Sexual Addiction Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Sexual Counseling Approach Theoretical Overview

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40617010


CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:

Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOURCE, p. 23).

A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family -- CBT will help the client understand communication patterns, self-sabotage patterns, and again assertiveness to help family and friends understand that being Gay or Bisexual is not a choice, but just as much a part of the client as their hair color, body shape, and/or personality. Cognitive restricting can help the…… [Read More]


Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.

Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: 

Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
View Full Essay

Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946

Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away from the vagina, and shrinking of breasts and nipples, and a reduction in heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. She claims not to have this last phase. However, it differs depending on who much alcohol she has consumed before sexual intercourse.

Mary Jane, doesn't understand why alcohol is the cause…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sexual Education - Abstinence Analyzing

Words: 1594 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36928938

In comparison to traditional sexual education programs, it provides absolutely no benefit, and conceivably causes additional harm attributable to the deliberate withholding of invaluable information about STD transmission and unwanted pregnancy. As part of its message, it distorts the truth about the relative effectiveness of condom use, thereby only decreasing the likelihood that teenagers who ultimately choose to reject abstinence (as virtually all adults do in our society before marriage) will do so responsibly, by using a condom correctly.

Instead of limiting the scope of sexual education, the effort should, at a minimum, include essential information relating to safer sex practices and effective pregnancy prevention. A well-structured comprehensive sexual education program could also provide valuable insight that is generally lacking in society in general, and among teenagers and young adults in particular: namely, the fundamental nonsense inherent in the gender-based sexual double standard.

In addition to undermining genuinely effective sexual education programs, the Bush administration's insistence on abstinence-only programs represent an intrusion of religious values into secular legislation and funding decisions, that under the U.S. Constitution, also violate the supposed Separation of Church and State by virtue of the true origin and political lobby behind the "Family Values" position embraced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex.

Buffalo, NY: Prometheus

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
View Full Essay

Internet Sex Addiction Have We

Words: 940 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18542855

[how] such activities fit into an individual's sexual biography and impact relationships between sexual partners and peers" (p. 1099).

Participants will be invited to complete a brief online questionnaire that details their participation in OSAs, as well as their demographic information and the nature of their current relationships, including their relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and participation in extra-dyadic sexual relations (i.e. infidelity). In addition, participants will also complete a screening questionnaire to determine whether or not they meet a clinical cut off point to be considered addicted to Internet Sexuality or OSAs (Delmonico & Miller, 2003). The surveys will be delivered using a free online survey website, such as, and the sample will be drawn from a selection of students on campus through posting on social networking sites such as Facebook and using flyers posted around the campus. Due to the online nature of the survey, all data collected will be completely anonymous, thereby addressing any concerns related to confidentiality in investigating a personal subject such as sex and the Internet.

The results of the data will be analyzed to compare the frequency of OSA with relationship outcome measures, including relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. While the existing literature…… [Read More]


Cooper, a., Morahan-Martin, J., Mathy, R.M., & Maheu, M. (2002). Toward an Increased Understanding of User Demographics in Online Sexual Activities. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 105-120.

Cooper, a., Mansson, S., Daneback, K., Tikkanen, R., & Ross, M.W. (2003). Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 277-291.

Delmonico, D.L. & Miller, J.A. (2003). The Internet Sex Screening Test: A comparison of sexual compulsives vs. non-sexual compulsives. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 261-276.

Doring, N.M. (2009). The Internet's impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years of research. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1089-1101.
View Full Essay

Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priest

Words: 2563 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54200333

Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests

Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.

In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.

In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.

While the number of priests who have abused children is relatively low, the scandalous nature of the acts has made them highly visible. (Jenkins)The Catholic Church, which demands high standards of behavior from priests, has responded to the recent scandals by pointing out that there is no evidence that people who…… [Read More]


Berry, Jason. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Doubleday, 1992.

Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church. Viking, 1993.

Hudson, Dean. Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Crisis, July, 2001.

Isely, P. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. Pastoral Psychology, 1997.
View Full Essay

Internet Addiction

Words: 3578 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83422322

Internet started way back 3 to 4 decades, but it really took the world by storm through the 90's and till now it has become one of the main assets of modern day computer user. More people get the information through Internet, especially those who use it than by any other means. The world has become a cyber village where simply anyone from anywhere can communicate with other person living absolutely thousands of miles away either through voice communication, chat, email. People can buy online from the different portals, web sites through their cards because of Internet. All in all, Internet has for sure changed the lives of millions if not billions. Life without it would be chaotic for those who use it and take if for granted.

Even though life without would be unthinkable without the Internet, there are some ingredients because of which it has stigmatized itself. Most of the time, you will find people wasting there time on the Internet, just for the sake of killing time or having fun. For example, chatting is an activity on the net; once you get hooked to it then the chances are that you will spend hours on it and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Internet Addiction.Ca by Davis A. Richard, 2001

2. What is Internet Addiction? By Davis A. Richard, 2001

3. Defining Internet Addiction Disorder: "Internet Behavior and Addiction. By Egger, O., Rauterberg, M., (1996).
View Full Essay

Sexual Abuse of Children Is

Words: 3429 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53732823

2003). In addition

Fergusson, Horwood, and Lynsky (1997) also examined the extent to which exposure to CSA was associated with increased rates of sexual risk-taking behaviors among 520 young women (aged 18) in New Zealand. Retrospective reports of CSA indicated that females who experienced sexual abuse (intercourse) were 4.4 times more likely to engage in sexual activity and be pregnant, 9.3 times more likely to have had five or more sexual partners, and 6.6 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse before age 16. The association remained significant even after controlling for other adverse childhood experiences. Further, Brown, Lourie, Zlotnick, and Cohn (2000) conducted a study of 208 adolescent patients who attended psychiatric day schools and residential programs, and found that more than half reported a history of sexual abuse (Addy et al. 2003)."

Prior research has also found that students that were sexually abused as children were times more likely than their peers to be inconsistent as it relates to using condoms during sexual activity (Addy et al. 2003). In addition sexually abused adolescents had less condom self-efficacy, a reduced understanding of HIV / AIDS, less impulse control, less frequent purchase and use of condoms, and higher rates…… [Read More]


Addy, R.C., Buzi, R.S., Tortolero, S.R., Roberts, R.E., Ross, M.W., & Markham, C.M. (2003). The Impact of a History of Sexual Abuse on High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Females Attending Alternative Schools. Adolescence, 38(152), 595+.

Freeman, R.C., Collier, K., & Parillo, K.M. (2002). Early Life Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Crack Cocaine Use in a Sample of Community-Recruited Women at High Risk for Illicit Drug Use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28(1), 109+.

Itzin, C. (Ed.). (2000). Home Truths about Child Sexual Abuse: A Reader. London: Routledge.

Jones et al. (2004) Intelligence and Achievement of Children Referred following sexual abuse. Pediatric and Child Health. Vol. 40
View Full Essay

Heroin Addiction That St Germain Has as

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91077172

heroin addiction that St. Germain has as well as her relationship with her brother. The poem gives a vivid description of the entire injection process. There is personification when giving a description of the veins where the piercing is to be done so as to get the heroin into her system. The veins are described as being al blue and throbbing just wanting to be pierced. The use of the personification of the veins intensely brings out the message of the urge that he had to get the heroin into his system. The grip which the brother had on the opposite arm is likened to a grip which is as tight as death. This communicates the message that when piercing is being done there should be a tight grip probably so that the process can take place smoothly and also showing the serious needs of the process that is going on. This whole description is quite engaging as it clearly shows how the piercing process takes place and the urge that his brother has when doing this.

However there is a twist that comes in when St. Germain invasions her brother in a sexual way. She looks at the penetration…… [Read More]


Bookrags, (2013).How to Analyze a poem. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from
View Full Essay

Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction

Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60038826

Economic deprivation arises from various activities and aspects of the family in attempts to minimize the threats affecting the at-risk youth. Some of the factors affecting the economic deprivation in relation to at-risk youth within the family include rehabilitation fee, treatment fee, and addiction cost thus affecting the overall economic level of the family (McWhirter,2013). This is a problem with the scarce family resources thus the need to adopt and integrate effective elements towards minimization or management of the problems affecting the growth and development of the family members in relation to the existing factors.

Another critical family problem or issue relates to the lack of adults and parental role models under the influence massive drug addiction thus affecting the growth and development of the youths within the family unit. It is also essential to note that at-risk youths increases parental criminality and development of family violence attitudes or anti-social behavior. Siblings also develop antisocial behavior hence the generation of ineffective atmosphere for quality development and growth of the youths within the family.

School Issues That May Impact at-risk Youth

There are various implications or influences of the school problems or issues in relation to at-risk youth. The main impact…… [Read More]


Monica H. Swahn & Robert M. Bossarte. (2009). Assessing and Quantifying High Risk:

Comparing Risky Behaviours by Youth in an Urban, Disadvantaged Community with Nationally Representative Youth. Public Health Rep. 124(2): 224

Ken C. Winters et al., (2011). Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 13(5): 416 -- 421.

Kuther TL & Posada M. (2004). Children and adolescents' capacity to provide informed consent for participation in research. Adv Psychol Res. 32:163-73.
View Full Essay

Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young

Words: 2102 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98392642

Chemical Addiction Progress More Rapidly in Young People than Adults?

Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).

Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly than the same addiction in adults. Consequently, it is very important that addictions be caught early and drug treatment started before the problem develops into something deeper. Addictions can be recognized by way of a pattern of problems in a young person's life and they are a direct consequence of…… [Read More]


Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from

Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for

Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23652968

S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). Researchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person makes you angry?" The subjects had their moods measured while changes in their blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and brain waves were monitored (Ornstein & Sobel, 1989, p. 69). In some cases, before the stressful questioning, a subject sniffed a fragrance. The smell of spiced apple, for example, appeared to…… [Read More]


Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
View Full Essay

Methadone Treatment for Heroin Addiction

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97872760


Methadone use has a number of side-effects such as constipation, sweating, loss of libido, sleep disturbance, weight gain, dental problems, vomiting, and serious bowel problems. While most of the side-effects are reduced or managed by controlled prescription, they can occasionally be severe enough to affect a person's health sufficiently for him to discontinue treatment (Withers, 1999)

One of the 'advantages' of methadone, i.e., it blocks the euphoric high of heroin can also become a disadvantage at times, as many addicts under methadone treatment miss the 'high' of heroin and could overdose themselves for the sake of experiencing the euphoria.

Methadone is a long-acting opioid. In other words, its effect in the body remains for up to 36 hours. This makes it difficult for patients under methadone treatment, desirous of becoming completely drug-free, to kick their methadone habit. According to some, it is far more difficult to kick the methadone habit as compared to heroin ("Methadone and Methadone Addiction," 2005) Withdrawal symptoms of methadone are similar to that of other opiates and may include nervousness, muscle contractions, sweating, diarrhea, and hallucinations. While the withdrawal symptoms of methadone may be less severe than that of heroin, they last much longer --…… [Read More]


Methadone & Methadone Addiction." (2005). Narconon of Oklahoma. Retrieved on November 26, 2007 at

Methadone: Fact Sheet." (2000). Office of National Drug Control Policy. April 2000. Retrieved on November 26, 2007 at

Whithers, R. (1999). "Methadone Treatment: Relief from heroin addiction." Heroin Addiction: An Addict's View. Retrieved on November 26, 2007 at

Most heroin users, on the other hand, inject the drug intravenously; they are also prone to share needles and engage in risky sexual activity, both of which are significant factors in the spread of infectious diseases.
View Full Essay

Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual

Words: 6079 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85748070

It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.

However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,

Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.


3.1. What is PTSD?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown a marked degree of growth in terms of research and publications in recent years. This increased interest is also due to the fact that PTSD was included in the third edition (1980) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (Williams and Sommer, 1994, p.3). This means…… [Read More]


Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse

Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at 

Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at
View Full Essay

Psychological Affects Sexual Abuse Has

Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23779142

In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.… [Read More]


California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California

Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from 

Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from

View Full Essay

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction

Words: 4543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57309421

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction


Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview

PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The Role of Trauma

Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD

Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Models of Assessment/Conclusions

Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"

This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.

A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance abuse as well as relapse from treatment programs.

Narrative TC "Narrative" f C l "1"

Introduction TC "Introduction" f C l "2"

The purpose of this study is an examination of the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcoholism/addiction, in an effort to determine whether a correlation exists…… [Read More]

References" f C l "1":

Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90

Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135

Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).

'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
View Full Essay

Women & Addiction Substance Addiction

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93397394

Physiological effects are also a give away when we think of the effects of substance abuse. For instance, it has been noted that women have higher chances of developing liver disease, brain and heart damage than men even if their period of drinking is lesser than their male counterparts. A link between breast cancer and alcohol abuse was also found (National Women's Health Report Online, 2007).

Treatment-wise, it was noted that women who struggle with substance-related problems do not have accessible services and resources. There is also a need to "develop training curriculum for workers on the issues of domestic violence..." (Institute for Women's Leadership, n.d., pp. 3-4) as domestic violence often leads to substance abuse as it is used by women as coping mechanism to such kind of marital difficulties (NCADV, 2009). The method of "intervention" or other forms of therapy which are confrontational in nature are also problematic for women because they tend to be overly concerned with what others will think of them, as well as their significant groups or circles (Estronaut, 1999).

Gender Specific: The Need to Study Women's Issues in Substance Abuse

At this point, we have already established the differences of substance abuse between…… [Read More]


Califano, J.A. Jr. (1998). Substance Abuse and Addiction - the Need to Know. American Journal of Public Health, 1, pp. 9-10.

Chih-Hung, K. et al. (2006). Tridimensional Personality of Adolescents With Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(14), pp. 887-894.

Diaza, D. (2009). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from 14.

Estronaut (1999). Women and Substance Abuse. Retrieved from onMarch 14.
View Full Essay

Heroin and Cocaine Addiction and Overdose and How it Effects Families

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7830573

Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a stimulant, appetite suppressant and a sodium channel blocker that causes it to be an anesthetic at low doses. It is highly addictive because of its effect on the brain's reward pathways. Cocaine is more dangerous than many other stimulants because of its effect on the sodium channel in the body's chemistry, which, under higher dosages may cause sudden cardiac arrest. Cocaine is unique as a molecule because it has pockets that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier quite quickly and easily (Sommers, 2008). High dosages or repeated use may also cause a breakdown in the blood-brain barrier, allowing the user to experience greater psychoactive episodes from other substances (Sharma, H., et al., 2009).

Historical Background - From a historical perspective, the use of cocaine and other psychoactive substances is neither novel nor new. In fact, history tells us that almost every society had their own pharmacopeia of herbs, potions, and substances that not only contributed to healing, but also allowed the user to escape reality. However, it is the contemporary use of psychoactive drugs purchased through illicit or illegal channels and used by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthenelli, D. (2010). Vaccine for Cocaine Addiction: A Promising new Immunotherapy. Current Psychiatry, 9(9), 16-19.

Clarke, P., & Myers, J. (2012). Developmental Counseling and Therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(4), 23-37. Retrieved from Journal of Mental Health Counseling.

Goldbaum, E. (2012, May 9). Chronic Cocaine Use Triggers Changes in Brain's Neuron Structure. Retrieved from University at Buffalo News Center: 

Gootenberg, P. (2008). Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
View Full Essay

CSA Child Sexual Abuse Is

Words: 4327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61552509

Rankin (2003) affirmed that the purpose of art therapy is to address the major affects of trauma on the child's life. Additionally, Rankin (2003) stated that art interventions begin with self-management, then proceed with safety planning, telling the trauma story, grieving traumatic losses, self-concept and world view revision and finally ends with self and relational development. Treatment progress and outcomes will vary from patient to patient, as therapy is an individualized process.

Although the amount of empirical research regarding art therapy is limited, the use of art therapy has been confirmed as a means for victims to express how they feel and find some closure. Art therapy has also become a type of intervention that is used in combination with other interventions. With this understood, the preceding section of this discussion will focus on play therapy as an intervention.

Play Therapy

Play therapy is a long-established and highly effective treatment method used in working with children who are experiencing various conflicts, contrasting role expectations, or dissociated feelings (Weber, 2009). These concepts are enacted in play, and brought to conscious awareness by the therapist's comments (Weber, 2009). Play therapy is a very heterogeneous type of therapy that permits the therapist and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arcus, D. (2008). Child abuse, sexual and emotional. Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence.


ABUSE SURVIVORS. The Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 447-466, 1995

Brown, E. (2005). Correlates and treatment of stress disorder in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annuals. 35 (9).
View Full Essay

Where in the United States Has Highest Amounts of Child Sexual Trafficking and Why

Words: 2062 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10808247

Child Sex Trafficking

Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).

The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted due to their inherent gullibility due to age and vulnerability in trusting others. The market for sex unfortunately has a higher demand for young victims. For those that entice young people into sexual exploitation, federal laws are violated in addition to state laws, though the state laws differ from state…… [Read More]


Carr, B. (2009). Sex trafficking: an American problem too. CNN. Nov 25. TBS.

Department of Justice DOJ (2005). Report on state human rights. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from

Eisenmenger, L. (2011). Sex trafficking in the U.S., What really goes on. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from 

Freyd, J.J, Putnam, F.W, Lyon, T.D, BeckerBlease, K. A, Cheit, R.E, Siegel, N.B, and Pezdek, K. (2005). The science of child sexual abuse. Science, pp. 501.
View Full Essay

Combating Alcoholism and Addiction

Words: 2074 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46383990

vignette pertaining to addiction. Ethical and legal factors will be considered. Also discussed will be cross cultural matters related to the topic. Possible solutions to the issue at hand will also be considered.

Middle-aged couple, Anna and James, drops in for an appointment as Kevin, their son aged 16 years, faces suspension from school because of 'drug paraphernalia' found in his school bag. While James is Native-American, Anna is Japanese-American. James goes on to say that it is all Anna's fault, stating that she has smoked pot on a daily basis for the most part of their married life. Anna is of the view that she at least isn't a slobbering drunk like James, further elucidating that James over-indulges in drinking alcohol on weekends. It is discovered, in the course of assessment that James as well as Anna come from alcoholic homes.

Session one

Much is to be taken into consideration with Kevin and his parents. Firstly, both James and Anna need to describe their addictions, or possible addiction behavior to see whether it is a problem.

Certain instruments can be found that assist counselors in determining whether or not further evaluation is warranted, whether the client has any mental…… [Read More]


(n.d.).CASAColumbia - Addiction Science, Prevention & Treatment Research. Designing an Addiction Treatment Plan | CASAColumbia. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from

(n.d.). Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine. DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror).Retrieved May 19, 2015, from

(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4 Integrated Models for Treating Family Members - Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy - NCBI Bookshelf.Retrieved May 19, 2015, from 

(n.d.).National Center for Biotechnology Information. Chapter 4: Screening and Assessment - Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women - NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from
View Full Essay

Positive and Negative Effects Video Games Have in Relation to Addiction Human Interaction and Violence

Words: 5997 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31230091

Computer Games Research

When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.

Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent games does affect young children negatively, with increased levels of short-term aggressive behavior. Further, some children exhibit addictive behavior and become less sociable and less academically capable. Other studies suggest that computer games have little or no impact on factors such as aggression and can even be a positive educational…… [Read More]

References Cited

Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.

Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.

Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34

Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
View Full Essay

Pornography the Internet

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12964570

Pornography/The Internet

Today, technological and Internet advances have brought about some severe consequences, including the rise and exponential growth of online pornography sites. One effect of this has been a high level of exposure and even addiction to such sites. Consequences have included depression, loss of work, social withdrawal, and the like. Since it is unlikely that Internet pornography will disappear, individuals and groups need to focus on mitigating addiction, unwanted exposure, and negative consequences. Researchers should focus their efforts on investigating the nature of Internet pornography and its varied consequences for individuals. Only by understanding the negative consequences associated with Internet pornography can we fight these and ensure our growth and survival as a healthy society.


In today's world of technology and advancement, it is a sad fact of human nature that we do not derive only benefits and productive work from the wonderful progress we have made in terms of information and the online world. Indeed, many have succumbed to the addictive nature of sites that encourage time-wasting and economically harmful activities. In addition, there has been a growing online industry that caters not only for gaming, gambling and similar addictions, but also for even more socially…… [Read More]


Bostwick, M. And Bucci, J.A. (2008, Feb). Internet Sex Addiction Treated With Naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(2). Retrieved from: 

Braun-Courville, D.K. And Rojas, M. (2009, Aug). Exposure to sexually explict Web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health 45(2). Retrieved from:

Crosby, J.M. And Twohig, M.P. (2010). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Problematic Internet Pornography Viewing. Behavior Therapy. Retrieved from:

Mowlabocus, S. (2010). Porn 2.0? Technology, Social Practice, and the New Online Porn Industry. Making Sense of Online Pornography edited by Feona Attwood. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
View Full Essay

Chemical Dependency in Families Chemical

Words: 2088 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94084440

Nevertheless, the family capacity does not receive full exploitation during most intervention programs. A central challenge to most interventions is the need to broaden the chemical abuse treatment focus from the addict to the family.

The initial stages depict diligent commitment and focus from the families. Upon receiving pre-counseling, families shift more attention in uniting to help their loved ones free themselves from substance abuse. The initial stages of the intervention exercise trigger high expectations and an optimistic attitude usually fills the atmosphere (Marinelli, 2009). This is because the family unit has identified the crisis that has caused them so much anxiety in the past. Before the intervention program, most families live with the problem of an addicted loved one, and the mood is usually despondent. During this time, most of the communication is tensed, and ends in arguments caused by the denial in the part of the addict. In most cases, the fights usually emanate because the addict does not want to subject to some form of help. The chemical abuse tampers with their perception and all they want is the security that comes with the enabling behavior. In some cases, the substance abuse treatment and family therapy could…… [Read More]


Marinelli, R.P. (2009). The Psychological and Social Impact of Disability. New York, Ny:

Springer Pub. Co.

Durand, V.M., & Hieneman, M. (2008). Helping Parents With Challenging Children: Positive

Family Intervention: Parent Workbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Samantha Jones Like Will Rogers

Words: 1513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82101148

There is disagreement as to whether CSB is an addiction, a psychosexual developmental disorder, an impulse control disorder, a mood disorder, or an obsessive-compulsive disorder, however most scientists dispute the idea that someone can become addicted to sex in the same way they become addicted to alcohol, thus abstinence as a treatment is viewed as an oversimplification of the problem (Compulsive).

Samantha Jones might be the first to admit that she has CSB, or not. But as long as it does not harm anyone, then "Who cares what you are just enjoy it."… [Read More]

Works Cited

Compulsive Sexual Behavior. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at

Quotes: Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at 

Samantha Jones. Retrieved November 07, 2005 at

Stein, Daniel J. "Sexual Addiction: An Integrated Approach." Retrieved November 07, 2005 at
View Full Essay

Authorized Mandated Disclosure

Words: 3587 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58632613


Authorized Mandated/Disclosure

Mandatory disclosure is an issue that affects many different facets of life. The set of laws and regulations known as mandatory disclosure are designed to provide various entities with information to protect the interests of businesses, the legal system and individuals. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the concept of authorized mandatory disclosure as it pertains to define mandatory disclosure, examine different types of authorized mandated disclosure, Code of Ethics and Mandatory State of Illinois Reporting.

To mandate simply means to assign as a mandate to require as by law; make mandatory. A mandate can also be defined as "an authoritative command; especially: a formal order from a superior court or official to an inferior one ("mandates")." There are many mandates in society that are in place to ensure that business and legal actions are conducted in a consistent and streamline manner.

Disclosure is defined as the release of information about a person or entity, or a corporation. The filing of documents and statements required by law; in litigation, the release of documents and other information subpoenaed or otherwise sought by the other side. Disclosures allow everyone involved in a transaction or interaction to present…… [Read More]

Works cited

(2011, March 17). Retrieved from Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 2010 Amendments:

Bonner R, V.L. (2006). Ethical Decison Making for Correctional Providers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 562-564.

Black, B. & . (2002). Calculating Risk & benefits of disclosure in African-American Women who have HIV. JOGNN, 501-509.

Garde-Perik, E., Markopoulos, P., Ruyter, B., Eggen, B. And Ijsselsteijn, W. (2008). Investigating Privacy Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Personalization. Social Science Computer Review 26: 20
View Full Essay

Enforcement of Psychology Treatment for the Mentally Ill

Words: 8451 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95839705

Psychology Treatment

For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day state laws, involuntary commitment to mental institutions can only apply to those judged to be a danger to themselves and others, and therapeutic practice no prefers short-term stays whenever possible. This has led to a problem of psychiatric wards being filled with patents repeatedly sent to these facilities for short…… [Read More]


Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.

Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.

Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
View Full Essay

Cocaine the Long-Term and Short-Term

Words: 1193 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64466017

The good news for those keeping an eye on the health of students in secondary school is that there has been a "…significant decline in the 30-day prevalence of powder cocaine use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from its peak use in the late 1990s" (nida).

Sexual Addiction

Author Paul Earley writes in the Cocaine Recovery Book that cocaine stimulates the part of the brain that stirs a sexual feeling along while decreasing a person's inhibitions. So, given the heightened sexual arousal, and a decrease in inhibition, the cocaine addict can become addicted to sexual behaviors that can be "…compulsive and bizarre… [and hence the person may] progress from compulsive and ritualistic sex to shame and remorse" (Earley, 1991). In fact Earley asserts that some male cocaine addicts try to get females addicted to the drug, engendering "…a dual addiction to sex and cocaine" (147).

Treatments for Cocaine Addiction

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, there are no FDA-approved medications that are used to treat cocaine addiction. Some medications do show promise (albeit they have not been approved for use) and those include: vigabatrin, modafinil, tiagabine, disulfiram, and topiramate (nida). What the NIDA says regarding cocaine is…… [Read More]

Works Cited (2012). What are the short-term effects of cocaine use? Retrieved April 25,

2013, from (2012). What is Cocaine? Retrieved April 25, 2013, from

Earley, Paul H. (1991). The Cocaine Recovery Book.
View Full Essay

Online Escort Services and Their

Words: 2783 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9121935

, 2001). Based on the proliferation of the Internet and the near-ubiquity of personal computers in many affluent homes, these rates can reasonably be expected to have increased even further in subsequent years.

In fact, it would appear that the more people of both sexes are using the Internet for these purposes, the more ways they are finding to do so. In this regard, Green and her associates point out that, "The fact that one can access sexually related materials and interact with others anonymously on the Internet has opened the doors even wider. Using anonymous screen names, individuals can explore and express their sexual interests with little fear that friends, coworkers, or even spouses will discover their activities" (2001, p. 303). Furthermore, the individuals who participate in these encounters can do so with other anonymous individuals without the risks typically associated with face-to-face relationships; if an anonymous online relationship turns sour, it is a simple matter to discontinue it.

In addition, and perhaps more importantly for this analysis as it applies to online encounters, gender identification in computer-mediated forums can be difficult - if not impossible -- because the individual's physical appearance is not in evidence unless he or…… [Read More]


Benotsch, E.G., Cage, M., & Kalichman, S. (2002). Men who have met sex partners via the Internet: Prevalence, predictors, and implications for HIV prevention. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(2), 177.

Giuseppe, R., Tiziana, T., & Anolli, L. (2003). The use of the Internet in psychological research: Comparison of online and offline questionnaires. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(1), 73.

Green, A., Katelyn, S., Mckenna, Y.A., & Smith, P.K. (2001). Demarginalizing the sexual self. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 302.

Hill, R.J. (2005, Spring). Poz-itively transformational: Sex workers and HIV / AIDS education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 105, 74.
View Full Essay

Crime and Social Theory Deviance Interpreted by

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21153466

Crime and Social Theory

Deviance Interpreted by Social Theories

Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use has historically been seen as a global threat towards society and a primary contributing factor for the prevalence other crimes, such as smuggling, home invasions, property crimes, assault, and murder. In 1969 President Nixon stated publicly that illicit drug use is a serious national problem and in 1971 declared the "War on Drugs" (National Public Radio, 2007). Over the two decades since, other governments around the world, including the United Nations, followed suit, but differed substantially from the United States in how much emphasis was placed on deterrence through incarceration (Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009, p. 1).

Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use

An estimated 21.8 million Americans were using illicit drugs in 2009, which represents about 8.7% of the population (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010, p. 1). Of these, 16.7 million used marijuana, 1.6 million cocaine, 1.3 million hallucinogens, 7.0 million prescription psychotherapeutic drugs, and 0.5 million methamphetamine. As a group, illicit drug use among juveniles aged 12 and 17 was more prevalent (10.0%) than among the general population.

Consequences of the War on Drugs

Since the War on Drugs began around…… [Read More]


Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.

Lo, Celia C. (2003). An application of social conflict theory to arrestees' use of cocaine and opiates. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 237-266.

Mauer, Marc and King, Ryan S. (2007). A 25-year quagmire: The War on Drugs and its impact on American society. The Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Retrieved June, 2011 at
View Full Essay

English Lit an Analysis of

Words: 915 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37152390

Even physical relationships are prone to dissolution -- as Webster shows: the lovers are murdered one by one. Webster and the other Jacobeans appear to pine for an era of old world spirituality -- for the new modern world, while full of scientific inquiry and triumph (see Bacon), lacks that sensitivity of soul that could effect true and real humility.

3. For, however, a complete and masterful representation of the many facets of human nature in all its strengths and failings, one need look no further than to the works of Shakespeare, which span both Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. For the folly of kingly pride, there is Lear. For the bitterness of ambition on the murdered conscience, there is Macbeth. For the nature of love and the relationship between man and woman there are the marvelous sonnets 116, 129, and 138: all three of which tackle the subject from a different angle. In 116, we find the definition of true love: "Love is not love / Which alters when it alteration finds, / Or bends with the remover to remove. / Oh no! It is an ever fixed mark / That looks on tempests and is never shaken" (1072). In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eliot, T.S. "Whispers of Immortality." American Poems. Web. 27 July 2011.

Elizabeth I. "The Golden Speech." The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Eight

Edition. (M. H. Abrams, ed.) W.W. Norton, 2006.

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnets 116, 129, 138." The Norton Anthology of English
View Full Essay

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients it May Sound

Words: 2497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62620579

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients

It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. Women, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships. Indeed, women tend to have a higher percentage of mental illness within the penal system, but fewer resources to support their illness. Research shows that severe mental illness and substance abuse co-exist in the prison system, making it quite difficult to determine which is the primary issue since the co-existence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from

ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from

American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from
View Full Essay

Elizabethan Renascence

Words: 4876 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63788013

Renaissance Art

An Analysis of Love in the Renaissance Art of Sidney, Shakespeare, Hilliard and Holbein

If the purpose of art, as Aristotle states in the Poetics, is to imitate an action (whether in poetry or in painting), Renaissance art reflects an obsession with a particular action -- specifically, love and its many manifestations, whether eros, agape or philia. Love as a theme in 16th and 17th century poetry and art takes a variety of forms, from the sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney to the miniature portraits of Hilliard and Holbein. Horace's famous observation, ut picture poesis, "as is poetry so is painting," helps explain the popularity of both. Indeed, as Rensselaer W. Lee observes, the "sister arts as they were generally called…differed in means and manner of expression, but were considered almost identical in fundamental nature, in content, and in purpose" (Lee 196). In other words, the love sonnets of Shakespeare and Sidney and the miniature portraitures of both Hilliard and Holbein share a single artistic nature -- specifically, the love of the poet for his subjects and love of the painter for his. This paper will analyze the nature of poetry ("a speaking picture") and painting ("mute poetry")…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. Poetics (trans. By Gerald Else). MI: Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1970. Print.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World. NY W.W. Norton, 2004. Print.

Hogan, Patrick. "Sidney and Titian: Painting in the 'Arcadia' and the 'Defence.'" The

South Central Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 4. (Winter, 1967): 9-15. Print.
View Full Essay

Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, Rodriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and its psychological and physiological effects mirror the drug's inherent properties.

To understand the physiology of drug addiction, one must first recognize that all drugs are chemical compounds. Each drug is composed of various chemical properties that react to receptors within the brain, stimulate biochemical processes, and the individual then experiences…… [Read More]


Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from:

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
View Full Essay

Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood

Words: 4019 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247855

" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that childhood abuse "was related to a large range of physical and psychosocial difficulties." (Cromer, 2005; p. 14) the work of Nemeroff et al. (2004)states findings that there is an association between experiences in childhood and "increased adult psychopathology" which can be explained by the "profound effect early-life experiences have on…… [Read More]


Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at

Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at

Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at
View Full Essay

Psychology Theories and Models of

Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26105035

There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).

A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.

As one discovers how much they like certain facets of drug or alcohol use, the positive reinforcement of that use leads to even greater use. By the time extreme drug or alcohol use creates considerably pessimistic consequences, one has yielded to a physical or psychological addiction to the substance (Understanding Addiction: The Disease Model vs. The Choice…… [Read More]


Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from


Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from

Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from
View Full Essay

Dedicated Towards the Link Between

Words: 2304 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33486592

Anderson et al. (2002) studies the effects of terminating the levels of addiction disability on the status of housing of persons who formerly recipients of addiction diability. They study how the various disruptions in the living situations play an integral role in the determination of the level of predisposition to drug and alcohol abuse. They present their view via both structural and individualistic theories as regrds both housing and homelessness in the society. Their study involved the quantitative analysis if data obtained through the interviewing of 101 former recipients who were selected at random. They found from their analysis that the termination of the benefits coupled with the reduced level of social services and the unprecedented explosion of housing markets resulted in an increase in the homeless and high dependency n both family and friends. The resulting negative living results contributed to the escalation of the drug related risks and use.

A study by Argeriou et al. was dedicated as a response to the requirement for the validation of data on the utilization of Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in regard to the number of homeless individuals together with the near homeless women and men. According to the scholars the use…… [Read More]


Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1998) Drug Misuse and the Environment: A

Report by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. London: Stationary Office

Anderson, T.L., Shannon, C., Schyb, I., Goldstein, P.(2002).Welfare Reform and Housing: Assessing the Impact to Substance Abuse.Journal of Drug Issues 32(1): 265-295,

Addiction Disorders and Homelessness: NCH Fact Sheet #6. National Coalition for the. June 2005. ( ).
View Full Essay

Childhood Any Less Safe and Enjoyable Now

Words: 2270 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97785524

childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?

Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.

The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in which the risks therein necessitated the establishment of human rights. It is in these bills of rights that we find the rights of the child. These developments never existed in the past; hence the question, does this mean that the society in the past did not pose risks to the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Knowledge Concerning Ethical Issues Involved

Words: 4963 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86009486

100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many HR practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).

In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model provided by organizations such as the Canadian Psychological Association's approach which is applied to these issues in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Application of CPA's Decision-Making Model to Personnel Selection Results

Decision Step


Identification of the individuals and groups potentially affected by the decision.

1. Applicant.

2. Potential employers.…… [Read More]


Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.

Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.

Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
View Full Essay

Legalizing Prostitution in the U S A the Topic

Words: 1322 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6504033


The topic I have chosen to discuss is the legalization of prostitution in the United States of America. By prostitution, I refer to an act where money is exchanged for rendering sexual services. Presently, 49 states out of 50 in the United States have banned prostitution withonly some forms of it allowed in a few areas of Nevada. This is not the case in all developed countries. Some places in Europe such as Holland, have legalized itand are regulating it through relevant legislature by the government.

My main stance on the topic is that these countries are not worse off than the U.S.A. In terms of the expected negative societal effects of prostitution such as human trafficking, rape etc.In fact on a closer introspection it may be that this ban is causing more harm to the community rather than benefits. For example, the number of rapes that took place in Netherlands, where prostitution is legal in 2010 is 9.2 per 100000 populations, while USA in which 49 of the 50 States, barring Nevada have criminalized prostitution has an astounding number of 27.3 per 100000 populations.

Thus, I advocate legalizing prostitution because:

a. There is little…… [Read More]


Feingold, D. (2005). Human Trafficking.Foreign Policy.Retrieved from:

Langer, G. (2004). Poll: American Sex Survey. ABC News Online. Retrieved from:

O'Brien, E. (2011) Fuelling traffic: abolitionist claims of a causal nexus between legalized prostitution and trafficking. Crime, Law and Social Change. Retrieved from:

The Economist. ( 1998, Feb 12). Giving the customer what he wants. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Media Review the Black Swan

Words: 1689 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56412145

Her day's routine and life merely revolved around these characters that cause her to think or act differently. All of these characters have quite an influential pressure on her that the Nina eventually becomes an amalgamation of thoughts. Pretty soon she gives into the evil desires that she cannot distinguish reality from illusions.

Stone and Church (1989) have called adolescence a very vulnerable period. According to them, adolescence is full of continuous feeling of emotional volatility, rebelliousness and intense idealism. It is seen that adolescence needs to develop a tough inside full of security and confidence. Only if they are sure about themselves and their abilities, these adolescents will go on to take the different problems in life. Rebellion and intense idealism is quite prominent during this stage. The adolescent wants to do things and hopes to aspire activities that will make him or her better than everybody else. If the adolescent is not given independence, he or she attains through any means possible.

Thus all these assertions are quite apparent in the movie. We see that Nina is put through different tests and trials to gain personal independent and freedom. She shows hesitation, rebelliousness and confusion to be the…… [Read More]


Black Swan (2010). [DVD] Darren Aronofsky.

Hall, G. (1904). Adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall..

Stangor, C. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Flat World Knowledge.

Stone, L., and Church, J. (1989). Childhood and Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.
View Full Essay

Custodial Abuse This Issue Has

Words: 2524 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89805231

In the end this may require a campaign to recruit more female corrections officers and eliminate or reduce greatly the presence of male officers from female facilities. Because of past abuses, the presence of male officers may cause many psychological obstacles for female inmates even if the officers are not sexually abusing inmates.


The increase in the female inmate population coupled with the increase in the violent nature of crimes being committed by women has caused corrections organizations to hire male guards. On the one hand, the male guards have the physical strength to subdue a violent or aggressive inmate. On the other hand male guards can also serve as very intimidating figures in a population where the majority of the women have been sexually or physically abused before coming to prison. Prior abuses cause these women to be more vulnerable and more likely to be preyed upon by staff. In addition, all corrections officer whether they be male or female, possess a huge amount of authority and power over the inmates.

This authority is necessary but when it falls into the wrong hands, it can be used to coerce or force inmates into performing sexual acts.

Additionally the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sexual Abuse of Women in U.S. State Prisons: A National Pattern of Misconduct and Impunity (New York, December 7, 1996). Human Rights Watch.

Coolman, Alex. 2003. Sexual Misconduct in Women's Facilities: The Current Climate. Corrections Today, October, 118+. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 31 July 2005.

Laderberg A. 1998. The 'Dirty Little Secret': Why Class Actions Have Emerged as the Only Viable Option for Women Inmates Attempting to Satisfy the Subjective Prong of the Eighth Amendment in Suits for Custodial Sexual Abuse. William and Mary Law Review. Volume: 40. (1) Page Number: 323-363.

Sex Abuse 'A Significant Problem' in Prisons. 2005. The Washington Times, 4 May, A06. Database online. Available from Questia, Accessed 31 July 2005.
View Full Essay

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical Review of the Research Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and fetal alcohol syndrome babies.

Given the magnitude of the issue, it is essential that clinics, schools, juvenile detention centers and medical clinics have screening instruments at hand that quickly and accurately evaluate potential or present abuse or dependency conditions in the populations they serve. This paper is intended to serve…… [Read More]


Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ /

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)