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y this time the Shari'ahs' now had four schools of thought established. These are still prominent today to include: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali. Considered the most liberal of the schools, Hanafi puts a greater emphasis on the use of reason and it is the most popular school of thought in the Muslim world. Maliki law is largely based on: narrations of the words and deeds of Muhammad. Shafi'i believes in the order of importance in interpreting the law to include: the Quran (first), the sunnah (second), consensus (third) and lastly analogy. Finally, the philosophy known as Hanbali is considered to be: the most strict and conservative school of jurisprudence (Coulson, 79).
Shari'ah law is unique in that it was imposed on society from above. Therefore, in Islamic jurisprudence it is not a society that moulds and fashions the law, but the law that precedes and controls it ("Shari'ah"). This…
Coulson, Noel J. A History of Islamic Law. Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1995. Print.
"Shari'ah." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011. Encyclopedia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD. 5 May 2011.
During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).
Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.
Conceptually, civil law is a group…
Comparative Law and Business
A company has decided to expand its operations to another nation. The company is involved in information technology (IT) and is headquartered in Malaysia. The desire is to grow assets by beginning operations in Thailand. The fact that these are two separate countries makes the transition difficult, but it complicated by the fact that the two nations have different sets of laws which govern aspects of the transfer, and of the continuing operation of a Malaysian company in Thailand. Of primary concern is the contract law which exists in Thailand, and how those statutes direct a foreign company within Thai borders. It is the wish of the Malaysian company to maintain control in Malaysia not only for the company, but also for the settling of disputes. Since there are two different sets of laws that may govern a dispute, it is imperative that any potential…
X Arner, D.W., Booth, C.D., Lejot, P., & Hsu, P.F.C. (2007). Property rights, collateral creditor rights, and insolvency in East Asia. Texas International Law Journal, 42(3), 515-559.
CLW Malaysia. (2006). Laws of Malaysia: Contracts Act of 1950.
X Colon, R. (2011). Choice of law and Islamic finance. Texas International Law Journal, 46(2), 411-456.
X Davis, G.B., Ein-Dor, P., King, W.R., & Torkzadeh, R. (2006). IT offshoring: History, prospects and challenges. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7(11), 770-792.
Plurality is built into Islam's legal and ideological foundations, complicating the political and social structure of the religion and its institutions. Principle means by which to explore and critique the complexity and plurality of Islam include the Hadith and the various schools of Islamic law. Because of the relatively equal veracity of all six books of the Hadith, and of the various schools of law, there is no singular authoritative body in Islam. Each region of the world has instead opted to emphasize some teachings and some legal schools over others.
The Hadith is a collection of writings reflecting the traditions, actions, and actual sayings of Muhammad. The Hadith comprises six books, compiled in the ninth and tenth centuries, and are viewed as "second only to the Quran in their practical significance and authority," (p. 74). The "soundness of their claims of transmission" is one of the central issues…
Kamali, M.K. (1999). Law and society. Chapter 3 in The Oxford History of Islam. Ed. Esposito. Oxford University Press.
In fact there are signs of turmoil among religious as well as ethnic groups. An internal war between the Hausa and another tribe called the Yoruba resulted in 300 deaths. More recently tribes called the Tiv and the Jukun have executed tribal raids. In fact, between the successful election of a civilian President in May of 1999 and the end of 2001, over 10,000 Nigerians died in regional conflicts based on religious/and/or tribal differences. The Islamic belief in Shari'a, including the idea that religion and state government should be one, contributes to these problems.
In fact the animosity between Christians and Muslims is quite strong in Nigeria. The province adopting Shari'a, Zamfara, uses Islamic courts to try criminals. The Christians who live in the south do not agree that Zamfara should use a religiously-based legal system. This disagreement demonstrates that the country is divided on multiple levels. It is the…
Clark, Andrew F. "Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali." Africa Today, June 1999.
Gausset, Quentin. " Islam or Christianity? The Choices of the Wawa and the Kwanja of Cameroon." Africa, Vol. 69, 1999.
Miles, William F.S. "Shari'a as de-Africanization: evidence from Hausaland." Africa Today, March 2003.
Roach, Ronald. "Translating the African past: the Islamic heritage of sub-Saharan Africa - Special report: international education." Black Issues in Higher Education. May 9, 2002.
Neo-Liberalistic Legal Concepts on Nations ith Distinct Legal Tradition (Common, Civil, Socialist)
This review of the related literature focuses on broad definitions of the law as historically legislated and then as practiced in three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia and China. Common law, civil law and socialist law will be defined separately and then as they each apply to the country which has used that system as its focus for legal practice. The effect that neo-liberalism had after the Asian financial crisis on these three nations will be then be examined. Finally, this review will determine if there has been a change post-crisis in merger and acquisition or public finance law.
It is necessary to begin by defining terms that will occur throughout this review. The three systems of law to be initially discussed in the review are common law, civil law and socialist law. Of course, many dispute the fact…
Agami, Abdel M. "The Role that Foreign Acquisitions of Foreign Companies Played in the Recovery of the Asian Financial Crisis." Multinational Business Review 10, no. 1 (2002): 11-17.
Batra, Madan M. "The Dark Side of International Business." Competition Forum 5, no. 1 (2007): 306-313.
Berman, Alan. "The Anwar Saga: Sexuality and Politics in Contemporary Malaysia." Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review 4, no. 3 (2008): 188-193.
Chan, Anita, and Jonathan Unger. "A Chinese State Enterprise Under the Reforms: What Model of Capitalism?" The China Journal 62 (2009): 1-15.
Islamic criminal justice system to the criminal justice Systems of the common Law and the Civil law
Law is implied to hold a fundamental position in the societal system of the western and near eastern regions. Two customary beliefs are present in these "law-centered" societies. The custom of divine revelation is the first one. This has given rise to the Talmudic and Islamic systems of law, among which the importance of Islamic legal system is increasing in many nations. The other is the custom of involvement of the public that gave rise to either Greek and Roman models and consequently the civil law system, or the weird historical happenings in England from which the common law system has emerged. Islamic law is neither a remnant from the history nor a revisit to ancient origins, but somewhat an intricate, multithreaded cluster of thoughts and actions that the Islamic persons shaped and…
If there is ever a case where the courts cannot determine what the original intention of the parties was, the country with the most logical connection to the contract is often chosen as the country of law for deciding the dispute. The place of performance of the contractual duties; the place of residence of the contractual parties; the nature of the subject matter of the contract -- all of these have been used to decide contract jurisdiction.
Torts -- wrongs done to others -- are the domain of civil law. s with contracts, there is a "proper law of the tort," which country has the most significant relationship with the event or the parties. The law of that country applies. Therefore, the place where the wrong occurs is usually which law applies. This is similar to the way tort cases work in the United States. The state in which…
Australian courts can also decline to hear a case if it doesn't believe it is the right forum.
Since 2004 and the introduction of European SE companies, some interesting conflicts of jurisdiction have ensued. If the company was first registered in a single country, it is subject to those laws. As an SE company, the corporation is also subject to additional regulations of the Union. The corporation doesn't have to abide by all the laws of all the countries of the Union, just the specific SE rules and the rules of their country. This can be a distinct advantage for SE companies at they can forum shop and choose the country which best suits the business' needs before making a choice about where to base its operations. The company can then operate both under the jurisdiction of the country with the most favorable laws and have the privileged position of an SE throughout the Union. This kind of behaviour will continue for the foreseeable future; there has been some consistency of law across the Union recently, but there are still distinct differences from country to country. It is worth a corporation's time and effort to do its research before deciding where to incorporate.
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter - contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…
ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html
Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/
Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.
UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
eligion and Politics
All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.
Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…
S.Q. Fatimi, Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, (MSRI), Singapore. 1963;
EDITH M. LEDERER, Associated Press Writer, U.N. Development Fund for Women protests stoning sentence against Nigerian woman., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
Author not available, Mexico's president to fight death penalty in Nigeria., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
D'ARCY DORAN, Associated Press Writer, Nigerian government 'totally opposed' to death by stoning sentence., AP Worldstream, 08-22-2002
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
If all people followed these teachings, many of the social evils in the society such as stealing from each other, killing, mugging, rape, revenge, jealousy, etc. Molloy, 2009.
Therefore, religion is extremely important since it guides our day-to-day lives. eligion is also an important source of law as evidenced in sharia law and Canon law which is commonly used in the determination of cases and also in development of Public law.
One important thing that should be kept in mind is that every person is different and that they give varying relevance to religion. The importance of religion can be evaluated in how a person lives their life. As always, the actions of the individual should be evaluated and not their words. As the old English adage goes, "actions speak louder than words."
Flood, G. (2012). The Importance of eligion: Meaning and Action in Our Strange World. New York,…
Flood, G. (2012). The Importance of Religion: Meaning and Action in Our Strange World. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Hyman, C., & Handal, P.J. (2006). Definitions and Evaluation of Religion and Spirituality Items by Religious Professionals: A Pilot Study. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(2), 264-282.
Iii, N.J.D. (2002). A Sinner among the Saints: Confessions of a Sociologist of Culture and Religion. Sociological Forum, 17(1), 1-19.
Marks, L. (2006). Religion and Family Relational Health: An Overview and Conceptual Model. Journal of Religion and Health, 45(4), 603-618.
(Steward, 2008, ¶ 15).
II: BODY (TITLE TO BE DETERMINED)
To explore the thesis, introduced at the start of the paper, the writer addresses the question: Do the investment risks that customers of conventional banks and financial houses may experience differ from those customers of sharia compliant financial institutions may encounter? During this segment of the research paper, the writer relates relevant information to Investing (Including Risks)
Investing (Including Risks)
Sukuk depict one type of bonds that meet the sharia requirement that interest cannot be charged or received. Sukuk often work so that those who hold them as investments are entitled to a share of the profits of the company that issued the sukuk.
A. Analytical summary
1. Investing (Including Risks)
3. Contemporary Considerations
B. Thesis reworded
C. Concluding statement
Adam, N.J. & Thomas, A. (2004). Islamic bonds:…
Wecker, M.. (2010). The promise of Islamic banking and finance. The Arab-American News
Retrieved September 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Muslims are a family oriented people with religious centered traditions and government. They follow the law of Sharia based the Koran or Qur'an. The women experience a range of individual rights from dressing more liberally with colors and headscarves, to being unable to drive or dance in public. Although Westerners often paint a negative picture of Muslim culture, there are many wonderful and beautiful things to be learned of the Muslim faith and Muslim culture.
In recent times, many Muslims have adopted new ways of living, providing outsiders' access to their pursuits. From female racecar drivers to singing competitions, Muslims have grown and expanded their culture to embrace modernity and variety. The best example of this is Dubai. Dubai houses ultramodern skyscrapers and the latest in cars and fashions. Although separation of genders remains prevalent even in a more modern city like Dubai, that does not keep Muslims from enjoying…
Knight, K. (2006). My Muslim faith. North Mankato, MN: Cherrytree Books.
Modood, T. (2005). Multicultural politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Pohl, F. (2010). Modern Muslim Societies. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing.
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
Stoning of Soraya M
Stoning is not prescribed in the current version of the Koran. Islamic law (Sharia) requires that adulterers be put to death, since it was the example set by Muhammad. In practice, the women are executed far more often, since they are presumed to bear the burden of sexual responsibility. ape victims are sometimes convicted if they speak out. eporting a rape means a confession of adultery under Sharia law if four male witnesses cannot be found to confirm the victim's claim. Numerous examples of stoning adulterers under Islamic law persist, from the Islamist frontier of Somalia to the modern state of Iran. In 2010, the Taliban planted a couple having unauthorized sex in the ground and brutally pelted them with stones only a few days after they flogged a pregnant woman 200 times and then shot her in the head. In "condemning" the killings, the "moderate"…
Cannon, C.M. (2010). Soraya M., stoned to death for being an "inconvenient wife." Politics Daily. The HuffPost Politics. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.politicsdaily.com/2009/05/13/he-who-casts-the-first-stone/
"Somali rape victom stoned to death was 13." (2009, February 11) CBSNews.com. From the Associated Press. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/11/01/world/main4562850.shtml
"Stoning adulterers." (NDI). TheReligionofPeace.com. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/Quran/001-adultery_punishment.htm
Sukuk Al Ijara
Introduction to the selected Sukuk Structure (Sukuk Al Ijara)
Sukuk Al Ijara is considered to be the most regularly employed sukuk structure centered on the amount of issuances. The attractiveness and admiration of this structure can be linked to different elements. For instance, a number of critics and reviewers have termed it as the standard sukuk structure from which all of the other sukuk structures have come about from while others point out on how simple and straightforward the structure is; it is also because it is favored by Sharia academics and intellectuals. The term Ijara in accordance to Islamic finance is largely considered to have the meaning of the transference of a particular asset to another individual with attainment of rent in exchange. In simple terms it is considered to be a lease (Islamic Banker, 2015).
In theory, this particular sukuk structure provides the…
Al-Amine, M. (2001). The Islamic bond market: Possibilities and challenge. International Journal of Islamic Financial Services, Volume 3 Number 1.
Al-Amine, M.A.B.M. (2008). Sukuk market: Innovations and challenges. Islamic Capital Markets, 33.
Islamic Banker. (2015). Sukuk al-Ijara. Dubai International Financial Centre Sukuk Guidebook. Retrieved 29 June from: http://www.islamicbanker.com/education/sukuk-al-ijara
Jabeen, Z., & Javed, M.T. (2007). Sukuk-Structures: An Analysis of Risk-reward Sharing and Wealth Circulation. The Pakistan Development Review, 405-419.
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
Governments make and break alliances, treaties, and agreements for financial and political gains, as well as for power and control, all in a constantly fluid manner. Such changes have been taking place as long as there have been countries, so the maneuverings should not be of any surprise; what this paper seeks to do is determine how those ongoing changes reflect the current environment as well as how the alliances will influence governments over the next several years, and decades.
Historical Context -- World War I (1914 -- 1919)
A recent historical report states that "with deliberate deceptions, lies and attempts on all sides to appear as the wronged, it is little wonder that, after a hundred years, there is still no consensus on why the July Crisis escalated into the First World War" (Mombauer, 2014, p. 23). World War I was known as the war to end all wars,…
Bilefsky, D. & Baumejan, M.; (2015) Terrorists strike Charlie Hebdo, newspaper in Paris, leaving 12 dead, NY Times accessed on February 27, 2015 at http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-paris-shooting.html
Bogdanor, V.; (2014) The shadows lengthen, History Today, 64(8)19-25
Bosco, D.; (2014) Assessing the UN Security Council: A concert perspective, Global Governance, 20(4) 545-561
Brinkley, J.; (2013) Islamic terror, World Affairs, 176(2) 43 -- 55
Shi'a and Sunna Islam
The early origins and history of Islam as a religious organization is unified under the teachings and leadership of Muhammad, who was considered the Prophet of Allah, the God of the Muslims. When Muhammad died, the problem of handing over the leadership of Muhammad became a problem, since there are many Muslims who had claimed leadership of the Muslim religion, many factions were created. Upon Muhammad's death, the Umayyad Yazid ruled the Muslim religious organization. However, Husayn, son of Ali, and Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, had refused to accept Umayyad's rule on Islam, and they planned to "rally" against the Umayyads. However, their plans were foiled since their plan to rally reached Umayyad Yazid, who then organized an army to fight against Husayn and Fatima. When Husayn and Fatima died because of the Umayyad army's sudden attack, some Muslims who favor Husayn as the ruler of…
Dallal, A. "Islam." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Islam, Shi'i." Religious Studies Homepage. 16 April 2003 http://www.northill.demon.co.uk/relstud/shiislam.htm#4.
Muslim Movements and Schisms." Answering Islam Homepage. 16 April 2003 http://answering-islam.org/Gilchrist/Vol1/9b.html .
Sectarianism: Sunnis and Shi'ites." University of Calgary Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO6_Shia.html .
In order to understand the position of women in Iran as far as their roles, rights and empowerment is concerned, it is significant to understand the wider picture of the prevailing condition in the Middle East and the contrast that there is in the West. These two represent different polarities in the context of culture, perspective on women, roles assigned, rights granted and the positions that women hold in these two societies. There is a still not an in depth understanding of the lives of women in the Middle East and the roles that they are meant to play. In majority of the societies therein, women are hardly seen carrying out any meaningful role, let alone being heard. They are assigned a background role in this Muslim world and the persistent stereotypes and judgments about the social practices form a single dimensional depiction of women that rarely reflects the real…
Terrorism / Homeland security
Terrorism is a global phenomenon that needs urgent research to address its effects on people. Scholars on terrorism argue that terrorism is a disputed term. These scholars contend that those individuals referred to as terrorists may be guerrilla fighters, resistant fighters, freedom fighters or militants. They further state that terrorism is a tactic employed to pass out propaganda of deeds thus causing psychological and social impacts on individuals. In addition, people in these places feel the direct effects of the violent act of the terrorists group. Experts dispute whether the start of terrorism is in the first century. There is a view that it started in the 11th century during the time of Sicarrii Zealots. Others are of the opinion that Al-Hashshashin's time was the time when terrorism began (Howard, 2002).
Terrorism in Middle East
Terrorism organizations in the Middle East are mostly religious…
Howard, M. (2002). What's in a name? How to fight terrorism. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 8-13.
Bruce, R. (2007). Al Qaeda strikes back. Foreign Affairs, 84 (3), 24-70.
Scott, D.M. (2002). Somebody else's civil war. Foreign Affairs, 81 (1), 22-42.
Zachary, A. (2003). Funding terrorism in Southeast Asia: Jemaah Islamiya and Al Qaeda the financial network . Contemporary Southeast Asia, 25 (2), 169-199.
Crypto is a term that is an abbreviation for cryptography. In accordance to Vacca (2010), the word cryptography emanates from two words crypto and the Greek term graphikos. The former means a secret that is hidden or concealed while the latter means for writing. The two words when joined together mean a concealing place for notions, words, images and sounds. A cryptocurrency is form of exchange similar to normal currencies for example Euros, Dollars, and Pounds but are created purposefully for exchanging digital data and information through a procedure that is made conceivable by means of particular ideologies of cryptography. In essence, cryptography is employed in safeguarding the transactions and to regulate the generation of new coins. The original or the initial cryptocurrency that was formed and generated is Bitcoin which was unveiled in the year 2009. In the present day, there are numerous other cryptocurrencies which…
Vacca, J.R. (2010). Network and System Security. United Kingdom: Elsevier.
Cuthbertson, A. (2014). Darkcoin: The 'Perfect E-Cash' Cryptocurrency Emerging from the Dark Web to Trump Bitcoin, International Business Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/darkcoin-perfect-e-cash-cryptocurrency-emerging-dark-web-trump-bitcoin-1472144
Higgins, S. (2014). How True Anonymity Made Darkcoin King of the Altcoins, CoinDesk. Retrieved from: http://www.coindesk.com/true-anonymity-darkcoin-king-altcoins/
Tonewsto, A. (2014). Time for Islamic Law to Face the Bitcoin Question, ToNewsTo. Retrieved from: http://www.tonewsto.com/2014/10/time-for-islamic-law-to-face-bitcoin.html
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam are a few of the "universal" or "universalizing" religions. Strayer frames the universalizing religions in terms of the spread of different cultures and ideas throughout the world. Religions are integral to social and political power and control, and thus have a transformative effect on society as well as on the individuals within that society. The nature of universalizing religion is such that they can be all-pervasive, permeating almost every dimension of life including political, economic, and social institutions. However, universalizing religions are distinct in that they actively seek new followers; they believe their message is indeed universal and contains universal truths embedded within it.
Although universalizing religions use different methods of spreading their faiths, they share in common the desire to influence human thought and even public discourse. Of the universalizing religions, Christianity and Islam have historically revealed the most aggressive evangelical tendencies but Hinduism and…
Kong, Lily. Christian evangelizing across national boundaries. Religion and Place, 2012, pp. 21-38.
Premawardhana, S. Religious Conversion. John Wiley, 2015.
"Religions of the World." Retrieved online: http://lindblomeagles.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/18/44701116/L6_ReligionsReading.pdf
Strayer, R.W. Ways of the World. [Kindle Edition]. 2012.
They attempted several times to conquer Egypt and Sicily, among other places. In Yemen, rett describes a situation of internecine warfare between various sectors of Yemeni society. He writes, "Mahdism thus proved unable to transform the society of the Yemen into an enduring new state, as it did the society of ahrayn" (p. 78). Al-Fadl could not make headway with the southern tribesmen and nobility. In the end, Yemen proved too introverted a place to become a unifying imperial power as the community was fragmenting. To make matters worse, the twelfth imam has just disappeared (Mohammad Al-Mahdi in 941). What were they to do? No one knew, they believed, when he would come out of hiding. So there must be waiting and vigilance, and a strict adherence to the imam's religious and judicial authority in the community.
Another Shiite group expecting the Messiah's return was the Fatimids, who traced their…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: a short history. New York: Modern Library.
Brett, Michael. (2001). The rise of the Fatimids: the world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the tenth century. CE. Leiden: Brill.
Endress, G. (2002). Islam: an historical introduction. C. Hillenbrand (Trans.). New York: Columbia University.
Goldschmidt, Arthur, & Lawrence Davidson. (2005). A concise history of the middle east (8th Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Non- Muslim scholars have made speculations about the dates and authenticity of the Quran, accounts of Islamic history and the Sira literature. The literatures have elicited a wide range of responses from Muslims. Others dismiss the ideas as fantasies from unbelievers, whereas others view them as dangerous attacks from the enemy designed to undermine the true faith. Apart from literary sources, other historians have tried to make speculations using graffiti, abandoned settlements, coins, inscriptions, glassware, coins, pottery, and mile makers who used caravan routes to shed some light on Islamic history, especially through the religion's prophetic role among the selected; Prophet Muhammad. These sources depict a mythological perspective and truth based on the history, life and role of prophecy in completing the principles of Islam according to Prophet Muhammad.
According to Islamic sources, Muhammad's prophetic career started two decades prior; around the 610 when he was forty years…
Haleem, A.M.A.S. The Qu'ran: A New Translation. London: Oxford, 2005.
Hisham, I.A., Ishaq, I.M., Guillame, A. The Life Of Muhammad. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sells, M.A. Approaching The Quran. Virginia: White Clouds Press Virginia, 2007.
Shephard, W. Introducing Islam. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Sudan's existence can be traced back to approximately 9 million years. It is a state in Africa which was formerly conquered by its neighbor; Egypt as well as Turkey. However, rebellion against this ruling regime gave Britain an opportunity to step in. consequently, it was in 1899 when an agreement was signed between Egypt and Britain under which Sudan was to be jointly administered by these two countries. It was not until 1955 when Sudan got its independence and was ultimately granted the right to self-govern. In addition, in 1916, Darfur joined the protectorate. As a matter of fact, while Sudan was under Anglo-Egyptian rule, it kept the North and the South separate. egardless of this divide, most of the development was focused in the North as compared to the South and other areas such as Darfur remained economically as well as politically marginalized. Although the…
Dagne, Ted. The Republic of South Sudan: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa's Newest Country. CSR Report for Congress: Congressional Research Service, 2011.
Goulty, A. "United We Stand, Divided We Fall: The Sudan's After the Split," Woodrow Wilson International Working Paper No. 2. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/FINALAFR120228_policy5T_0329_rpt.pdf , (accessed 30th July, 2012).
Jhonson, Douglas. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars: Peace or Truce (USA: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2003).
Latcher, Wolfram. South Sudan: International State Building and its Limitations (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenchaft, 2012).
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013a). Peace at Daggers Drawn? Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(1): 41-67.
Boko Haram technically started in 2002 but has been especially active since 2009. Since then, the organization has worked hard to discredit the Nigerian government and replace it with an Islamic state based on Sharia law. Boko Haram is inspired by international radical Islam, and has taken root in northeastern Nigeria. Violence is integral to the Boko Haram methods. More than 3500 people have died so far directly due to Boko Haram.
The Nigerian government has tried negotiations and offers of amnesty in exchange for peace, but mutual mistrust has stalled diplomacy. Both carrot and stick approaches have failed. Moreover, Boko Haram is relatively fragmented, and different cells have different approaches to the Nigerian government and different political philosophies. Ultimately, Boko Haram must be understood within its…
Al-Shabab is an FTO designated on March 18, 2008. The name Al-Shabab translates into “The Youth” in Arabic. Its goal is to overthrow the Somali government and implement Shariah law. For that reason it is viewed as similar to ISIS (Center for International Security and Cooperation, 2019). It is a breakaway terrorist group from the Islamic Courts Union, from which it separated in 2006. It is an ally of Al-Qaeda and its battle with the Somali government is considered a mission of jihad. As it is considered a holy war by the group, it has conducted its activities in Kenya and likely would extend them even further if it had the resources to do so. The group originated in the Islamic Courts Union, as the military arm of the courts, led by Aden Hashi Ayro in 1997. Under Ayro, al-Shabab engaged in lethal exercises that were not authorized by…
Center for International Security and Cooperation. (2019). Al Shabaab. Retrieved from
Islamic and democracy existing side by side in Pakistan. The research proposal will revolve around factors and evidences which shows connection between the Islam and democracy. Muslims have been denied there democratic rights by their leaders claiming to follow Islamic religion thereby creating public interest of ways in which Muslims democracy in Pakistan can be upheld.
Justification of the research
It has been widely portrayed that Pakistani Islamist parties have since enjoyed widespread support only after joining pro-democracy movements, (Nadeem F. Paracha, 2013). This was evidenced in 1980s when the Jamaat-I Islamic, Maududi's party joined Benazir Bhutto in fighting dictatorship; another case is the recent one when members of the Jamaat joined Imran Khan's Movement for Justice (PTI), (Daniel Jacobius Morgan, 2013). Therefore political parties who advocates for democracy should be given much support by the Muslim and Western democrats in their quest to fight for this democracy in Pakistan…
Daniel Jacobius Morgan, (2013). "The complex relationship between Islamism and democracy"
NewStateman, (2012). http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/religion/2012/08/complex-relationship-between-islamism-and-democracy
David Bukay, (2007). "Can There Be an Islamic Democracy? Middle East Quarterly"
However, there is some common sense in knowing when government is necessary and when too much government is detrimental to quality of life.
A world without government would be a much worse world, one in which crimes proliferated, in which an economy would be impossible to maintain on a global scale, and in which public works projects could not be maintained feasibly. Too much government, such as with socialist and communist systems, do not work well because they restrict the rights and freedoms of people. However, too many Americans believe that any government is bad. Before Americans forget what government is good for, they should remember that governments pay for schools because citizens agree that an educated population is a safe and happy population. Governments also create public works projects that allow citizens to enjoy clean drinking water, communication networks, and transportation systems. Anarchy and complete privatization might be fun…
Amy, D.J. (2007). Stealth Deregulation: The Untold Story.
Benson, E. T (1968). The proper role of government. Retrieved online: http://laissez-fairerepublic.com/benson.htm
Feinman, R.D. (2004). Government's Role. Retrieved online: http://robertdfeinman.com/society/government_role.html
Halloran, L. (2011). Deficit Forces Question: What Is Government's Role? NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/2011/04/12/135352906/deficit-forces-question-what-is-governments-role
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Political Framework of Islam
The Peninsula states of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, ahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Oman are under growing pressure from outspoken critics who use the language and authority of Islam in these overwhelmingly conservative Muslim societies to call for political and economic reform. The rise of a radically activist Islamic politics predates the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, but Sunni and Shia Muslim radicals received significant boosts from the establishment of Islamic government in Tehran and, more recently, from the Gulf War in 1990-91.
Regional specialists from the government, the academic community, and the private sector debated the impact of radicalized Islamic politics on the regimes and U.S. interests in recent roundtables at the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS). They agreed that Islamic radicals throughout the region have common perceptions of the causes of their societies' ills. These include dissatisfaction with ruling families that…
UNIDOIT & Al-Majalla
In a world that is increasingly interconnected, the need to reconcile competing legal paradigms is paramount. In the first part of the year, there was an article in the Atlantic, entitled "The ise of the New Global Elite."[footnoteef:1] Among other things, the article surveys an emerging category of entrepreneurs whose profits do not necessarily depend on the wealth of their own countrymen or on the regulation of their governments. The article struck a cord, because often entrepreneurs pave the way for radical changes and create opportunities which force governments and communities at large to alter the manner in which they conduct business. In exploring the regulation of global transactions it is clear that UNIDOIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (UNIDOIT) -even with its still limited membership- remains as important today as it was in 1940. (CITE) In line with the international movement for singularly unified universally applied…
UNIDROIT, International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS 2004.
AL-MAJALLA AL AHKAM ALADALIYYAH (The Ottoman Courts Manual (Hanafi))
omen ith Authority in a Patriarchal orld
In the contemporary world, the cultural and literary spheres acknowledge female interests and activities. Females have overtly exerted their rights by demanding their due status in society, thereby being accepted as important societal members. But the scenario was vastly different about a hundred years ago. Females belonged at home, with the general society believing that raising children and taking care of domestic affairs sufficed as their emotional fulfillment. Between 1850 and 1900, societies were chiefly patriarchal and dependent women had to fight to enjoy equal social status. They were governed completely by a male-fashioned society, and had to be the image of the era's feminine ideal.[footnoteRef:1] In this paper, female authority within patriarchal societies will be addressed, with particular emphasis on the many restrictions when it came to them exerting power and what effective strategies they applied. [1: Pamela, Balanza. "The Role of…
Balanza, Pamela. "The Role of Women in the 19th and 20th Centuries." Aglaun. 2014. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.
Bobby, Chippy Susan. "Resisting Patriarchy-A Study of the Women in The God of Small Things." Language in India 12.10 (2012).
History World International. "Women in patriarchal societies." 1992. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.
Moghadam, Valentine M. "Patriarchy in transition: Women and the changing family in the Middle East." Journal of Comparative Family Studies (2004): 137-162.
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
While under the conditions of crushing poverty and without a strong movement based on the working class and peasantry and are able to explain and fight for a socialist alternative to the devastation that capitalism and imperialism brought along, conflicts that arise from religious and ethnic differences are bound to develop (Simpson, 2004). Simpson (2004) further writes that the reactionary elements within many ethnic groupings have intervened into the vacuum and as a result increased the already present divisions, thereby creating an ideological basis for increasing these divisions as a means of underpinning the hold they have established on the power amongst the masses.
In conclusion, the ethnic cleansing that is taking place in Sudan and especially Darfur has surpassed the wandan genocide of 1994. Simpson (2004) wrote that the ongoing cycle of wars, poverty and starvation, which is the lot of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, is the product…
Children's Hunger Relief. (n.d.). Horrifying Conditions continue in Sudan. Retrieved August
13, 2010, from http://www.chrf.org/sudan.html
Blum, R., Stanton, G.H., Sagi, S. And Richter, E. (2007). 'Ethnic Cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide. The European Journal of Public Health Advance Access, 18(2),
S. combating the current Taliban threat? David Kilcullen is the chief strategist in the "Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism" at the U.S. Department of State in ashington, D.C. In a 2006 ashington D.C. speech, Kilcullen stated that "insurgency, including terrorism," will be America's enemies' "weapon of choice" against the "unprecedented superiority" of U.S. military firepower (Kilcullen, 2006, p. 1). Citing Bill Murray's iconic film Groundhog Day, Kilcullen notes that until the U.S. masters a form of counterinsurgency that truly is effective, "we are going to live this day over, and over, and over again -- until we get it right."
Granted, Kilcullen offered his remarks nearly 5 years ago, but his context is fully up-to-date when one reviews the current lack of effectiveness of the United States' counterinsurgency strategy. For one thing, trying to institute "democratic processes" in Afghanistan without the "foundation of a robust civil society" tends to…
Ackerman, Spencer. (2010). From Kandahar, a View of a 'Counterproductive
Counterinsurgency'. The Washington Independent Newspaper. Retrieved March 6, 2011,
Jones, Seth G. (2008). The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency. International Security, 32(4),
International Accounting Culture
Changing something as important and far-reaching as the accounting standards followed by a business can be a massive undertaking. However, this sort of complex change can be made all the more complicated when there are intense or complicated social and international factors in play. The case study studied for this report describes exactly such a situation in Egypt. That study will be reviewed in this report and other sources covering the same general topic will also be explored.
Case & esearch Analysis
As for the case study itself, it is quickly noted that Egypt is a developing country but they are most certainly transitioning to a market-based economy on par with more developed parts of the world like North America and western Europe. Egypt, like much of the world, was under colonial control and that was not ceded until the revolution that occurred in the 1950's. The…
Carlo, A.M. (2006). "Overseas Adjustment," Home Channel News. New York: October
2006, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 26-28
Dahawy, K., Shehata, N., & Ransopher, T. (2011). The state of accounting in Egypt: A
case. Journal of Business Cases & Applications, 3, 68-79.
Fort Hood Shooting
On November 5, 2009 at Fort Hood, a military base close to the city of Killeen Texas, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist opened fire on the people. Thirteen people were murdered and thirty-two other people were injured (Kenber 2013). One of the victims was pregnant and the baby was lost when she died, so some put the figure of murder victims at fourteen. Nidal Malik Hasan has since been convicted of those shootings and has been sentenced to death by a military court. Hasan has never denied being the killer, nor has he wavered in the explanation of his motives behind the actions. He has stated repeatedly that he is a Muslim and that the United States is at war with Islam. His actions, he claims, are a direct result of his Muslim extremism. Hasan was due to be shipped to Afghanistan where he would have…
Crabtree, S. (2012, Oct. 22). Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack. The Washington Times.
Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. code. (2013). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Esposito, R., Abraham, M., & Schwartz, R. (2009, Nov. 12). Major Hasan: soldier of Allah; many ties to jihad web sites. ABC News.
Hsu, S.S., & Johnson, C. (2009, Nov. 8). Links to imam followed in Fort Hood investigation.
Cultural Ethical Variances
The author of this report has been asked to complete a short essay about the differing ethical dimensions that are present in different situations. One can compare and contrast among many different group types and locations. Indeed, the ethics of doing business and giving gifts can vary greatly from country to country, from region to region, from state to state, from city to city or even from business to business in the same general vicinity. The reasons for these variances typically vary based on things like religion, ethnicity, race, age and family status. This report shall explore the differences that exist all within the United States because even the differences in a single country can vary quite a bit. While there are some standards and practices in business that are pretty consistent, not everyone is singing from the same proverbial hymnal when it comes to what is…
Gilman, S.C. (2005). Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons.
Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/mena/governance/35521418.pdf
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2013). Ethics: Legislator gift restrictions overview. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/ethics/50-state-table-gift-laws.aspx
Disarray in Iraq
The United States-led war in Iraq that started in 2003 has led to a rather huge outgrowth of results and effects in the twelve years since. Indeed, Saddam Hussein was toppled, tried, convicted and eventually executed. Further, there have since been democratic elections in Iraq. Once the oppressed minority, the Shia that were dominated and controlled by Saddam Hussein now have a much larger and proportional amount of control over the Iraqi government in comparison to the rival Sunnis (of which Saddam was one) who now have a much smaller share of power. The Kurds are also in the equation. However, there have been other effects and outcomes that have been extremely dire. Whether it be all of the civilian casualties that have occurred in the years since 2013, the rise of ISIS in Iraq and Syria (among other places) and the insurgency that rocked Iraq for…
Berman, E., Callen, M., Felter, J. H., & Shapiro, J. N. (2011). Do Working Men Rebel?
Insurgency and Unemployment in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Philippines. Journal Of Conflict Resolution, 55(4), 496-528. doi:10.1177/0022002710393920
Chehab, Z. (2007). Iraq: no end to the suffering. New Statesman, 136(4874), 34-36.
Engels, F. (2000). The peasant war in Germany. New York: International Publishers.
Gender and Critical Incident Management
In general, Critical incidents are those situations that have the potential to cause injury or loss of life, property damage, and can threaten the organization's standing, public image, or ability to perform its duties. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), is an intervention protocol that is developed for dealing with traumatic events, especial for use with military combat personnel who are typically first responders to stressful and serious situations. Of course, within any military action or organization, there will be situations that are often violent, chaotic, and unpredictable. From a command and control perspective, though, there are four major attributes that any critical incident response plan should have:
Anticipate and outline the means of detecting the emergency, collecting preliminary intelligence, assessing the seriousness of the situation (attack, systems affected, damage, protection, etc.).
Planning must include a means to easily contact all relevant employees and outside resources.…
Coppieters, B. And Fotion, N., eds. (2002). Moral Constraints on War. Lanham, MD:
Mohammad, Y. (August-September 2004). Eyewitness View of Women in Iraq. Theory Practice News & Letters. Retrieved from: http://www.newsandletters.org/Issues/2004/August-September/Iwomen_August2004.htm
Sterneckert, A.B. (2004). Critical Incident Management. New York: CRC Press.
Saikaku, Pushkin and El Saadawi: Is Justice Possible?
The concept of justice, in literature and in life, is a universally cherished yet complex and inherently ambiguous one. All societies have respective, sometimes opposing, ideas about justice. Islamic Sharia law (once enforced in Afghanistan by the Taliban) states that cutting off a hand is apt justice for theft. Western society would consider that act not only unjust but barbaric. Webster's New American Dictionary defines "justice" as (1) "the administration of what is just (as by assigning merited rewards or punishments)"; (2) "the administration of the law; and (3) FAIRNESS; also RIGHTEOUSNESS" (p. 285). By any of those (admittedly Western) definitions, particularly the last one, neither Ihara Saikaku in "The Barrelmaker, Brimful of Love"; Alexander Pushkin in "The Queen of Spades"; nor Nawar El Saadawi in "In Camera" depict justice as feasible within the socially-constructed institutions (e.g., insane asylums; courtrooms; marriage) or…
The Taliban also destroyed ancient religious monuments that they deemed violative of Muslim teachings even those these monuments were part of the world's heritage. It was in this environment that charismatic Muslim leaders such as Osama bin Laden were able to step in and exploit the situation to their own advantage by inspiring yet more freedom fighters from all over the Arab world to join the battle to free the Holy Land from the Western invaders.
In reality, these same "freedom fighters" received massive amounts of American economic and military assistance during this period, acting essentially as U.S. proxies in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. If American military planners could have foreseen the dire outcome of this assistance at the time they were provided, it is reasonable to suggest that they would have reconsidered the intervention. Indeed, bin Laden and his like-minded extremists exploited this largesse and were…
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
In many ways, the iconography left behind at the Dome of the Rock for our evaluation provides only partial insight into the events that inspired it. e are left to interpret this based on the historical knowledge and immediate evidence available to us. According to Rabbat, "Muslims around the world believe it was built to commemorate a decisive event in the Prophet Muhammad's mission, namely his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and his subsequent Ascension from the Rock to Heaven, where he received from God the doctrinal principles of the new religion."
It is this interpretation which is largely accepted by the world, marking the rock itself as the most important element of iconography in the structure. The Khirbat al-Mafjar, by contrast, offers a highly provocative mosaic in the main bath hall reserved from the prince-son of the caliph. This is considered the most important artifact left behind…
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "The Lion-Gazele Mosaic at Khirbat Al-Mafjar." (20
Khoury, Nuha N.N. "The Mihrab: From Text to Form." International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30(1998): 1-27.
Rabbat, Nasser. "The Meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock." (20
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "The Mirador in Abbasid and Hisapno-Umayyad Garden Typology." (20
leading the Treasury Department's efforts to use microfinance in promoting international development. It is my recommendation to the deputies group that the United States expands its funding of microfinance initiatives in post-conflict and humanitarian crisis situations. Microfinance can entail a small loan given to an individual or a group of individuals at shared costs (microcredit), or it can come in other forms such as insurance [Definition of terms GOOD]
The interest rates are relatively high, and of course some individuals do not pay back their loans
Nevertheless, [Considers opposition GOOD]
Nevertheless, many cases, most prominently the Grameen Bank, for which Muhammad Yunus won the Noble Prize, demonstrate that a great majority of enrolled individuals repay their loan and interest, to the extent that some microfinance institutions and funds are able to turn a profit and attract commercial investment REFERENCE.
Recent movements in microfinance have advocated for the focus in funding…
However, with the current world social trends co-educational institutions provide a holistic body to the social development of a student. To break the barriers of race and gender inequality, any form of segregation will be hypocritical especially in the education sector. In countries and institutions where they advocate for single-sex education, it has been noted that their doctrine is aimed at controlling morality but on the other hand it ends up leading to the objectification of a specific gender, especially the women. It thus clear to see that co-educational schooling is the best approach to follow for our society to achieve its goal of integration of all peoples (Sullivan et al., 2010).
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.. (2010). Handbook of Gender esearch in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic…
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic review. Washington, DC: Department of Education.
Park, H., Behrman, J., & Choi, J. (2012). Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, PSC Working Paper Series.
Charlotte Beers' work on the field of using corporate branding and imaging controlling factors within the government sector has been characterized in many ways as an example of what can go wrong when appropriate conditions and tactics do not come together as expected. Many commentators have specifically identified these efforts as an example of the miscalculation as to how to utilize corporate strategies for the benefit of larger national interests (Perlez, 2002).
In this memorandum, we outline how Ogilvy & Mather can and should undertake a direct reconsideration of this negative experience and convert it to a positive message of global promotion and opportunity for our many world clients. The current person in the position of undersecretary for public diplomacy comes from a government relations background -- arguably signaling that the U.S. government has all be decided that there is no value at this time in improvident the U.S.'s image…
Fact: The campaign's components were generically developed so as to apply to Muslims unilaterally.
Fact: Even before they were used, Muslim Americans and others who reviewed the videos saw them as simplistic, condescending and propagandistic (Perlez, 2002).
Fact: The primary medium was simplified over government and cultural concerns and thus failed to anticipate some of the communication efforts
Every country has a different level of financial development. The World Bank uses four measures of banking development: depth, access, efficiency and stability. An international banking conglomerate considering expansion will want to understand a country's local banking conditions in order to have the most informed view, to help with making the expansion decision. In this scenario, the countries being evaluated are the United States, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, India, South Africa, Iran, China and Turkey. This report will analyze the banking systems of each of these countries against the World Bank criteria.
Basic Economic Conditions
Before investigating the banking systems in each country, a brief overview will be provided of the prevailing economic conditions in each nation. The size of the economy, measured by GDP and by GDP per capita, is related to the market potential for a bank to enter the country. The more money there is a…
Chossudovsky, M. (2008). Global financial meltdown: Sweeping deregulation of the U.S. banking system. Global Research Retrieved December 5, 2014 from http://www.globalresearch.ca/global-financial-meltdown-sweeping-deregulation-of-the-us-banking-system/10588
CIA World Factbook: Various pages. (2014). Retrieved December 5, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Dheghan, S. (2014). UK and Iran agree to re-establish direct diplomatic relations. The Guardian. Retrieved December 5, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/20/uk-iran-direct-diplomatic-relations
FRED. (2014). Personal savings rate. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved December 5, 2014 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/PSAVERT/
Terrorism is a 21st century' problem to the entire world. It has led to many lives lost eventually. Global instability in of the world in terms of social, economic, and political spectra has also been witnessed because of terrorism. For this reason, the world's nations have come together to devise methods and means of countering the problem. However, on top of the global stand that courtiers adopt a similar and coordinated approach to fighting terrorism, there are still instances where specific countries adopt unique strategies to fight the menace (Sisk, 2011). Counterterrorism strategies among the most hit countries thus differ. In this paper, an analysis of the similarities and difference between the counterterrorism strategies among the three European nations is put forth. The countries under focus here are Spain, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Each of these countries has been facing similar terror threats and has devised ways to…
Haberfeld M.R., King, J.F., & Lieberman C.A. (2009). Terrorism within Comparative International Context: The Counter-Terrorism Response and Preparedness. New York: Springer DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-88861-3
Hammond, P. (2014). Slavery, terrorism, & Islam: The historical roots and contemporary threat. Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books.
Sisk, T. (2011). Between terror and tolerance religious leaders, conflict, and peacemaking. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East
The land where Israel is currently established has been characterized by fierce fighting and change in control over this region for centuries. These battles have been in existence since the period before World War II as Palestinians and Israelis continue to fight for control of this region. The historical war between Israel and Palestine and the situation in the Middle East has escalated to become a major security issue across international borders, particularly to the United States. Actually, Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East have relatively been regarded as the source of terrorism in the United States and other parts of the world. This implies that the most significant source of terrorism facing the United States is the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. This conflict has been characterized by fights between Israel and Palestine in attempts to gain control over this region. Therefore,…
Abo-Sak, C.M. (1999). U.S. Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Solution or Complication? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://www.alhewar.com/LtCol.htm
Gordon, P.H. (2007, November 1). Can the War on Terror be Won? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2007-11-01/can-war-terror-be-won
"Middle East." (2015). The Heritage Foundation -- 2015 Index of U.S. Military Strength. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://index.heritage.org/militarystrength/chapter/threats/assessing-threats-to-us-vital-interests/
Mitchell, G. (2014, September 8). Israeli-Palestinian Peace is Needed Now. Boston Globe. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2014/09/07/israeli-palestinian-peace-needed-now/xhBUr7GXi3EVSdFR6TVD9M/story.html
Vision to Address the Challenges facing Higher Education in Saudi Arabia in the light of Leadership and Excellence Approach
It is generally agreed that higher education is the main tool to solve leadership and human resources problems. Unfortunately, mass production of graduates from Saudi higher education fails to meet the required specializations and quality of private sectors. Many Saudi graduates lack the practical knowledge that can assist them meeting rigorous demand of the labor market. Moreover, Saudi higher education is characterized by the rigid theoretical standards, and constraint of curriculum making the implementation of an enriched experimental learning technique to be extremely difficult.
In the last 10 years, higher education in Saudi Arabia has witnessed a quantitative and qualitative transformation. The investment in the Saudi educational development has been attributed to the country's strategic importance for the human resources and leadership development. Investment in education has also been…
AlGamdi, M.A. and Samarji, A. (2015). Perceived Barriers towards e-Learning by Faculty Members at a Recently Established University in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Information and Education Technology. 6 (1):23-28.
Ahmed, M.A.H. Siddiek, A.G. (2012). Strategic Quality Management in the Arab Higher Education Institutes: A Descriptive & Analytical Study. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 3(24): 90-103.
Alexander, N.H. (2011). Teaching Leadership to Female Students in Saudi Arabia. Advancing Women in Leadership. 31:199-212.
Amani, H. (2013). An Exploration into "Private" Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Improving Quality and Accessibility? The ACPET Journal for Private Higher Education. 2(2): 33-44.
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013a). Peace at Daggers Drawn? Boko Haram and the State of Emergency in Nigeria. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(1): 41-67.
One of the leading analysts on Boko Haram here provides a detailed overview of the group, discussing how Boko Haram emerged out of the chaotic instability in northern Nigeria, what specific demands and issues the group has presented and how those demands have changed, how they recruit, and also the methods Boko Haram uses to facilitate and carry out its operations. According to Abgiboa (2013a), "more than 3,500 people have died in Nigeria since 2009," (p. 41). Negotiations with the group have failed, due in part to "distrust on both sides" as well as Boko Haram's factionalization (p. 41). The factions emerging in Boko Haram may offer clues as to how to destabilize the group from the inside.
Agbiboa, D.E. (2013b). Why Boko Haram Exists:…
The Islamic State has garnered support with surprising speed, perplexing policy analysts, sociologists, and military strategists alike.
As investigative journalism, The Islamic State does not necessarily have a central argument as much as a mission to expose the realities of life within the Islamic State. The journalists do want viewers to understand what draws people to support the jihadist movement.
Theories & Concepts
Islamic State interpretations of Sharia law are one issue discussed in the documentary. Jihadism is of course another concept addressed throughout the documentary.
As documentary evidence itself, The Islamic State is a primary source of multimedia data—a sort of ethnography. The filmmakers do not make references to scholarly sources to substantiate any of the footage; nor was that their intent.
Structural elements addressed in the film include the overarching institution of religion and the theocratic model fo the caliphate, which is…
International Criminal Justice Systems Today
The major difference among the model nations regarding the education of the legal actors in the court system is that there are some nations in which education does not play a significant role in the implementation of the actors, whereas in others, stringent educational standards are effected. Thus, there is a wide variation in the form of formal education that is required of those that take place in the court systems of the model nations. In the United States, for instance, virtually anyone who is accused of a crime can operate as his or her own defense attorney -- regardless of what sort of education he or she may or may not have. In cases in which there are co-defendants, it is possible for someone who may have only a high school or middle school education to effectively act as the representing lawyer for others.…
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…