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Sex offenders: How should the legal system deal with them?
Dealing with the problem of sex offenders is one of the most serious and emotional issues any criminal justice professional can confront. Even otherwise rational people often become irrational when the subject of sexual abuse arises. This fear that sex offenders could be anywhere and everywhere is terrifying for parents and the public at large. The idea that a sex offender could be released into the community is so abhorrent for many it has led to calls for additional legislation to limit sex offenders' movements and whereabouts long after they have served their time in jail. "One of the most hotly-debated issues in criminal law today is how to manage the perceived risk of sex offenders loose in the community. Beyond mandatory registration and community notification, over a dozen states, including Illinois, have enacted residency restrictions that forbid sex offenders…
Durling, C. (2006). Never going home: Does it make us safer? does it make sense? sex offenders, residency restrictions, and reforming risk management law. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 97(1), 317-363.
'Megan's Law' mom criticizes 'sexting' charges. (2009). NPR. Retrieved:
Shealy, L., Kalichman, S.C., Henderson, M.C., Szymanowski, D., & McKee, G. (1991). MMPI
Sex offender (sex-related transgressor, sex auser or even sex-related auser) is an individual that has actually dedicated a sex criminal offense or in some circumstances also plain pulic peeing (MSNBC, 2007). Just what comprises a sex criminal activity varies y society and lawful territory. A numer of territories assemle their regulations in to areas, such as traffic, attack and sex-related. Most of pronounced guilty sex transgressors have convictions for criminal offenses of sex-related attriutes; nonetheless, some sex transgressors have actually just reached a regulation consisted of in a sex-related group. A few of the criminal activities which typically lead to a necessary sex-offender category are: a moment hooking conviction, sending out or otaining salacious material through SMS message (sexting), partnership in etween young people and teens leading to corruption of a small (if the age in etween them is aove 1,060 days; if any sort of sex-related consult was made…
1. The Paraphilias, Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorder, And The Treatment Of Sexually Deviant Behaviors
The paraphilias have actually been mainly disregarded by psychiatry, despite the fact that psychiatrists are preferably matched to deal with and detect these conditions by virtue of their medical as well as mental training. The sexual variances need an understanding of not only biological but also mental causation and abilities in mental and medicinal sessions. Just recently the Supreme Court of the United States in Kansas v. Hendricks (1997) promoted the constitutionality of the civil dedication of sexually deviant people for psychological sessions. As the different states embrace statutes based upon Hendricks, psychiatry will be required to take a proactive participation in the medical diagnosis as well as the administration of the paraphillias. This paper details briefly where the industry is in the comprehension of the natural history, medical diagnosis, and sessions of the paraphilias.
2. An Audit Report on Selected Rehabilitation Programs at the Department of Criminal Justice
3 of 5 programs auditors assessed at the Department of Criminal Justice decreased recidivism (re-arrest and re-incarceration) rates. A 4th program lowered re-arrest rates however had greater re-incarceration rates; while the 5th program did not minimize either re-arrest or re-incarceration rates.
The Saybrook Forum reports that studies indicate that rehabilitation of sex offenders is possible. It is reported that sex offenders can be rehabilitated through therapy and that therapy can be an effective method to rehabilitating sex offenders. The method utilized is quite simple and is reported to be humanistic involving addressing the humanity of the offender. ehabilitation makes a requirement of "taking the sex offender seriously as a person." (Saybrook Forum, 2011, p.1) Preliminary research in "humanistic and existential psychology" which used the group therapy context has demonstrated success in rehabilitation of sex offenders.
Summary and Conclusion
There is a great deal of controversy surrounding treatment and rehabilitation of sex offenders and while studies show that treatment and rehabilitation programs are successful, there still is the issue of a lack of empirical studies to support this idea. However, treatment vs. The alternative of no treatment is the most…
An, Veronica (2013) LA Sex Offenders Need Rehabilitation. Daily Trojan 10 Mar 2013. Retrieved from: http://dailytrojan.com/2013/03/10/la-sex-offenders-need-rehabilitation/
Studies Suggest it is Possible to Rehabilitate Sex Offenders -- by Acknowledging Their Humanity. University. Saybrook Forum 9 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.saybrook.edu/forum/univ/studies-suggest-it-possible-rehabilitate-sex-offenders-acknowledging-their-humanity
Trowbridge, B. (nd) Does Sex Offender Treatment Work? Retrieved from: www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/.../doc40_trowbridge_2005_pdf?
While registry systems are improving to help keep community members aware of their risk from known offenders, much more needs to be done to prevent offenses from happening in the first place. This is a very difficult task, since it involves not only crime prevention but also risk detection and systems cohesion. One way this challenge might be approached is through increased reporting requirements. Too often, alleged abuse in schools or daycare centers goes un-reported and the accused teacher is simply let go from his job. He is then likely to go to another school and be re-hired there, effectively placing a whole new set of students at risk. The Student Protection Act was introduced in the Senate in 2007. If passed, the Act would create mandatory standards for reporting incidents of sexual misconduct, and would develop a nationwide database to house that information. When a school was conducting a…
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (2007). The Frontline. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: Washington, DC.
Sex Offenders: History. Available at: http://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/
Shih, Gerry (2010). After Another Murder, Another Proposed Law. The New York Times
An Investigation of hether the Punishments Inflicted upon Sex Offenders are the most Effective Means of Dealing with these Offenders
There are some crimes that are so hideous that there doesn't seem that any chance of rehabilitation would ever be possible. It is commonly the case that the most horrific stories of sexual offenses plague the media. Because of this the public has developed an irrational fear against the sexual offender stereotype which has served as the foundation for harsher and harsher punishments. However, studies of shown that among various sexual offenders that the rate of recidivism was surprising low given the individuals completed a treatment program. Yet most sexual offenders who have complete treatment as well as their sentences and have to abide by a wide range of restrictions that make their lives unduly hard to live. This paper takes an objective look at the punishments and…
Dormin, C. (2010, May 22). Facts and Fiction about Sex Offenders. Retrieved from Corrections: http://www.corrections.com/news/article/24500-facts-and-fiction-about-sex-offenders
Griffin, A. (2011, August 12). Sex Offenders Have No Place To Go After Serving Time. Retrieved from ProQuest: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2422955411&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=11123&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Shwartz, B. (2011). Handbook of Sex Offender Treatment. Civic Research Institute.
Granted, offenders who can legally be monitored for their online behaviors should be prevented from engaging in any precursor acts to grooming. The rehabilitation process should include the development of healthy online behaviors and habits.
Specific features of online communication make it so that grooming is easy for sex offenders. It is also difficult if not impossible to prevent sex offenders from using the Internet to perpetrate their criminal behaviors. Therefore, the best solution is to target the other end of the equation and empower communities, parents, and children. esearch is increasingly revealing the value of education and community interventions in teaching children about what warning signs to look out for when using the Internet (Davidson & Gottschalk, 2011). Some research also shows that prevention efforts that help young people use the internet more responsibly are also more effective when coupled with anti-bullying and other mental health interventions that target…
Davidson, J. & Gottschalk, P. (2011). Characteristics of the Internet for criminal child sexual abuse by online groomers. Criminal Justice Studies 24(1): 23-26.
Ybarra, M.L. & Mitchell, K.J. (2008). How risky are social networking sites? Pediatrics 121(2).
In general, preferential child molesters are much more dangerous that situational child molesters, largely because they typically account for more than one-hundred victims before being apprehended whereas situational child molesters are rarely as prolific. Preferential child molesters have specific preferences for children and for children of certain ages. They may purposely position themselves to take advantage of children, such as by pursuing professional employment that allows them close contact with or authority over children.
What are the two occupations in which a person has the greatest danger of being the victim of a violent crime on the job? Why?
The two occupations in which a person is at greatest potential risk of being victimized by violent crime on the job are: (1) taxicab and limousine drivers and (2) proprietors of 24-hour gas stations, convenience stores, and liquor stores. That is largely because taxi drivers work in close proximity to strangers…
Sex Offender egistration Laws
The issue of sex offender registration and notification (SON) has been an age long practice across many states and upon release from jail, some states require that sex offenders register with their local authorities for ease of monitoring over a period of time. However, this has raised substantial debate over the effectiveness of this method in deterring recidivism. Studies have been conducted among sex offenders released from prison into states that required registration and those that did not require registration and conflicting conclusions have been drawn ct. It is the interest of this paper to show how effective this approach has been and the failures that it has encountered in preventing the sex offenders who are released from abducting victims.
The SON enables the local authorities to know the exact location of residence of the sex offender and the composition of the neighboring society. This will…
Hartmann M., (2011). Sex Offenders Registries may not be Very Effective. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://jezebel.com/5836093/sex-offender-registries-may-not-be-very-effective
PrescottJ.J. & Rockoff J., (2010). Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws
Affect Criminal Behavior? Retrieved April 5, 2016 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiLiLO7jvjLAhUF7BQKHTTiDX0QFghEMAY&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww0.gsb.columbia.edu%2Ffaculty%2Fjrockoff%2Fpapers%2Fprescott%2520rockoff%2520meglaw%2520jan%252010.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGij3nV9ZJjeBDPZCv0peLaBwXudg&sig2=HBzY3yStUscAhwOlJas0PQ&bvm=bv.118443451,d.bGg
Sex Offenders and the Internet
The types of sexual habits occurring online range from very unusual behaviors to others that are plain illegal (Caroline & Klein, 2014). A considerable amount of literature on sexual abuse of minors occurring and getting promoted online is being developed although there is a scarcity of information concerning other internet sexual based interactions that touch on manufacturing, dissemination and online viewing of sexual materials (Carolina & Klein, 2014).
This paper focuses on exploration and analysis of different practices including rape videos, sadomasochism leading to body disfigurement, zoophilic and necrophilia with the aim being to reduce information gap. In addition, impacts of sexual behavior on clinical and forensic psychiatry as well as legal regulations and ethical considerations are discussed (Carolina & Klein, 2014).
Common cases on online Sex offenders
Cybercrimes are an enhancement of traditional crimes whose scale is enlarged by computer usage, networks and other…
Babchishin, K. Hanson, R., & Seto, M (2011). Contact sexual offending by men with online sexual offenses. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 124-145.
Baharudin, F., & Zakaria, Z. (2012). Adolescents and Internet Sex Addiction. USIM
Carolina, A.. & Klein, MD. (2014). Digital and Divergent: Sexual Behaviors on the Internet. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 42:495 -- 503.
Elliott, A., Beech, R., & Norden, R. (2013). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 25(1) 3 -- 20
Adolescent Sex Offenders: Early Development and Transition to Adulthood (Ages 15 -30)
The objective of this study is to examine the early development of sex offenders and the adolescent activity that fosters the abnormal behavior. This study will relate to lifespan development where the focus must explain the abnormal development over a period between ages 15 and 30.
Adolescents who commit sex offenses are in many states listed on a sex offender registry for life and some of these boys are only 10 years of age. Reports show that only a small percentage of these adolescent boys go on to commit sex crimes as an adult and that many of the sex crimes committed were of the nature that are very similar to natural childhood experimentation with some of the offenders having simply grabbed a girl's buttocks or breasts on the outside of their clothing. Other more virulent offenders however,…
Michael F. Caldwell et al., An Examination of the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act as Applied to Juveniles: Evaluating the Ability to Predict Sexual Recidivism, 14 PSYCHOLOGY, PUBLIC POLICY AND LAW 89, (2008).
Michael H. Miner, The Fallacy of Juvenile Sex Offender Risk, 6 CRIMINOLOGY & PUBLIC POLICY 565, (2007)
National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth, What Research Shows About Adolescent Sex Offenders, NCSBY
FACTSHEET NO. 1 (2003). http://www.ncsby.org/pages/publications/What%20Research%20Shows%20About%
Sex Offenders in the UK, U.S. & Canada
Legislators and criminal justice institutions in the UK, the U.S. And Germany have taken steps in recent years to come to terms -- using harsher and more public methods of punishment -- with those individuals that commit crimes of a sexual nature against children. Because of the outrage and terror that families and citizens express to public officials when a child is kidnapped or abused in a sexual context, and the sensationalized publicity that the media gives to crimes against children, elected officials have had no choice but to crack down on pedophiles and other violent criminals who commit offenses against children. Indeed, expanded policies of criminalization against child sexual abuse (including child pornography, the exploitation of children on the Internet, child sexual tourism among other crimes) have been put in place in the three above-mentioned nations. There are differences…
Therefore, certain jobs would require much more scrutiny than others, and would require employers to not hire, or possibly terminate existing employees who are sec offenders in such job roles.
Every organization's Human Resource department then has to deal with the sensitive issues in terms of potentially hiring sexual offenders, and how to handle breaking that news to other employees and customers. It is the burden of the HR department in any given organization to have to go through and actually check each application and each applicant's background. This has become a necessity within the context of the modern workplace. According to the research, "HR offices are weeding through more unqualified applicants and investing time and energy ensuring the accuracy of backgrounds presented on application materials" (Heathfield 2011). This process can be quite tedious, especially if HR does not take preventative steps to ensure they are promoting full disclosure within…
The boy spoke Spanish and had been diagnosed as being "multiple-handicapped and perceptually impaired," which means he could not read or spell simple words, and "had difficulty reasoning on an abstract level" (NJLJ 2001). The therapist testified that the boy admitted to "penetration" but apparently did not know the meaning of the word; he "equated rape with sex, and...he understood sex to mean the act of 'rubbing against someone.'"
Further, medical tests showed that the 8-year-old cousin had "an intact hymen" and showed no signs of sexual abuse (NJLJ 2001). Since the guilty plea had been entered, the court
ADHD and Sexual Aggression concluded, "without a proper factual basis," that plea "violates due process and is unconstitutional if the accused contemporaneously claims..." innocence (NJLJ, 2001). And after five years of dealing with this juvenile and the law, the court "vacated" the plea, which adjudicated delinquency. This case shows the difficulty…
Aylwin, A. Scott, Reddon, John R., & Burke, Andrew R. (2005). Sexual Fantasies of Adolescent
Male Sex Offenders in Residential Treatment: A Descriptive Study. Archives of Sexual
Behavior, 34(2), pp. 231-239.
Center for Sex Offender Management. (2000). Myths and Facts About Sex Offenders. Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 7 Dec. 2006 at http://www.csom.org/pubs/mythsfacts.html.
chemical castration for sex offenders. Specifically it will discuss why chemical castration for sex offenders is necessary to control sex offenders in the general population, and how the "three strikes" laws need to be enhanced for sex offenders. Chemical castration is the ultimate solution for some sex offenders who cannot control their need to abuse others, and it may be the only way some offenders can actually live in communities and attempt to live productive lives outside of incarceration.
The recent series of sex crimes and murders in the news points to a severe problem with sex offenders on the loose and unmonitored by local police departments. Often, the general population does not know there is a sex offender living next door or down the street until it is too late. The problem is more widespread than many people know, and so, a workable solution to the problem needs to…
Thiessen, Del. "11 Hormonal Correlates of Sexual Aggression." Crime in Biological, Social, and Moral Contexts. Eds. Ellis, Lee and Harry Hoffman. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1990. 153-158.
Kincaid, James R. Erotic Innocence: The Culture of Child Molesting. Durham, England: Duke University Press, 1998.
Meisenkothen, Christopher. "Chemical Castration - Breaking the Cycle of Paraphiliac Recidivism." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 139.
Russell, Stacy. "Castration of Repeat Sexual Offenders: An International Comparative Analysis." Houston Journal of International Law 19.2 (1997): 425-459.
Considering this, many have contended that once a priest's pedophilic drives have been revealed that "All minors are potential victims in [their] presence." (heeler, 2005). But this is analogous to saying that all women are in danger of having sexual relations with a heterosexual priest. Clearly, such an act is not necessarily a crime, as pedophilia is, but both opinions suggest that celibacy is impossible -- doubtlessly it is not.
So, the question is: can a pedophile be an honest and honorable priest? The answer most certainly is, yes. But it is also essential that if there is any evidence of sexual misconduct, whether by a priest or any other member of society, it must be reported to authorities; the "family" of the Church cannot avoid this obligation. Accordingly, the argument that, "Zero tolerance may be appropriate in cases where a serious crime is known to have been committed and…
The Boston Globe. Betrayal: the Crisis in the Catholic Church. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2002.
Breslin, Jimmy. The Church that Forgot Christ. New York: Free Press, 2004.
Curtis, Kim. "Oakland Priority Housing Sex Offender Priests Draw Neighborhood Ire." The Associated Press, April 11, 2005.
Dulles, Avery. "Rights of Accused Priests." American Society, Jun 21-Jun 28, 2004. Vol. 190, Iss. 20. pg. 19.
5%) are males and only 9 (1.5%) are females. In five of these nine incidents the sexual molestation took place with the presence of a male partner; while in four cases the perpetrator acted independently. Out of the five women who sexually abused children along with a male partner 1 victimized a male child, 3 victimized female children and 1 victimized their own son and daughters. When reviewing the history of these women, the researchers found that most of them had been sexually abused by males acting independently. All of the nine female sexual perpetrators fit the profile sketched by Finkelhor (1984) and Araji and Finkelhor (1985).
Neddermeyer (2008) writes, "Child sexual abuse is the greatest hidden epidemic in the world. U.S. statistics reveal as high as 62% of females and 31% of males will be sexually violated before age 18." The motives of child sexual abusers are very clear…
Araji, S., and D. Finkelhor. (1985).Explanations of Pedophilia: Review of Empirical Research.. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 13: 17-37.
Blume, E.S. (1991). Secret Survivors. Ballantine Books: New York, NY.
Finkelhor, D and Russell, D. (1984).Women as Perpetrators: Review of the Evidence. In D. Finkelhor, Child Sexual Abuse New Theory and Research; 171-187.
Neddermeyer, D.M. (2005). Child Sexual Abuse Defined. Available at: http://www.evliving.com/2005/03/01/child-sexual-abuse-defined/
Against Residency Restrictions for Sex Offenders
Child sexual abuse. It may be the most frightening of all crimes. Predators prey on children, using their naivete and innocence to make them the ultimate victims. In doing so, they rob children of their childhoods, and create a lifelong impact that reverberates throughout their childhood. Child sexual abuse victims may never fully recover from the abuse. Furthermore, every parent has heard of the nightmare scenarios; the crazy predator that abducts, tortures, rapes, and then murders a child. Frequently, news reports reveal that those individuals had a history of sexual violence, oftentimes against children, and the public wants to know why the police failed to protect that tiny last victim. The public demands laws that protect our children and our lawmakers respond with sex offender registries and residency restrictions for sex offenders, and the public sleeps safer at night, despite the fact that our…
There is also the idea that the child will not be believed, and the idea that a child (or even an adult) might tell this humiliating and painful story only to be laughed at, ignored, or turned away, is too much for many of these victims to bear (Denov, 2003).
b. DSM-IV AND SEX OFFENDING
Paraphilias appear to be presented as a primarily male problem. An addendum to the section of Paraphilias reads: "Except for Sexual Masochism...Paraphilias are almost never diagnosed in females" (APA, 1994: 524). While the DSM criteria for many different issues and problems have changed throughout the years, it still appears to be very stereotypical when it comes to the idea of sexual abuse and sexual offense, which seems to relate to the training and socialization that many people have about this particular issue and the way that it makes them feel.
Even though the DSM-IV term…
Allen, C.M. (1987). Rendering them harmless: The professional portrayal of women charged with serious violent crimes. In P. Carlen and A. Worrall, (Eds.), Gender, Crime and Justice. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson. P. & Struckman-Johnson, C. (Eds.) (1998). Sexually aggressive women. London: The Guilford Press.
Bucher, R. & Stelling, J. (1977). Becoming professional. London: Sage.
Female Sex Offenders
There have been extensive studies regarding child sexual abuse, however, there have been minimal attention paid to sexual abuse by females (Denov 2001). During the last twenty years there has been a rise of interest in the issue of child sexual abuse with most research concluding that sexual offending is an exclusively male activity (Denov 2001). In fact, early research on sexual offenders suggested that sexual offending among females was so rare that it was "of little significance" and claimed that sexual offending was "virtually unknown among women" (Denov 2001). A 1984 study suggested that "pedophilia does not exist at al in women" (Denov 2001). However, findings from more recent studies have begun to acknowledge the existence of female sexual offenders (Denov 2001).
Indeed, official statistics lends to the conclusion that female offending is a rare phenomenon (Denov 2001). According to figures from the Canadian Center for…
Cahn, Susan. "Spirited youth or fiends incarnate: the Samarcand arson case and female adolescence in the American South." Journal of Women's History. 1998.
Chow, Eva W.; Choy, Alberto L. "Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Response to SSRI in a Female Pedophile." Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2002.
Denov, Myriam S. "A Culture of Denial: Exploring Professional Perspectives on Female Sex Offending." Canadian Journal of Criminology. July 2001.
DeVoe, E.R. "The characteristics of disclosure among children who may have been sexually abused." Child Management. 1999.
counseling juvenile sex offenders utilizing the "Empathy Promoting" strategy in a juvenile justice center. The presentation is actually a review of what took place and also of what this counseling strategy is intended to accomplish working with young offenders. There is always more that can be learned and more than can be done to work with people more effectively, and part of the task of a counselor is to seek new and more effective ways of communicating the most appropriate information at the most appropriate time.
Description of Practicum Sites and Clientele
a quiet counseling room in a juvenile justice center; the shades are pulled up on the two windows that look out to a grove of tall trees, a lawn and benches with no one present
Clients: two boys, one 16 (Jamie) and the other 17 (Bob), arrested for allegedly molesting a young 13-year-old girl in their neighborhood.
Andrade, J.T, Vincent, G.M., and Saleh, F.M. (2006). An Examination of Two Sexual
Recidivism Risk Measures in Adolescent Offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior.
Eds. G. Rajilic and H. Gretton. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling.
Calley, Nancy G. And Gerber, Sherri. (2008). Empathy-Promoting Counseling Strategies
Female Sex Offenders
Are female sex offenders more evil than male sex offenders?
Biological differences in men and women have been thought to contribute to predispositions for various criminal activities. For example, hormonal differences exist between genders and cause significant alterations in behaviors. Men generally have more testosterone which has been correlated with aggressive and competitive behavior in some studies. However, women have higher levels of estrogen and different biological compositions. Studies have also shown that women are more likely to commit crimes during their premenstrual cycle (PMS). During PMS women high levels of hormones that make them more aggressive and irritable which is a state associated with low levels of estrogen coupled with higher levels of progesterone.
This analysis will consider the question of whether or not there are gender differences in the occurrences of sexual offenses. The common stereotype of sexual crimes is of males who use their…
Chesney-Lind, M., 2006. Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice. Feminist Criminology, pp. 6-26.
Covington, S. & Bloom, B., 2003. Gendered Justice: Women in the Criminal Justice System. [Online]
Available at: http://www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/4.pdf
Forbes, S. & Harris, M., 2014. Female Sex Offenders: Observed Trends in Wisconsin. Corrections Today, pp. 58-61.
Execution for Committing a Non-Homicide Sex Crime
The last execution of an individual found guilty for committing a non-homicide sex crime occurred 50 years ago. The use of the death penalty against such offenders was halted partly because of claims that such execution was not only cruel but also in violation of the Constitution. In Coker v. Georgia (1977), the Court ruled that executions for rape were not only cruel but also contributed to unusual punishment that infringed the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution. In its ruling on the case, the U.S. Supreme Court prohibited the death penalty for rape in an offense where the victim had the legal status of an adult since she was 16 years old and married. In the past few years, there have been attempts and efforts that support the reinstatement of capital punishment for committing a non-homicide sex crime. These efforts have primarily been…
Greenhouse, L. (2008, June 26). Supreme Court Rejects Death Penalty for Child Rape. The New
York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/26/washington/26scotuscnd.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Harris, T. (2006, March 30). Making Sex Crimes Against Kids a Capital Offense. ABC News.
Retrieved February 7, 2015, from http://abcnews.go.com /U.S./story?id=1786632&page=1&singlePage=true
When the public is notified of a sexual offender moving into a neighborhood, they are often ostracized, which may exacerbate their problems and increase their risk of reoffense. "ejection by the community may lead people to despair of ever living a normal life, and such hopelessness can undermine attempts to conform to community standards, driving people inwards, where they may dwell on increasingly inappropriate fantasies" (Lotke, 1997). This clearly has the opposite effect of Megan's Laws intended goals. Instead of protecting citizens, the laws may cause a higher recidivism rate.
Because of the fear of being ostracized, or even harmed, by a community, sexual offenders may purposely move to communities that are less organized. Their initial hope may be to simply avoid the ostracization from Megan's Laws. However, once they've gone unnoticed in a community, these offenders may be more tempted to commit another offense, because they feel like they've…
Larson, a. (Aug 2003). Megan's Law. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://www.expertlaw.com/library/criminal/megans_law.html .
Lotke, E. (Sept/Oct 1997). "Politics and irrelevance: Community notification statutes." Federal Sentencing Reporter, 10(2). Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://www.helping-people.info/articles/lotke_frame.htm .
Megan's Law. (Jul 2001). Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://ag.ca.gov/megan/pdf/july2001.pdf.
O'Malley, M. (9 Jul 2009). A brief history of Megan's Law. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://www.examiner.com/legal-news-in-philadelphia/a-brief-history-of-megan-s-law .
When one looks at the occurrence of recidivism in offenders who have partaken in treatment programs varying from organic programs to those geared to more social and emotional support programs, it becomes clear that recidivism of sexual re-offense is relatively low, compared to those who undergo no treatment program. However, there is still an issue with non-sexual re-offense. In addition, there is evidence that the contributing factors for adult and juvenile offenders are different.
As such, it is suggested that not all offenders should receive the same treatment. Correctional literature indicates that high-risk offender require the greatest use of resource, while lower risk offenders require the lowest level of resources (Andrews & Bonta, 2003).
As such, blanket policies that deem all offenders as 'high risk' are neither effective nor efficient. In addition, it may take away resources from those who truly need it, such as juvenile offenders who require longterm…
Abracen, J., Looman, J., DiFazio, R., Kelly, T., & Stirpe, T. (Mar 2006). Patterns of attachment and alcohol abuse in sexual and violent non-sexual offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Andrews, D. & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Bates, a., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C. (Spring 2007). Doing something about it: A follow-up study of sex offenders participating in Thames Valley Circles of Support and Accountability. British Journal of Community Justice, 5(1). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from SocINDEX database.
Calley, N. (Spring 2007). Integrating theory and research: The development of a research-based treatment program for juvenile male sex offenders. Counseling & Development, 85(2). Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…
Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.
Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.
(2009, Oct. 4). 25,000 Nepli girls involved in sex trde in Indin cities.
Commercil sex brothels in the towns of Delhi, Mumbi, Pune nd Kolkt feture young girls believed to hve been kidnpped from Nepl, ccording to the rticle. There re n estimted fifty brothels in Pune, nd mny of them re reportedly owned by dult women from Nepl. In those 50 brothels there re bout 500 Neplese girls working in sexul slvery, the rticle sserts. This informtion comes through report tht ws intended to get the medi interested in reporting these terrible crimes. Retrieved Feb. 13,
2010, from http://www.expressindi, com/fullstory.php?newsid=55901.
Hwii News Now. (2010, Februry 10). Hwii mn chrged with sex trfficking t Super Bowl. A mn who is lleged to be pimp from Hwii is being chrged with bringing teenge Hwiin girl to the Super Bowl in Mimi -- nd llegedly used her to mke money. Fred Collins…
and Customs Enforcement agents that they were promised good jobs and a better life in the United States, so they came to the U.S. with high hopes. But when they arrived it turned out that they had to work in the bar for $20 a day until they paid off their "smuggling fees" of around $4,500. Part of their job was to have sex with customers "for money."
Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from the Monitor http://www.themonitor.com .
WTOV9.com. (2010, Feb. 14). Report: Human Trafficking Big Business in Ohio. This article on WTOV9 tells the story of how teenager Theresa Flores was raped and had photos taken of the act of being raped. The attacker said unless she submitted to being a hooker for his gang, her photo would be on the Internet and everyone would know she had sex (even her priest) So she went along for 2 years. Moreover, the story claims that as many as 1,000 children born in Ohio each year are forced into sex slavery. Retrieved Feb. 14, 2010, from http://www.wtov9.com/news/22553109/detail.html .
Treatment Programs for Sex Offenders
esults of studies are inconclusive as to how often convicted sex offenders re-offend once released from prison. A Canadian study suggested the number is as high as 88%. (Bialik, 2008) However, Wisconsin psychologist Dennis Doren states, "There is no research support for that view, period." (Bialik, 2008) Another widely publicized report indicates the rate of re-offense to be 52%. (Bialik, 2008) If even half of the convicted sex offenders are likely to commit a similar crime once released, the number is too high.
One way to reduce the number of repeat offenders is to mandate participation in a treatment program. Once an offender is convicted of a crime, their Constitutional rights should be suspended. They should lose the free will that they enjoyed as a free member of society. As such, they should be required to undergo treatment for sexual assault. It should not even…
Alaska Department of Corrections and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit. (1996). Sex Offender Treatment Program: Initial Recidivism Study -- Executive Summary. Anchorage, AK: Offender Programs, Alaska Department of Corrections; and Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Bialik, Carl. (January 24, 2008). How Likely Are Sex Offenders to Repeat Their Crimes? Retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/how-likely-are-sex-offenders-to-repeat-their-crimes-258/
Prentky, R. & Burgess, A.W. (1990). Rehabilitation of child molesters: A cost-benefit analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 60, 108-117.
Despite these constraints, GPS-enabled tracking systems stand to promote public safety. In this regard, Schwabe and his associates report, "etter technology for offender tracking has the potential to increase public safety by making information on offenders easier to share and utilize" (2001, p. 23). These types of surveillance systems, though, introduce new privacy concerns, even for offenders, given the fundamental constitutional rights that are involved. As Schwabe et al. emphasize, "It should be noted, however, that such systems raise many of the same civil liberties issues discussed above vis-a-vis video surveillance. As a result, they represent another case where the use of a technology by law enforcement must be balanced against individual rights and the resulting (potentially conflicting) public perceptions of the activity" (Schwabe et al., 2001, p. 23). While the debate over civil liberties vs. public safety continues, the use of GPS-enabled tracking devices continues to increase in jurisdictions…
Cassel, D. (2008). Pretrial and preventive detention of suspected terrorists: Options and constraints under international law. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(3),
Author is Professor of Law; Director, Center for Civil and Human Rights, Notre Dame Law School who provides a timely overview of detention approaches used for foreign nationals who have been convicted of terrorist activities. Author's observation concerning the effectiveness of GPS-enabled tracking devices was a valuable contribution to the goals of this paper.
Lindsey, J.M. (1999). Techniques in human geography. London: Routledge.
(Harris, 2002, p. 8)
Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)
Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…
Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.
Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
These strategies should focus on parolees' risks and need and conducted in a way that would motivate change. Aware of these realities, States continue to innovate and evolve reentry strategies towards this end (Yahner et al.).
The RI was a particularly ambitious correctional program in that it targeted the most difficult offenders for rehabilitation and incorporation into the community. These are young offenders with violent criminal histories, who are likeliest to be excluded from reentry assistance. The RI develops and implements individual plans to reintegrate chosen offenders back into society. This was the Controlling Violent Offenders Program.
Efforts begin during their incarceration and continue when they are released into the community through a focused approach by a mentor. Case workers and mentors conduct varied programs to support their transition. These include social services in substance abuse and mental health disorders and vocational services for training, education and resume development for…
Braga, A.A. et al. (2008). Controlling violent offenders released to the community.
Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/centers/rappaport/workingpapers/braga_BRI_final.pdf
James, N. (2011). Offender reentry: correctional statistics reintegration into the community and recidivism. CRS Report for Congress: Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from http://www.nationalcia.org/wp-content/uploads/correctional-statistics-Reintegration-into-the-Community.pdf
The career criminal
A career criminal is a person who repeatedly participates in criminal acts for both a constant and central source of income DeLisi, 2005.
A career criminal uses crime as their only source of income, and they will commit offenses on a regular basis even after they have been released from prison. No form of rehabilitation can help a career criminal because they have antisocial behaviors and they refuse any form of rehabilitation. The career criminal continuously commits offenses and even with the best criminal justice system, they are never rehabilitated. This causes a major problem to the correctional facilities because career criminals lead to overcrowding of prisons.
Since these criminals have amassed many sentences, the judicial system is forced to sentence them to life imprisonment. The main reason been the short prison terms the offenders have been given before have had no effect, and giving them…
DeLisi, M. (2005). Career Criminals in Society. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications.
Howitt, D., & Sheldon, K. (2009). Sex Offenders and the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Unfairness of Sex Offending Laws.
Current laws that govern sex offences are placed under scrutiny for their potential unfairness towards those convicted. Often, these laws are excessively harsh against those who do not pose a current danger to public safety.
There are few things as dire to the public mind as sex offences. Hence, current laws are as harsh as possible to protect what is perceived as the safety of the public and its most vulnerable members, children. For this reason, the Internet sex offender databases were created. At the basis of these is Megan's Law, which specifically requires a state to make neighbors aware when violent sex offenders move into their community (Sheeres, 2002). The law has been enacted in honor of Megan Kanka. She was a 7-year-old girl from New Jersey who was raped and murdered in 1994. The perpetrator was a twice-convicted child molester. He moved into…
Dowd, J. (2008, Oct 27). Se offender law unfair to homeless, court says. The 13th Juror. Retrieved from: http://jackiedowd.blogspot.com/2008/10/sex-offender-law-unfair-to-homeless.html
Prior, R. (2010, Oct 10). Juror: Sex offender law unfair. The St. Augustine Record. Retrieved from: http://staugustine.com/news/local-news/2010-10-10/juror-sex-offender-law-unfair
San Diego News (2010, Apr. 12). Registered Sex Offender Says Current Laws Unfair. Retrieved from: http://www.10news.com/news/23131007/detail.html
Sheeres, J. (2002, Jun. 10). Sex Offender: Branded for Life. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2002/06/53075
But there is ample evidence, as documented in our recent report that unfettered access to registries can and does lead to extensive harassment and sometimes violence against former offenders (Fellner, 2007).
Highly publicized cases that deal with the abduction, rape, abuse, and murder of young children have led federal and state governments to introduce new laws that require stricter punishments, requirements, and prohibitions for sex offenders. Increasingly rigorous and over-inclusive necessities for sex offenders are almost unanimously accepted and easy for legislators and politicians to support because they are popular among the general public. As Congress passes law after law cracking down on sex offenders, experts and officials question whether the requirements of those acts even work to achieve the goals of legislators (Farley, 2008).
The most recent act, the Adam Walsh Act (AWA), raises many questions as Congress again expands punishments and requirements of sex offenders. The AWA contains…
Farley, Laura Geer. (2008). The Adam Walsh Act: The Scarlet Letter of the Twenty-First Century. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Web site:
Fellner, Jamie. (2007). The wrong sex offender laws. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Los Angels
Times Web site: http://articles.latimes.com/2007/sep/18/news/oe-fellner18
Treatment of Criminal Offenders
As a clinician, how can you apply the knowledge you gained from this course to more effectively serve your clients?
A connection has been established by researchers between brutal and violent susceptibility to impair a particular area of the brain. Till date, several evidence, have assisted to bring into limelight the shady aspect of human attitude and might pave the way for important interference. For instance, several types of spontaneous aggression might be a result of defective balancing of emotion within the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the centre of superior intellectual activities like judgment, analysis and substantial control of impulses. The degree of malfunctions in the core circuits of the brain related to aggressive behavior and if these circuits are capable of being repaired is of course debatable. esearchers have mentioned that individuals inclined to violence have structured blueprints in the brain that can be…
Allen, Harry E; Simonsen, C.E. (1998) "Corrections in America" New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Gendreau, P & Goggin, C. (1996) "Principles of Effective Programming with Offenders" Forum on Corrections Research, Volume: 8; No: 3, pp: 38-40.
Hoge, R.D. & Andrews, D.A. (1996) "Assessing the Youthful Offender: Issues and Techniques" New York: Plenum.
Jacobs, B. L; Azmitia, E.C. (1992) "Structure and function of the brain serotonin system" Physiological Reviews. Volume: 72; pp:165-229.
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Televised violence can in some cases be harmless, mainly because film directors overstress it to the point where it becomes obvious that it cannot possibly take place in real life. hen it is presented in a way that makes it even more real violence can be very harmful. "Reviews of the effects literature have concluded that exposure to television violence portrayed with particular contextual characteristics can lead to such negative effects as fear, desensitization, and disinhibition" (Potter, and Smith 301). The negative effect of televised violence is apparently highlighted by graphicness, as people are influenced to a larger degree if what they see on television is explicit. Images of blood and gore can be much more harmful when presented in a high-detail vivid nature (Potter, and Smith 301). As the level of realness increases, the level of shock also increases, making it possible for viewers to feel as if they…
Gunter, Barrie and Harrison, Jackie. Violence on Television: An Analysis of Amount, Nature, Location, and Origin of Violence in British Programmes (London: Routledge, 1998).
Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie and Wykes, Maggie. Violence on Television: Distribution, Form, Context, and Themes (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003).
Potter, W. James and Smith, Stacy. "The Context of Graphic Portrayals of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.2 (2000): 301.
Krcmar, Marina. "The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 42.2 (1998).
Social science researchers can use either qualitative or quantitative strategies to develop informed and timely answers to their research questions, but these two approaches involve analyzing fundamentally different data sets. On the one hand, qualitative researchers can use various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used.
By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research questions (Neuman, 2009). These differences mean that designing a research question from a…
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…
Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books
Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.
Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse
It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…
Condon, P. (2010, December 7). "Top Catholic educator concealed abuse knowledge."
Phillips, N. (2010, July 14). "Whatever happened at Father Cooper's Cabin in 1971, the archdiocese isn't responsible." Riverfront Times.
Rodgers, A. (2010, August 2). "Episcopal leaders take steps to deal with abusive clergy."
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…
Public hysteria or "sex panic" involving the "sexualisation" of children may be getting a decent outing in Australia at the present moment, but it is certainly nothing new: fifty years ago it was Elvis Presley's hips that portended imminent moral collapse, two hundred and fifty and a dance craze called the "waltz" was considered immodest and the "emo kids" of the late eighteenth century were committing suicide after reading The Sorrows of Young Werther. The more recent alarmism -- typified by Emma Rush and Andrea La Nauze's discussion paper on the "sexualisation of children" in the media, or Miranda Devine's predictable whipping-up of outrage over the 2008 ill Henson photo exhibition -- is nothing new in this regard. (At this point, the new youth-related sex scandals can barely keep up with advances in technology, as the Saint Kilda's schoolgirl suddenly resorts to apologizing via YouTube, after conducting a…
Crews, Frederick. (1995). The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute. New York: New York Review of Books Editions.
Devine, Miranda. (2008). "Moral Backlash Over Sexing Up Of Children." Sydney Morning Herald 22 May 2008.
Egan, R. Danielle and Gail Hawkes. 2008. "Endangered Girls and Incendiary Objects: Unpacking the Discourse on Sexualization." Sexuality and Culture (December 2008) 12.4: 291-311.
Therefore, the presence of high levels of testosterone is often thought to be one of the most influential hormones on criminal behavior and would explain why men are disproportionately involved in more criminal behaviors than women.
Other hormones have also been linked to criminal behaviors as well. For example, low levels of a hormone, known as cortisol, have been linked to offenders that have shown patterns of chronic offending. The reduced amount of cortisol has been shown to decrease anxiety levels. An individual who does not feel any anxiety may be more likely to commit crimes because they would be less likely to let their anxiety about committing a crime stop them before the crime is actually committed. Therefore feeling anxiety towards committing a crime could stop an individual from committing it, however if a person doesn't have anxiety due to low cortisol levels then the body does not have…
Wright, J., Tibbetts, S., & Daigle, L. (2008). Chapter 7. In Criminals in the Making. Sage Publications.
Relationships are complex and can be complicated by a longing for a lasting commitment. For this reason, many have opted to simply have sex without any type of commitment (sex with no strings attached). Others hold the belief that sex is a pledge to be committed. The purpose of this discussion is to explain why sex must involve commitment. e will also present the opposing opinion on this issue. This discussion will seek to prove that sex should involve commitment. e will begin the discussion with the opposing view.
Sex without Commitment
Some individuals have the belief that sex without commitment is acceptable and that it will not have adverse affects. They contend that sex without commitment is easier for everyone involved and averts problems that can occur in a committed relationship. Sex without commitment has always existed in some form or another but in recent years, sex without commitment…
Buss, David M. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Defries, Zira, Richard C. Friedman, and Ruth Corn, eds. Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
LeMoncheck, Linda. Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex. New York: Oxford University Press U.S., 1997.
Matthewes-Green, Frederica. "Now for Some Good News." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Aug.-Sept. 1997: 20+.
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…
Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.
Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:
School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
upport for this contention comes from the observation that male offenders too are comparatively lightly punished when domestic abuse is involved.
Other factors, however, indicate greater complexity. treib (1990), for instance, showed that confounding factors for deserving the death sentence include the offender's prior record for committing crimes; premeditation of the crime; and her potential for future violent crimes. Women are less likely to represent or possess these characteristics than men and, therefore, subsequently are figured less often on Death Row.
However, it is also very likely that simple sexism plays a part. This is particularly likely when it is seen that those tending more towards the death penalty - i.e. more conservative, Republican, white-male dominated groups -- are also less strongly against women receiving this penalty. In fact, these groups have sometimes even prominently militated against women receiving the death sentence, as was the case with Pat Robertson and…
Baker, David V. (1999). A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the United States: 1632- 1997, Women and Criminal Justice 57
Bakken, G.M. (2010). Invitation to an Execution: A History of the Death Penalty in the United States. USA:University of New Mexico Press
Banner, Stuart (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Harvard University Press
Crocker, P. (2001), Is the Death Penalty Good for Women, Buffalo Criminal Law Review 917
Internet Sex Offenders
Today's technology has allowed for many great advances in society that allow for great benefit and good. The internet and instant communication abilities have provided new landscapes for the human species to evolve and grow. The power of technology must be wielded with temperance and wisdom however due to the always present threat of those who wish to prey and feed off the weakness of other people.
The purpose of this essay is to describe specific strategies that are most effective with sex offenders in the community. This discussion will first discuss the newly formed landscape in which criminal justice professionals find themselves in today and how technology has affected their ability to successfully perform their duties. This discussion will also include ideas about legislation and technology that can be used in the efforts to deter these criminals from committing future sex crimes.
The New Landscape
Markon, J. (2009). New technology, tight budgets hinder sex-offender monitoring. Washington Post, 23 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/22/AR2009112202364.html
Fuchs, E. (2013). 7 Surprising Things That Could Make You a Sex Offender. Business Insider, 9 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/surprising-things-that-could-make-you-a-sex-offender-2013-10
Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K.J., & Ybarra, M.L. (2010). Online "predators" and their victims. Psychology of violence, 1, 13-35.
Wortley, R.K., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the internet. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
The main values that are apparent in this article are first, an empirical adherence and promotion of objectivity in dealing with a topic that is highly fraught with many emotions, and secondly a true desire to bring about the betterment of society and the individuals within it. The authors stress at one point that it is understood that sex offenders can never be "cured' of their impulses, and that an acceptance of this fact is precisely what allows them to be able to learn how to control these impulses and desires in order to refrain from being a danger to society or anyone else in it. That is, it is through bringing objectivity to bear on the issue that the issue can actually be successfully addressed, and the research that is presented in this article certainly backs this perspective up. Objectivity and empirical examination, in other words, are some of…
(Megan's Law Website: History of the Law and Federal Facts)
On the other hand, rights activists and organizations point out that the sexual offender is treated unfairly in a legal sense. As one study on the subject notes, the sexual offender registry is a "… double punishment of sex criminals and is applicable to too many offenses. For example, depending on the area, "sex offenders" can also include those guilty of streaking, burglary, surveillance, and kidnapping" (Does the Sex Offender egistry Offend Justice?).
This view is also supported by groups like Human ights Watch. They posit the view that while the seriousness of these types of crimes are appreciated, there are a number of variables that have to be taken into account in applying a law like Megan's Law. These include aspects such as the fact that many people are categorized as sexual offenders for relatively minor crimes, and may…
Does the Sex Offender Registry Offend Justice? Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://www.mcgilldaily.com/blog/1829/entry/19136-does-the-sex-offender-registry
Major Human Rights Watch report about sex offender sanctions ( 2007)
Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://sentencing.typepad.com/sentencing_law_and_policy/2007/09/major-human-rig.html
Megan's Law, Sex Offenders Nationwide. Retrieved June 4,
The mpasse Between mproving Enforcement Technology and Eroding Privacy Rights for Convicted Sex Offenders
Megan's Law was passed in 1996 and immediately ignited a flurry of disagreement, both over its likely effectiveness and over its Constitutional Compliance. Requiring each state to compile Sex Offender Registries and to provide Community Notification when convicted sex offenders move into a community, Megan's Law is designed to improve child welfare and safety, but also ignites intense disagreement over the preservation of privacy rights.
The present research evaluates the role played by technology in the ongoing dispute between public safety and privacy rights.
While its advocates perceive Megan's Law as a critical law enforcement tool that can protect communities, families and their children from the dangers of sexual predators, its critics argue that the law violates constitutional privacy rights and prevents previously convicted sex offenders from achieving rehabilitation or effectively reentering society.
In spite of all Constitutional protestation seeking to revise Megan's Law as it concerns privacy rights, there is both broad public support for its continued existence as well as for the improvement of its enforcement.
With respect to: the demands for monitoring, tracking and keeping-in-compliance all registered sex offenders; the legal requirement to ensure that effective notification is made available to communities; and the practical imperatives to create a national network of information aimed at strengthening the protective capabilities of Megan's Law, the technological advances that have occurred since the 1996 inception of the policy have helped to improve its potential for effectiveness.
Privacy concerns are overshadowed by the need to utilize advancing information and computing technologies for improved enforcement.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
I also predicted that the difference in heterosocial competence between child molesters and non-sex-offenders would be significantly larger than the difference between rapists and non-sex-offenders. This hypothesis was also supported (Dreznick, 2003,pg 170)."
The researcher also hypothesized that the variation in heterosocial competence amongst child molesters and nonincarcerated non-sex-offenders would be considerably larger than the variation amongst child molesters and incarcerated non-sex-offenders (Dreznick, 2003). The findings of the meta-analysis were consistent with this hypothesis.
The author of this meta-analysis concluded that because child molesters have significant problems with heterosocial skills social skills training may assist in the treatment of these individuals. However the author points out that the treatment of heterosocial skills is only one component of an overall treatment program. Other components of a treatment program may include anger management and increasing empathy for the children that are victimized (Dreznick, 2003).
Additionally the author points out certain limitations of…
Denov, M.S. (2003). The Myth of Innocence: Sexual Scripts and the Recognition of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(3), 303+.
In this work Denov argues that the traditional sexual scripts for women prevent society from viewing women as sexual predators. The author uses existing research concerning female predators to prove this assertion. The author concludes that female child molesters exist on a much larger scale than has been generally accepted.
Dreznick, M.T. (2003). Heterosocial Competence of Rapists and Child Molesters: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 170+.
In this meta-analysis the author investigates the correlation between heterosocial competence and child molestation. The author combined the results of several existing studies to illustrate this correlation. Dreznick found that a lack of heterosocial competence contribute to the decision to molest children.
Project Research Design
he Arkansas Crime Information Center (ACIC) is responsible for the sex offender management and notification in Arkansas. he variables of the agency to be examined are the current vs. needed allocations as suggested by the Justice Policy Institute (2008) which are: 1) Personnel to register, collect, and update information, 2) Software, including installation, maintenance, and technical support, and 3) Funding for legislative, executive, judicial, and administrative costs associated with reclassification, tracking and retroactivity clauses.
he research design will be a mixed methods study of both qualitative and quantitative information. I have received email notification from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police confirming that a survey questionnaire or interview can be granted for the purpose of this study. IRB approval will be obtained before any surveys are given to the subjects. he survey will address both yes/no questions for quantitative study and descriptive or opinion questions for…
The Arkansas Crime Information Center (ACIC) is responsible for the sex offender management and notification in Arkansas. The variables of the agency to be examined are the current vs. needed allocations as suggested by the Justice Policy Institute (2008) which are: 1) Personnel to register, collect, and update information, 2) Software, including installation, maintenance, and technical support, and 3) Funding for legislative, executive, judicial, and administrative costs associated with reclassification, tracking and retroactivity clauses.
The research design will be a mixed methods study of both qualitative and quantitative information. I have received email notification from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police confirming that a survey questionnaire or interview can be granted for the purpose of this study. IRB approval will be obtained before any surveys are given to the subjects. The survey will address both yes/no questions for quantitative study and descriptive or opinion questions for qualitative study to look at how those who are grappling with this problem feel about it, whether they see it as a priority, and whether they are confident that the compliance with this Act will make a difference.
The qualitative research will be descriptive to explain how those who are surveyed actually feel about the lack of compliance, how much knowledge they have of it, and whether they believe they are moving forward appropriately to ensure that compliance ensues. The quantitative data will be comprised of existing data collected from the U.S. Department of Justice regarding the sentencing, monitoring, apprehension, and tracking of sex offenders, as well as data from the ACIC and the Arkansas State Police. This
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Megan's Law (Pro)
In 1994, Megan's Law was passed in order to protect innocent women and children from violent sex offenders. Critics of the law have argued that the law infringes on the constitutional rights of sex offenders after they have been released from prison; however, it is my position that the law is constitutional and an excellent deterrent to stop repeat offenses by convicted sexual offenders.
This report is an attempt to understand the constitutionality of Megan's Law. Megan's Law was the state of New Jersey's attempt to control repeat sex offenders from assaulting women and children. The law eventually became a national campaign to control sex offenders as all fifty states have since adopted at least some parts if not all of the original New Jersey statute. However, because we live in a society where rights go to both criminal and non-criminal alike, there are several legal battles…
Ahearn, Laura A. (2004). Albany Drags Feet Better action needed against sexual predators. Newsday, October 25.
Curtis, Kim (2004). Law to Put Crime Data Online Awaits OK. AP Online, August 31.
Hampson, Rick (7/28/1998). N.J.'S Megan's Law Is Seen As Model, But Still Has Its Flaws. USA Today.
Richey, Warren (2003). Megan's Law Upheld; High Court Allows Internet Lists That Track Sex Offenders. The Christian Science Monitor, March 6.
Step 3: Discuss the Precipitating Event
After relationship is recognized, the emphasis goes to the family insights of the condition, the sequence of proceedings leading up to the predicament, and the issue that started out the sequence of events (Graham-Bermann, S.A., 2002). Consultations inspect when and how the disaster happened, the causal conditions, and how the family endeavored to covenant with it.
Step 4: Assess Strengths and Needs
The Family valuation of strengths and needs start right after and the goes on throughout crisis intervention. The crisis worker will start to draws conclusions that will regard the family's needs and strengths that are related to the present disaster and, with the family, assesses the prospective for recovery (Edleson, J.L.,1999). Client strong suit are tapped in order to make self-esteem better, while also providing skills and energy that is for problem-solving.
Step 5: Formulate a Dynamic Explanation
This next step really…
Appel, a.E., & Holden, G.W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-599.
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterer's treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023-1053.
Beeman, S.K., Hagemeister, a.K., & Edleson, J.L. (1999). Child protection and battered women's services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4, 116-126.
Bragg, H.L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm
Individual Researc Task. Individual Researc: Overview
Medina vs. California, 505 U.S. 437 (1992). Retrieved from Findlaw at:
Competency to stand trial (CST)
Medina was convicted of first-degree murder and in te state of California a person must establis is mental incompetency by te standard of a 'preponderance of evidence.' Te U.S. Supreme Court affirmed tis standard of a burden of proof, denying it violated te petitioner Medina's rigt to due process.
Dean v. United States (08-5274). (2009). Retrieved from Cornell University Law Scool at:
Criminal responsibility (mens rea)
Dean was convicted under a ten-year mandatory minimum sentence requirement for firing a andgun during a robbery; Dean argued tat because e did not intend to fire te gun te mandatory minimum did not apply, owever te U.S. Supreme Court eld tat even if te gun went off accidentally, Dean was still liable to te mandatory minimum.
Pennurst State Scool…
Participation in treatment and civil commitment of sex offenders
The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) requires sex offenders to register when they move out-of-state to a new state. The petitioner argued that his rights were violated given that he was convicted of his offence before SORNA was passed and thus was being subjected to ex post facto justice by being convicted for a parole violation for not registering: the Court concurred with his assessment.
children actually came to be respected on account of the important role they play in the social order. Society previously believed that parents should be provided with the power to decide what they wanted to do with their children and the Bible actually emphasizes that Abraham was unhesitant about sacrificing his son, thus showing that the child was little more than a tool in his hands. As society progressed children continued to be treated with discrimination and those whose parents were unable to care for them resorted to becoming outcasts constantly in need of basic resources.
Society actually promoted attitudes that directly harmed children and saw the opportunity to exploit their vulnerability. Throughout time children were used as labor and were sexually abused by unscrupulous individuals. hile attitudes change during recent centuries, it was not until an 1838 Pennsylvania court removed children from the custody of their parents that the…
"Protecting Children When Families Cannot"
shame in teenage sextual relations," Nina Funnell outlines a conceptual criticism of the approach taken by the Commonwealth on matters relating to the laws governing various sex crimes. According to Funnel (2011), there are fundamental problems with the enforcement of certain sex crime laws against minors because they were obviously drafted and enacted mainly to protect minors and not to punish their sexual behaviour. In that regard, Funnell (2011) focuses especially on the issue of the prosecution of teenagers who transmit sexualised photographs of themselves to others as violators of child pornography laws even though those crimes are, essentially, victimless crimes. The author points out that in addition to the nonsensical application of those laws to the class of persons they were originally intended to protect rather than punish, the Commonwealth has exhibited a simultaneous lackadaisical approach to prosecuting sex crimes involving bona fide victims and adult perpetrators, such as…
Funnel, N. (2011) There's No Shame in Teenage Sextual Relations, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 September.
Gerrig, R. And P. Zimbardo. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Hinds, L. And K. Daly (2001) The War on Sex Offenders: Community Notification in Perspective, ANZ Journal of Criminology, 34(3), 256-276. DOI: 10.1177/000486580103400304
McLoughlin, C. And J. Burgess (2010) Texting, Sexting and Social Networking Among Australian Youth and the Need for Cyber Safety Education, paper available through Australian Catholic University at http://www.aare.edu.au
The article points out through close comparisons that there are marked differences between the impulsive and ritual offender. The most prominent difference is the extreme planning and preparation with regard to the fantasy dimension that characterizes the ritual offender. " He is the offender who invests great amounts of time and effort into he planning and rehearsal of his offences. " (Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. p. 272) While his underlying motivation is power and control, the essential difference in this type of offence is the complex level of cues and perceptions that form an integral part of the sexual offence as well as the level of violence.
The article succeeds in explicating this particular type of criminal in terms of the central behavioral characteristics of this type of crime. The fantasy life of the ritual offence is identified with various aspects of his character. These include the following behavioral…
Fedoroff, J.P., & Moran, B. (1997). Myths and Misconceptions about Sex Offenders. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 6(4), 263+. Retrieved August 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Hazelwood R.R. And Warren J.I. The Sexually Violent offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic. ( 2000) Aggression and Violent Behavior. 5(3)..pp. 267-279.
Jenkins, P. (1994). Using Murder The Social Construction of Serial Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Windlesham . (1987). Responses to Crime (Vol. 3). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…
Primorac, I. (nd). Is Retributivism Analytic? The Royal Institute of Philosophy. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.royalinstitutephilosophy.org/articles/article.php?id=20
Stern, S. (2003). Discussing the morality of capital punishment. Christian Science Monitor. 12 Nov 2003. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1112/p16s01-usju.html
Townsend, C. (2005). The morality of punishment. Cambridge Papers. 31 May 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007 at http://www.leaderu.com/humanities/moralityofpunishment.html