on procedural due process, not on the substantive part of the Fourteenth Amendment's safeguards.
In a 9-0 decision the judgment was reversed. In an opinion by ehnquist, Ch. J., joined by O'Connor, Scalia, Kennedy, Souter, Thomas, Ginsburg, and Breyer, JJ., it was held that: (1) The Connecticut law did not infringe procedural due process, under the Fourteenth Amendment, by failing to permit affected people, prior to their registry information being revealed to the public, an investigation to establish whether the offenders were probable to be…
Conn. Dep't of Pub. Safety v. Doe, 538 U.S. 1 (U.S. 2003). Retrieved October 28, 2010, from Find Law Web site:
Gramlich, John. (2010). Online sex offender info rapidly expands. Retrieved October 28, 2010,
from Stateline Web site: http://www.stateline.org/live/details/story?contentId=367676
Mental health workers offered mixed support for the treatment program. A rape crises advocate and support counselor suggested that diverting offenders out of the criminal justice system denied the victims the closure that they needed to move on with their lives. However, two psychiatrists indicated that they believe that treatment programs can be effective, and that treatment is the appropriate course for mentally ill offenders, rather than incarceration. In addition, because they work with mental commitments, they indicated that both of them have already participated in civil commitments for pedophilic child molesters who offended within the family group, and indicated their belief that the civil commitment process actually made it easier for the victim to begin the work to repair his or her life.
Finally, it is important to consider the criminals. More than in almost any other area, the idea of possibly indefinite civil commitment for those who sexually…
Give the District Attorney the discretion to prosecute the pedophile for any acts of sexual assault, as well as any other crimes committed to further the sexual assault or hide the sexual assault. Any pedophile engaging in torture, aggravated assault, or murder would be subject to criminal prosecution for those crimes.
While conventional wisdom suggests that treatment for sexual offenses against children is ineffective, that simply is not the case. Pedophiles have a horrible disease. While that disease does not give them the right to victimize others, it like other mental illness, becomes more difficult to control when a person is experiencing "fear, lack of trust, low self-esteem, feelings of rejection, inadequate social skills, lack of empathy, isolation from others, and poor communications skills." (Freeman-Longo, 2001). Prison increases these feelings, making it unlikely that treatment in a prison setting would provide the same type of success as hospital-based treatment programs.
Furthermore, one-third of sexual offenses against children are committed by teenagers. (Chaffin, Bonner, & Pierce, 2003). Because many child molesters are, themselves, children, it stands to reason that there are many teenage child molesters who are pedophiles, though most adolescent sexual offenders do not meet the criteria for pedophilia. However, across the board, adolescent sex offenders are more responsive to treatment
habitual sex offender has become a major issue in American society today. Media reports on the number of children killed in recent years fuel this concern, including reports where a sex offender who has been released from prison at the end of his sentence takes and kills another victim. Various states have passed new laws and added restrictions on sex offenders as a result, and one of the issues now concerns notification, meaning whether the neighbors of a released sex offender should be told that the offender is living among them. Traditionally, parole or release from prison has been a matter kept between the offender and the state, and the people in the community are not told where released sex offenders are living. Because of the notoriety accompanying some recent cases, the public now demands to be told when a sex offender is living in the community. hile these laws…
Beatty, David. "Community Notification?
It's the Right Thing to Do." Corrections Today 59(6)(October 1997), 20.
Biema, David. "Burn Thy Neighbor." Time (July 27, 1993), 58.
Decter, Midge. "Megan's Law and the New York Times." Commentary (October 1994), 61-62.
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…
Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.
Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…
Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.
Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.
(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.
Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,
2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.
Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…
and Customs Enforcement agents that they were promised good jobs and a better life in the United States, so they came to the U.S. with high hopes. But when they arrived it turned out that they had to work in the bar for $20 a day until they paid off their "smuggling fees" of around $4,500. Part of their job was to have sex with customers "for money."
Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from the Monitor http://www.themonitor.com .
WTOV9.com. (2010, Feb. 14). Report: Human Trafficking Big Business in Ohio. This article on WTOV9 tells the story of how teenager Theresa Flores was raped and had photos taken of the act of being raped. The attacker said unless she submitted to being a hooker for his gang, her photo would be on the Internet and everyone would know she had sex (even her priest) So she went along for 2 years. Moreover, the story claims that as many as 1,000 children born in Ohio each year are forced into sex slavery. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from http://www.wtov9.com/news/22553109/detail.html .
Treatment Programs for Sex Offenders
esults of studies are inconclusive as to how often convicted sex offenders re-offend once released from prison. A Canadian study suggested the number is as high as 88%. (Bialik, 2008) However, Wisconsin psychologist Dennis Doren states, "There is no research support for that view, period." (Bialik, 2008) Another widely publicized report indicates the rate of re-offense to be 52%. (Bialik, 2008) If even half of the convicted sex offenders are likely to commit a similar crime once released, the number is too high.
One way to reduce the number of repeat offenders is to mandate participation in a treatment program. Once an offender is convicted of a crime, their Constitutional rights should be suspended. They should lose the free will that they enjoyed as a free member of society. As such, they should be required to undergo treatment for sexual assault. It should not even…
Alaska Department of Corrections and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit. (1996). Sex Offender Treatment Program: Initial Recidivism Study -- Executive Summary. Anchorage, AK: Offender Programs, Alaska Department of Corrections; and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Bialik, Carl. (January 24, 2008). How Likely Are Sex Offenders to Repeat Their Crimes? Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/how-likely-are-sex-offenders-to-repeat-their-crimes-258/
Prentky, R. & Burgess, A.W. (1990). Rehabilitation of child molesters: A cost-benefit analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 108-117.
Despite these constraints, GPS-enabled tracking systems stand to promote public safety. In this regard, Schwabe and his associates report, "etter technology for offender tracking has the potential to increase public safety by making information on offenders easier to share and utilize" (2001, p. 23). These types of surveillance systems, though, introduce new privacy concerns, even for offenders, given the fundamental constitutional rights that are involved. As Schwabe et al. emphasize, "It should be noted, however, that such systems raise many of the same civil liberties issues discussed above vis-a-vis video surveillance. As a result, they represent another case where the use of a technology by law enforcement must be balanced against individual rights and the resulting (potentially conflicting) public perceptions of the activity" (Schwabe et al., 2001, p. 23). While the debate over civil liberties vs. public safety continues, the use of GPS-enabled tracking devices continues to increase in jurisdictions…
Cassel, D. (2008). Pretrial and preventive detention of suspected terrorists: Options and constraints under international law. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(3),
Author is Professor of Law; Director, Center for Civil and Human Rights, Notre Dame Law School who provides a timely overview of detention approaches used for foreign nationals who have been convicted of terrorist activities. Author's observation concerning the effectiveness of GPS-enabled tracking devices was a valuable contribution to the goals of this paper.
Lindsey, J.M. (1999). Techniques in human geography. London: Routledge.
(Harris, 2002, p. 8)
Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)
Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…
Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.
Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).
The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.
Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…
Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf
James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
The career criminal
A career criminal is a person who repeatedly participates in criminal acts for both a constant and central source of income DeLisi, 2005.
A career criminal uses crime as their only source of income, and they will commit offenses on a regular basis even after they have been released from prison. No form of rehabilitation can help a career criminal because they have antisocial behaviors and they refuse any form of rehabilitation. The career criminal continuously commits offenses and even with the best criminal justice system, they are never rehabilitated. This causes a major problem to the correctional facilities because career criminals lead to overcrowding of prisons.
Since these criminals have amassed many sentences, the judicial system is forced to sentence them to life imprisonment. The main reason been the short prison terms the offenders have been given before have had no effect, and giving them…
DeLisi, M. (2005). Career Criminals in Society. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications.
Howitt, D., & Sheldon, K. (2009). Sex Offenders and the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Unfairness of Sex Offending Laws.
Current laws that govern sex offences are placed under scrutiny for their potential unfairness towards those convicted. Often, these laws are excessively harsh against those who do not pose a current danger to public safety.
There are few things as dire to the public mind as sex offences. Hence, current laws are as harsh as possible to protect what is perceived as the safety of the public and its most vulnerable members, children. For this reason, the Internet sex offender databases were created. At the basis of these is Megan's Law, which specifically requires a state to make neighbors aware when violent sex offenders move into their community (Sheeres, 2002). The law has been enacted in honor of Megan Kanka. She was a 7-year-old girl from New Jersey who was raped and murdered in 1994. The perpetrator was a twice-convicted child molester. He moved into…
Dowd, J. (2008, Oct 27). Se offender law unfair to homeless, court says. The 13th Juror. Retrieved from: http://jackiedowd.blogspot.com/2008/10/sex-offender-law-unfair-to-homeless.html
Prior, R. (2010, Oct 10). Juror: Sex offender law unfair. The St. Augustine Record. Retrieved from: http://staugustine.com/news/local-news/2010-10-10/juror-sex-offender-law-unfair
San Diego News (2010, Apr. 12). Registered Sex Offender Says Current Laws Unfair. Retrieved from: http://www.10news.com/news/23131007/detail.html
Sheeres, J. (2002, Jun. 10). Sex Offender: Branded for Life. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2002/06/53075
But there is ample evidence, as documented in our recent report that unfettered access to registries can and does lead to extensive harassment and sometimes violence against former offenders (Fellner, 2007).
Highly publicized cases that deal with the abduction, rape, abuse, and murder of young children have led federal and state governments to introduce new laws that require stricter punishments, requirements, and prohibitions for sex offenders. Increasingly rigorous and over-inclusive necessities for sex offenders are almost unanimously accepted and easy for legislators and politicians to support because they are popular among the general public. As Congress passes law after law cracking down on sex offenders, experts and officials question whether the requirements of those acts even work to achieve the goals of legislators (Farley, 2008).
The most recent act, the Adam Walsh Act (AWA), raises many questions as Congress again expands punishments and requirements of sex offenders. The AWA contains…
Farley, Laura Geer. (2008). The Adam Walsh Act: The Scarlet Letter of the Twenty-First Century. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Web site:
Fellner, Jamie. (2007). The wrong sex offender laws. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Los Angels
Times Web site: http://articles.latimes.com/2007/sep/18/news/oe-fellner18
Treatment of Criminal Offenders
As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?
A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…
Allen, Harry E; Simonsen, C.E. (1998) "Corrections in America" New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Gendreau, P & Goggin, C. (1996) "Principles of Effective Programming with Offenders" Forum on Corrections Research, Volume: 8; No: 3, pp: 38-40.
Hoge, R.D. & Andrews, D.A. (1996) "Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques" New York: Plenum.
Jacobs, B. L; Azmitia, E.C. (1992) "Structure and function of the brain serotonin system" Physiological Reviews. Volume: 72; pp:165-229.
Televised violence can in some cases be harmless, mainly because film directors overstress it to the point where it becomes obvious that it cannot possibly take place in real life. hen it is presented in a way that makes it even more real violence can be very harmful. "Reviews of the effects literature have concluded that exposure to television violence portrayed with particular contextual characteristics can lead to such negative effects as fear, desensitization, and disinhibition" (Potter, and Smith 301). The negative effect of televised violence is apparently highlighted by graphicness, as people are influenced to a larger degree if what they see on television is explicit. Images of blood and gore can be much more harmful when presented in a high-detail vivid nature (Potter, and Smith 301). As the level of realness increases, the level of shock also increases, making it possible for viewers to feel as if they…
Gunter, Barrie and Harrison, Jackie. Violence on Television: An Analysis of Amount, Nature, Location, and Origin of Violence in British Programmes (London: Routledge, 1998).
Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie and Wykes, Maggie. Violence on Television: Distribution, Form, Context, and Themes (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
Potter, W. James and Smith, Stacy. "The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.2 (2000): 301.
Krcmar, Marina. "The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42.2 (1998).
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.
The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.
Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
Social science researchers can use either qualitative or quantitative strategies to develop informed and timely answers to their research questions, but these two approaches involve analyzing fundamentally different data sets. On the one hand, qualitative researchers can use various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used.
By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research questions (Neuman, 2009). These differences mean that designing a research question from a…
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…
Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books
Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.
Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse
It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…
Condon, P. (2010, December 7). "Top Catholic educator concealed abuse knowledge."
Phillips, N. (2010, July 14). "Whatever happened at Father Cooper's Cabin in 1971, the archdiocese isn't responsible." Riverfront Times.
Rodgers, A. (2010, August 2). "Episcopal leaders take steps to deal with abusive clergy."
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…
Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Public hysteria or "sex panic" involving the "sexualisation" of children may be getting a decent outing in Australia at the present moment, but it is certainly nothing new: fifty years ago it was Elvis Presley's hips that portended imminent moral collapse, two hundred and fifty and a dance craze called the "waltz" was considered immodest and the "emo kids" of the late eighteenth century were committing suicide after reading The Sorrows of Young Werther. The more recent alarmism -- typified by Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze's discussion paper on the "sexualisation of children" in the media, or Miranda Devine's predictable whipping-up of outrage over the 2008 ill Henson photo exhibition -- is nothing new in this regard. (At this point, the new youth-related sex scandals can barely keep up with advances in technology, as the Saint Kilda's schoolgirl suddenly resorts to apologizing via YouTube, after conducting a…
Crews, Frederick. (1995). The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute. New York: New York Review of Books Editions.
Devine, Miranda. (2008). "Moral Backlash Over Sexing Up Of Children." Sydney Morning Herald 22 May 2008.
Egan, R. Danielle and Gail Hawkes. 2008. "Endangered Girls and Incendiary Objects: Unpacking the Discourse on Sexualization." Sexuality and Culture (December 2008) 12.4: 291-311.
Therefore, the presence of high levels of testosterone is often thought to be one of the most influential hormones on criminal behavior and would explain why men are disproportionately involved in more criminal behaviors than women.
Other hormones have also been linked to criminal behaviors as well. For example, low levels of a hormone, known as cortisol, have been linked to offenders that have shown patterns of chronic offending. The reduced amount of cortisol has been shown to decrease anxiety levels. An individual who does not feel any anxiety may be more likely to commit crimes because they would be less likely to let their anxiety about committing a crime stop them before the crime is actually committed. Therefore feeling anxiety towards committing a crime could stop an individual from committing it, however if a person doesn't have anxiety due to low cortisol levels then the body does not have…
Wright, J., Tibbetts, S., & Daigle, L. (2008). Chapter 7. In Criminals in the Making. Sage Publications.
Relationships are complex and can be complicated by a longing for a lasting commitment. For this reason, many have opted to simply have sex without any type of commitment (sex with no strings attached). Others hold the belief that sex is a pledge to be committed. The purpose of this discussion is to explain why sex must involve commitment. e will also present the opposing opinion on this issue. This discussion will seek to prove that sex should involve commitment. e will begin the discussion with the opposing view.
Sex without Commitment
Some individuals have the belief that sex without commitment is acceptable and that it will not have adverse affects. They contend that sex without commitment is easier for everyone involved and averts problems that can occur in a committed relationship. Sex without commitment has always existed in some form or another but in recent years, sex without commitment…
Buss, David M. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Defries, Zira, Richard C. Friedman, and Ruth Corn, eds. Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
LeMoncheck, Linda. Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex. New York: Oxford University Press U.S., 1997.
Matthewes-Green, Frederica. "Now for Some Good News." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Aug.-Sept. 1997: 20+.
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…
Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.
Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:
School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
upport for this contention comes from the observation that male offenders too are comparatively lightly punished when domestic abuse is involved.
Other factors, however, indicate greater complexity. treib (1990), for instance, showed that confounding factors for deserving the death sentence include the offender's prior record for committing crimes; premeditation of the crime; and her potential for future violent crimes. Women are less likely to represent or possess these characteristics than men and, therefore, subsequently are figured less often on Death Row.
However, it is also very likely that simple sexism plays a part. This is particularly likely when it is seen that those tending more towards the death penalty - i.e. more conservative, Republican, white-male dominated groups -- are also less strongly against women receiving this penalty. In fact, these groups have sometimes even prominently militated against women receiving the death sentence, as was the case with Pat Robertson and…
Baker, David V. (1999). A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the United States: 1632- 1997, Women and Criminal Justice 57
Bakken, G.M. (2010). Invitation to an Execution: A History of the Death Penalty in the United States. USA:University of New Mexico Press
Banner, Stuart (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Harvard University Press
Crocker, P. (2001), Is the Death Penalty Good for Women, Buffalo Criminal Law Review 917
Internet Sex Offenders
Today's technology has allowed for many great advances in society that allow for great benefit and good. The internet and instant communication abilities have provided new landscapes for the human species to evolve and grow. The power of technology must be wielded with temperance and wisdom however due to the always present threat of those who wish to prey and feed off the weakness of other people.
The purpose of this essay is to describe specific strategies that are most effective with sex offenders in the community. This discussion will first discuss the newly formed landscape in which criminal justice professionals find themselves in today and how technology has affected their ability to successfully perform their duties. This discussion will also include ideas about legislation and technology that can be used in the efforts to deter these criminals from committing future sex crimes.
The New Landscape
Markon, J. (2009). New technology, tight budgets hinder sex-offender monitoring. Washington Post, 23 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/22/AR2009112202364.html
Fuchs, E. (2013). 7 Surprising Things That Could Make You a Sex Offender. Business Insider, 9 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/surprising-things-that-could-make-you-a-sex-offender-2013-10
Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K.J., & Ybarra, M.L. (2010). Online "predators" and their victims. Psychology of violence, 1, 13-35.
Wortley, R.K., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the internet. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
The main values that are apparent in this article are first, an empirical adherence and promotion of objectivity in dealing with a topic that is highly fraught with many emotions, and secondly a true desire to bring about the betterment of society and the individuals within it. The authors stress at one point that it is understood that sex offenders can never be "cured' of their impulses, and that an acceptance of this fact is precisely what allows them to be able to learn how to control these impulses and desires in order to refrain from being a danger to society or anyone else in it. That is, it is through bringing objectivity to bear on the issue that the issue can actually be successfully addressed, and the research that is presented in this article certainly backs this perspective up. Objectivity and empirical examination, in other words, are some of…
(Megan's Law Website: History of the Law and Federal Facts)
On the other hand, rights activists and organizations point out that the sexual offender is treated unfairly in a legal sense. As one study on the subject notes, the sexual offender registry is a "… double punishment of sex criminals and is applicable to too many offenses. For example, depending on the area, "sex offenders" can also include those guilty of streaking, burglary, surveillance, and kidnapping" (Does the Sex Offender egistry Offend Justice?).
This view is also supported by groups like Human ights Watch. They posit the view that while the seriousness of these types of crimes are appreciated, there are a number of variables that have to be taken into account in applying a law like Megan's Law. These include aspects such as the fact that many people are categorized as sexual offenders for relatively minor crimes, and may…
Does the Sex Offender Registry Offend Justice? Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://www.mcgilldaily.com/blog/1829/entry/19136-does-the-sex-offender-registry
Major Human Rights Watch report about sex offender sanctions ( 2007)
Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://sentencing.typepad.com/sentencing_law_and_policy/2007/09/major-human-rig.html
Megan's Law, Sex Offenders Nationwide. Retrieved June 4,
The mpasse Between mproving Enforcement Technology and Eroding Privacy Rights for Convicted Sex Offenders
Megan's Law was passed in 1996 and immediately ignited a flurry of disagreement, both over its likely effectiveness and over its Constitutional Compliance. Requiring each state to compile Sex Offender Registries and to provide Community Notification when convicted sex offenders move into a community, Megan's Law is designed to improve child welfare and safety, but also ignites intense disagreement over the preservation of privacy rights.
The present research evaluates the role played by technology in the ongoing dispute between public safety and privacy rights.
While its advocates perceive Megan's Law as a critical law enforcement tool that can protect communities, families and their children from the dangers of sexual predators, its critics argue that the law violates constitutional privacy rights and prevents previously convicted sex offenders from achieving rehabilitation or effectively reentering society.
In spite of all Constitutional protestation seeking to revise Megan's Law as it concerns privacy rights, there is both broad public support for its continued existence as well as for the improvement of its enforcement.
With respect to: the demands for monitoring, tracking and keeping-in-compliance all registered sex offenders; the legal requirement to ensure that effective notification is made available to communities; and the practical imperatives to create a national network of information aimed at strengthening the protective capabilities of Megan's Law, the technological advances that have occurred since the 1996 inception of the policy have helped to improve its potential for effectiveness.
Privacy concerns are overshadowed by the need to utilize advancing information and computing technologies for improved enforcement.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
I also predicted that the difference in heterosocial competence between child molesters and non-sex-offenders would be significantly larger than the difference between rapists and non-sex-offenders. This hypothesis was also supported (Dreznick, 2003,pg 170)."
The researcher also hypothesized that the variation in heterosocial competence amongst child molesters and nonincarcerated non-sex-offenders would be considerably larger than the variation amongst child molesters and incarcerated non-sex-offenders (Dreznick, 2003). The findings of the meta-analysis were consistent with this hypothesis.
The author of this meta-analysis concluded that because child molesters have significant problems with heterosocial skills social skills training may assist in the treatment of these individuals. However the author points out that the treatment of heterosocial skills is only one component of an overall treatment program. Other components of a treatment program may include anger management and increasing empathy for the children that are victimized (Dreznick, 2003).
Additionally the author points out certain limitations of…
Denov, M.S. (2003). The Myth of Innocence: Sexual Scripts and the Recognition of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(3), 303+.
In this work Denov argues that the traditional sexual scripts for women prevent society from viewing women as sexual predators. The author uses existing research concerning female predators to prove this assertion. The author concludes that female child molesters exist on a much larger scale than has been generally accepted.
Dreznick, M.T. (2003). Heterosocial Competence of Rapists and Child Molesters: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 170+.
In this meta-analysis the author investigates the correlation between heterosocial competence and child molestation. The author combined the results of several existing studies to illustrate this correlation. Dreznick found that a lack of heterosocial competence contribute to the decision to molest children.
Project Research Design
he Arkansas Crime Information Center (ACIC) is responsible for the sex offender management and notification in Arkansas. he variables of the agency to be examined are the current vs. needed allocations as suggested by the Justice Policy Institute (2008) which are: 1) Personnel to register, collect, and update information, 2) Software, including installation, maintenance, and technical support, and 3) Funding for legislative, executive, judicial, and administrative costs associated with reclassification, tracking and retroactivity clauses.
he research design will be a mixed methods study of both qualitative and quantitative information. I have received email notification from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police confirming that a survey questionnaire or interview can be granted for the purpose of this study. IRB approval will be obtained before any surveys are given to the subjects. he survey will address both yes/no questions for quantitative study and descriptive or opinion questions for…
The Arkansas Crime Information Center (ACIC) is responsible for the sex offender management and notification in Arkansas. The variables of the agency to be examined are the current vs. needed allocations as suggested by the Justice Policy Institute (2008) which are: 1) Personnel to register, collect, and update information, 2) Software, including installation, maintenance, and technical support, and 3) Funding for legislative, executive, judicial, and administrative costs associated with reclassification, tracking and retroactivity clauses.
The research design will be a mixed methods study of both qualitative and quantitative information. I have received email notification from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police confirming that a survey questionnaire or interview can be granted for the purpose of this study. IRB approval will be obtained before any surveys are given to the subjects. The survey will address both yes/no questions for quantitative study and descriptive or opinion questions for qualitative study to look at how those who are grappling with this problem feel about it, whether they see it as a priority, and whether they are confident that the compliance with this Act will make a difference.
The qualitative research will be descriptive to explain how those who are surveyed actually feel about the lack of compliance, how much knowledge they have of it, and whether they believe they are moving forward appropriately to ensure that compliance ensues. The quantitative data will be comprised of existing data collected from the U.S. Department of Justice regarding the sentencing, monitoring, apprehension, and tracking of sex offenders, as well as data from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police. This
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Megan's Law (Pro)
In 1994, Megan's Law was passed in order to protect innocent women and children from violent sex offenders. Critics of the law have argued that the law infringes on the constitutional rights of sex offenders after they have been released from prison; however, it is my position that the law is constitutional and an excellent deterrent to stop repeat offenses by convicted sexual offenders.
This report is an attempt to understand the constitutionality of Megan's Law. Megan's Law was the state of New Jersey's attempt to control repeat sex offenders from assaulting women and children. The law eventually became a national campaign to control sex offenders as all fifty states have since adopted at least some parts if not all of the original New Jersey statute. However, because we live in a society where rights go to both criminal and non-criminal alike, there are several legal battles…
Ahearn, Laura A. (2004). Albany Drags Feet Better action needed against sexual predators. Newsday, October 25.
Curtis, Kim (2004). Law to Put Crime Data Online Awaits OK. AP Online, August 31.
Hampson, Rick (7/28/1998). N.J.'S Megan's Law Is Seen As Model, But Still Has Its Flaws. USA Today.
Richey, Warren (2003). Megan's Law Upheld; High Court Allows Internet Lists That Track Sex Offenders. The Christian Science Monitor, March 6.
Step 3: Discuss the Precipitating Event
After relationship is recognized, the emphasis goes to the family insights of the condition, the sequence of proceedings leading up to the predicament, and the issue that started out the sequence of events (Graham-Bermann, S.A., 2002). Consultations inspect when and how the disaster happened, the causal conditions, and how the family endeavored to covenant with it.
Step 4: Assess Strengths and Needs
The Family valuation of strengths and needs start right after and the goes on throughout crisis intervention. The crisis worker will start to draws conclusions that will regard the family's needs and strengths that are related to the present disaster and, with the family, assesses the prospective for recovery (Edleson, J.L.,1999). Client strong suit are tapped in order to make self-esteem better, while also providing skills and energy that is for problem-solving.
Step 5: Formulate a Dynamic Explanation
This next step really…
Appel, a.E., & Holden, G.W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-599.
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterer's treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023-1053.
Beeman, S.K., Hagemeister, a.K., & Edleson, J.L. (1999). Child protection and battered women's services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4, 116-126.
Bragg, H.L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm
Individual Researc Task. Individual Researc: Overview
Medina vs. California, 505 U.S. 437 (1992). Retrieved from Findlaw at:
Competency to stand trial (CST)
Medina was convicted of first-degree murder and in te state of California a person must establis is mental incompetency by te standard of a 'preponderance of evidence.' Te U.S. Supreme Court affirmed tis standard of a burden of proof, denying it violated te petitioner Medina's rigt to due process.
Dean v. United States (08-5274). (2009). Retrieved from Cornell University Law Scool at:
Criminal responsibility (mens rea)
Dean was convicted under a ten-year mandatory minimum sentence requirement for firing a andgun during a robbery; Dean argued tat because e did not intend to fire te gun te mandatory minimum did not apply, owever te U.S. Supreme Court eld tat even if te gun went off accidentally, Dean was still liable to te mandatory minimum.
Pennurst State Scool…
Participation in treatment and civil commitment of sex offenders
The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) requires sex offenders to register when they move out-of-state to a new state. The petitioner argued that his rights were violated given that he was convicted of his offence before SORNA was passed and thus was being subjected to ex post facto justice by being convicted for a parole violation for not registering: the Court concurred with his assessment.
children actually came to be respected on account of the important role they play in the social order. Society previously believed that parents should be provided with the power to decide what they wanted to do with their children and the Bible actually emphasizes that Abraham was unhesitant about sacrificing his son, thus showing that the child was little more than a tool in his hands. As society progressed children continued to be treated with discrimination and those whose parents were unable to care for them resorted to becoming outcasts constantly in need of basic resources.
Society actually promoted attitudes that directly harmed children and saw the opportunity to exploit their vulnerability. Throughout time children were used as labor and were sexually abused by unscrupulous individuals. hile attitudes change during recent centuries, it was not until an 1838 Pennsylvania court removed children from the custody of their parents that the…
"Protecting Children When Families Cannot"
shame in teenage sextual relations," Nina Funnell outlines a conceptual criticism of the approach taken by the Commonwealth on matters relating to the laws governing various sex crimes. According to Funnel (2011), there are fundamental problems with the enforcement of certain sex crime laws against minors because they were obviously drafted and enacted mainly to protect minors and not to punish their sexual behaviour. In that regard, Funnell (2011) focuses especially on the issue of the prosecution of teenagers who transmit sexualised photographs of themselves to others as violators of child pornography laws even though those crimes are, essentially, victimless crimes. The author points out that in addition to the nonsensical application of those laws to the class of persons they were originally intended to protect rather than punish, the Commonwealth has exhibited a simultaneous lackadaisical approach to prosecuting sex crimes involving bona fide victims and adult perpetrators, such as…
Funnel, N. (2011) There's No Shame in Teenage Sextual Relations, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 September.
Gerrig, R. And P. Zimbardo. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Hinds, L. And K. Daly (2001) The War on Sex Offenders: Community Notification in Perspective, ANZ Journal of Criminology, 34(3), 256-276. DOI: 10.1177/000486580103400304
McLoughlin, C. And J. Burgess (2010) Texting, Sexting and Social Networking Among Australian Youth and the Need for Cyber Safety Education, paper available through Australian Catholic University at http://www.aare.edu.au
The article points out through close comparisons that there are marked differences between the impulsive and ritual offender. The most prominent difference is the extreme planning and preparation with regard to the fantasy dimension that characterizes the ritual offender. " He is the offender who invests great amounts of time and effort into he planning and rehearsal of his offences. " (Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. p. 272) While his underlying motivation is power and control, the essential difference in this type of offence is the complex level of cues and perceptions that form an integral part of the sexual offence as well as the level of violence.
The article succeeds in explicating this particular type of criminal in terms of the central behavioral characteristics of this type of crime. The fantasy life of the ritual offence is identified with various aspects of his character. These include the following behavioral…
Fedoroff, J.P., & Moran, B. (1997). Myths and Misconceptions about Sex Offenders. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 6(4), 263+. Retrieved August 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. The Sexually Violent offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic. ( 2000) Aggression and Violent Behavior. 5(3)..pp. 267-279.
Jenkins, P. (1994). Using Murder The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Windlesham . (1987). Responses to Crime (Vol. 3). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…
Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20
Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html
Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html
Not only does that solution clog the prison system with additional inmates, it adds tremendously to prison costs. Housing just one death row inmate for 20 years could cost over $600,000, and that does not include inflation and other rising cost factors. Thus, keeping inmates on death row simply adds to the taxpayer's costs and creates additional crowding in prisons that are already reaching the breaking point in inmate capacity.
Many studies also indicate that capital punishment is a strong deterrent in violent crimes. Two authors note, "A leading national study suggests that each execution prevents some eighteen murders, on average" (Sunstein, and Vermeule). Thus, the most heinous criminals are being punished for heinous murders and crimes. They are punished for their actions, but their executions also save other lives that might be taken if they returned to their streets. Opponents say these criminals would remain behind bars for the…
Editors. "Capital Punishment Statistics." U.S. Department of Justice. 2007. 3 March 2007. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov /bjs/cp.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
We Background - Dianne awlinson, a female citizen of the state of Alabama, applied for a job as a state prison guard, but was rejected because she failed to meet a state requirement that all prison guards must be at least 5' 2" tall and weigh a minimum 120 pounds. Additionally, a state regulation prohibited women from serving as guards in maximum security institutions because that position would require direct contact with male prisoners.
The Complaint - awlinson filed suit with the EEOC and brought a class action suit against Alabama corrections officials in which she challenged the height/weight as well as the "close contact" regulations. awlinson claimed that these rules violated her civil rights under Title VII (1964) Civil ights Act.
The uling - The District Court ruled in awlinson's favor on both counts. It took into account national statistics that outlined the comparatives heights and weights…
Dothard v. Rawlinson (No. 76-422). (1977). United States Supreme Court.
Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0433_0321_ZS.html
CSWD (Council on Size and Weight Discrimination). (2006). Laws and Ordinances. Retrieved from: http://www.cswd.org/docs/legalaction.html
Cushman, C. (2001). Supreme Court Decisions and Women's Rights. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…
Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .
Jones, B. (2012, April 13). http://www.usatoday.com /news. Retrieved from
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
Megan's law was formed in order to make information accessible to the people concerning registered sex crooks. This law was formed after the murder of Megan Kanka. Various countries decided their own way to access information and how to disperse the information among the public. The information, which is commonly collected, is the crook's name, address, photograph, imprisonment date, and the level of crime. This information can be easily accessible by the public on public websites that can be accessed free of cost. This information can also be available in newspapers, or pamphlets can be distributed which contain this information, or several other ways can be used to disperse the information about sex crooks (Fodor, 2001).
Megan's law is also known as the Sexual offender (Jacob Wetterling), which is 1994 Act, and needs the individuals which are found guilty for sex crimes done with children to inform local law bodies…
Carlan, P., Nored, L., & Downey, R.A. (2011). An Introduction to Criminal Law. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Fodor, M.D. (2001). Megan's Law: Protection Or Privacy. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers.
Officers simply enter information on these cases and the program attempts to make possible connections to other entered data. (FI).
Clearly this program increases understanding of criminal typologies because it allows a law enforcement agency to find patterns in behavior across numerous jurisdictions. More so, it is an easy and efficient method of tracking criminals, including sex offenders, especially in cases that have gone unsolved for numerous years.
Modus Operandi Database
Modus Operandi, which means, "mode of operation" is used to describe a criminal's characteristic patterns and style of going about their criminal acts. It is often used in offender profiling as tracking the modus operandi often leads to clues involving the offender's psychology. A modus operandi database merely collects and organizes information on modus operandi, allowing law enforcement agencies to make connections to other agency information.
Such database programs clearly allows law enforcement agencies to increase their understanding of…
FBI. Investigative Programs. www.fbi.gov.
Turvey, B.E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. San Diego: Academic, 1999.
Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org)
Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system
Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…
Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com .
Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.pwcgov.org .
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html .
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov .
prisons have vacillated between taking a primarily punitive approach to prison inmates and in looking for ways to treat the problems that brought them to that state. These cycles occur because often neither therapy nor punishment prevents inmates from repeating their patterns of crime once they are released. This may be partly because our prisons have not always completely thought the therapeutic process through, but it is also partly because of the nature of the types of people who end up in prison.
One of the types crimes the general public is most concerned about involves sexual attacks. The public knows that both pedophiles and rapists tend to repeat their behavior once released from prison. As a result, many prisons have therapeutic groups for sex offenders. In many cases, the participants choose to attend these groups (Swift, 1998). Research in Canada on the efficacy of these interventions gave startling results:…
Lovell, David. 1998. "Coping with Mental Illness in Prisons." Family and Community Health, October.
Swift, Diana. 1998. "When bad men do good: a prison study reveals that for sex offenders, positive treatment behavior is more likely to predict relapse." Medical Post, September 15.
Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle ock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle ock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property…
Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
Hiatt, Heidi. (2011). Landmark domestic violence legislation: Tracey Thurman vs. Torrington,
CT. Time's Up. Retrieved: http://timesupblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/landmark-domestic-violence-legislation.html
A written policy regarding sexual misconduct is imperative, as is stringent hiring practices including applicant screening, adequate supervision, training, and a structured investigative process regarding allegations of sexual misconduct (Abner et al., 2011). Addressing Sexual Offenses further states that it is necessary to clearly outline the consequences for sexual misconduct as a means of deterring it (Abner et al., 2011). Additionally, Addressing Sexual Offenses outlines other strategies which need to be employed to eliminate the possibility of police sexual misconduct including videotaping all officer interactions, requiring strict time reporting, and implementing unannounced spot checks on officer's electronic devices and communication devices (Abner et al., 2011).
Specific strategies, policies, training, screening, and supervising must be employed to eradicate sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers. Obviously, sexual misconduct by law enforcement officers is a reality and has far reaching implications within a society. Only by eliminating the behavior, will it be possible…
Abner, C., Clark, D., Dahmer-Farris, T., Di Pino, B., Gamble, a., Gibbs, T… Firman, J.
(2011, June). Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law
Executive Guide. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from website:
Forensic Mental Health Legislation and Policies
The current position on forensic mental health issues when it comes to legislation and policies is a strong one, but there are some difficulties that do not translate well into the probation and parole policies that are currently offered. In other words, there are issues that are not being addressed, and that are allowing individuals with mental health problems who on are probation and parole to slip through the cracks and struggle with their issues on their own (Wang, et al., 2005). Not only are they not getting the help they need in order to live productive lives, they are also more likely to reoffend, violate their probation or parole, become homeless, drink to excess, do drugs, and get involved in other unsavory behavior (Patel & Prince, 2002). The high proportion of indigenous offenders is one of the biggest issues that indicates mental health…
Australian Government (2012). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://mhsa.aihw.gov.au/home/
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V., Lepine, JP., Angermeyer, MC., Bernert, S., et al. (2004). WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(21): 2581 -- 2590.
Keyes, C. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 43(2): 207 -- 222.
Munce, S.E., Stansfeld, S.A., Blackmore, E.R., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). The role of depression and chronic pain conditions in absenteeism: Results from a national epidemiologic survey. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(11): 1206 -- 1211.
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…
The issues, problems and recommendations
The subject matter of the case study itself highlights a number of issues, factors and problems that existed at the Mermon Correctional Institution, which is located outside the Washington D.C. One of the most significant problems that the Mermon Correctional Facility faces in the case study is of the existing staff levels employed by the prison administration. According to many prison staff members, which also included the victim Correctional Officer Marsha Willis, the number of staff enrolled by the prison administration was less than the numbers that should have been present in an average correctional facility in the country. According to the classification of prisons made by the Federal ureau of Prisons, a correctional institution requires to have a high staff member to inmate ratio. Such a policy was in place to ensure that the prison security measures were up to the mark required for…
BOP. (2012). Federal Prison System. Retrieved from Department of Justice: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2013summary/pdf/fy13-bop-bud-summary.pdf
BOP. (n.d.). Prison Types & General Information. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Prisons: http://www.bop.gov/locations/institutions/
COUNTY CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES -- SECURITY and CONTROL. (n.d.). Retrieved from DEPARTMENT of CORRECTION: http://www.lawlib.state.ma.us/source/mass/cmr/cmrtext/103CMR924.pdf
Henrichson, C., & Delaney, R. (2012, February 22). The price of prisons. Retrieved from Vera Institute of Justice: http://www.vera.org/pubs/price-prisons-what-incarceration-costs-taxpayers
It was also at
this period in his life that the alleged acts of molestation which may have
occurred during his childhood began to manifest in psychosexual
According to Odom, "in an interview Jeffrey once stated, 'it started
at the age of 14 or 15. I started having excessive fantasies of violence
intermingled with sex and it just got worse and worse. I didn't know how to
tell anyone, so I didn't. I just kept it all inside.'" (Odom, 1) Indeed,
the Odom article contends that Dahmer's drinking became a coping mechanism
but that his control over his violent sexual fantasies was dashed apart in
1978. Perhaps by no coincidence, the year that he graduated from high
school and his parents got divorced would be the same in which he committed
his first murder. Indications are also that Dahmer was exposed to violence
between his parents during the dissolution…
Associated Press (AP). (1995). DAhmer's Brain Kept For Research. BNet.
Montaldo, C. (2008). Profile of Serial Killer Jeffrey Dahmer. About
Crime/Punishment. Online at http://crime.about.com/od/serial/a/dahmer.htm
In this scenario of what may be an instance of domestic violence, the officer has the option of simply talking to the couple, determining what is wrong and issuing a warning-or pressing charges against both or one of the participants for disorderly conduct. The police officer can simply use his or her presence to influence the couple's behavior or can use the actual weight of the law. The officer will have to use his or her perceptions of the relationship between the couple as well as the information the couple offers. As part of assessment, the officer should speak to both members of the couple separately to determine if one or more of the participants is at risk of suffering further physical violence. The officer should also determine if alcohol or drugs are potentially involved, which can affect the participants' judgment. It should be noted that merely because the…
Gracia, E. (2004). Unreported cases of domestic violence against women: towards an epidemiology of social silence, tolerance, and inhibition Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58:536-537. Retrieved from:
Imposition of a sentence. (2014). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from:
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…
Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests.
ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…
Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.
Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.
Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.