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Sexuality is defined, expressed, and experienced as a personal but also as a social and political phenomenon (Siedman, 2010, p. 11). The film 40-year-old Virgin presents a strikingly unique twist on Western norms and values related to sexuality. Specifically, 40-year-old Virgin focuses on male heteronormativity, and the notion of the male as being expected to be sexually virile and sexually ravenous from puberty onwards. When the title character is forced to admit in public that he is a virgin at forty years of age, he exposes himself as a sexual deviant. His virginity is an ironic form of sexual deviance, however. He has no culturally acceptable excuse for being a virgin, as a monk might have. ather than being expressed as an externalizing perversion such as a sexual fetish, Andy Stitzer (Steve Carell) expresses his sexuality via inadvertent abstinence. The film both supports and subverts several of the Western sexual…
McGann, PJ (n.d.). The sexual natural attitude.
Padgug, R.A. (1989). Sexual matters: On Conceptualizing Sexuality in History. Chapter 2 in Passion and Power. Peiss, K. & Simmons, C. Eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Schwartz, P. & Rutter, V. (1998). The Gender of Sexuality. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Seidman, S. (2010). The Science of Sex: Sexology and Psychoanalysis. Chapter 1 in The Social Construction of Sexuality. 2ed. New York: WW Norton
Sexuality & PC-TV
Facts About Human Sexuality
This section will consist of facts about human sexuality, such as what are the dominant ideas and themes felt about sexuality; what are the criticisms; and what significant changes have been happening about sexuality over time. All facts listed in this section are pulled from Our Sexuality by Robert Crooks and Karla Baur.
In order to accurately speak about the changes that the media, specifically television, has brought about in the way Americans view sexuality, one must first have a broad view of the way sexuality is defined by the general public. This is not an easy task, as many commonly held beliefs about sex are antiquated or blown out of proportion by none other than the media itself. To get accurate facts one must go back to science, where these issues are studied regularly.
First, is there one widely held belief about…
Block, Jenny. "One Million Moms Attacks JCPenney Over Ad With Lesbian
Mothers." Huffpost Gay Voices. Huffington Post, May 3, 2012. Web. 6 May
Class notes. 2012. 1-34. Print.
These issues are highly politically complex, and the author makes it clear in this chapter that these issues are no less psychologically complex for the individuals that must make choices regarding them. The ability for these issues, especially that of abortion, to polarize society is quite large, and individual values and sentiments are often lost in the larger picture, it seems. Like other sexual values, the author attempts to make it clear that thoughts, attitudes, and practices of contraception and abortion can and do develop and change over time, and they form highly important parts of an individuals social and psychosexual identity in the modern world.
Chapter 12: Solitary Sex and Shared Sex
After long discussions on theory, development, and psychological as well as social issues in sexuality, this chapter delves more explicitly into actual sexual practices without losing sight of the psychology or the other factors of sexuality that…
So, rather than deny the existence of non-male/female attraction we have to examine for a deeper understanding the very nature of attraction itself. Is the sex of the person to whom you are attracted important or even relevant? "Sexuality [is not] learned in the same contexts, it is not practiced for the same purposes, it is not maintained by the same social forces, and it does not cease to be practiced at the same moments in the life course for the same reasons. The social construction of sexuality (and even if sexuality exists as a separable domain in a culture) and its connections to nonsexual conduct are specific to the cultural and historical circumstances of a particular social order," (Kauth 223).
We, then, cannot accurately predict our own sexual behavior as it is absolutely mixed together with a truly infinite number of variables.
For the hermaphrodite, sexual attraction can sometimes…
Dreger, Alice Dormurat. Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Ellis, Albert. "The Sexual Psychology of Human Hermaphrodites." Psychosomatic Medicine 7 (1945): 108-125.
Gilbert, Scott F. Hermaphroditism. 2008. 18 Nov 2008 http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?id=175&search=hermaphroditism.
Haft-Pomrock, Yael. "Is it the Age of the Hermaphrodite?" Oct 2002. MHPublications.com. 18 Nov 2008 http://www.mhpublications.com/Hermaphrodite.htm.
Another way casual sex can impact a relationship is when a person decides to betray the trust of their partner and commit adultery. The allure of a "no strings attached" sexual encounter with a relative stranger can entice people to wrong those they love, and this temptation is one of the leading precursors to divorce.
d.) How does a person know when a sexual act is appropriate or permissible?
This subject is highly sensitive, and must be left to each individual to decide. Personal boundaries exist for a reason, and although one person may find hugging or backrubs to be appropriate actions, another person can easily consider them to constitute harassment or assault. If somebody feels an instinctive sense of violation when a sexual act is performed, they have every right to voice their concern and end the act on their own terms. Everybody should be aware of their sexual…
Hypersexuality or sexual addiction refers to the dysfunctional preoccupation with sexual desire, usually in combination with search for non-intimate or casual sex; objectified partner sex, pornography and compulsive masturbation for a period of not less than six months (Lowinson, 2005). This obsessive adult blueprint of behaviors and thoughts continues notwithstanding efforts to self-correct challenging sexual conducts (Hess, 2011). Sexual addiction causes negative life upshots, physical and emotional health problems, relationships instability, or legal or career problems. Sexual addiction is viewed as a process of addiction to sex. As a result, sexual addicts spend a lot of their time involved in the search for romance and sex as opposed to the sexual act. Such people are fanatical to the dissociative high and nuerochemicals produced through their powerful sexual ritualistic conduct and sexual fantasy life. Sexual addictions entail an adaptive effort to control mood and address stressors via…
Coombs, R. (2004). Handbook of addictive disorders: A practice guide to diagnosis and treatment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hess, S. (2011). Diary of sex addict. Texas: JMS Books LLC
Lowinson, J. (2005). Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook. London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Obviously, these are not thing that would (or usually should) be discussed openly with strangers or even friends on an indiscriminate basis. However, patients must understand that there is no need for concern or shyness as it relates to a counselor that is involved with sexual issues because openness and honesty is a prerequisite for getting complete and effective treatment. This is not to say that the terminology and tactics should be too casual or profane, but there should not be any limitation in what is covered and patients should not be made to feel gun-shy or otherwise inhibited about being honest.
Indeed, the author of this report was very careful to moderate the tone of the topic the author was surprised about because while the topics involved are usually not complicated, feelings like regret, shyness and antipathy can make the process complicated and hard to extricate one's self from.…
Sexuality and Cinema
Laura Mulvey's arguments in "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" are readily illustrated with reference to the 1991 Jonathan Demme film "The Silence of the Lambs."
Mulvey's starting point is psychoanalytic, and suggests that the image of the female is the way in which filmic meaning is constructed. This begins with Mulvey's critique of the "phallocentric" mode of thinking, in which a woman is understood to be nothing more than a castrated male, and is therefore the focus of horrified, and desirous, observation. Here, she views film itself as a technological construction designed to increase the activity of "pleasurable looking," even pushing it into the sexualized realm of voyeurism or scopophila: "The cinema satifies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking, but it also goes further, developing scopophilia in its narcissistic aspect." This means that the narcissism of the viewer, understood to be male, is gratified by the way…
As illiams puts it, "If Europeans and their descendant nations of North America accept something as normal, then anything different is seen as abnormal. Such a view ignores the great diversity of human existence," (73). One of the fundamental aspects of human existence is gender; another is sexuality. These two primary issues color the way people see the world, create identity, and communicate with others. Gender impacts social status and access to power. Dichotomizing sexuality and gender is dangerous, mainly because dualism is artificial. Very few women fulfill the stereotypical Barbie-like female role identity; and very few men correspond to their G.I. Joe counterpart. Most people do occupy a comfortable spot on the gender continuum. Yet when questioned about gender and sexuality, most people are tagged as male or as female. The growing interest in transgender has raised important questions about the flexibility of gender. Transgender individuals have a…
"The Berdache: Gender-Mixing Among Northern Native Americans." Retrieved online: http://www.sinclair.edu/academics/lcs/departments/soc/pub/casilab/berdache/Berdache.pdf
Williams, Walter L. "The Berdache Tradition." Retrieved online: http://crl.ucsd.edu/~elman/Courses/HDP1/2000/LectureNotes/williams.pdf
" (Archbishop: sex ed should teach love, not mechanics)
What this suggests is that a different approach should be taken to sex education. This approach would be based on values and morals that place sex into a framework in which the responsibilities and importance of sexual activity is explained and understood. It is also of interest that the advocates of this view are of the opinion that values such as chastity and abstinence are the most effective methods of prevention against sexually transmitted diseases. As one commentator who advocates an abstinence based approach states; "An abstinence-based approach to sex education focuses on teaching young people that abstaining from sex until marriage is the best means of ensuring that they avoid infection with HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy." ( Abstinence)
Another central critique of the present sex education policy is that "Sex education literature never teaches that any…
A Christian Response to Sex Education, viewed May 5, 2009,
Abstinence, viewed May 5, 2009,
Archbishop: sex ed should teach love, not mechanics, viewed May 5, 2009,
Sexuality and Gender
There are certain patterns in literature; themes which present themselves over and over again despite the time period in which they were written and the cultural background of the author who wrote it. One such theme is that of human sexuality and the gender categorization that is associated with sexuality and appropriate or acceptable behaviors. Throughout history, men have dominated over women and this is explored in works of literature throughout recorded time. Men had to be strong and virile, able to control their women and also to intimidate other men in order to be considered successful. Maleness, machismo, and masculinity were all synonymous in most of history. omen were consequentially subservient to the males in their life, be it their fathers, brothers, husbands, or any other man in the society in which they lived. According to the gender demands of the eras, women were required to…
Jeyathurai, Dashini Ann. "Exorcising Female Power in The Faerie Queen: The Treatment of Duessa in the Book of Holiness." Lethbridge Undergraduate Research Journal. Northfield, MN: Carleton College. (3:2). 2008.
Ekici, Sara. "Feminist Criticism: Female Characters in Shakespeare's Plays Othello and Hamlet." Germany. 2009. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Middlesex: Penguin, 1968. Print.
Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queen. Indianapolis: Hackett Publ., 2006. Print.
One critic states, for instance, that for the liberal nature of the film, the work does not actually promote the 'pro-choice' message that is so important to many women. This critic is Gloria Feldt, who is an author, activist, and is the former president of Planned Parenthood. She knows the experiences portrayed in the move well, in fact, firsthand, since she was a teenage mother once. Feldt states,
"The dialogue [in the film] is adorable - snappy, smart, funny, captivating - and who wouldn't enjoy that? But I was Juno once - that sixteen-year-old pregnant girl, and life isn't like that at all. It delivers messages to young women that aren't' realistic. Juno is an adorable fantasy […] the narrative implies that carrying a pregnancy to term and relinquishing the baby - giving it up for adoption - is nothing. But we know that it isn't so for a pregnant…
Flanagan, Caitlin. "Sex and the Teenage Girl." New York Times. 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. .
Giroux, Henry a. "Rewriting the discourse of racial identity: Towards a pedagogy and politics of whiteness." Harvard Educational Review: Cambridge. 1997. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
"Impact of Adoption on Adopted Persons.": A Factsheet for Families. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. .
Lipsitz, George. "The Possessive Investment in Whiteness." Temple University Press. 1998.
Even though the health strategy was explained clearly (better education, taking the patient's sexual health history), it was something that most nurses should already be doing or know how to do. The article did not provide any new revelations to this issue. They authors seemed to be telling the audience thing they should already have knowledge of. They have not done enough research to present the reading audience with any new information that will stand out and be useful in dealing with this topic. In order to garner more interest in the subject, a quantitative study should be done which includes in depth information on the population. Until this is done, it is futile to come up with suggestions on how to deal with the issue. Concrete evidence must be gathered to provide a more accurate assessment and solution to the problem.
In order to serve this population justly and…
Pangman, V.C. And Seguire, M. (2000). Sexuality and the chronically ill older adult: A social justice issue. Sexuality and Disability, 18(1), 49-59.
This neediness, rather than leading her to an unproductive affair, at least opens her eyes to the possibility of a new life, despite her mother's influence. Both sets of parents are smothering forces upon the two lovers: the Chinese man's father forbids his son to see the white girl, making their affair forbidden. Of course, this only makes their attraction all the more enticing, since both of them stand to lose everything if the affair is revealed.
Duras herself grew up in French Indochina during the 1930s, like her narrator. This immediately raises the question as to the degree that the book is autobiographical. Rather than explicitly call it a memoir, Duras allows for a certain amount of ambiguity as to its truthfulness Even if the 'bare bones' of the story are factual, Duras assumes a fiction writer's right to know what all of the character's in the tale are…
Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Pantheon, 1998.
Zurn, Unica. Dark Spring. Translated and with an Introduction by Caroline Rupprecht. New York: Spare Change, 2008.
Ria's son, Brian has a similar take on the subject, believing that achieving the ideal male sexual relationship has been what drove his father out of the house and into the arms of a waiting woman. Though he clearly resents the situation, he is also clear that it makes perfectly good sense.
Then Brian decided that his father had left on account of sex. "That's what Myles and Dekko say. They say that he went off to her because she's interested in having sex night and day…(269)
This theme of leaving the sex as an indecent, though accepted aspect of female lives is a theme among many Irish writers. Though this may be changing, given the fact that some of the newer women writers are seeking to stop portraying Irish women as social prudes.
Given the multinational nostalgia market open to popular Irish writers, it is surprising that female authors…
Binchy, Mauve. Tara Road. New York: Random House, 1998.
Bitel, Lisa M. "Conceived in Sins, Born in Delights: Stories of Procreation from Early Ireland." Journal of the History of Sexuality 3.2 (1992): 181-202.
Bitel, Lisa M. Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Bradley, Anthony, and Maryann Gialanella Valiulis, eds. Gender and Sexuality in Modern Ireland. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
In an attempt to more fully understand gender and its relationship with advertising, gender positioning research has utilized several approaches (olin pp). Past studies have considered gendered advertising and its relationship with different media including print television, radio, and the Internet, while other studies considered the effects of gendered products and brands on the purchase patterns of males and females, and gender as it relates to advertising's effect on consumer behavior (olin pp).
Sexuality in advertising is a major area of ethical concern, however, surprisingly little is known about its effects or the norms of its use (Gould pp). The presence of sexual appeals in ads is very pervasive in the United States, and throughout much of the world (Gould pp). Contemporary consumption is often promoted in terms of fulfilling erotic fantasies and appetites, however, the use of such appeals is constantly contested in terms of ethics and morality, much…
Brown, Jane D. "Mass media influences on sexuality."
The Journal of Sex Research. 2/1/2002. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Gould, Stephen J. "Sexuality and ethics in advertising: a research agenda and policy guideline perspective." Journal of Advertising. 9/1/1994. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Jensen, Robert. "Advertising, Sexuality, and Sexism: A Slide Show Spotlights
Because of the heterosexuality promoted by the U.S., Osama bin Laden has been often related to homosexuality and sodomy in the years following the 9/11 incident. Those taking part in the process of linking terrorists to deviant sexual behaviors did not realize that they were, in fact, addressing a much greater number of minorities. People could have the feeling that their reluctance to pro-war convictions would suggest that they tend to display homosexual tendencies. Moreover, those that actually had homosexual affinities became harshly discriminated against because of their presumed similarity to terrorists. Brown skin had also become a main reason for people to be discriminated. This amount of distrust showed toward groups that had no connection whatsoever with terrorist attacks actually worked in favor of mobilizing the whole nation against the deranged terrorists. One can almost say that the unfounded connections made between terrorists and deviant sexual behavior had been…
1. Akram Susan M., "The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America," Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ).
2. Malansan V, Martin F. "Race, Violence, and Neoliberal Spatial Politics in the Global City"
3. Puar, Jasbir K; Rai, Amit S. "Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism
and the Production of Docile Patriots"
SEXUALITY IN SCHOLALY & POPULA MEDIA
Sexuality in Scholar & Popular Media
The author of this report has been asked to review articles regarding sexuality. Two articles were selected in total with one appearing in a scholarly journal while the other appeared in a more mainstream and non-academic periodical. While one medium of communication and media is not necessarily superior to the other, is still beyond question that the standards, aims and motivations are going to be different between the two forums with academic journals focusing more on knowledge and truth and mainstream periodicals focusing on circulation and entertainment.
The scholarly article selected was written in 2012 and appeared in the European Journal of Contraception and eproductive Health Care. Authored by three people, the article pertains to the social and ethical determinants of sexuality. Particularly, this treatise focuses on sexuality and families. The stated objective of the article was to…
Benagiano, G., Carrara, S., & Filippi, V. (2012). Social and ethical determinants of sexuality: 4. Sexuality and families. European Journal Of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 17(5), 329-339. doi:10.3109/13625187.2012.702810
Brick, P. (1991). Fostering Positive Sexuality. Educational Leadership, 49(1), 51.
This statement is about how they are surpassing cultural barriers. From this point-of-view their gesture is one against racism.
Other then that it is safe to say that the lovers of belly dancing are performing the act in an area which has absolutely nothing to do with politics. Women may view it as an art and a cultural manifestation, but as they perform it they most likely do think about the War on terror which heir country started against the Arab ones.
A third issue that we are going to discuss is represented by the veil. Many Arab countries have their women wearing the veil. According to the western world the Islamic one is a highly patriarchal one. The western society is patriarchal as well but women enjoy if not a bigger degree of freedom at least a greater illusion of it. In other words the western society perceives the…
Ahmed, L. The discourse of the veil in Veiling, representation and contemporary art
Maina, S. Belly dancing: Arab face, Orientalist Feminism and U.S. Empire in Project Muse
Najmabadi, a. Beyond the Americas, Are gender and sexuality useful categories of historical analysis?
Said, E. On Orientalism, retrieved March 5, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwCOSkXR_Cw&feature=PlayList&p=8C93244F68B45A8D&index=6
'the Lover" by Marguerite Duras
"The Lover" is the novel that can be considered a rebellion against the world of stereotyped relationships and ordinary understanding of love. It is the story that questions love standards. It is a love story without any real continuation but with millions of them in the head of each of the lovers. At the same time it is also a story of opposing social abutments and failure to fight them.
What is a "standard lover" like? "He" is an embodiment of strength and courageousness to do anything in the name of his love. He adores his beloved one and "she" is fragile and feminine. They write letters and poems to each other; looking forward the next time they are going to see each other. Can this description be considered a perfect and exact description of a love relationship?
At least it is the most…
1. Duras, Marguerite The Lover Pantheon 1997
2. Wilde, Oscar De Profundis and Other Writings Penguin Classics 1976
Ever wanted to know about sex or how porn might impact your relationship or sex life? Michael Shelton MS, LPC is a the author of a number of books on topics ranging from multiculturalism to homosexual culture—and he is also a frequent contributor to Psychology Today, where he blogs about sex, sexuality, relationships, and other issues related to the language of love. This paper will review Shelton’s blog, which is named Sex Life of the American Male: How new technology, new mores, and current events impact male sexuality. It will identify common themes found in the blog, how well the information is presented, how accurate it is, and how interesting it is to read—which is very.
Background and Credentials of the Blogger
Shelton’s bio on Psychology Today describes him as “a writer, therapist, and educator focused on male sex and sexuality issues” (Shelton, 2018)—but there is more to say…
Shelton, M. (2018). Sex life of the American male. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/sex-life-the-american-male
Berger, Butler, and Waring provide unique and distinct perspectives on gender, sex, and power. Feminism is almost by definition a study of power and inequality, given the prevalence and pervasiveness of patriarchy worldwide. To dismantle patriarchy, it is first necessary to recognize and articulate its many manifestations. Berger’s analysis of the visual arts touches on the concept of the male gaze, central to the perpetuation of patriarchy. The male gaze is only one way of seeing, and yet it has come to dominate verbal and non-verbal discourse. Moreover, Berger’s analysis shows how the male gaze impacts individual and collective female identity construction. Women have come to see themselves through the male gaze, and need to take back control of their own self-concept in order to completely shed the shackles of patriarchy. While Berger focuses on the female nude in visual art, the principles discussed in the documentary are equally applicable…
Berger, J. (1977). Selection from Ways of Seeing
(British Broadcasting Corporation
Butler, J. (1991). Imitation and Gender Insubordination” In The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader (Routledge, 1993) pp. 307-20
Waring, M. (1988). A Woman’s Reckoning. In If Women Counted. HarperCollins, pp. 14-45.
Should Gender be Interpreted?
Kate Bornstein asserts that gender is nothing more than a line in the sand drawn by someone who says, “On this side you are a man, on that side you are a woman.” Kate being a transsexual says that the line needs to be blown away. The person who drew it is making arbitrary claims. However, if we think of gender as a work of art, one could argue that, since all art is open to interpretation, gender can certainly be interpreted as well. Susan Sontag, who writes on the interpretation of art, states that “the project of interpretation is largely reactionary, stifling. Like the fumes of the automobile and of heavy industry which befoul the urban atmosphere, the effusion of interpretations of art today poisons our sensibilities” (7). The fact is that people are programmed to interpret—they are interpreting everything, from what others say to…
Bornstein, Kate. Gender Outlaw. Digital file.
Sontag, Susan. “Against Interpretation.” Against Interpretation and Other Essays. Anchor Books, 1990.
esearch has shown that men and women look for different characteristics when looking for long-term partners. Some research shows that men favor physical variables (attractiveness) more than women (lecture notes). This could be due to an underlying biological impetus to breed with women who have good genes. The fact that many men worldwide reveal a preference for younger partners might also be traceable to biology; younger women are more likely to bear children.
Women might value things like "vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children," (athus, et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes). The fondness for children preference is linked to biology and psychological necessity as well, as women want mates who will be able to share in the childrearing duties. On the other hand, some men might value traits like "cooking ability, frugality, and youth (athus et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes).…
"Chapter 6: Sexual Violence."
Nunnink, S.E., Goldwaser, G., Afari, N., Nievergelt, M. & Baker, D.G. (2010). The role of emotional numbing in sexual functioning among veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Military Medicine 175(6).
PBS (2012). Teen Brain. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/view/#rest
Sexuality can be discussed and analyzed through concepts made in other works of the author. These essays revolve around the idea of sexual perversions and why they develop in the first place. In the second essay, Freud talks about the various psychosocial stages of development. The third essay revolves around the genital stage and how a person is more included to sexuality when he or she begins puberty. Freud has stated that normal sexual activity between a man and a woman and is only limited to sexual intercourse. Anything apart from that is considered a perversion or a deviation from normal human sexual activity.
Conclusion derived from this the theory of sexuality and other Freudian concepts is that: Abnormal sexual perversions develop in a person due to psychosocial conflict in life and these perversions are a threat to stability of civilization. Freud insists on the notion that sexuality is a…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. London: Imago Pub. Co., 1949. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The ego and the id. New York: Norton, 1961. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. The major works of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955. Print.
Sexual organs in older adults rarely fail completely. When failure does occur, it is generally the by-product of a medical intervention such as surgery or medications (Huffstetler, 2006)."
he facts of this article have been well supported by other reading that I have done in the past. I have spent time looking at various aspects human sexuality among older people and have found the research and texts that have been recently published all support the belief that older people do enjoy and continue to have sexual relations.
For years this was a topic that was not discussed nor was much research done to determine its importance or existence among society residents, but in more recent years there has been an increased focus on the sexuality of older adults.
Many studies have looked at the older adult's interest in sex as well as the ability to participate in sexual relations with…
This article was helpful to me in my studies because it supported and elaborated on what my readings have already found. People are sexual throughout their lives and the acceptance of that will help those working with the elderly to provide the best and most objective treatment and care possible.
Huffstetler, Beverly (2006) Sexuality in older adults: a deconstructionist perspective.(Clinical report) Adultspan Journal.
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…
Athenadorus. "Homosexuality: Its Genetic Basis and Evolutionary Benefit." Danaan Press.
2002. Danaan Press. 10 Nov. 2005 .
Wikipedia. "Intersexuality." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 10 Nov. 2005
sexuality discrimination were viewed and analyzed using the hetorical Triangle. The first presentation was a councilman's address during the announcement portion of a city council meeting, and the subject was bullying of gay children and teens. The second presentation was a House epresentative's address to the Defense Programs and Policy committee about repealing the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" law. The two presentations were quite different, but both were effective in communicating their respective points.
Video one was of a Joel Burns, and councilman for the city of Fort Worth in Texas (Burns, 2011). As a councilman speaking at a city council meeting, he carries authority which is effective in getting the audience to trust him and what he is speaking about. He is given further credibly by the fact that he is openly gay and discusses it in his speech. This reveals relevant information on his beliefs and values, as…
YouTube - Hoyer Gives Speech on "Don't Ask Don't Tell" on House Floor . (2010, May 27). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved April 9, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1V0Yoxn9Aa8
Biography of Steny Hoyer. (n.d.). Congressman Steny Hoyer. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from http://hoyer.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=32&Itemid=46
Hoyer, S. (Director) (2010, May 27). Don't Ask, Don't Tell. FY2011 Defense Programs and Policy. Lecture conducted from House of Representatives, Washington D.C..
Joel Burns for Fort Worth City Council District 9. (n.d.). Joel Burns for Fort Worth City Council District 9. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from
.....individual's level of sexual identity development relates to their level of job satisfaction depends on numerous variables -- such as the confidence with which one identifies their sexuality, the degree to which that identity is accepted among peers, and the extent to which that identity places one as a minority. As the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n.d.) indicates, "Minorities also tend to be at a disadvantage in terms of job rewards, which no doubt has an impact on their job satisfaction as well as career advancement in the long run" (p. 62). The issue therefore is one of whether the individual's sexual identity is a cause of tension or stress both for the individual and for colleagues. To the extent that it is an issue, the individual's job satisfaction is likely to be comparably impacted.
The functions of heterosexual privilege are 1) to enable heterosexuals to maintain a high…
This phenomenon objectifies women by suggesting (at least implicitly) that only the opinions and sensibilities of the most attactive females, such as the models featued in advetisements, ae wothwhile. The mee absence of females of aveage and less-than-aveage elative physical attactiveness fom commecial advetising conditions eveyone in society to ignoe women unless they ae paticulaly sexually attactive. Besides being unfai to women who happen not to look like the models in commecial advetising, this also devalues any legitimate talents and the intelligence and meaningful contibutions of women who do happen to be elatively attactive. It ceates the natual infeence that attactive women who ae successful achieved thei success by vitue of thei physical appeaance instead of thei othe attibutes.
In addition to objectifying women as though they ae nothing moe than thei elative level of physical attactiveness, the ovewhelming focus on sexuality and female attactiveness in commecial advetising also denigates…
references and euphemisms for "penis" such as "special part of male anatomy" in an apparent attempt to comply with the letter if not the spirit of laws that prohibit dishonest statements in advertising. Likewise, they include very obscure printed language at the bottom of the screen advising that the product is designed "for entertainment purposes only."
Second, the ExtenZe commercials purposely create the false impression that the production is a talk show called "Sex Talk" rather than a paid hour-long advertisement. Third, the commercials feature attractive young female models and actresses who are paid for their participation and dressed in sexually provocative attire to capture male attention and suggest that these are the types of women to whom users of the product will become more attractive and desirable. Fourth, the advertisement series also denigrates women by suggesting that all they want from men is a large penis. In that regard, the main topic of the scripted dialogue among the female models pertains to their specific preference for men who are "bigger and wider." One of the women complains that she waited her entire life for a man with a large and wide enough penis to satisfy her and recounts her disappointment at having begun a relationship only to discover that her man failed to "measure up." The obvious intent of the commercials (and the entire commercial venture) is obviously to exploit females while simultaneously exploiting the common male insecurity about relative penis size. In so doing, the commercials manage to insult the worth of females, the self-esteem of males, and the value of their relationships.
Lover" and "The Awakening"
Both Kate Chopin's The Awakening and Marguerite Duras' The Lover address what happens when a woman searches for a way to leave her present life behind and seek a new one that may, or may not, be any better. In The Awakening, 28-year-old Edna Pontellier struggles for selfhood but does not have the strength to accept the ramifications of this possibility. In The Lover, the 15-year-old female narrator embraces self-awareness and uses her acquired strength to widen life's possibilities.
The Awakening takes place at the end of the 19th century, when the Western world was beginning to undergo major changes due to the Industrial evolution and increased urbanization. Although women were beginning to envision a less-restrained future, they were still, for the most part, bound by tradition to be subservient to their husbands. Middle- and upper-class women were expected to stay at home as idle, decorative…
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening (Electronic Version). http://docsouth.unc.edu/chopinawake/chopin.html
Culley, Margaret, ed. The Awakening. Kate Chopin. New York: Norton, 1976.
Duras, Marguerite. The Lover. New York: Harper, 1993.
Gender, Consumption and Ideology: A Look at Three Ads
When the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays became the father of advertising, he used a simple trick that he learned from his uncle: sex sells. Bernays understand, as Freud did, that sex is one of the most powerful motivating forces of human nature (Jones). Sex and gender thus took center stage in advertising over the years. In this paper, the way that gender, consumption and ideology are tied together in advertising will be shown. This paper argues that sex and gender stereotypes persist in advertising media and that sexuality has become more provocative over time. This has happened in spite of feminist movements. Today, sexuality is something that women feel they can use to dominate men. These ads show that sex and gender in advertising is still a powerful force no matter what ideology is held by men and…
Sexuality and Severe Brain Injury
The ethical issue in this case study is the fact that Mr. Z decides to have sexual intercourse with his wife Mrs. Z who is brain damaged. Her current state does not allow her to make any valid and sober decision. The action by Mr. Z is unethical since for one to have sex they should give consent, this is however not possible for Mrs. Z since she is unable to speak. This is a clear indication that she is not able to participate in even basic decision making leave alone giving consent to sexual intercourse. The severe mental disability leaves Mrs. Z incapable of giving any valid consent to intercourse. The act of having sexual intercourse with a an individual without her direct consent is quite unethical since Mr. Z is engaging in intercourse with someone who has not given consent even…
Syracuse University. (1998). An Ethical Decision-Making Model. Retrieved June 25, 2014 from http://soe.syr.edu/academic/counseling_and_human_services/modules/Common_Ethical_Issues/ethical_decision_making_model.aspx
Rainbow, C. (2009). Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles. Retrieved June 25, 2014 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/theories.htm
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
Gender, Sexuality, and Identity -- Question 2 "So, is the category bisexuality less or more threatening to the status quo than is homosexuality?"
The passage suggests that in fact, rather than presenting patriarchic constructs of identity with less threatening formulation of human sexual identity, bisexuality does the exact opposite -- it presents common social norms with the more threatening notion that human sexuality is not an either/or 'Chinese menu' option of stable choices. The practice of homosexuality, even when it is deemed taboo and beyond the pale of the human sexual order is still a 'comfort' to the heterosexual norm. The construct of homosexuality suggests that human sexuality exists in an either/or dichotomy. So long as one is attracted to the opposite gender one is, in essence, safe from the presumably aberrant, even pathological orientation of homosexuality.
However, bisexuality presents a potentially fluid rendering of human sexual desire, whereby even…
The exploitation of women depicted by her experiences in the exotic dancing industry, especially in the upscale venues, illustrates the degree to which women are subject to societal rejection and to duplicitous moral values.
Her rejection and castigation by her mother provides even more of an insight into the hypocrisies that pertain to social values when it comes to women and sexuality, precisely because her mother is a famous advocate of and sympathizer with the plight of street prostitutes at the farthest end of the spectrum of sexual deviance according to contemporary social values. Nevertheless, when it comes to her daughter instead of strangers, she is utterly incapable of transcending her own prejudices, preconceptions, and her selfish and egocentric preoccupation with her own reputation in the same society whose unfair treatment of street prostitutes is her life's calling. The profound irony of this hypocrisy is underscored both by the fact…
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
Sex can be described as a biological distinction between males and females, particularly regarding reproductive functions. On the other hand gender tends to concentrate on socially constructed differences between men and women that reveal masculinity and feminity. More importantly while gender can be applied to individual difference, it can also be applied to institutional, cultural as well as structural difference.
There are theories that explain gender: Among them are biological theory and sociological theory. In terms of sociological theory, there are three concepts involved in explaining social science of gender. They include socialization, gender role, and opportunity structure. Gender role is described as a collection of acceptable behavior which is dissimilar in terms of sex within a given behavioral domain, such as parenting, in support of gendered norms. The sex determines the boundary of acceptable behavior, and where these boundaries have been violated there are consequences that follow as…
Barbara L. Frankowski, Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, 2004.American Academy of Pediatrics.
J. Richard Udry, "The Nature of Gender" Vol.31, No4. Population Association of America . http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061790.
Susan E. Short, PhD, Yang Claire Yang, PhD, and Tania M. Jenkins, MA,. (2013) FRAMING HEALTH MATTERS Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, Vol 103, No. S1 | American Journal of Public Health
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Claims that homosexuality can be caused by child sexual abuse (CSA) are controversial. These claims have been made by a number of researchers, and have weak links to data that may support them (Brady, 2008). In short, it is very difficult to determine if there is actually a link between CSA and homosexuality. It is important not only to further study whether there is a true link between CSA and homosexuality that goes beyond coincidence, but to also study what can be done to prevent CSA, regardless of whether it has the potential to lead to homosexuality in later life. One of the ways to do this is through policy changes through agencies that typically work with CSA and related issues, such as the Department of Children and Family Services.
The idea that CSA causes homosexuality is not a new one. Much of the argument…
Brady, S. "The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Sexual Identity Formation in Gay Men." Journal Of
Child Sexual Abuse 17.3-4 (2008)
Hunter, Sally V. "Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse as a Life-Long Process: Implications For
Health Professionals." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy 32.2 (2011)
child sexuality or intersex become especially difficult to discuss. These readings all ask us to question why those taboos are in place, while at the same time trying to show how important research in human sexuality can be. Sexuality is a major part of the human experience, and a fully understanding of psychology and sociology is not possible without open explorations into issues surrounding sexuality. Added to the complex issues surrounding human sexuality is gender. Gender is totally different from, but certainly related to, sexuality. On the one hand, one's concept of gender will have a strong bearing on one's perception of oneself as a sexual being, will impact issues related to self-awareness, self-esteem, and self-confidence. On the other hand, gender is only slightly implicated in things like sexual attraction. Both gender and sexual attraction are remarkably fluid, as Diamond points out. They may even be fluid across the course…
Diamond, Milton. "A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior." The Quarterly Review of Biology, Volume 40, No. 2, June 1965
Money, John. "Childhood: The Last Frontier in Sex Research."
Sex: Unknown. Nova [Film].
His stance is also one of superiority as he presents himself as the victim of his own vision and artistic expression. In this context, the generic pronoun "they" symbolizes Craig's detachment from the world around him as he feels superior which he believes, is what causes his isolation.
Craig's wife, Lotte, is perhaps the most radically changed as a result of traveling through the portal. She becomes convinced that she is a transsexual, and consequently, feels the only way she can be true to herself is to assume a new sexual identity, i.e. that of a man. However Lotte abandons her desire of sexual reassignment when she becomes aware that by starting a relationship with Maxine, she can in fact assume a different gender role simply by falling in love with Maxine. Maxine, on the other hand, embarks on a sexual relationship with Malkovich so she can be with Lotte.…
Weeks, Jeffrey. 2003. The Invention of Sexuality. In Sexuality, 11-28. New York: Routledge.
Dragunoiu, Dana. "Psychoanalysis, Film Theory and the Case of Being John Malkovich." Film Criticism 26.2 (2001): 1-7
Gauntlett, David. 2002. Michel Foucault. In Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction, 115-134. London: Routledge.
In other words, World War II produced an important shift in both mentality and reality. Although many of the women who had been employed during the war returned to being homemakers, there was also a significant percentage which managed to reconcile being a mother and a wife with work. Also, despite the fact that their wages were far from being equal to those of men, their contribution to the income of the household was welcome and in most cases, made a real difference as far as the economic demands of the family (essler-Harris: 280). Moreover this shift paved the way for the 1950s when a new set of ideas entered American society and seriously challenged both the labor market and social conventions. Gay bars started to appear, and although they were underground and hard to find even for members of the homosexual community, their emergence favored freedom of expression even…
Kessler-Harris, Alice. (1983). Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tully Carol T. (2000). Lesbians, Gays & the Empowerment Perspective. Columbia University Press.
Weeks, Jeffrey. (2003). Sexuality. New York: Routledge.
6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).
If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632. Retrieved September 22, 2009,
from Research Library. (Document ID: 1719302541).
Graceffo, S. (2008, July 23). Homo Made. Syracuse New Times, p. 12. Retrieved September 22,
2009, from Alt-Press Watch (APW). (Document ID: 1532821511).
The intersections between gender, sexuality, identity, and lifestyle converged at an expected moment. I was as prepared as anyone else. Andrew is my brother, and I know him well. It was his friend Darren's 21st birthday. Darren is adorable: he's six feet tall, with plump lips naturally blushed the color of Fuji apples. His skin is milky white, and his eyes are shimmering sateen blue. I haven't got a crush on Darren; I would, but Darren is gay. He's been out of the closet since he was fifteen years old. My brother has known Darren since the two played together in our little apartment complex playground. Almost two decades later, the two friends are doing shots together in a gay nightclub. My brother is straight. Really, he is. But on Darren's birthday, something happened to place my brother Andrew temporarily in an interstitial realm. My brother, not being the…
Pineau's major shortcoming in her argument for communicative sexuality is that she seems to dispute the very thing she is trying to validate when she rallies against the law for requiring that the man knew she was not consenting, stating that this isn't enough. According to Pineau, even when a woman has sex without explicit protest or refusal, she many not have consented to it, and this situation should be considered rape. Also, Pineau seems to feel that communication must be only verbal as evidenced by her view of sexual teasing, a notion seeming to ignore the importance of non-verbal communication in sexuality and society in general.
Theoretically, Pineau is addressing her article to anyone that wants to learn about date rape and communicative sexuality, but in reality her views are so feminist that she will likely alienate most male readers and a large proportion of women. After…
Media affects Teenage Sexuality
On an average, a teenager would watch about three to four hours of television in one day, and most of these children would be subjected to an overdose of sexual content on the television, in the form of either kissing, or other types of sexual touching, and at times even simulated sexual intercourse. At other times, the program that the teenager watches would be filled with sexual innuendos and jokes and subtle messages and blatant conversations on sex. The attitude of the media is that all this is juts a casual presentation of sex, that would not have any type of risk or serious results, but studies have revealed that it may not have casual consequences for these teenagers. In fact, one study that was conducted by the AND Corporation has revealed that there is indeed a strong co-relation between the sexual activity of the teenager…
Fast Facts: Television is a major part of daily life. Retrieved From
http://depts.washington.edu/thmedia/view.cgi?section=medialiteracy& ; page=fastfacts Accessed 13 July, 2005
Parker, Jenny. 2004. Study finds TV sex affects Teen attitudes and choices. September, 9.
Available From http://www.almenconi.com/news/oct04/101004.html
St. Augustine's "Confessions"
The idea that sex should be equated with sin is a Catholic tradition that has its roots in the writings of Saint Augustine. Prior to this there was little opposition or shame associated with sexual activity, especially in the Classical world. Augustine's Confessions is a book that detailed the early part of his life, his paganism, his obsession with sex, and his ultimate conversion to Christianity. Although born into a world where sex was a common and open part of life, Augustine seemed to transfer his obsession with sexual activity into an equally vehement campaign for celibacy. To Augustine, sex had been the focus of his pagan life but upon his conversion to Christianity sex became equated with the sinfulness of paganism and the corruptibility of humankind. In this role sex plays an important part in the Confessions and Augustine's Christian philosophy.
Augustine was born into a…
Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Trans. Edward Bouverie
Pusey. Web. 12 April 2014.
Gender and sexuality are very important for activists, practitioners and policymakers. Gender and sexuality have a big significance in people's lives in today's society. Sexuality encompasses gender roles and identities, sex and sexual orientation, intimacy, reproduction, pleasure and eroticism. Its expression can be found in behaviors, thoughts, roles, relationships, values, attitudes, desires and fantasies. While all these expressions characterize sexuality, an individual may not express or experience all of them. Interactions between psychological, economic, cultural, legal, ethical, religious, spiritual and biological factors influence sexuality (Ilkkaracan & Jolly).
The Link between Gender and Sexuality
The Institute of Development Studies defines gender as the widely shared set of norms and expectations linked to the way men and women, and boys and girls, behave or ought to behave. While 'sex' is mainly biological, gender is all about the social constructs on the roles, activities, attributes and behaviors the sexes should have or do.…
Victorian Female Sexuality
Victorian Sexuality: George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid"
omen in the Victorian era must have suffered enormously under the massive double standards and the shameful image of a woman who wanted to be on her own. It is clear from examining the literature of the period how much discrimination was placed on women in the era. George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid" show the intense sexual and gender discrimination that women in the Victorian era had to endure and the extreme consequences that were reserved for them upon breaking such strict traditions on sexuality and love relationships; however, George Bernard Shaw does allow for a greater sense of freedom for his female characters as his work was written much later at the tail end of the Victorian era, as long as they avoid the contact…
Hardy, Thomas. "The Ruined Maid." All Poetry. 1866. Web. http://allpoetry.com/poem/8442925-The_Ruined_Maid-by-Thomas_Hardy
Shaw Festival. Mrs. Warren's Profession: Connections Shaw Festival Study Guide. 2008. Web. http://www.shawfest.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Mrs_Warrens_Study_Guide.pdf
Shaw, George Bernard. Mrs. Warren's Profession. Gutenberg EBook. 2011. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1097/1097-h/1097-h.htm
The 1950's and Sexuality
World War II can be seen as an ending and then a beginning for different eras. Prior to the war, the world was in a the most severe economic downturn that anyone had experienced in modern times, whereas the 1950's were one of the most prosperous times in American history. The prewar years were fraught with struggle for between the wealthy elite and the poor. There was a relatively small middle class that served the wealthy and helped to dominate the poor. After the war, people, as a whole, had more economic opportunity, and the middle class grew astronomically. The war also separated America's ideas of what a woman was from what she could become. During the war women had been required to work in factories doing jobs that were normally reserved for men. Women could be teachers, nurses, or mothers before 1945, but…
Lester, N.A. (2010). Disney's "The Princess and the Frog": The pride, the pressure and the politics of being a first. Journal of American Culture, 33(4), 294-310.
Sharp, G. (2009). 1950s beauty pageant judging guidelines. Retrieved from http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2009/07/22/1950s-beauty-pageant-judging - guidelines/
Williams, Z. (2005). The fifties ideal of sexuality was serious: Less flesh, more promise. New Statesman, 134(4741), 28-33.
Men are expected to put across domination and to affirm their masculinity during a hip hop dance. Hip hop and tango are both designed to put across the feeling that there is a strong connection between the message and the dance, the dance and the dancer, and the dancer and the message.
Tango and hip hop are relatively similar when considering that professional dancers are primarily interested in dancing from the perspective of someone who actually understands why he or she is dancing. These people are not only interested in looking beautiful as they dance, as they are also concerned about having audiences understand their emotions.
All things considered, choreography is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society and it is very important for the general public to understand that dances are more than movements designed to please the eye. Individuals also dance with the purpose of…
Benshoff, Harry M. And Griffin, Sean "What is Gender?," "What is Sexuality" in America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality at the Movies, Blackwell Pub., 2004, pp. 203-206, 293-296.
LaBoskey, Sara "Getting off: Portrayals of Masculinity in Hip Hop Dance in Film," Dance Research Journal, 2001, 33(2), pp. 112-120.
Leigh Foster, Susan, "Choreographies of Gender," Signs, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 1-33.
Manning, Susan, "The Female Dancer and the Male Gaze: Feminist Critiques of Early Modern Dance," Meaning in Motion: New Cultural Studies of Dance, ed. Jane C. Desmond, Duke University Press, 1997, pp: 153-166.
In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…
"Bronislaw Malinowski." NNDB, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2009 at http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/
Freud, Sigmund. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Translated by A.A. Brill.
Project Gutenberg, 1920. June 19, 2009.
Instead of presenting males and females in the "traditional" roles, television and film seems to depict an entirely different focus. Specifically, the male protagonist is often viewed against a background of multiple females in contexts that suggest all of the females are sexually available to the male. In terms of attire, female models in this genre of entertainment typically represent hyper-sexuality and are clearly meant to be sexually provocative.
Advertising apparently directed at primarily black audiences tends to incorporate sexuality less differently from that geared to white audiences, frequently relying on similar messages that associate products with the desirability of the consumer to highly attractive models of the opposite sex.
Generally, contemporary sexual behavior depicted in television and film whose target audience is primarily Latino tends to emphasize a third formula for sexual expression and gender relations. Specifically, Spanish television routinely features females in a manner that is…
More specifically, whereas certain components of human behavior are hard wired, many other components are learned from exposure to others in society. According to this view, the individual learns by watching others, starting in early childhood. By adulthood, those expectations transmitted through social learning are completely internalized by the individual and not perceived as matters that one learns from others.
By imitating adult role models and emulating behaviors expected of males and females in society, the developing individual learns what it means to be a male or female in that particular society. For example, if male role models and authority figures model aggressive or belligerent mannerisms in self-expression, male children absorb their exposure to these displays of masculinity and eventually come to identify with and exhibit those characteristics themselves. Similarly, if female role models and authority figures model passive or accommodating behaviors, female children come to identify with and exhibit…
Sexual Orientation and Openness:
The Role of the Media
It wasn't long ago that many gays and lesbians remained in the closet for most of their lives. Although there is little question that the percentage of gays and lesbians in past generations was comparable to the overall percentage within the general population today, the actual numbers of "admitted" homosexuals was much less in previous decades than those "out" today. Much of this difference can be directly attributed to the role of the media -- specifically prime-time television.
Although the story of Rock Hudson is no longer new, many consider him to be the pinnacle of the representation of the "closeted for life" gay man. Further, many also consider him to be an excellent example of the rigidity of the entertainment industry concerning issues of sexual orientation -- especially in the years during the 1950's and 60's…
WNYC Radio. (2001). "Queer as Folk." Transcript. Retrieved on October 8, 2004, from, http://www.wnyc.org/onthemedia/transcripts/transcripts_022401_queer.html
esolving Technical Problems
Sometimes, psychological issues progress to the point where they have a physical effect, and there are other purely biological issues that can cause some technical problems when it comes to sex. The Penners do not ignore these, of course, but rather suggest ways that comfortable married couples can work together to overcome these difficulties. They stress that it is important for an individual experiencing these problems to become comfortable with their own bodies and with whatever negative development has arisen, and again this demonstrates the need for healthy sexuality to take place within the trust and comfort that a marriage bed provides. As long as two committed partners are willing to work together, these problems can be surmounted.
What is most noticeable about the way in which the Penners approach and address these issues is the absolute ease and comfort with which very delicate and often very…
Berecz, J. (2002). "Is there such a thing as 'Christian' sex?" Pastoral psychology 50(3), pp. 139-46.
Clark, E. (2000). "Biblical interpretation and the construction of Christian sexualities." Church history 69(2), pp. 277-80.
Ferrebee, L. (1995). "Do your spouse a favor." Marriage partnership 12(2), pp. 58.
Lana, T. (2008). "Natural law in marriage and sexuality." Philippinia sacra 43(128), pp. 355-64.
Language and Sexuality from a Desire-Based Perspective
Anthropology -- Language & Sexuality
The broader theoretical treatment of the study of sexuality has long been recognized in the fields of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics. Historically, sexuality has been discussed in sociocultural studies of language over the long-term. In fact, this work and the research it generated make up the emergent history and the scope of research on language and sexuality. This analytical discourse on the topic of sexuality and language is socially oriented, to be certain, but the it has followed a path of convenience, resulting in piecemeal treatment and an underlying fragmentation of the body of work.
Discussion of the desire-oriented approach to sexuality and language, theorizing the motivation and development of the approach from a poststructuralist position.
Women and men's talk: single/mixed sex; private/public
Gender and politeness
Peer and classroom talk
5. Public and workplace talk…
Morrish, L., Morrish, E., and Sauntson, H. (2007, November 15). New perspectives on language and sexual identity. Palgrave Publishing.
Motschenbacher, H. ( 2011, November 11). Language, gender, and sexual identity: Poststructuralist perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing.
Sauntson, H. And Kyratzis, S. (Eds.) (2007). Language, sexualities, & desires: Cross-cultural perspectives. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan.
...difficult, if not impossible, to clearly define "sex" because of the diversity of human sexual experiences. For some, sex is vaginal intercourse only. For others, sex includes everything from masturbation to oral sex to nude role-playing games. Because people tend to have multiple sex partners in their lifetime, sex may also mean different things to the very same person.
With regards to oral sex, attitudes have changed tremendously over the years and vary throughout cultures. Saletan points out that historically, oral sex has been perceived of as "not only more intimate than intercourse but also reserved for those who were married," even though now, oral sex is commonplace among people who have casual sex (1). There are not necessarily specific sectors of the population that have strong opinions about oral sex, except that in some societies sex is viewed as only something done to procreate. In those cultures, oral sex…
Alternative Sexuality in Mainstream Media
Representations of transgender individuals have traditionally been highly stereotypical in mainstream media. According to Mocarski (et al. 2013), this is why the inclusion of Chaz Bono in the popular reality television show Dancing With the Stars was viewed as particularly radical, given that Bono is an openly transgender man. Bono participated in the competition as a male dancer, just like any other male involved in the show. But ballroom dance, the authors argue, is an inherently transgressive practice. On one hand, it reaffirms gender given that male and female roles are quite rigidly defined within the context of a dance. On the other hand, the costumes, sequins, and theatricality of dance, even for males, can be quite gender-disturbing. It is not uncommon to hear jokes about the sexual orientation of male dancers as a result.
On the other hand, some argued that as a white…