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Organization Dividends Why Company Pay Dividend to
Words: 1419 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62801191
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Organization Dividends

Why company pay dividend to shareholders? Why dividends not really affect the shareholders? What the shareholders prefer low or high dividends? Why, Explain?

A company may opt to pay dividend to its shareholders in order to make considerable earnings of the corporate profits. State's law varies on how dividends ought to be paid. Dividends do not really affect the shareholders because it is not compulsory for a company to pay dividends. Kurtz & Boone, (2011) indicates that companies are under no legal obligation to pay dividends to shareholders. Shareholders prefer high dividends because they earn more profits from their shares on the company (Kurtz & Boone, 2011).

In term of Dividends and Signals, Asymmetric information -- managers have more information about the health of the company than investors. Changes in dividends convey information:

Dividend increases

• Management believes it can be sustained

• Expectation of higher future dividends,…

Reference

Baker, H.K., & Kolb, R.W. (2009). Dividends and dividend policy. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Kurtz, D.L., & Boone, L.E. (2011). Contemporary business. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Duties the Directors of a Corporation Are
Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69348812
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Duties

The directors of a corporation are, essentially, the representatives of the shareholders in the administration of the company. They are charged with the task of administering the corporation in such a way that preserves the assets of the shareholders, and that they receive a good return on their investments. As such, the Board of Directors is the "highest governing authority within the management structure at any publicly traded company" (Kennon, 2012).

Among the tasks that the directors perform that help them in their role are the following: to select the Chief Executive Officer and set the CEO pay; evaluate the attractiveness of and to authorize dividends; recommend stock splits and share repurchase programs; approve the company's financial statements and give advice on mergers and acquisitions (Kennon, 2012). The Board often works with the CEO on some of these issues, such as dividends and M&A activity, but the Board is…

Works Cited:

Kennon, J. (2012). The board of directors. About.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from  http://beginnersinvest.about.com/cs/a/aa2203a.htm 

SEC.gov. (2002). SEC prepares to implement Sarbanes-Oxley Act requirement for CEO and CFO certification of SEC filings. Securities and Exchange Commission Retrieved November 8, 2012 from  http://www.sec.gov/news/press/2002-119.htm

Conflict Between a Corporation's Management
Words: 385 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 4478190
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Top-level managers can be required to own a certain amount of equity in the company, theoretically eliminating their conflict of interest with shareholders. However, some have criticized this strategy: shareholders can focus so much on short-term profits; they may lose sight of the need for long-term investment in research and development, and have little concern for the needs of company employees (Pareek 2003). A disinterested manager is supposed provide more objective advice and theoretically has an interest in not loosing his job: the elimination of 'golden parachutes' that reward managers regardless of company performance might be a better solution. Always, a balance must be struck between the needs of self-interest in objectivity and hiring a manager with a track record that suits the company's needs, rather than attempting to micro-manage his or her personal investments may be the best strategy.

eferences

Pareek, Mukul. (2003, August 7).Shareholder value: The conflict with…

References

Pareek, Mukul. (2003, August 7).Shareholder value: The conflict with other stakeholders

Finance Outlook. Retrieved November 8, 2009 at  http://financeoutlook.com/index.php?itemid=15 

Vishny, Robert. (1989, September 18). The conflict between managers and shareholders.

Retrieved November 8, 2009

Ethics Cable Provider Adelphia Was One of
Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26228668
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Ethics

Cable provider Adelphia was one of the major accounting scandals of the early 2000s that led to the creation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. A key provision of the Act was to create a stronger ethical climate in the auditing profession, a consequence of the apparent role that auditors played in some of the scandals. SOX mandated that auditors cannot audit the same companies for which they provide consulting services, as this link was perceived to result in audit teams being pressured to perform lax audits in order to secure more consulting business from the clients. There were other provisions in SOX that increased the regulatory burden on the auditing profession in response to lax auditing practices in scandals like Adelphia (McConnell & Banks, 2003). This paper will address the Adelphia scandal as it relates to the auditors, and the deontological ethics of the situation.

Adelphia

Adelphia was once a…

Works Cited:

McConnell, D. & Banks, G. (2003). How Sarbanes-Oxley will change the audit process. Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from  http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/issues/2003/sep/howsarbanesoxleywillchangetheauditprocess.htm 

Barlaup, K., Dronen, I. & Stuart, I. (2009). Restoring trust in auditing: Ethical discernment and the Adelphia scandal. Managerial Auditing Journal. Vol. 24 (2) 183-203.

Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from  http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html

Management's Primary Goal Is to
Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89107309
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These examples indicate that a Machiavellian approach to corporate ethics and an utter lack of concern for the state of the environment in the future is poor business practice. Yet the ethical arguments in favor of businesses showing concern for the environment, having rigorous accounting ethics and observing regulations regarding consumer safety is that a failure to take ethical action often results in losses of profits. It is far more difficult to argue that a firm should ignore the need to make a profit at all, and to place the environment first.

Consider the principles of the Deep Ecology movement, which point out that Western capitalism and consumerism itself generates waste, and a focus upon maximizing productivity actually causes harm to the environment. Deep Ecology principles stress that even encouraging people to buy more consumer goods, regardless of origin, is unethical, and that improvements in technology often results in destruction…

References

Drengson, Alan. 2011. Mission statement. Foundation for Deep Ecology. Accessed http://www.deepecology.org/mission.htm[February 5, 2011]

Gogoi, Pallavi. 2006. Wal-Mart's Organic offensive. Business Week. Accessed at  http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/mar2006/nf20060329_6971.htm 

[February 5, 2011]

Whoriskey, Pete. 2011. GM and Chrysler, owned by the government, lobby against fuel efficiency, safety improvements. The Washington Post. Accessed through Green Change

Yin-Hua Y 2005 Do Controlling
Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81310323
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2002, p. 2742).

Corporate culture must be taken into account when analyzing the effects of concentrated ownership and investment. At Taiwanese firms there may be a greater sense of obligation between the corporate managers and employees, and thus more positive and less negative risk taking and risk avoidance. In the United States, at many firms there is a higher level of expectation of self-interest of managers in the pursuit of profit-making, most notably amongst executives that negotiate so-called 'golden parachutes' which allow them to receive a large amount of compensation after leaving the company, regardless of how well they perform, or if their performance is salutary for the corporation's long-term health.

Instead of focusing on the concentration of shares alone, a variety of factors should be analyzed when evaluating the desirability of the ownership structure. Corporate culture, whether the current leadership (or leadership's family) began the firm, and even the…

References

Claessens, Stijn, Simeon Djankov, Joseph P.H. Fan & Larry H.P. Lang. (2002, December).

Disentangling the incentive and entrenchment effects of large shareholdings.

The Journal of Finance. 57 (6). Retrieved September 22, 2010 at  http://www.doingbusiness.org/documents/Disentangling.pdf 

Malmendier, Ulrike & Geoffrey Tate. (2005). Does overconfidence affect corporate investment? CEO overconfidence measures revisited.

It Outsourcing What Do Microsoft
Words: 5382 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10627968
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With the idea to globalize comes the concept of outsourcing - may it be in the form of supplies or even the very human resources. Needless to say, outsourcing has always been interconnected with globalization.

Globalization is imposed focusing on the various facets of one's country.

This includes growth of trade, flow of capital thereby ensuring financial capability, stable migration flow, entry of Information Technology (it) and web thus dissemination of technology (Keohane and Nye, 2000).

Trade plays a pivotal role in the economy this is why this is one of the focal point of globalization's purpose. Trade shows the relationship of total factor productivity and growth. Globalization includes increase of trade as one of its goals for it is believed that trade can enlarge the markets for domestic producers, allow the market to reap scale economies, force such market o be competitive and offer incentives and opportunities to incorporate…

Reference List

Ades, Alberto F. And Edward L. Glaeser (1999). Evidence on Growth, Increasing Returns, and the Extent of the Market. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 1025-1045..

Ahmed (2006). BBC News Article on India dismisses outsourcing fears. At http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/347291.stm

Amoore, Louise. (2002). Globalisation contested: an international political economy of work. Manchester. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6096-6

Bettis, Richard a., Bradley, Stephan P., & Hamel, Gary. (1992) "Outsourcing and Industrial Decline." The Academy of Management Executive. 6: no. 1: 7-22.

Ratios at Coca Cola Current Ratio Operating
Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19518099
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Ratios at Coca Cola

Current Ratio

Operating Margin

Net Profit margin

Return on Equity

Current Ratio

he current ratio provides a quick yet accurate assessment of a company's ability to meet its short-term obligations and determines the degree of liquidity the company has. his gives a quick snapshot of the basic financial health of the company and its value at a given point in time (that is, not counting the value of operations), with the higher the ratio the healthier/more liquid the company is. Coca-Cola's incredibly high current ratios are an important feature of the company, and once can see that even during the leanest year of the financial collapse, 2008, Coca-Cola remained quite strong in this area. he current ratio was included as a measure because it demonstrates the extreme degree of liquidity the company has long enjoyed, which gives it a great deal of flexibility in the expansion…

The net profit margin of an organization can be thought of as a measure of efficiency, showing how much of a company's revenues are left after all expenses. While a simple measure of profits is directly and significantly impacted by the size of an organization, the profit margin corrects for size and makes it clear how cost effectively a company can produce revenues from sales. Coca Cola's net profit margin is quite high even in 2008, and the climb it takes through 2010 is quite impressive. This margin represents a substantial creation of value for shareholders and also bodes quite well for the company's future, again making it a darling for investors both now and in years to come. The net profit margin also means that Coca Cola has an aggressive pricing strategy and an abundant leeway in controlling price, which makes it an unusually strong operator and competitor.

Return on Equity

A direct measure of a firm's profitability, and more specifically of its ability to use shareholder investments in a profitable manner, the return on equity measurement tells investors (and analysts, would-be investors, and anyone else who's interested) what value they can expect to derive from their investment. A highly liquid firm with significant profit margins would be expected to provide a nice return on equity for its shareholders, and Coca-Cola certainly accomplishes this consistently over the three years measured and presented above. This high return on equity is another very attractive and very direct attraction for investors, providing much more substantial returns dollar for dollar than most companies can. While this measure does not directly represent the amount of direct return shareholders actually receive on their investments through dividends or gains in stock value, the return on equity definitely impacts these other areas.

Role of Technology in Corporate and Social
Words: 2557 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96165638
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ole of Technology in Corporate and Social esponsibility

Insider trading. The insider trading case that has become most prominent is that against aj ajaratnam who ran the hedgefund Galleon Group, and was charged along with his co-defendant, Danielle Chiesi, a former consultant with New Castle Funds, LLC ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam was convicted of 14 counts of insider trading, which makes this case the largest scheme concocted by a hedge fund ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam's sentence was 11 years in prison accompanied by a $10 million fine ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam was part of a "triangle of trust" that functioned as a deliberately corrupt business model in which inside information is fed through networks of experts to traders within various companies ("Insider Trading," 2010). Along with five others, ajaratnam worked with a network of consultants and insiders to net in excess of $20 million between the years 2006 to 2009…

References

Angwin, J. (2010, July 30). The new gold mine: Your secrets. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404.html  A web of insider trading charges. (2010, April 1). The New York Times. Retrieved  http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/ 

2010/04/01/business/01galleon.html?ref=insidertrading

Insider Trading, Times Topics, (2011, December 6). The New York Times. Retrieved  http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/i/insider_trading/index.html 

Representative Stearns introduces consumer privacy protection act. (2011, April 15). Privacy and information Security Law Blog. Hunton & Williams LLP. Retrieved  http://www.huntonprivacyblog.com/2011/04/articles/representative-stearns-introduces-consumer-privacy-protection

Unlucky and Edison- Lennie Edison Employed by
Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36945055
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Unlucky and Edison-

Lennie Edison, employed by Vulcan Systems, is on call 24/7 as a trouble shooter. Because of this, he drives a company vehicle, to and from work, and occasionally stops for errands after work on his way home. Edison is involved in a collision with Unlucky, who suffered bodily injury and damage to his car. Unlucky is suing both Edison and Vulcan in joint and several liabilities.

ule- Unlucky's attorney cites respondeat superior which states that an employer is responsible for the actions of employees within the course of their employment. When applied to physical torts an employer/employee relationship must be proven with the act committed during the scope of employment. Three general conditions apply: 1) Was the act committed while the employee was at work or on work property? 2) Was the offense committed during a normal working situation? 3) Was the agent motivated to benefit by…

REFERENCES

A Guide to Shareholder Meetings for Your Corporation. (June 30, 2011). AllBusiness. Retrieved from:  http://www.allbusiness.com/corporate-governance/corporate-formalities/521-1.html .

Minority Shareholder Rights in California. (March 6, 2007). California Corporate Lawyer.

Retrieved from:  http://algcorporatelaw.blogspot.com/2007/03/minority-shareholder-rights.html 

Burleson, G.P. (March 6, 2011). In California, Minority Shareholders Can Sue Majority

Business Organization Coursework Mary and Joseph Stakeholders
Words: 2596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55895148
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Business Organization Coursework:

Mary and Joseph, stakeholders in Kings plc, are concerned about the company's management practices by its current directors. One of these recent practices includes the desire by these directors of Kings plc, which owned a hotel, to acquire two additional hotels. As a result, these directors created a subsidiary company for the sole purpose of acquiring the two hotels. In this new development, Kings plc could only acquire few shares of the new subsidiary whereas the directors and the company solicitor purchased the majority of the new subsidiary's shares. Therefore, the new subsidiary was eventually sold and the directors made significant profits. However, the shareholders of Kings plc i.e. Mary and Joseph want to know whether the directors were legally entitled to carry out such practices. These shareholders are specifically concerned with the legality of the directors' actions and the relevant legal sanctions against the directors, which…

References:

Birds, J & Boyle, A.J 2011, Boyle and Birds on company law, 8th edn, Jordan's Publishing, St.

Thomas Street, Bristol.

Dignam, A 2011, Hicks and Goo's cases and materials on company law, 8th edn, Sweet & Marxwell, Avenue Road, London.

Hannigan, B 2012, Company law, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street,

Corporate Process There Are a
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80137357
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They are held responsible by the CEO.

The shareholders of the corporate are the legal owners of the corporation. In most cases, they do not actively control the corporation, but rather are responsible for appointing the board to oversee the corporation on their behalf. The shareholders as owners have some entitlement to profits from the company, but the terms of that profit distribution are generally decided by management when it announces its dividends. The shareholders do have a small handful of legal responsibilities. They elect the board. They also vote to approve the auditors. Occasionally, such as when Arthur Andersen collapsed, shareholders may be compelled to vote outside of normal shareholder meetings. The shareholders also have certain rights of ownership such as the rights to the proceeds from the dissolution of a company, should there be any.

The above definitions apply primarily to public corporations. These roles may differ in…

Works Cited:

eNotes. (2010). Agency theory. eNotes. Retrieved September 24, 2010 from  http://www.enotes.com/biz-encyclopedia/agency-theory 

Raymond, D. (2005) Independence and the private company: Adopting Sarbanes-like rules on director independence would impair the smooth function. Entrepreneur. Retrieved September 24, 2010 from  http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/135241457.html

Boss Has Cancer Written by
Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22722978
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They deserve to be given importance and value in all kinds of decision-making and important matters of the company. If the CEO or any upper level management personal is diagnosed with cancer; than it is the right of the shareholders to be acknowledged. Hiding it from shareholders will result in confusion and misunderstandings.

Disclosing cancer to shareholders is also important because even if the cancer is at an early stage; it needs to be treated immediately through surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. These treatments make patient weak and look physically different from before. Secondly, he or she will also be absent from work for some time due to hospital visits. Therefore, it is important to share this news with shareholders so that they can give a soft corner, emotional support and courage to their boss.

As stated in the article, according to Kim Thiboldeaux, the president of Cancer Support Community; there…

Works Cited

Feuerstein, Michael. Work and Cancer Survivors. USA: Springer, 2009.

Viallet, Hawawini. Finance for Executives, Managing for Value Creation. 4th ed. USA: South

Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Company Finance Domino's UK &
Words: 2621 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 87577437
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ith Domino's UK, the company has in its annual report and in its press releases outlined its future expansion plans. There are figures readily available with respect to trends in its same store growth and with respect to its dividend policy. All of these factors should, in theory at least, be included in the current share price. The first step in valuing the company will be to ensure that this is the case.

Given that the price of the company today is expected to be the fair value of the company's future earnings, an acquiring firm would need to consider in its valuation the worth of Domino's as part of its operations. Thus, a bid would need to be done on the belief that its acquisition of Domino's would make Domino's more valuable than it already is. This is the concept of synergy, defined as "the specific increases in performance…

Works Cited:

Damodaran, a. (2005). The value of synergy. Stern School of Business working paper. Available at SSRN:  http://ssrn.com/abstract=841486 

Domino's Pizza Annual Report and Accounts 2009. In possession of the author.

Domino's press release. (2009). Domino's launches 'store on wheels' to deliver pizza at top UK events. Domino's UK & IRL plc. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from  http://www.dominos.uk.com/media_centre/pdf/Mobile%20unit%20090609.pdf 

Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. (2010). Financial Performance. Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from  http://ww7.investorrelations.co.uk/dominos/financial/index.jsp

Human Resources Companies That Pursue
Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42374131
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The act contains a prescription drug entitlement. This is accomplished by providing subsidies for employers to convince them not to eliminate prescription drug benefits for retired workers. Further subsidies were made to prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Extra money was given to rural hospitals. The act also provided for a trial of partly-privatized Medicare.

Another result of the act was the creation of health savings accounts for workers. These replace company-run health reimbursement arrangements, and the HSAs offer advantages over flexible spending accounts, especially because the former rolls over where the latter does not. This part of the act was designed to replace the Medical Savings Account system. Lastly, there were internal changes such as with respect to the way claims are processed.

This law is a good law. hile expensive for the federal government because of its prescription drug provisions, it introduced the HSA system, which represents an improvement…

Works Cited:

Ellig, Bruce R. (2001). Strategies for gaining a powerful edge in the executive talent wars. McGraw Hill Professional. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from  http://books.google.com/books?id=hBPaskPAJUQC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=intrinsic+extrinsic+compensation&source=bl&ots=2u2mESAWlv&sig=cxUlTaJEdvUidA_Omlpt7lTfcuE&hl=en&ei=xxjUSYDwHOKPmAeSk8SxDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#PPA4,M1 

Card, David & Krueger, Alan B. (1997). Myth and Measurement. Princeton University Press. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from  http://books.google.com/books?id=VDNI0Uy86J8C&printsec=frontcover

Corporate Structure a Corporation Is a Form
Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98718661
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Corporate Structure

A corporation is a form of business structure. The corporation is given the same basic rights and duties as an individual. This shields members from the corporation from some liability for the corporation's actions, but also prevents them from utilizing corporate assets in the same way that one would use personal assets. There are some differences between publicly held and privately held corporations; however the basic structure of a corporation remains the same regardless of how the corporation is held. There are three main groups in the corporate structure. The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. The second group consists of the officers of the corporation. The third group consists of the shareholders of the corporation. Individuals may belong simultaneously to more than one of these groups, but each group has different responsibilities.

The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. When forming…

References

Findlaw. (2011). Corporate structure: directors to shareholders. Retrieved from  http://smallbusiness.findlaw.com/business-structures/corporations/corporations-structure.html 

Investopedia. (2009). The basics of corporate structure. Retrieved from  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/022803.asp#axzz1PF3LAIe7 

Investopedia. (2011). What's the difference between publicly- and privately- held companies?

Retrieved from  http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/162.asp

Institutional Investment Over the Last
Words: 2014 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77249392
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" (edhead 2008) (Manow 2001)

These factors are showing how institutional investors are playing an important part in offering additional amounts of liquidity to a variety of businesses. This helps them to address a number of issues they are facing ranging from managing strategic acquisitions to having additional financing for bringing new products or services in the marketplace. When this happens, these organizations become more competitive and flexible in meeting the needs of customers. (Manow 2001)

Institutional investors and the short-termism theory

However, one the biggest criticisms of the role of institutional investors is they are encouraging companies to focus on meeting short-term objectives. This is because all investors want to see an increase in their profit margins. When this happens, the price of the stock will move higher from these favorable perceptions. During the annual proxy vote (for the board of directors), this ensures that they will be reelected…

References

Bhojraj, S, 2003, 'The Effects of Corporate Governance,' the Journal of Business, vol. 76, no.3, pp. 133 -- 142.

Davis, E, 2002, 'Institutional Investors, Corporate Governance and the Performance of the Corporate Sector', Economic Systems, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 203 -- 229.

Manow, P, 2001, Comparing Welfare and Capitalism, Psychology Press, London.

Palley, T, 1997, 'Managerial Turnover,' Journal of Economic Behavior, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 547 -- 557.

Purchase of Smithon Manufacturing Mr Jones Wants
Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47096576
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purchase of Smithon Manufacturing, Mr. Jones wants to know if he should outright purchase all of the stock.

1(a). Smithon Manufacturing requires new equipment, which will cause debt for the first two years. If Mr. Jones decides to purchase all shares of the company, he will inherit the company's debt. Already the owner of Johnson Services company, one option is to issue debt to pay for the Smithon company. Issuing debt has its benefits, including reduction in taxable income due to issuance of interest payments to debt owners. In issuing debt, Mr. Jones would raise Johnson Services company's debt-to-equity ratio, which raises the chances of bankruptcy and may have difficulties receiving corporate loans in the future (Sharp Investing, 2007).

Mr. Jones wishes to change the structure of Smithon Manufacturing from a C corporation to an S corporation. AC corporation is a separate legal entity, and shareholders have liability protection from…

References

All Business. (2011). Advantages and disadvantages of c corporation. Retrieved February 11,

2011 from  http://www.allbusiness.com/business-planning/business-structures - corporations/2515-1.html

IRS.gov. (2011). Do you need a new ein? Retrieved February 11, 2011 from  http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article/0,,id=98011,00.html 

IRS.gov. (2010). Corporations. Retrieved February 11, 2011 from  http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article/0,,id=98240,00.html

Lifting the Corporate Veil Limited
Words: 4667 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27800982
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This was followed by the enactments by House of Lords in 1897 in Solomon v. Solomon & Company. The concepts of corporate entity and limited liability were incorporated in English law in the same period. In this case, the head court announced that a company is a separate legal individual completely different from the members or shareholders.

From this announcement, we can say that a company is a separate legal entity having a separate life, different from its members. A company can be an owner of any property, can sue anyone, can be sued by anyone and has a life just as any going concern. It is a commonplace of the law, is a very heavy veil drawn between the two can be lifted in many cases; it seems that only a limited number of changes is based on current judicial thinking.

2.2 Some doctrines about Corporate Veil

The Court…

Bibliography

AW Machen, "Corporate Personality" (1910) 24 Harvard Law Review 253

J Dewey, "The Historic Background of Corporate Legal Personality" (1926) 35 Yale Law Journal 655

C Alting, "Piercing the corporate veil in German and American law - Liability of individuals and entities: a comparative view" (1994 -- 1995) 2 Tulsa Journal Comparative & International Law 187

AA Berle, "The Theory of Enterprise Entity" (1947) 47(3) Columbia Law Review 343

Vienna Convention Company Value Randstad
Words: 2993 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47694982
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There may be dramatic differences in the Beta on other stock exchanges. In this case, one must be certain of what comparison is being made. In addition, differences in currencies may produce different results. The beta, in this case, is not a reliable means of assessing company performance. However, it can be valuable from the standpoint that it reflects the connection between andstad and it dependence on the global economy.

The Shareholder Value Added approach defines value as the corporate value, less the value of debt. It focuses on the change in value over time. It is usually calculated for several periods of time, using he debt and equity in each period. However, like the other methods, it becomes less accurate over the long-term. The more distant it becomes from the event, the less accurate this method tends to be.

Each of the valuation methods mentioned earlier has drawbacks in…

References

Google Finance. 2009. Randstad Holding nv. [Online]. (Updated June 26, 2009). Available at:  http://www.google.com/finance?q=AMS:RAND  [Accessed June 28, 2009].

Hoover's. 2009. Randstad Holding. Available at: http://www.hoovers.com/randstad-holding/--ID__93213,ticker__RAND -- /free-co-fin-factsheet.xhtml [Accessed June 27, 2009].

Kanner, J. & Van de Pol, J. 2007. Randstad May Offer to Buy Staffing Company Vedior. November 30, 2007. Bloomberg.com. Available at:  http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=ag3CnzqhPf0g&refer=home  [Accessed June 27, 2009].

Randstad Annual Report. 2009. Annual Report 2008. Investor Relations. [Online]. Available at:  http://www.randstadannualreport.com/investor-relations-randstad-shares.html  [Accessed June 25, 2009].

Food Prices Over the Past
Words: 5030 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 86265982
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In developing countries, consumers are more affected for two reasons. One is that consumers are more likely to buy raw ingredients. ithout manufacturing entities to absorb some of the commodity price increases, consumers are left to absorb almost all of the increase (Ibid.). As a result, food prices have increased more in the developing world than in the developed world. Additionally, consumers in these countries already expend a significantly higher percentage of their income on food than do consumers in estern nations. Thus, demand for food in the developing world is price elastic and consumers suffer because they are unable to meet their food needs.

In the developed world, increased food prices suppress demand in other sectors of the economy, which can cause minor shocks in employment and investment in some businesses and industries. In the developing world, food price shocks can result in starvation and civil unrest. The recent…

Works Cited

Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/ 

Wiewel, Wim & Persky, Joseph. (2002) Suburban Sprawl M.E. Sharpe, Armonk NY, 2002.

Barnier, Michael. (2008) "Europe is Key to Solving Food Crisis" Tehran Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=184060 

Clayton, Mark. (2008) "As Global Food Costs Rise, are Biofuels to Blame?" Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0128/p03s03-usec.html

Easyjet Financial Reporting Recent History Regarding Corporate
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easyJet Financial eporting

ecent History egarding Corporate Accounting Policy

The recent corporate accounting practices of easyJet Airlines reflects financial accounting policies at the company, which were in disapproval by Sir Stelios Haji-Ioannou, founder -- easyJet (Waller, 2008) . The Board of Directors are responsible for drafting and adopting of company accounting policies. Sir Stelios' rejection of the boards annual accounts is reflective of the agency/principle problem such that the board is now potentially viewing the corporation in a different light than from the founder.

The founder proclaimed the accounting policies adopted by the board of easyJet to be inaccurate and not reflective of the "current commercial realities and the macro-economic climate" says Sir Stelios (Waller, 2008). Stelios recommends changes to the policies in place and suggests appointment of two directors of non-executive capacity to serve on the board to provide financial accounting insight into the policies established and set forth…

References

"A new departure for EasyJet with Airbus," 2003, FT.com,, pp. 1.

EasyJet Annual Report (2010). http://2010annualreport.easyjet.com/files/pdf/ConsolidatedFinancialPosition_easyJet_AR10-3-5.pdf

EasyJet Resolves Dispute With Founder 2010,, Dow Jones & Company Inc.

"Filling the gaps with a new SAFETY EVENT," 2004, The Safety & Health Practitioner, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 78.

Distribution in Finance a Company Has an
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Distribution in Finance

A company has an obligation to maintain financial stability through engagement to its staff, clientele and the shareholders. It ensures this by laying down vital, strategic, financial plans. Cash distribution is a methodology in which a company can achieve this. It is often referred to as the distributions from a company presented to a limited partner investor from monetary resources and in the form of money. The limited partners have a percentage of shareholding in the company; hence, the latter maximizes the opportunities set in place in investing, capital structure and working capital policies. Companies distribute finances to their partners through several procedures that this context looks into; dividends and stock repurchases (Ehrhardt and Brigham, 2008, pg 515).

Overview of Cash Distribution

Cash available for distribution to its investors is derived from operations being carried out in the company (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2010, pg 560). Decision-making in…

References

Asquith, P and Mullins, D.W. (2006). Signaling with Dividends, Stock Repurchases, and Equity Issues. Financial Management. Vol 15, Issue 3. Pg 27-44.

Brigham, E. F and Daves, P.R. (2009). Intermediate Financial Management. New York: Cengage Learning.

Brigham, E. F and Ehrhardt, M.C. (2010). Financial Management Theory and Practice. New York: Cengage Learning.

Brigham, E. F and Houston, J.F. (2009). Fundamentals of Financial Management. New York: Cengage Learning.

Annual Reports for Two British-Based
Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 72116768
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6%, versus 6.1% in 2008. The return on equity was -6.1% in 2009 and was 15.5% in 2008. The asset and equity levels were relatively stable for the two years, so most of the changes can be attributed to changes in the net income. To investigate those net income changes, the margins can be analyzed. The gross margin for 2009 was 3.14%; for 2008 it was 19.8% and for 2007 it was 21.1%. The net margin for 2009 was -5.7%; for 2008 it was 14.3% and for 2007 the net margin was 19.4%. hat this indicates is that the decline in the profits and therefore in the ROE and ROA stems from a decline in operating profit.

For Ryanair, the operating revenues increased 8.4%, but the operating expenses increased 30.9%, leading to the sharp decline in operating profit. This focuses attention on the key cost drivers that contributed to this…

Works Cited:

Ryanair 2009 Annual Report. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from  http://www.ryanair.com/doc/investor/2009/Annual_report_2009_web.pdf 

British Airways 2008/09 Annual Report. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from  http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/microsites/ba_reports0809/pdfs/BA_AR_2008_09.pdf 

Pethokoukis, J. (2008). Annual report RIP: Remember the glossy, informative annual report? The American. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from  http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-173924219.html 

Yahoo Finance UK. (2010). Ryanair. Yahoo Finance UK. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from  http://uk.finance.yahoo.com/echarts?s=RYA.L#chart1:symbol=rya.l;range=1y;indicator=sma%2850,200%29+volume;charttype=line;crosshair=on;ohlcvalues=0;logscale=on;source=undefined

Multiple Elements in the Company's
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Thus, the first three all have legitimate interests, but other interests are clearly subordinated.

2. Scott's first interest is to the shareholders. Management's role is to act in the best interest of the shareholders -- that is the proxy relationship between management and owners. However, this does not mean that the senior employees should be cut. The choice of employees to be cut should be based on productivity vs. cost, not just on a cost basis. The majority of the shareholders should be considered, rather than a vocal minority. In addition, the interests of the shareholders should be considered on a long-term basis. This may guide Scott to a different decision than that which he is being presented. Ultimately, however, both Ms. Deason and the employees are also agents of the shareholders so in a way all parties involved are bound to consider the benefit to shareholders…

Dividends a Regular Cash Dividend Is Paid
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Dividends

A regular cash dividend is paid out of the company's cash supply. The dividend can be at a fixed rate, or can be loosely tied to the company's net income. This is the most common form of dividend, and is paid under most circumstances. hereas a regular cash dividend is a recurring dividend, an extra cash dividend is a non-recurring dividend (Investopedia, 2012). This is a one-time dividend that is paid by the company. There is no expectation of a future extra dividend, in contrast to a regular dividend. A special dividend is the same thing as an extra dividend. The only slight difference is that something termed a special dividend is not necessarily going to be paid out of cash. The company may pay with shares or some other asset. Most commonly, however, this type of dividend will be paid out of cash.

A liquidating dividend is fundamentally…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2012). Extra dividend. Investopedia. Retrieved April 15, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/extradividend.asp 

Investopedia. (2012). Definition of liquidating dividend. Investopedia. Retrieved April 15, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/liquidatingdividend.asp#axzz1sAcwUjMe 

Hadzima, J. (2005). Dilution: A primer on stock vocabulary. MIT. Retrieved April 15, 2012 from  http://web.mit.edu/e-club/hadzima/dilution-a-primer-of-stock-vocabulary.html 

Goldman, D. (2012). Apple announces dividend and stock buyback. CNN. Retrieved April 15, 2012 from  http://money.cnn.com/2012/03/19/technology/apple-dividend/index.htm

Announcement Merger Companies Vela Bahri Size Companies
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announcement merger companies Vela Bahri. *Size companies *easons merger * process merger ( time ) * happened stock prices shareholders reaction *After completed merger results merger? status change? *oles top manager merger.

Vela Bahri Merger

Information from the announcement of the merger

The announcement of this important merger was made on June 27, 2012 by Saudi Aramco and the National Shipping Company of Saudi Arabia. The announcement revealed the fact that the two companies signed a non-binding memorandum of understanding, in order to pursue the merger of the fleet and operations of Bahri and Vela International Marine Limited, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Saudi Aramco.

The objective of the merger is represented by developing a larger and more diversified national shipping company. By joining their forces, the two companies expect to become a force in the shipping activity. Their intention is to successfully address the shipping activity by…

Reference list:

1. Vela Bahri Merger Creates One of the World's Largest Shipping Firms (2012). Hellenic Shipping News. Retrieved April 4, 2013 from  http://www.hellenicshippingnews.com/News.aspx?ElementId=28f180f6-7b3c-4e67-b05e-bd3b3bede16f .

2. Bahri, Vela Sign Merger Agreements (2012). Mubasher Info. Retrieved April 4, 2013 from  http://english.mubasher.info/portal/TDWL/getDetailsStory.html?goToHomePageParam=true&storyId=2188139 .

Crown Cork & Seal Crown Cork and
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Crown Cork & Seal

Crown Cork and Seal

What do you think of Connelly's industrial strategy, financial policy & performance?

Connelly's strategy was ahead of its time. This is because he saw the changes that were occurring early and made adjustments to the business model of the firm. From the 1960s to the 1980s, this helped Crown Cork & Seal to adjust with demand from customers. His financial policy was designed to reduce costs by: closing facilities that were unprofitable and going into products that had a lower cost structure. This enabled the firm to increase its bottom line results and improve shareholder value. These factors, enhanced performance by focusing on markets which are contributing to larger percentage of the worldwide market share. ("Crown Cork & Seal," 1997)

What do you think of Avery's industrial strategy, financial policy & performance?

Avery's focus was on increasing the company's competitive position through…

References

Crown Cork & Seal. (1997). Harvard School of Business.

Misrepresentation 2010 Duty and Public Notice in
Words: 1951 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3050058
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Misrepresentation, 2010:

Duty and public notice in the UK, PLC

The audited financial statement prepared by Bumble & Co, on behalf of Horizon PLC 'made public' the performance of the corporation: reporting earnings of £10 million. Where published, shareholders and other stakeholders may 'assume' official and final writing according to the Statute of Frauds, which stipulates that public notice of the company's profit and loss constitutes reliability to the shareholders and other stakeholders, and assumes that those parties are in agreement to those activities. Analysis of Horizon, Plc v. Bumble & Co. will be subject to decision based on UK laws on Misrepresentation and unfair commercial practices under the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC ("UCPD") which came into force 26 May 2008. The 2008 law on misrepresentation is preceded by the UK Misrepresentation Act of 1967 (OPSI, 1991).

Preface to the discussion is what rule elements are not at play…

References

Beale, H., Fauvarque-Cosson, B. And Rutgers, J. et al., 2010. Contract Law (Ius Commune Casebooks for the Common Law of Europe). Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Gullifer, L. And Payne, J., 2010. Intermediated Securities: Legal Problems and Practical Issues. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Misrepresentation Act of 1967, 1991. UK Office of Public Sector Information. Available At:  http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?&parentActiveTextDocId=1185735&ActiveTextDocId=1185735 

Misrepresentation and unfair commercial practices, 2008. Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC ("UCPD"): The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations. Scottish Law Commission. Available at:  http://www.scotlawcom.gov.uk/law-reform-projects/joint-projects/misrepresentation-and-unfair-commercial-practices/

Mergers and Acquisitions
Words: 2416 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 55398839
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1998, and DuPont is considering spinning off Conoco, an oil and gas company, of which DuPont presently owns 100%. The spinoff would likely be the largest IPO in history if the entire company was sold. There are, however, a number of things that need to be taken into consideration. DuPont may wish to retain some interest in Conoco, perhaps even controlling interest. How much should be spun out is an important consideration. Further, there needs to be an appraisal of the market, to determine what the value of Conoco might be on the open market, and if this is fair value to DuPont for the company. The IPO market needs to be able to handle the Conoco IPO in order to extract the highest price possible for the shares. Further, there needs to be financial considerations, such as how such a deal would affect DuPont's share value. There are also…

Works Cited:

Chang, J. (1998). DuPont begins to sell Conoco in effort to focus on biotech. ICIS.com. Retrieved October 4, 2013 from  http://www.icis.com/Articles/1998/05/18/87415/dupont-begins-to-sell-conoco-in-effort-to-focus-on-biotech.html 

ConocoPhillips. (2013) Who we are. Conoco Phillips. Retrieved October 3, 2013 from http://www.conocophillips.com/EN/about/who_we_are/history/conoco/Pages/

Moore, H. (1998). Record-setting Conoco IPO raises $4.4 billion. The Street.com. Retrieved October 4, 2013 from  http://www.thestreet.com/story/21347/1/record-setting-conoco-ipo-raises-44-billion.html 

WTRG.org. (2013). OPEC events and oil prices (graph). Wtrg.org. Retrieve October 3, 2013 from  http://www.wtrg.com/prices.htm

Comparison of Governance Structure and Types of Capitalism
Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14556088
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stakeholder capitalism and shareholder capitalism?

Under what conditions might stakeholder capitalism be superior to shareholder capitalism? Why is this?

How do ideas about how markets economies operate influence the form of corporate governance in a country or region?

What is the primary difference between H-mode firms and J-mode firms, and which type of firm tends to perform better over the long-term?

PEPAE YOU ANSWES TO THESE QUESTIONS.

Shareholder capitalism is focuses on the interests of shareholders, a factor that is deterministically influential with respect to corporate governance, mission, and values. Stakeholder capitalism establishes forms of corporate governance and identifies corporate missions and values that engage in the pursuit of the interests of all stakeholders. When considering how capitalism is expressed in various countries, it becomes clear that the overarching difference is that firms in the U.S. And the UK are designed in a manner that enables the creation of wealth…

References

Allan, F. & Gale, D. (2002, December 22). A comparative theory of corporate governance. Wharton, Financial Institutions Center.

Financial Ratios Calculation & Interpretation
Words: 899 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 28373990
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This ratio eliminates the stock figure from that of current assets and like the current ratio; it is used to measure the liquidity of a firm. The quick ratio may in some instances be preferred over the current ratio as it is inherently difficult to turn some assets into cash. In regard to the two companies, the quick ratio brings out Plume Inc. As being more risky as it is more likely to default on its short-term obligations. According to Tracy (2009), the quick ratio of a firm should ideally be grater than 1.

Part B: Health and isk Analysis in Brief

Looking at the debt to asset ratio, Arrow Company comes across as being more risky than Plume Inc. This is basically because its higher debt to assets ratio exposes it to a larger amount of debt which both investors and creditors may be wary of. Further, the higher…

References

Gill, J.O. (1999). Understanding Financial Statements: A Primer of Useful Information.

Cengage Learning.

Tracy, J.A. (2008). How to Read a Financial Report: Wringing Vital Signs Out of the Number. John Wiley and Sons.

Company Issues and Leadership for
Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50854108
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Short-term wins creation

In this case, the insistence is on the enhancement of credibility for change through demonstrating gains made. In the case of News Corp, those who excel in change related initiatives could be rewarded and recognized going forward.

Building on Change/Consolidation of Gains

Here, quick wins should be taken as a beginning and not as an end. Hence in a way, victory must not be declared before the whole change process is over. When it comes to News Corp, efforts could be undertaken to ensure that each success or failure is taken as an opportunity to learn.

Institutionalization of New Approaches

Lastly, change should and must be made to stick. Hence effectively, change should be made part and parcel of the organization by anchoring the same on the corporate culture. In regard to News Corp, to embed change on the culture of the organization, efforts may be undertaken…

References

Hiatt, J. & Creasey, T.J. (2003). Change Management: The People Side of Change. Prosci.

Mills, H., Dye, K. Mills, A.J. (2008). Understanding Organizational Change. Taylor and Francis.

Pulley, B. (2011, May 5). News Corp. Profit Drops 24% as Film Sales Fail to Measure UP to 'Avatar'. Retrieved October 20th, 2011, from Bloomberg website:  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-04/news-corp-s-third-quarter-earnings-decline-24-on-falling-movie-revenue.html 

Shapiro, A. (2010). Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change, (2nd Edition). Andrea Shapiro.

International Crisis on Businesses In This Paper
Words: 2510 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92409541
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International Crisis on Businesses.

In this paper, I will assume the task of a consultant at McKinsey and Co. It is my duty to analyze the effects on international and local businesses of the problems which are erupted in Middle Eastern/Northern African countries particularly Egypt, Tunisia and others. This paper will be produced for the clients of McKinsey and Co in order to assist them in their respective strategies for the region. The main four topics which would be addressed in this paper are as follows, the local impact on business, the global impact on businesses and industries, the impact on shareholder value and wealth of the most affected companies and finally the short, medium and long-term political influences which might affect businesses.

Local Impact on Businesses

During the times of severe political or social unrest which is now seen in countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Syria and others, the overall…

References

Stiles, Kendall. (2002). Civil Society by Design. Connecticut: Praeger.

Hironaka, Ann. (2005). Never-ending Wars. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Madison, G. (1998). Political Economy of Civil Society and Human Rights. London: Routledge.

Cardenas, Gilberto. (2004). La Causa. Houston: Arte Publico.

Corp Gov UAE Corporate Governance
Words: 2120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79913915
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Clearly, he companies engaged in this practice were operating with direct intention, and a roper governance system would have made this obvious and prevented it.

Software Spying

In another telecommunications case, a company was found to have included spyware in a company-sponsored "software upgrade" to users' cell phones, that enabled the company to collect confidential information from users' phones without their consent (Khaleej Times, 2009). Not only is this practice clearly unethical, but it is also illegal despite a lack of stringency in the detection of such crimes and the prosecution of large-scale corporate offenders such as telecommunications companies. Again, greater transparency and internal control would have allowed this practice to be discovered much sooner, and the risk of discovery almost certainly would have prevented this action from ever occurring. Corporate governance works best when it is so strong it is only rarely and usually accidentally tested; when purposeful actions…

References

ADCCG. (2012). Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.adccg.ae/

ADX. (2012). Mission & Vision. Accessed 7 May 2012.  http://www.adx.ae/English/AboutADX/Pages/MissionVision.aspx 

Creffield, L. (2007). Why you can't block Skype. Accessed 7 May 2012.  http://www.ameinfo.com/93716.html 

Etisalat. (2011). 2010 Annual Report.

Corporate Governance Shell What Occurred
Words: 2084 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 30992730
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4. If Enron shareholders had been fully aware of the LJM partnership agreement, do you believe they would have been willing to continue investing in Enron?

LJM was created by Fastow allegedly to buy poorly performing Enron assets, but in reality to hide debt and inflate profits of Enron in order to leverage its stock price. It is almost certain that Enron shareholders would have ceased to continue investing in Enron had they been aware of the full significance of LJM.

LJM, in its essence, entailed that Enron was far below that which it's displayed to the public and that likely its debts were more massive and its profits far less than those claimed. Investors, obviously, would not want to invest in a poorly performing company.

Even if Enron's profits were higher and debts lower than those that the company tried to conceal, the very fact that Enron was not…

References

Arping, H., & Sautner, B. (2010). "The Effect of Corporate Governance Regulation on Transparency: Evidence from the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002." Papers.ssrn.com.  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1561619 . Retrieved 5/11/2012

Environment and Society. (2007)"Environment and Society -- Shell General Business Principles." Shell International B.V.

Fombrun, C. & Foss, C. 2004, 'Business ethics corporate response'. Corporate Reputation Review, 7, pp.284 -- 288

Healy, Paul M. & Krishna G. Palepu (Spring 2003). "The Fall of Enron" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives 17 (2): 15.

Argovate Hostile Takeover
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 22336392
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Argo Vate/Hostil Takeover

ArgoVate/Hostile Takeover

Is this a hostile takeover?

A hostile takeover is described commonly as "acquiring a firm despite the disapproval of, or open resistance from, its board of directors. The acquirer ('raider') usually takes the takeover offer direct to the target firm's stockholders (shareholders) or seeks their approval to remove the obstructing board members." (Business Dictionary, 2013) In this case the takeover is definitely hostile because the AgroVate management does not think that the merger will result in overall betterment but that the employees and shareholders may be affected. On the other hand the purchasing company Bijoux wants to dismantle the current board and sell off AgroVate's widget finishing and the main business being service uniforms; there is no match or significant business advantage in the merger, which prima facie appears to be a hostile takeover.

Can the AgroVate board legally adopt defensive measures against Bijoux?

It…

References

Business Dictionary. (2013) "Definition of hostile takeover: Business Dictionary"

Retrieved 8 February, 2013 from  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/hostile-takeover.html#ixzz2JweHDDUI 

Armour, John; Skeel, David A. (2007) "Corporate Governance - Who writes the rules for hostile takeovers, and why? The Divergence of U.S. And UK Takeover Regulation" University of Pennsylvania Law School, Retrieved 8 February, 2013 from  http://www.cato.org/pubs/regulation/regv30n3/v30n3-8.pdf .

MBDA. (2013) "5 Types of takeovers Article Source" Retrieved 8 February, 2013 from  http://www.mbda.gov/node/1409

Nortel Case Study
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Nortel Case Study

Nortel Networks Corporation, more commonly referred to as Nortel, was a global company of Canadian origin that at its peak in the early 2000's had comprised of one-third of the total valuation of the companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). Nortel was founded in 1895 in Montreal, Quebec, with its manufacturing headquarters currently located in Mississauga, Ontario. The company manufactured data networking equipment along with offering telecommunication services. It employed over 94,500 employees worldwide.

Nortel's troubles began in the 1990's when under CEO John Roth, the company expanded into the internet technology market. Roth used media to alter public perception of the company. The sale of the optic fibre networking gear by the company from then on was hyped up by the speculators in the market, driving the share price of the company up, even though the company failed to produce overall annual profits. This…

Analysis Stakeholder and Retirement Savings
Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48438026
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Corporate Finance

Essentially, most businesses view shareholders, i.e. The owners of a business as being the most important stakeholder group. It therefore follows that as per this view, a business entity has an obligation to put the needs of stockholder/owners first. It should, however, be noted that there are numerous other groups that also have an interest in the enterprise, and who are affected by the firm's actions. Key stakeholder groups according to Sims (2003, p. 74) include, but they are not limited to, "shareholders and investors, employees, customers, and suppliers…the government and communities…"

The table below ranks various stakeholders on the basis of: i) expected risk and return, and ii) importance to the organization's success.

Table

Stakeholder anking on the Basis of Importance to the Organization's Success

Stakeholder anking on the Basis of Expected isk and eturn

Shareholders/investors

Shareholders/investors

Government

Suppliers

3. Customers

3. Employees

4. Employees

4. Customers…

References

Morris, V.B. & Morris, K.M. (2006). Standard & Poor's Guide to Saving for Retirement. New York, NY: Lightbulb Press.

Sims, R.R. (2003). Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: Why Giants Fall. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Executive Pay in Australia
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68862340
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Remuneration & ther Subjects

The authors of this report have been asked to assess a number of subjects surrounding remuneration of employees and the overall corporate/social ethics involved in the same in Australia. There are also some tangential and related subjects that will also be spoken of. In total, there are five broad-based questions. The first question speaks about risk aversion, profit/wealth maximization, wealth management, different stances that different people and personnel take vis-a-vis risk and financial reporting manipulation. The second question references the horizon problem. This second question looks at the different motivations and perspectives that different people in an investment and accounting situation might take. Managers have their axe to grind and stakeholders typically have a different one. How bonuses for investment managers figure in will also be explored. Finally, there will be a review for the fifth question that pertains to the transparency and visibility of remuneration…

One way to counter the horizon problem is through use of equity instruments as a component of executive remuneration. Equity ownership and share options encourage managers to care not only about the short-term but also about the future (Conyon & Florou 2006). If a manager has shares and share options that cannot be exercised until after a period of time post-retirement, then they will be unlikely to engage in short-term firm value destroying actions (Conyon & Florou, 2006). As previously discussed, it is often the accounting measure of earnings which drives the calculation of bonuses paid to managers. Managers can manipulate accounting information in a manner such that a company will display short-term profitability. This could be achieved directly, through a reduction in spending on research and development or indirectly through reduced depreciation as a result of lower capital expenditure (Conyon & Florou 2006). It could be argued that as a result of this, there must be a reduced reliance on accounting information to drive the calculation of bonus plans that are designed to address the horizon problem. Managers, in particular CEOs and CFOs, have the greatest ability to manipulate this information. Bonus plans based on share payments and share options then force the manager to make decisions that result in an appropriate balance of both short-term performance as well as long-term growth and viability. Conyon & Florou (2006) suggest that this may even act as a substitute, allowing for reduced monitoring of executive activity.

Question III -- Non-Salary Components

Just as with regular employees, the facets of compensation relating to non-cash compensation is a major part of how executives are paid (IRS, 2014). There are multiple purposes and reasons for why these non-cash components are included. These include the fact that it is normal industry standard to offer certain benefits (e.g. health insurance, pension, etc.) (Jakobson, 2012). Cash compensation can vary widely with an obvious example being bonuses that are tied to the market, a company's performance and so forth (Thurm, 2013). However, non-cash compensation is very similar in that it manifests in a number of different ways. One reason to make heavy use of non-cash compensation is to skirt laws that relate to cash compensation such as regulations relating to bonuses, commissions, base salary and so forth (Holmberg, 2014). However, putting the kibosh on non-cash compensation such as stock and other similar items could cause a brain-drain situation for publicly traded companies (AP, 2009). Private

Corporate Law in the U S
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law cases (Corporate Law Issues cases)

Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518 (Wheat) (1819)

The Court had to decide whether "the act of incorporation . . . creat[ed] a civil institution, to be employed in the administration of the government" or created a private charitable institution. What did it decide? What was its reasoning?

Dartmouth College was originally chartered as part of a contract between the King of England and the trustees of the College. The Court ruled that this contract was still valid even though the United States was no longer a British colony. The Court ruled that "the corporation in question is not a civil, although it is a lay corporation. It is an eleemosynary corporation. It is a private charity, originally founded and endowed by an individual, with a charter obtained for it at his request, for the better administration of his charity" (Dartmouth,…

Risk of Accepting the Offer
Words: 1378 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 21018167
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Overall, the risk to DeeBilder is substantial. It does not appear than management has many opportunities to beat Home Depot, since DeeBilder competes as a low cost provider but Home Depot can undercut them on any product. DeeBilder will find it a tough adjustment to switch to a different business model, so they are in all likelihood going to lose this battle. Management in this situation needs to realize that the risk is almost entirely on their side. Home Depot has very little risk, the only issue at hand is how they are going to take over the market. For DeeBilder, the choice is whether to capitulate and go quietly, or whether to go down swinging, the latter choice likely to result in a total erosion of shareholder value.

2. It is unlikely that Home Depot is concerned about bad PR if they crush DeeBilder. Their low prices will win…

Ignoring the Worst Examples of
Words: 444 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 91030031
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M2Global Technology Ltd. has a specific metric that determines CEO and managerial pay based upon a combination of financial returns, efficiency, and customer satisfaction.

Stock options with restrictions that cannot be 'cashed out' for a number of years, or forms of equity that are dependant upon long-term goals also reduces the incentive for CEOs to quickly and artificially boost stock prices. They ensure that the CEO has a real, financial stake in the long-term health of the company. There is also growing agreement that hefty, unrestricted severance packages send the wrong message to CEOs -- and golden parachutes are also highly unpopular amongst ordinary shareholders.

But as important as these incentives may be, perhaps the best prescription for success is a good choice of a CEO with a managerial style is a good 'fit' for the company culture. A CEO who wishes to succeed and foster his or her reputation…

Google Corporate Governance Comes in
Words: 5634 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16905587
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The company showed a global reach early, adding numerous language versions around the world. In 2000, the company reached 18 million search queries per day and officially became the world's largest search engine ("Google, Inc." paras. 11-14).

The company now sought to address its need for income by introducing a keyword-targeted advertising program for another source of revenue. The company partnered with Yahoo! And with other partners, such as China's leading portal NetEast and NEC's BIGLOBE in Japan. Google introduced Adords, a self-service advertising program that could be activated with a credit card. By December of 2000, Google received more than 60 million searches per day and reached the 100-million search mark per day in 2001 ("Google, Inc." paras. 15-16).

Google as a Public Company

Google would offer an IPO of stock beginning in 2004. McShane and Von Glinow cite Google as a successful company, especially in terms of navigating…

Works Cited

Bylund, Anders. "All Aboard Google." The Motley Fool (6 June 2007). February 10, 2008.  http://www.fool.com/investing/value/2007/06/06/all-aboard-google.aspx .

Everett, Chad. "The Google Way." Infoworld (23 February 2004). February 12, 2008.  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=4&sid=e2bbe58a-ff50-4544-be56-d20f347f3c1f%40SRCSM2 .

Google Inc." Hoover's Online (2007). http://www.hoovers.com/google/--ID__59101 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml.

Google, Inc." International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 50. St. James Press, 2003. Reproduced in Business and Company Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.:Gale Group. 2008.  http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BCRC