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portrayal of sexual activity in numerous forms is quite common on television, movies, in advertising, magazines, video games, novels, and billboards. Sex sells in modern society, and often not only condone promiscuity, but also glorify it. Indeed, this is fine for adults who have the cognitive ability to separate reality from fantasy, to understand that media shows images, not always consequences, and to understand that unlike television, sexual activity is not all there is to relationships.
Children and youth, however, are also subjected to daily viewing of sexual behavior -- often whether they like it or not. In addition, certainly, as puberty begins, adolescents are in a questioning mode about their own sexuality, which is most definitely influenced by outside images. For instance, in the majority of the media, one rarely sees condom use or even discussions about safe sex; similarly, birth control, abstinence, and alternative lifestyles are more common…
Escobar-Chavez, S., et al. (2005). Impact of the Media on Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. Pediatrics. 116 (S), 303-326. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/Supplement_1/303.short
Hurst, S., et al. (2008). Boys Will Be Boys and Girls better Be Prepared: An Analysis of Sexual Messages in Young Adolecents' Media. Mass Communication and Society. 29 (1), 3-23.
Kapp, L. et.al. (1980). Teaching Human Sexuality in Junior High School. Journal of School Health. 50 (2), 80-3. Retrieved from:
sexual imagery and sexual concepts in advertising has existed for nearly a century. In the past several decades, however, this form of advertising has begun to target younger groups of consumers as a wider array of products are presented as aids to sexuality and sexual fulfillment. Whereas certain products, such as alcohol and undergarments, have traditionally been marketed using erotic ideas, today's sex-based marketing strategies include items such as gum, shampoo, and even computer hardware. The shift to sexual marketing for a youth culture and the changes in sexual conceptuality and acceptability in marketing are due to changes in cultural perceptions of sex, as well as changes in the youth culture over the last century.
According to Advertising Age's 1999 report "The Advertising Century," the beginnings of sex in advertising can be traced back a 1911 Woodbury Soap ad, whose slogan stated that using the soap gave an individual "A…
Blumner, Robyn. "Moralists Wrongfully Punish Youth for Being Curious About Sex." St. Petersburg Times 13 May 2001: 10.
Bryant, J., and Rockwell, S. "Effects of Massive Exposure to Sexually Oriented Prime-Time Television Programming on Adolescents Moral Judgment." Media, Children, and the Family. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994: 183-195.
Cantor, Joann. "Autobiographical Memories of Exposure to Sexual Media Content." Media Psychology 5: 1-31.
Heins, Marjorie. "Identifying What is Harmful or Inappropriate for Minors." White Paper Submitted to the Committee on Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids From Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content (2001, March 5). 6 November 2005. .
Risk of Premature Sexual Activity Among Adolescents" by Taku Ikemoto functions as a survey of research into the personal and social dangers associated with sex among teenagers. Each problem associated with adolescent sex is outlined and given corresponding support in the form of statistical evidence.
Ikemoto begins by detailing the physical and emotional toll that adolescent sex can have. He names STDs, and particularly AIDS, as growing concerns in the modern age since "Time Magazine reports that the number of cases of AIDS among teenagers doubles every 14 months" (Ikemoto 1). He further notes an emotional consequence that can not be ignored, as "The high probability of emotional soars, guilt, confusion about self and others ... make sexual activity a high-risk proposition for both boys and girls" (Ikemoto 2). A host of psychological problems including sleep disorder and suicide are also linked to premature sexual activity according to the research…
Ikemoto, Taku. Risk of Premature Sexual Activity Among Adolescents. Human Growth and Development. Education 560M, 29 Nov. 1995.
Andre Dubus' the Fat Girl
Andre Dubus's "The Fat Girl"
Louise, the protagonist in Andre Dubus's short story "The Fat Girl," has a furtive love affair with food. Throughout the story, Dubus describes this affair using the underpinnings of a real sexual relationship. It is the purpose of this paper to explore instances where Dubus's uses sexual activity/romance and food/eating imagery to convey Louise's secret love affair with food.
The story opens up with a rather explicit scene, a boy rape-kissing Louise at a BBQ, "Her name was Louise. Once when she was sixteen a boy kissed her at a barbecue; he was drunk and he jammed his tongue into her mouth and ran his hands up and down her hips." This scene sets up a key dramatic element of the story, the fact that Louise is a corpulent, sex-starved girl for must of her life. Her first encounter (and…
3) Implement formal and informal problem solving mechanisms, grievance procedures, investigative measures, and disciplinary procedures to resolve sexual harassment complaints.
4) at least once a year, conduct training sessions for employees. These sessions should teach employees what sexual harassment is, explain that employees have a right to a workplace free of sexual harassment and review your complaint procedure and encourage employees to use it.
5) at least once a year, conduct training sessions for supervisors and managers that are separate from the employee sessions. The sessions should educate the managers and supervisors about sexual harassment and explain how to deal with complaints.
6) Monitor your work environment by talking to employees and inspecting the workplace for offensive material
7) Take all complains seriously. Immediately investigate complains and respond to all valid threats.
8) Assess the work environment for sexual harassment awareness by surveying employees and union members.
9) Hire human…
Preventing sexual harassment in the workplace. http://cobrands.business.findlaw.com/employment_employer/nolo/ency/7440C7F8-0B89-46E4-A1DE73FE99AA61E0.html
Sexual harassment prevention http://www.workplacesolutions.org/questions/harassment.cfm
Sexual and Religious Ideologies of uddhism in North India
uddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world, exceeded only by Christianity, Islam and Hinduism (Robinson, 1982). The uddha, Siddhartha Gautama, founded udhiam in Northern India. When uddha was 29, he left his wife, children and community involvements in order to seek truth and Nirvana. At the time, it was acceptable for men to leave their family and seek spiritual enlightenment.
uddha rejecting both extremes of the mortification of the flesh and of hedonism as paths toward the state of Nirvana (Warren, 1963). uddha spread the belief that in order to live a life without pain and suffering, people are required to eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only when this is accomplished will they be afforded peace and happiness. uddhists believe that they must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance.
uddhists strive to cultivate four attitudes into their…
The Dhammapada, ed. And trans. Juna Mascaro (London, Penguin Books, 1973).
Tales from the Kathasaritsagara, trans. Arshia Sattar (London: penguin, 1994).
The Divine Madman: the Sublime Life and Songs of Drukpa Kunley. Trans. Keithe Dowman and Sonam Paljor. (London: Rider, 1980)
Ashvaghosha, Buddhacarita, in Budhist Scriptures, ed. trans. Edward Conze (London: Penguin Books, 1959)
Freud, in fact, went as far as defining the energizing force (libido) of humans as sexual in nature (Demartino & Stacey, p. 4).
Like the instinct theory, the drive reduction theory, too, subscribed to the functional significance of actions. The difference, however, is that drive reduction theory suggested that physiological needs, or deficits, instigate behaviors that result in the offset of those needs. Hull, the chief proponent of this theory, hypothesized that "drives" were a motivational characteristic of need states, which result from physiological disequilibrium. Therefore, drives generate energy and instigate behaviors designed to return the organism to a state of equilibrium: "...a common denominator of all primary motivations, whether due to food privation, thermal deviations...the action of sex hormones...." (einer, p. 87-92) Thus, the drive reduction theory explained sexual motivation as a drive, which resulted from a state of physiological imbalance caused by hormones.
The instinct and drive reduction…
Demartino, M.F., & Stacey, C.L. "Understanding Human Motivation." Cleveland, OH:
H. Allen, 1958.
Johnson, K.M. "Human Sexual Motivation." Spring 1997. California State University,
Northridge. Accessed Nov. 21, 2004: http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/sexmotiv.htm
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…
Sildenafil (2009) AHFS Consumer Medication Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=meds&log$=drug_bottom_one&part=a699015
Swearingen, S. And Klausner, J. (2009) Sildenafil Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 118, Issue 6. Online available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934305000860
Rosenfeld, Dana and Faircloth, Christopher a. (2006) Medicalized Masculinities. Temple University Press 2006. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=8rXT7-EL0jcC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Loe, Meika (2004) the Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. NYR Press 2004. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=h25piGXAHukC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
In such circumstances the first people they look to for support are their parents. Hence parents should encourage their children to frankly discuss such issues with them lest they should be inclined to gather information from other less reliable sources. Teachers can also play a vital role in educating these children to be more receptive of the changes they are going through. At this stage their guidance can help decide the way a child may react to the sexual issues arising later in life. Primary sex education needs to be included in the syllabus of various schools so that children might learn to develop a healthy sexual drive and realize the dangers of indulging in sexual activities before the correct time.
Adults may have a totally different set of problems to address in their sex lives. Some drugs and anti-depressants can reduce the desire for sex in men and women…
MikeMcCabe - Report of the working group on sex education in scottish schools. Published on: 16/06/2000.Page Number: 9
Margaret r. h. Nusbaum, Carol Hamilton, Patricia Lenahan-Chronic Illness and Sexual Functioning. Posted on:15/01/2003.Available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030115/347.html [Accessed on:13/11/05]
If you're confused about sex, you've come to the right place. The Bible, more than any other modern resource, offers clear-cut guidelines for how to deal with sexuality and sexual behavior. In fact, sex is one of the Bible's favorite subjects. Throughout both the Old and New Testaments, the Bible offers advice for young people and old regarding their sexual conduct, sexual morals, and heterosexual relationships. The Bible spells out clearly what behaviors will make you happy and which will cause you problems. Now, you don't need a Bible to realize that improper sexual conduct can lead to problems like disease or to parenthood before you are ready. However, when you are confused, turn to the Bible for inspiration and guidance.
In spite of what you might think, the Bible is pro-sex. The Bible teaches that sex can be a sacred and profoundly spiritual act of union between…
It is apparent that the queer identified in Zimbabwe has not yet been socially accepted enough to even begin to look at the ways marriage laws discriminate against them. The most basic rights that are assumed when looking at the discrimination of LGB community and what are thought of as given human rights seen through a North American lense do not exist. The most basic laws of protection from active discrimination in public do not exist. Thus, to try and apply our notion of equal marriage rights within this society would be like trying to run before learning to walk. There are more pressing rights that need to be addressed, such as changing the laws that make ____ punishable by death for the LGB people who live within Zimbabwe before marital status and how the laws surrounding marriage are oppressive can begin to be examined.
From the previous three examples,…
Engelke, M. "We wondered what human rights he was talking about': Human rights,
homosexuality and the Zimbabwe international book fair." Critique of anthropology, 19 (1999):289.
Mandigo, J. "New blow for gay rights in Zimbabwe." Institute for war and peace reporting.
74(2006):1. Web 31 March 2010.
Condoms are effective against the spread of AIDS as transmitted through sexual activity. The condom prevents the transmission of fluids between individuals during sexual activity. It is that transmission of fluids that can result in the transmission of the AIDS virus between people. In many poorer communities and countries, condoms have proven effective in reducing the rate of AIDS and HIV transmission between individuals. Condoms do not, of course, affect the rate of transmission by other means, such as intravenous drug use or transfusions. But they do lower the rate of transmission because a lot of AIDS and HIV transmission does occur through sexual activity. Education plays an important role because in many communities and countries, condoms are a novel idea, and people are unaccustomed to using them. There also has to be a certain degree of female empowerment to insist on condoms as a means of protection,…
Commonwealth v. Berkowitz (1992)
Q1. Explain how the court came to the conclusion that the Pennsylvania rape statute required extrinsic force.
According to Pennsylvania law, rape may occur either by “forcible compulsion” or the threat of forcible compulsion which “would prevent resistance by a person of reasonable resolution” (“Commonwealth v. Berkowitz”). The Pennsylvania court interpreted this wording as meaning that direct, extrinsic force or the threat of such force was required for an act to constitute sexual assault.
Q2. LIST all the facts relevant to deciding whether Roberts Berkowitz’s actions satisfy the extrinsic force requirement.
Berkowitz pushed the victim down on his bed, straddled her, and ignored her statement that she wanted to meet her boyfriend and leave his room. When he lifted up her shirt and bra, the victim clearly said, “No.” Berkowitz then unzipped his pants and attempted to put his penis in the victim’s mouth. She verbally…
The Impact of Workplace Sexual Harassment on Employees and Employers
Sexual Harassment (SH) is a subject that has made its way into the normative, professional lexicon. SH used to be a topic that was not taken seriously because it was a part of the workplace environment that was normal and was not subject to punitive consequences, though there are occasions that are exceptions to the rule. SH is a subject that must be taken seriously by every employee or member of an organization. SH is a subject that must be taken seriously on the individual level and on the organizational level. SH directly affects fundamental aspects of a place of employment, no matter the industry. Prevalent, pervasive, and even sporadic SH in the workplace serves as a destructive force from within and from without.
There is no workplace environment that exists that will never have one instance of SH.…
Houle, Jason N., Staff, Jeremy, Mortimer, Jeylan T., Uggen, Christopher, & Blackstone, Amy. "The Impact of Sexual Harassment on Depressive Symptoms During the Early Occupational Career." Society Mental Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, 89 -- 105, 2011. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227029/ . 2014 January 10.
Jackson, Robert A. & Newman, Meredith A. "Sexual Harassment in the Federal Workplace Revisited: Influences on Sexual Harassment by Gender." Public Administration Review, Vol. 64, No. 6, 705 -- 717, 2004.
Lim, Sandy, & Cortina, Lilia M. "Interpersonal Mistreatment in the Workplace: The Interface and Impact of General Incivility and Sexual Harassment." Journal of Applied Psycholgoy, Vol. 90, No. 3, 483 -- 496, 2005.
Lim, Sandy, & Cortina, Lilia M. "Personal and Workgroup Incivility: Impact on Work and Health Outcomes." Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 1, 95 -- 107, 2008.
Sexual Harassment Charges
The chair of the kinesiology department at a college or university confronted with a sexual harassment charge from a student concerning the inappropriate touching of a breast by a male instructor during weight training instruction and who now refuses to return to class will need to understand the legal definition of sexual harassment and relevant precedential case laws to provide an appropriate organizational response. To this end, this paper reviews the literature to provide a definition of sexual harassment, when it was implemented into law in the United States, and an analysis of selected sexual harassment cases including their validity. Finally, a recommendation for the college or university, a summary of the research and important findings concerning sexual harassment cases are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
According to the legal definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary, sexual harassment is "a type of employment discrimination [which]…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Equal employment opportunity guidelines on sexual harassment. (1980). 45 Fed. Reg. 25025.
Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District. (1998). Oyez. Available: https://www.oyez. org/cases/1997/96-1866.
Lee, Robert D. and Greenlaw, Paul S. "Employer Liability for Employee Sexual Harassment: A Judicial Policy-Making Study." Public Administration Review (2000, March), vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 123-127.
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .
Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
Effects Of Sexual Harrassment In The Workplace
The problems of sexual harassment cases are prevalent in almost all of the companies. In today's workplace, incidents of sexual harassment have become common. It is not unusual that a majority of companies in America are facing countless suits on sexual harassments. While many companies have addressed the problem of sexual harassment at the organizational level with policy statements and other memos, management has not paid the real attention on lowering the number of sexual harassment in the workplace. The main problem occurs, as it is not clear what is a right conduct and what is a wrong conduct in case of the sexual harassment situation.
DEVELOPMENT OF PARAGRAPHS
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 makes sexual harassment illegal, considering it to be a form of sexual discrimination. The statute, however, does not cover what kind of behavior…
Sexual Predators Prosecution
TOO HARSH AND DISADVANTAGEOUS
Sexual Predators' Prosecution
Sexual predators are persons who sexually victimize other persons (ILGA, 2009). They may be rapists, molesters, peeping toms or sexual deviants. A sexual deviant is convicted for rape, attempted rape, child molestation or abuse, incest, sodomy or indecent sexual assault or exposure. A judge may, however, convict a sexual predator for a crime unrelated to the sexual act. If the offender takes a child from home without parental consent, he may be convicted for kidnapping. As of 2009, 17 States have laws that penalize sexual predators, specifically a sub-class of sexually violent predators or SVP. Of these 17, Illinois adopted and enforces the broadest definition of SVP as sex offenders who victimize persons below 18 years old, regardless of past convictions. The other 16 define SVPs as those who victimize others below 12 years old and who have prior sex…
Sexual History Interview: Critique and Reactions
This paper concerns an interview that I conducted with a 27-year-old ex-escort. This individual was a college educated female who will be given the name Samantha, as an alias for the purposes of this paper. I was able to make initial contact with Samantha through a range of referrals from friends of some of my colleagues. Samantha was willing to talk to me, though only if I was able to provide her with the utmost privacy and confidentiality. Conducting the interview was fascinating, as I had never met a member of the sex industry. I was worried that perhaps I might say something that she considered naive or that she would be able to see clearly that I was new at the task of interviewing someone about their sexual history. Samantha came from a two-parent middle-class home, and was not raised under any particular…
2010). That said, Perry notes that "we know surprisingly little" about whether the training actually creates "positive change"; and given that lack of specific knowledge, the authors present what they call the "best training practices" that are available for HR departments and managers (187).
The "best practices" factors that have proven successful in preparing HR professionals in matters of sexual harassment include: a) "Pre-training factors" (an assessment of who needs the training; how will the training take place; and what will the content be); b) "Training Design and Delivery Factors" (this is an area where there is no one good answer; in some situations "passive" methods might be best and in other situations "experiential" methods might be better); and c) "Post-training Factors" (once learning has taken place, thee needs to be "reinforcement" to keep trainees motivated to use what they learned during the training exercises (Perry, 190).
Meanwhile, Canada certainly…
Boxall, P. (2013). Mutuality in the Management of Human Resources: Assessing the Quality of Alignment in Employment Relationships. Human Resource Management Journal, 23(1), 3-
Perry, E.L., Kulik, C.T., and Field, M.P. (2009). Sexual Harassment Training: Recommendations
To Address Gaps Between the Practitioner and Research Literatures. Human Resource
When done on a basis of mutual harmony and choice, sex can be a highly satisfying and emotional activity that brings partners in closer connection to each other. Unfortunately this is not always the case.
Being connected to human interaction, emotion, freedom of choice, and individual body function, an unfortunate possibility is sexual dysfunction. This manifests itself in particular ways in men and women. Generally, problems can be treated by therapy, as many cases of dysfunction relate to how people experience sex psychologically and emotionally. When the basis of problems are addressed by the therapist, dysfunction can also be resolved. In more serious cases, dysfunction can also be resolved by medication.
Examples of sexual dysfunction (Ballas, 2006) that might be experienced by both men and women include 1) a loss of libido, 2) inability to feel aroused, 3) painful intercourse. The third is much more common in women…
Ballas, Paul (2006, 25 July). Sexual Problems Overview. a.D.A.M. Inc., Medline Plus Medical Dictionary. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001951.htm
BBC News. (2003, 8 Feb). Female Sexual Dysfunction. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/medical_notes/486081.stm
Medicine.Net. (2006, 1 Feb). Sexual Problems in Men: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment. http://www.medicinenet.com/sexual_sex_problems_in_men/article.htm
Nevid, J.S., & Rathus, S.A. (2005). Psychology and the challenges of life: Adjustment in the new millennium (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Moreover, the television show uses the same tactics that law enforcement does when they want to catch sexual predators online. Both law enforcement and the staff of "To Catch a Predator" pretend to be young people. By playing the same game as the sexual predator, police are effectively capturing criminals before they get away with their crimes. Although sneaky, the method of luring sexual predators using their own game is one of the most effective ways of preventing the problem. Knowing they can get easily caught, the sexual predator might think twice before befriending a new child. Using this method of capturing criminals, law enforcement can prevent predators from victimizing young people psychologically, sexually and violently.
Sexual predators should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. In Canada, the law "makes it a criminal offense to use the Internet to lure or exploit children for sexual purposes," (Media…
Camber, Rebecca. "Arrogant Facebook failing to tackle paedophile threat,' claims child protection expert." Mail Online. 9 Apr 2010. Retrieved online April 10, 2010 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1264609/Facebook-tackling-paedophile-threat-child-protection-expert-claims.html#ixzz0khN214sB
Doctorow, Cory. "Sexual Predators Online: The Real Story." Boing. 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://boingboing.net/2007/06/13/sexual-predators-onl.html
Family Watchdog. Website retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.familywatchdog.us/
"Internet Predators." Wired Kids. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.wiredsafety.org/internet_predators/index.html
Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of gender-based discrimination that has spread in the recent past despite its impact on victims with regards to depriving them equality and dignity. Generally, sexual harassment involves sexual discrimination that infringes civil rights through unwanted sexual advances, verbal or physical sexual conduct, and requests for sexual favors in a manner that affects a person's work performance or social relations. The victims of this form of gender-discrimination and crime usually feel powerless and have low self-esteem because its most common injuries are emotional. The prevalence of this crime is evident in its current spread in the education environment as well as other workplaces.
Actions Constituting Sexual Harassment in the Education Environment
Given its current spread, sexual harassment has become common in the modern education environment. Similar to other workplaces, sexual harassment in the education environment occurs between teachers and their employers. However,…
"Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education." (1999). Wrightslaw. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Davis_Monroe_SupCt_990524.html
Education Dept. Inspector General Off. Investigation Office. (1997). Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/sexual-harassment-it-s-not-academic.html
Stier, W.F. (2005, March/April). An Overview of Sexual Harassment. Strategies, 18(4), 13-15. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08924562.2005.10591145#.U-0pcKOwU08
Welsh (1999) examines sexual harassment from a gender perspective and concludes that sexual harassment may be contextualized by both 'organizational and individual factors" and that gender examination is primary to the study of sexual harassment; further she claims there is no unified theoretical framework that can help explain the occurrence of sexual harassment (169).
Many studies have concluded that sexual harassment lowers morale, increases absenteeism, decreases overall job satisfaction and individual's perceptions of opportunity within the organization as well as damages interpersonal relationships (Welsh, 1999; Gruber 1992). In addition sexual harassment can have psychological and health consequences on people including nausea, stress and headaches which can impact an individual's personal and work life (Welsh, 1999). There are even studies that link frequent occurrences of sexual harassment to long-term illnesses including post traumatic stress disorders (Welsh, 1999).
Sexual harassment thus has the ability to not only affect work related outcomes but…
Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender Society, 4, 139-158.
Dellinger, K., Giuffre, P.A. & Williams, C.L. (1999). "Sexuality in the workplace:
Organizational control, sexual harassment, and the pursuit of pleasure." Annual Review of Sociology, 73.
Grauerholz, E., & King, a. (1997). Prime time sexual harassment. Violence against Women, 3, 129-148.
elationship problems is another cause for instance the woman feel that her partner is distant emotionally or abusive and her attraction to him disappears.
During attempt of vaginal penetration, there is involuntary tightening of the muscles around the vagina. Sexual intercourse is made impossible especially if there is complete closing of the vagina and the woman also experiences pain. There are two forms of vaginismus: Primary vaginismus, when no previous sexual act has been possible as a result of the condition; secondary vaginismus, when it's now difficult to have sex due to the condition but previously there has been sexual activity. Distress and problems can be caused by this condition because the sexual life is disrupted.
Female Orgasmic disorder
This is a problem which is rarely complained about but is common in the females. It is characterized by not attaining orgasm or considerable delay in achieving orgasm during a…
Berney, K. (2008). Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: I'm Not in the Mood. April 26, 2010,
Blaur, K., & Crooks, R. (2008). Our Sexuality (10th ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Davidson, T. (2003). Sexual Aversion Disorder. April 26, 2010, from http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/sexual-aversion-disorder
Sexual Activity in Adolescence
The scholarly literature on adolescence and health reflects the fact that some young people make risky decisions regarding sexual activities -- and the use of drugs also plays a role in their behavior. In this paper, those issues and others related to adolescent behaviors -- including the earlier initiation of sexual activities -- will be presented through in-depth analysis.
Adolescent Sexual Activities and Psychosocial Adjustments
There has been an assumption in the literature for some time that when adolescents delay their first sexual experience, they adjust better psychosocially as young adults a bit later in their lives. Another assumption has been that instances where young adults have their first sexual intercourse experience between 16 and 18 years of age "…are linked to lower adjustment in many life domains" (Haase, 2012, 199).
However, a peer-reviewed research article in the journal European Psychologist challenges those notions with empirical…
Cooper, M.L., Wood, P.K., and Orcutt, H.K. (2003). Personality and the Predisposition to Engage in Risky or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 390-410.
Fantasia, H.C., Sutherland, M.A., and Kelly-Weeder, S. (2012). Gender Differences in risky behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. Journal of the American Academy
of Nurse Practitioners, 24(7), 436-442.
Haase, C.M., Landberg, M., Schmidt, C., Ludke, K., and Silbereisen, R.K. (2012). The later, the Better? Early, Average, and Late Timing of Sexual Experiences in Adolescence and Psychosocial Adjustment in Young Adulthood. European Psychologist, 17(3), 199-212.
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced…
Aloni, Ronit and Katz, Shlome. "A Review of the Effect o Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response." Brain Injury. Vol. 3. Number 4. p. 269-280. 1999.
Bianci-Demichel, Francesco and Ortigue, Stephanie. "Toward an Understanding of the Cerebral Substrates of a Woman's Orgasm." Neuropsychologia. Vol 45. Number 12. P. 2645-2659. 2007.
Blumer, D and Waler, a.E. "The Neural Basis of Sexual Behavoir." Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease. P. 199-216. 1974.
Elliott, Mike Laurel. "Head Injury." Brain Injury. October 1996.
Fornication means unlawful sexual intercourse (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). Sexual intercourse is physical sexual contact of the genitals of at least one of the involved. Unlawful means outside a valid marriage. Hence, premarital sex, adultery, homosexuality and bestiality are forms of fornication. Fornication is so grave a sin that fornicators are barred from inheriting the kingdom of God [1. Cor. 6:9-11]. It is so serious that it is the only lawful ground for divorce and remarriage [Matt. 5:32; 19:9] (ible Study Guide, ible.com). Otherwise, marriage is an indissoluble union between a man and a woman.
The Holy ible is firm and clear about its stand against fornication. It says that fornication emanates from the heart and defiles the person, as in Matt. 15:19-20 (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). It is the work of the flesh [Gal. 5:19]. St. Paul exhorts Christians to avoid it [1 Cor. 6:18.…
Bible.com. What does the Bible Say about Fornication?, 2011. Retrieved on November
22, 2011 from http://www.bible.com/bibloanswers_result.php?id=256
Bible Study Guide. Fornication, 2011. Retrieved on November 23, 2011 from http://www.biblestudyguide.org/index.htm
Walking Wounded. Christians Resisting Sexual Temptation, 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from http://www.walking-wounded.net/htm/christians_and_sexual_temptation.html
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Males of all ages routinely misrepresent their intentions with the specific hope of obtaining sexual consent from prospective female partners: typically, they feign sincerely romantic interest when their interest in the particular woman is strictly physical.
Instead of respecting how important many women consider an emotional connection as a prerequisite for sexuality, men disregard the very social mores they purport to value in their legitimate romantic interests (and for any females in their families) to exploit any conceivable opportunity to obtain sexual consent for their selfish purposes. Perhaps the most offensive element of this social dynamic is, precisely, that the same men prize chastity and even virginity in women as an ideal for their eventual life partners (Verene, p. 301).
What is most unfortunate and ironic about this situation is that to whatever degree moral rules apply to sexual conduct, they are violated much more by the duplicitous conduct typical…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Verene, D.P. (1992) Sexual Love and Western Morality: A Philosophical Anthology. New York: Harper
2007)." The authors also explain that there is a great deal of interest in the concept of school engagement because it is believed to be influenced by environmental changes (Fredricks et al., 2004; Dotterer et al. 2007). As a result of racial and ethnic achievement gaps, the study of school engagement amongst students of color is essential to closing these gaps. Previous research uncovered a pattern of underachievement in African-American students who have lower grades and receive less education than non-Hispanic White students (Dotterer et al. 2007).
According to Jimerson et al. (2003) there are three dimensions of school engagement: affective, behavioral, and cognitive. The affective dimension is associated with an emotional connection to school and the sense of belonging that students have with their school. Additionally this dimension of school engagement is often referred to as school attachment (Johnson et al., 2001). The affective dimension of school engagement "reflects…
Dotterer a.M. Susan M. McHale Ann C. Crouter. (2007) Implications of Out-of-School Activities for School Engagement in African-American Adolescents. J Youth Adolescence (2007) 36:391 -- 401
Dworkin, J.B., Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents' accounts of growth experiences in youth activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 17-26.
Feldman, Amy F.; Matjasko, Jennifer L. (2005) the Role of School-Based Extracurricular Activities in Adolescent Development: A Comprehensive Review and Future Directions Review of Educational Research v. 75 no. 2 p. 159-210
Fredricks J, Blumenfeld P, Paris a (2004) School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Rev Educ Res 74:59 -- 109
Female hypoactive sexual disorder occurs in roughly one-third of adult women in the United States (Basson, 2000). The foundation of HSDD is predicated on a deficiency of sexual fantasies or desires for sexual activity. Ultimately this lack of desire causes females to experience marked distress and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. Evaluation and subsequent treatment for this disorder can be become very contentious. Treatment requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the litany of influences that impact female sexual desire. For example, many female life experiences may uniquely impact the overall sexual desire of the female. Events, including the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives and postmenopausal states all contribute to the overall complexity of treatment. In particular, sexual dysfunctions in women have a strong correlation to low feelings of happiness and emotional satisfaction. Generally, theses feelings occur with women who are in a relationship. Logically, one of the most common…
1. Basson R, Berman J, Burnett A, et al. Report on the International Consensus Development Conference on female sexual dysfunction: definition and classification. J Urol. 2000;163(3):888-893.
2. Brotto L, Bitzer J, Laan E, Leiblum S, Luria M. Women's sexual desire and arousal disorders. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 2):586-614.
3. Sand M, Fisher WA. Women's endorsement of models of female sexual response: the nurses' sexuality study. J Sex Med. 2007;4(3):708-719.
sexual harassment, and discuss aspects like defenses, judge ruling basis, cause of action, and employee's and employer's civil liability. Both discrimination and employee laws will be applied here.
Sexual Harassment Background Information
The issue of sexual harassment at workplaces poses an ethical problem, with around 50% of all women employees experiencing it during some point of time at their workplace; the effects of sexual harassment on people are always negative, and harmful (Bimrose, 2004). Thus, career guidance has a significant role to play in preparing and supporting working women, who may have already faced, or are currently, facing sexual harassment at work. ecent studies on workplace-related gender inequalities have recommended combating of stereotyping by urging women to take up non-traditional vocational training, education, and jobs.
Though the above solution is pertinent, the problem of workplace sexual harassment is not accorded due recognition. There are several reasons for this; the foremost…
Bimrose, J. (2004). Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 23(1), 109-121. Retrieved, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ680404
Fetter-Harrott, A. (2007). How to avoid liability under federal civil rights laws for third-party harassment. Law Trends, 3(2).Retrieved, from http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/law_trends_news_practice_area_e_newsletter_home/howtoavoidliability.htm
ISACS (n.d.).Sexual Harassment Liability under Title VII .Retrieved August 30, 2015, from http://www.isacs.org/uploads/file/Monographs/Business%20Operations/Sexual%20Harassment%20Liability%20Under%20Title%20VII.p
Mallor, J., Barnes, Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A. (n.d.). Business Law: The Ethical, Global, and E-Commerce Environment. You Be the Judge. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0073524980/student_view0/you_be_the_judge.html
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…
Clements-Schreiber, M.E., Rempel, J.K., and Desmarais, S. (1998). "Women's Sexual Pressure Tactics and Adherence to Related Attitudes: A Step Toward Prediction." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 2, 197-205
Holland, J., Ramazanoglu, C. & Thomson, R. (1996). "In the Same Boat? The Gendered (in) Experience of First Heterosex." Richardson, D. (ed) Theorizing Heterosexuality: Open University Press, Buckingham.
Michael, R.T., Gagnon, J.H., Laumann, E.D. & Kolata, G. (1994). Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Little, Brown & Co.: Boston, Chapter 4
O'Sullivan, L.F., & Allgeier, E.R. (1998). "Feigning Sexual Desire: Consenting to Unwanted Sexual Activity in Heterosexual Dating Relationships." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 3, 234-243
Instead of liberating women from the unjustified and prejudicial sexual double standard, the suggestions offered in connection with securing marriage proposals actually do the exact opposite by encouraging women to play into preconceived stereotypes and attitudes that ensure their continued social and sexual inequality.
Conversely, according to contemporary psychologists with formal training in human relations and psychosexual development, redressing the social and sexual inequality still faced by women in modern society requires a diametrically opposite approach to understanding the fundamental basis of moral judgment. Specifically, it requires recognizing the illusory, illogical, and unfair assumptions that are responsible for generating completely different sets of rules and behavioral expectations based on gender
(Branden, 1999; 91, 98, 111). Instead of encouraging women to continue conforming their behavior to traditional expectations imposed by invalid presumptions of "acceptable" female social and sexual conduct, the more sound advice would be to critically evaluate the worth of…
Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage (1995).
Baker, Robert, and Elliston, Frederick. Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus (1998).
Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Fein, Ellen, and Schneider, Sherrie. All the Rules: Time Tested Secrets for Capturing the Heart of Mr. Right. New York: Grand Central Publishing (2007).
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Rosman JP, Resnick PJ. Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1989;17(2):153-63.
It is not legal for me to reprint the article and copy you on it, since you are purchasing this paper (and copyright would be breached because you would, in form, be purchasing the article without reprint permission) -- but the article IS available for free online (your college should provide access to Google SCHOLAR and that gives not only the full article but all the times since its publication in which it has been cited or invoked in another academic or professional publication) of from PubMed. I can, however, legally provide you with the abstract
JAKE and JSTOR, both journals of jointly administered knowledge, offer the article in-full to students through their libraries.
Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Ohio 44109.
The authors review 122 cases (88 from the…
The company should then establish clear procedures with regard to reporting of cases and the way they are handled, this can be done by establishing a competent body to handle this issue. The last step is enforcement of the policy, when all this is done then the policies will help safeguard the employees and at the same time reducing on company liabilities since there will be few cases to handle.
Who should be responsible?
Most companies have handed over the responsibility of protecting employees against sexual harassment to the employees themselves claiming that it is them who allow it to happen. Similarly, many individuals have raised the same argument and made recommendations supporting such a move. This should not be the case and is actually one of the factors that have led to the widespread of this vice. Matters are made worse when individuals are given the task of collecting…
Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. (2002). Facts about sexual harassment. Retrieved March 2, 2010 from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-sex.html
Meloy, J.R. (1998). The psychology of stalking: Clinical and Forensic Perspectives. New York:
Mullen, P.E., et al. (1999). A study of stalkers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156 Prekel, Truida (2001). Sexual Harassment: Causes, Consequences and Cures, Retrieved March 2,
It was fairly interesting meeting and exploring the personality, values and mores of my immersion activity patient partner. In many ways, it can be acknowledged that she and I had a fair amount in common, ate least in terms of culture. Her parents were Persian Jewish and Israeli, respectively, while my parents are both Persian. In that respect, there was definitely a similarity in values that can be attributed to a cultural influence that has a number of points of comparison between both of our lineages. The immersion experience activity conversation took place at an Israeli restaurant where my partner and I enjoyed excellent meals and were able to talk and get to know one another's backgrounds for upwards of two hours. I think it was fairly revealing that we each brought along companions -- she was accompanied by her boyfriend, while I was attended by my wife.…
Employer Liability for Sexual Harassment
The judge's decision was appropriate for this case because it was proven that Ms. Darcy did sufficiently state the facts in the case. It was proven that Clarence was a supervisor, that there was sexual harassment, and it was a hostile work environment. The lewd remarks and having to constantly touch Ms. Darcy was not isolated events and was not just a few times, constituting the fact that it was on a continual basis. Talking to his supervisors about it brought no results.
The environment was a hostile workplace in the respects it was continual, it was more than a reasonable women would have accepted, and the demotion shows retaliation from the company in the end. It shows hostility in respects of Clarence following her up and down the line and stopping her in the hall to say lewd remarks to her. Other company employees…
Indeed, we live in a system with a long history of treating homosexuals as deviants, criminals, outcasts, and just plain unworthy of familial love and acceptance.
In sum, there are several lessons which the critical thinker and the civil rights advocate can take from these three texts. First, it must be admitted that gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals are not treated equally in this society as well as in societies around the world. Second, there is a rich pattern of historical persecution of homosexuals and in order to eradicate and move forward, we must understand the history of gays in America and work toward finding ways that each day, we can move further and further away from the inhumanity of the Justinian Codes as well as the modern-day statutes which forbid marriage between homosexuals.
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September…
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September 22). UK Gay News.
Davies, C. (1982). Sexual taboos and social boundaries. The University of Chicago, 87(5), 1035. Retrieved from JSTOR.org.
Greenberg, D.F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
Grigoryan, M. (2010). ARMENIA: GAYS LIVE WITH THREATS of VIOLENCE, ABUSE. Civil Society. Retrieved from Eurasianet.com.
Internet Sex Offenders
Today's technology has allowed for many great advances in society that allow for great benefit and good. The internet and instant communication abilities have provided new landscapes for the human species to evolve and grow. The power of technology must be wielded with temperance and wisdom however due to the always present threat of those who wish to prey and feed off the weakness of other people.
The purpose of this essay is to describe specific strategies that are most effective with sex offenders in the community. This discussion will first discuss the newly formed landscape in which criminal justice professionals find themselves in today and how technology has affected their ability to successfully perform their duties. This discussion will also include ideas about legislation and technology that can be used in the efforts to deter these criminals from committing future sex crimes.
The New Landscape
Markon, J. (2009). New technology, tight budgets hinder sex-offender monitoring. Washington Post, 23 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/22/AR2009112202364.html
Fuchs, E. (2013). 7 Surprising Things That Could Make You a Sex Offender. Business Insider, 9 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/surprising-things-that-could-make-you-a-sex-offender-2013-10
Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K.J., & Ybarra, M.L. (2010). Online "predators" and their victims. Psychology of violence, 1, 13-35.
Wortley, R.K., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the internet. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best.
Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
homosexuals in the school system. The writer explores how the mindset of the system as well as the attitudes of fellow students impacts their self-esteem, and their educational experience. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
America is recognized worldwide for its acceptance and encouragement of diversity. One of the final frontiers along those lines has been in the arena of homosexuality. Advocates of the homosexual community have lobbied for the equal treatment of homosexuals in the work place, in civic duty and even in the legal recognition of couples. With all of the advances that have been made in the area of homosexuality there is still a stigma for homosexuals within the American school system. From dealings with administrators, to the bullying that occurs to the bias in general education regarding gender issues, homosexual students are often caught in a compulsory system that makes them feel self-conscious…
ATTWOOD Steve, Headmaster blasts gay school report., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-31-1996, pp 8.
Gay-books sale hits opposition, Gay-books sale hits opposition., The Washington Times, 07-22-2002.
Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom, Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom., The Washington Times, 05-25-2002.
Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say, Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say., The Washington Times, 05-07-2002.
Nan Goldin: Punk Expressions
Nan Goldin captures a raw, energetic visual spirit in her photography -- images of individuals outside the mainstream, persons who live in the sub-culture of the modern day world. These people are transsexuals or drug addicts, some of whom are involved in the punk music scene, others of whom are part of the underground by virtue of their "third gender" status, which Goldin applies to them. She does not photograph them as one who is reviled but rather as one who admires them and wants to be around them. Thus, her aesthetic judgments of her subjects are never scathing or attacking: rather, she presents them as they are -- boldly, objectively, almost defiantly, with their poses, attitudes, facial expressions (the eyes staring directly into the camera and hence into the viewer's saying, "Take me as I am" as in Misty and Jimmy Paulette in a Taxi,…
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. NY: Colonial Press, 1899. Print.
Manchester, Elizabeth. "Nan Goldin." TATE, 2001. Web. 9 Nov 2015.
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…
Alexander, P. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 185-95.
Amnesty International. (2005). Amnesty International Report. London: Times.
Appalachian State University. (2016). Sexual Assault Facts. Retrieved Febuary 6, 2016, from Appalachian State University: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rape/sexual-assault-facts
Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (n.d.). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children. Research grantees report to NCCAN. Seattle, WA: Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center.
Employees should be trained and educated about this issue. In case sexual harassment cases emerge, the H department must provide professional help and support for the victims. The complaints channel should be very well organized, and it should use both formal and informal methods for solving harassment cases (aymond, 2003).
A hostile environment, or a harassing one, is consisted of "unwelcome verbal or physical conduct based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, or retaliation" (FCC, 2007). The law is very clear regarding this aspect, but individuals' perception varies in multiple ways. Individuals' perception regarding this subject should be the starting point for any anti-harassment strategy that should try to change these perceptions in order to prevent or at least diminish harassment cases.
Sexual harassment (2007). Wiipedia, the free encyclopedia. etrieved May 10, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_harassment#Sexual_harassment_in_the_workplace.
aymond, Neeta (2003). Sexual harassment at work. Combat…
Sexual harassment (2007). Wiipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_harassment#Sexual_harassment_in_the_workplace .
Raymond, Neeta (2003). Sexual harassment at work. Combat Law. Vol. No2, Issue No.3. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.indiatogether.org/combatlaw/vol2/issue3/harass.htm .
Workplace Harassment is a Form of Discrimination (2007). Federal Communications Commissions. Office of Workplace Diversity. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.fcc.gov/owd/understanding-harassment.html .
Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work. The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings. The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, Chapter 5)
The organisation where the harassment took place will suffer as well.…
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2010.
European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industry Relations, and Social Affairs. Sexual harassment in the workplace in the European Union. Publications of Employment and Social Affairs, The Netherlands, 1998.
Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf Ed. Women, Gender, and Work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant's disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I. Title I complaints must be filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within 180 days of the date of discrimination, or 300 days if the charge is filed with a designated…
In addition to helping address this problem in our community, we believe that your participation at any level can only benefit your business by demonstrating to your partners and customers alike that you are committed to helping this community.
Naturally, we would also welcome your participation in other ways, such as by hosting events or by contributing your input, experiences, and advice as a professional business person as a scheduled guest speaker if you feel that you have a perspective to share on this important topic for our community.
Please contact the Fort Belvoir SHARP Office at ____ to receive additional information or resources, or to discuss any ways that you would like to contribute to this critical community effort. All of our soldiers, civilian employees, and our family members and friends invite you to become part of this annual effort to protect human health and welfare in our community.…
The culminating act of the novel also clearly illustrates this principle. During the second time Tita and Pedro make love -- and the only time they do so with complete abandonment, without fear of getting caught, the world reacts in a manner typical of magical realism, with the massive fluttering sound of a thousand doves wings: "Tita was aware of none of this, she was experiencing a climax so intense that her closed eyes glowed, and a brilliant tunnel appeared before her" (Esquivel, 220). This tunnel leads to the afterlife, and means death. Tita is able to keep herself back from this light, resisting the temptation in order to enjoy her newfound world of pleasure with Pedro. Pedro, however, crosses over into the light; the act of uninhibited sexual intercourse is too powerful for him, and he is consumed by it. Though the book's central conflict is the denial of…
Esquivel, Laura. Like Water for Chocolate. New York: Anchor, 1995.
Saadawi, Nawal El. Woman at Point Zero. London: Zed Books, 1990.
Campus Policy on Sexual Assault
Currently, sexual assault victims have to continue studying in the same environment as the person accused of assaulting them, and this causes a strain on their activities. In the Johnson case, she had to stop visiting the gym and running in order to avoid bumping in on Eric. This affected her normal routine and resulted in her anxiety increasing. Studying and participating in the same activities as your accuser will have a negative effect on the victim because they feel ashamed and they are blaming themselves for the sexual assault. Classes have to progress as normal, and victims of sexual assault find it hard to cope with the assault and their normal classes. Research has shown that a majority of sexual assault victims will drop their grades and most of them do not recover (The American Association of University Professors, 2012). There are many reasons…
Internet predators seem to have a penchant for engaging adolescents in areas that are able to be monitored for content. The law enforcement via federal grants can track and collect information on a particular IP address to determine precisely what the intent is on that individual and use that as a means to limit his internet activity. A special program can be installed onto the computer of the solicitor to prevent the individual from attempting to contact minors online for sexual engagement. The means to prevent the act is perhaps the best method. Often, these individuals are not dangerous per se' as in a hardened prison criminal. However, by taking precaution, these individuals can be stopped from hurting others, ruining their lives, and subsequently clogging up the laws enforcement throughout the country.
Attorney general gonzales highlights department efforts to combat sexual abuse and exploitation of children in Massachusetts; unveils…
Attorney general gonzales highlights department efforts to combat sexual abuse and exploitation of children in Massachusetts; unveils new series of PSAs to educate teenage girls about online dangers (2007). . United States, New York: PR Newswire Association LLC. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/453822940?accountid=13044
Bremer, J., & Bersein, E.V. (2000). Computers in psychiatry today. Academic Psychiatry, 24(3), 168-168. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196517498?accountid=13044
Case law developments. (2010). Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter, 34(6), 827-827-984. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/840369002?accountid=13044
FBI licenses image search solutions from ADF solutions to combat child pornography (2006). . United States, New York: Business Wire. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/445173785?accountid=13044
Significant findings were that the survey revealed that "participants in any type of extracurricular activity were significantly more likely than non-participants to exercise and consume nutritious foods, to like school and do homework, and to express positive attitudes about self, peers, teachers, and parents. Involved students were less likely to skip school, get into fights, vandalize property, smoke cigarettes or marijuana, binge drink, or have sexual intercourse. Students who participate in sports are less likely to suffer depression than non-participants. "
3. The Involvement Principle:
Reported in the Journal of Higher Education (1995) the work entitled "The Other Curriculum: Out-of-Class Experiences with Student Learning and Personal Development" sought to understand the relationship between leadership and socialization skills in relation to the personal development that seemingly takes place during extracurricular activities. According to the author of this work George D. Kuh, graduates believe that participation in student's organizations, part-time work as…
Porter, A.C. (1991) Creating a System of School Process Indicators. Education and Policy Analysis 13(1), 13-29.
Chambers, Elisha A. (2002) After-School Pursuits, Ethnicity and Achievement for 8th and 10th Grade Students. The Journal of Educational Research 1 Nov 2002.
Gopalakrishman, Narayan (2003) Differences in Behavior, Psychological Factors, and Environmental Factors Associated with Participation in School Sports and Other Activities in Adolescence. Journal of School Health 1 Mar 2003.
Kuh, George D. (1995) The Other Curriculum: Out-of-Class Experiences Associated with Student Learning and Personal Development. Journal of Higher Education 1 March 1995.
Fisting is a sexual act that involves inserting the whole hand into the vagina (vaginal fisting) or anus (hardballing). In a way, the name fisting is an inaccurate description for what happens during the act. The whole fist is not rammed in all at once like a punch. It is a gradual process, usually inserting and adding one finger at a time. And once the whole hand is inside, it does not ball up into the shape of a fist, although it may curl. But because the whole hand is inside (sometimes up to the wrist), perhaps this justifies the use of the term fisting (Women, Culture and Society FAQ). According to Answers. com, the medical terms for fisting are brachiovaginal eroticism (vaginal) and brachioproctic eroticism (anal). Fisting became popular during the sexual revolution of the 1960s and '70s when private fisting clubs for gay men sprang up in urban…
Answers.com (2005). Fisting. http://www.answers.com/topic/fisting
Belge, K. (2005). Fisting: http://lesbianlife.about.com/od/lesbiansex/ht/HowtoFist.htm
Fisting Defined (2005). http://www.teenhealthfx.com/answers/Sexuality/16776.html
Good Vibrations (2005). A fist without a glove. http://www.goodvibes.com/cgi-bin/
Obviously, this type of theft works relatively
well, for there has been a large increase in the number of people ripped
off by scam artists within the last five years.
The solutions for these and other illegal activities on the Internet
is extremely complicated, due to the number of criminals lurking on the
Internet and their ability to disguise their true identities and motives.
One solution would be to utilize some type of "Internet police" who would
monitor certain websites for suspicious illegal activity, especially
related to sexual predators and child molesters. A more radical approach
would involve shutting down websites that cater to illegal activity and
making sure that they do not return to an online status. The best solution
is to locate those persons who conduct illegal activities on the web and
put them in jail for long periods, thus assuring that they do not repeat
In this particular case study, the client is a 15-year-old minor. She has suffered neglect and abuse and has lived with toxic parents and guardians for a while. As of today, she has had residence in 8 separate communities. Her problems started when she was ten in 2010. At that young age she was sexually abused by somebody who was a friend of her family. The man who abused her is now in jail serving for his crime. When the client was abused at such a young age, she specified that she did not receive any intervention, psychological support or counselling from anyone let alone the Human Services Agency. In 2012, she was arrested and put in detention. Her crime: the murder of an older male schoolmate in her school’s compound. She was detained in the country’s only jail and she specified in her statements that she ended…
aragher v. City of Boca Raton
Argued March 25, 1998
Decided June 26, 1998
Beth Ann aragher: petitioner; City of Boca Raton:
Beth Ann aragher worked part-time and during summers between 1990 and 1995 as a life-guard for the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of Boca Raton, lorida. Her immediate superiors during this period were Bill Terry, David Silverman and Robert Gordon.
After resigning as a lifeguard, aragher brought an action against Terry, Silverman and the City under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for nominal damages and other relief, alleging, among other things, that the supervisors had created a "sexually hostile atmosphere" at work by repeatedly subjecting aragher and other female lifeguards to uninvited and offensive touching, by making lewd remarks, and by speaking of women in offensive terms. Asserting that Terry and Silverman were agents of the City, and that…
Faragher v. The City of Boca Raton (1998) is considered to be landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the area of sexual harassment in the workplace. This is mainly because until Faragher, the Appeal Courts in the U.S. had typically considered sexual harassment by employees in the workplace as "frolics or detours from the course of employment" which was "acting beyond the scope of their employment." As such, sexual harassment by employees (including supervisors) was deemed to fall beyond the scope of Restatement 219 (1) and absolved the employer of any vicarious liability.
Faragher constitutes an important departure from such a benign interpretation of sexual harassment by the courts and set more strict standards of judgment in future cases. It also forced the employers and supervisors to view sexual harassment more seriously and to implement policies of prevention in the workplace.
The Case, in fact, reflects the changing social attitudes towards sexual harassment in the American society. There was a time, when crass behavior by male employees in the workplace could go unchallenged or was ignored by women. Following the success of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, movements for the rights of other minorities had gained ground. By the 1990s, previous Court rulings in sexual harassment cases had become out of tune with the changed social standards. Faragher defined the parameters of sexual harassment more clearly and also broadened the scope of vicarious liability in general.