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Shift Work and Scheduling in Aviation Industry
Shift work and Fatigue in the Aviation Industry
There is a circadian rhythm in every human being (refer to Figure 1). It basically acts like the body's biological alarm clock and it tells your body the time it needs to rest, to eat or even when to get active. The circadian rhythm can be interrupted by modifications in daily schedule. Disturbance in the circadian rhythm can have strong consequences like the onset of exhaustion. Typically grownups need good 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour phase (WSH Council, 2010). A recurrent sleep of less than that vital will sustain a sleep deprivation that cannot be improved within one day. Improvement typically requires a few days of sufficient sleep (WSH Council, 2010).
Fatigue or tiredness is basically when a person feels low and weak both mentally and physically, there are many different types of…
Alertness Solution. (2009). The Moebus Aviation Report on "Scientific and Medical Evaluation of Flight Time Limitations": Invalid, Insufficient, and Risky. Rebuttal to the EASA Report. Accessed: http://www.ryanair.com/doc/news/2009/mar090607.pdf
Bouma, G.D. (2004). The research process. 5th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Caldwell, J.A., Mallism M.M., Caldwell, J.L., Paul, M.A., Miller, J.C. And Neri, D.F. (2010). Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 80, No. 1.
Federal Aviation Administrtaion (FAA) (2008). Aviation Fatigue Management Symposium: Partnerships For Solutions. FAA Fatigue Conference Proceedings. Accessed: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs200/media/aviation_fatigue_symposium/aviation_fatigue_symposium.pdf
Shift Work in the Hospital
The shift work is a term used to define the situation where the employees work in recurring periods with each team of employees coming in doing the same work as the previous team that might have left. It is a mode that is adopted in most work places that cannot have their doors closed to the public as a matter of necessity due to the services that they provide. Such establishments like the police, hospitals, army establishments and such critical institutions have a long history of operating round the clock hence necessitating the sift work arrangements so that the clients are well served. However, with continued globalization, many other forms of businesses have shifted to the 24 hours operations and in that case the shift work schedules. The pressure that has been increasing by the time on most businesses to deliver more goods and services…
Cephalon Inc. (2014). Shift Work Disorder. Retrieved April 15, 2015 from http://www.nuvigil.com/SWD/AboutSWD.aspx
Griffin M.R., (2015). Coping With Excessive Sleepiness.: The Health Risks of Shift Work. Retrieved April 15, 2015 from www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/excessive-sleepiness-10/shift-work?page=2
UCLA Sleep Disorder Center, (2015). Coping with Shift Work: Overcoming sleep problems caused by a non-traditional work schedule. Retrieved April 15, 2015 from http://sleepcenter.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=54
One of the most pressing issues in healthcare is actually a human resources issue with direct bearings on patient outcomes. Nurses are increasingly being expected to work twelve hour shifts, which has been touted as a means by which nurses can enjoy more days off and achieve an idea; work-life balance (Stimpfel, Sloane & Aiken, 2012, p. 2501). Yet in spite of the perceived benefits of a three-day work week, evidence has been showing that the twelve-hour shift is a direct cause of nurse burnout, turnover, job dissatisfaction, and other adverse outcomes include reduced quality of care. Stimpfel, Sloane & Aiken, 2012). Because patient outcomes are ultimately the most important thing in healthcare, I agree that whenever long hours become a problem for nursing staff, management teams need to revise their human resources policies.
The original research by Stimpfel, Sloane & Aiken (2012) shows that in their sample, “the longer…
ork Motivation Assignment
Describe the Equity Theory.
Equity theory is a theory regarding the fairness and justice of material allocation between individuals. It is where workers believe they are being rewarded accordingly or not. If he or she is over or under awarded, a notion of anguish is created. In the end, further efforts must be committed to restore appropriate worth. The theory is basically about whether or not both parties are receiving proper and just shares of deserved resources. The value of equity is determined by measuring the amount of aid and contribution between each party. However, the former does not mean fiscal or emotional, and the latter excludes investment in time and effort. The balance in the equity theory and between the two parties means as long as they both exert similar efforts, a balanced ratio has been achieved. The theory suggests and predicts that a worker or…
"Adams Equity Theory Powerpoint." Docstoc. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
"Equity Theory." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
"Organizational Behavior, 9/ESchermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (5)." SlideFinder. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
Redmond, Brian F., and Dillon JL Chong. "Equity Theory." WikiSpaces. Atlassian Confluence, 15 Feb. 2011. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. .
He knew his father wouldn't approve.
In "What I Wouldn't Do," the narrator tells of a whole string of "drifter" jobs, which occupy her until she moves on to another. The jobs are quite different one from the other. She doesn't seem to hate these jobs, nor does she love them either. She gets what she can out of them. For example, she says, "Cleaning houses was fine, dusting the knick-knacks of the rich" and then describes a crystal bell and the sound it made. She describes herself as drifting, "an itinerant" from job to job. The word itinerant means traveling from place to place, so perhaps these jobs are in different towns. The job she liked best was working alone at night in the bakery. This job is the only one in which color is mentioned in relation to herself. She pictures the neon light in the window flashing…
Women are still expected to do it all, however with more women getting more and more independent, the typical depiction of the supermom is changing. Today in our society, I think that that these traits of a working woman suggests that she is ' active ' and ' capable ' because these are her individual personalities, not because she has been pushed to adjust to an excessively challenging agenda. I also concur with the third main point Hochschild discloses, because it explains that unless our culture starts to back male contribution in the household and childcare tasks, the transformation for women will move forward without society and support from the spouse. We can relate to this in today's society in some homes but there are a growing number of households where the roles are being reversed. Men are staying at home more and taking on the duties of child bearing;…
Hochschild, Arlie Russell. The Second Shift. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Work and Family
Arlie Russell Hochschild's "The Second Shift"
Balancing Work and Family
Arlie Russell Hochschild's "The Second Shift"
Balancing Work and Family
Women and men now both work in the United States, and, according to a study conducted by Arlie Hochschild, they are dealing with the change differently. The roles that men and women have traditionally held in the home world and work world have been defined very clearly, but those roles are changing for many couples. Unfortunately, as women enter the workforce, many are experiencing resistance from their husbands with regard to the work role that they now enjoy. Hochschild lived with families as they went through their daily lives to determine how a possible change in roles was affecting the relationships among couples. She identified three distinct gender ideologies that individuals hold. Each person also has certain gender strategies and myths that they operate under. This essay…
ood indicates that "everyone has different motivations and aspirations that they wish to achieve in their life. ork-life balance is about adjustments that can be made to working patterns to enable people to combine work with the other facets of their life. Bratton and Gold (2003: 105) de-ne work-life balance as, 'the relationship between the institutional and cultural times and spaces of work and non-work in societies where income is predominantly generated and distributed through labour markets.'" (p. 388) This implicates various aspects of one's working experience, including the manner in which one's responsibility's are balanced with one's personal needs; the degree to which social needs are constructed within the workplace; and the manner in which the employer goes about providing opportunities for attendance of personal needs for employees. This definition is also underscored by the basic assumption that employee morale and work/life balance are inextricable and that, additionally, these…
Allen, P. (2000). Wegmans Tops Best CNY Companies to Work for in America. The Business Journal, Central New York.
Ayree, S.; Srinivas, E.S. & Tan, H.H. (2005), Rhythms of Life: Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Balance in Employed Parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 132-146.
Boyle, M. (2005). The Wegmans Way. CNNMoney.com.
CNNMoney. (2006). Fortune 100 Best Companies To Work For. CNN.com.
Work Life Balance - the ole of HM
Human resources management come with massive demands chiefly in light of the fact that it involves dealing with people, a task that is complex in itself. To enhance organizational growth, pleasure on the part of workforce is very crucial. This is a necessity that human resources sectors in organizations have to grapple with on a day-to-day basis through the initiation and implementation of means of achieving workers satisfaction and overall performance (Frame & Hartog, 2003). Creating room for work life balance constitutes come of the mechanisms that employers use in achieving this goal (Clutterbuck, 2003). Work life balance is a concept whose relevance in the organization and more so in the world of advancing technology holds a lot of water. It brings to both parties in the business environment numerous benefits (Ehnert, 2009). The concept has a wide range of practice ranging…
Avgar, Ariel C., Givan, Rebecca Kolins and Liu, Mingwei, A Balancing Act: Work -- Life Balance and Multiple Stakeholder Outcomes in Hospitals (December 2011). British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 49, Issue 4, Pp. 717-741, 2011
Business: The Ultimate Resource. (2003). Beijing: Citic Publishing House
Cascio, W.F. (2010). Investing In People, Electronic Resource, FT Press
Cieri HD, Holmes B, Abbott J & Pettit T (2005), Achievements And Challenges For Work/Life Balance Strategies In Australian Organizations, The International Journal Of Human Resource Management16 (1)
I learned that different people expect different things at hotels, for example, many of our British guests arrived with their own towels, while many of our North American guests were never satisfied with our air conditioning services, despite the fact that many of our local guests found the hotel to be too cold.
2. It is important to be aware of the cultures involved in one's staff. This comes into play a lot with respect to planning social events, which are important for developing staff morale. Yet, something very well intended can go the wrong way if cultural issues are not take into consideration. For example, we had many different cultures working at our hotel, which meant that we had many different dietary needs. This made planning parties very challenging with respect to choosing a menu that was appropriate for all cultures. It was important to understand which foods were…
Operations and Supply Chain Management. Upper Saddle iver, NJ: McGraw Hill Higher Education. 13th Edition.
Wayne Norman, Chris McDonald. (2004). Getting to the Bottom of the "Triple Bottom Line." Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(2), 243-262.
L Wang, L Lin. (2007). A methodological framework for the triple bottom line accounting and management of industry enterprises. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(5), 1063.
5. Explain why the need to focus capacity on a fairly limited set of production objectives is the key to successful production
There are many factors that favor setting a limited number of production objectives to ensure a successful manufacturing strategy attains its objectives. The most critical are the many effects of manufacturing goals and objectives on the supply chain relationships and the many interrelationships in the supplier base (Jacobs, Chase, 2010). The greater the number of production objectives, the greater the corresponding complexity throughout any supply chain, impacting pricing,…
Ken Kono. (2005). Planning Makes Perfect. Marketing Management, 14(2), 30-35.
Florian Strehle, Bernhard R. Katzy, & Tony Davila. (2010). Learning capabilities and the growth of technology-based new ventures. International Journal of Technology Management, 52(1,2), 26-45.
Jacobs, Robert, & Chase, Richard. (2010). Operations and Supply Chain Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: McGraw Hill Higher Education. 13th Edition.
Wagner, S. (2010). Supplier traits for better customer firm innovation performance.
I believe that Marx's theory fits my work experiences. His concept of commodity fetishism applies. At work, I am made to believe that outputs are more important than me. This shows that the interest of the employer is made to be more important than the interest of the employees. In the midst of economic crisis, people are afraid to lose their jobs in the face of economic crisis that they would submit to the control of their employers or the bourgeoisie as Marx called it.
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook [Data file]. Available from https://www.cia.gov/library/index.html
Kochan, T.A., (2004). Education, Families, and Workplace Policies: Their Roles in a Knowledge-Based Economy. Retrieved at http://web.mit.edu/workplacecenter/docs/wpc0012.pdf
Caldwell, C. (2008, January 27). The Way We Live Now. The New York Times. Retrieved at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/magazine/27wwln-lede-t.html
ervice Economy. (n.d). Retrieved January 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ervice_economy
The American Workplace - the hift to a ervice…
Service Economy. (n.d). Retrieved January 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_economy
The American Workplace - the Shift to a Service Economy. (n.d.). Retrieved January 13, 2009, at http://jobs.stateuniversity.com/pages/16/American-Workplace-SHIFT-SERVICE-ECONOMY.html
Gibbs, R., Kusmin, L., Cromartie, J. (2004). Low-Skill Jobs: A Shrinking Share of the Rural Economy. Amber Waves. Retrieved at http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/November04/Features/lowskilljobs.htm
Work and Unemployment
Sociology of the Workplace
What does work mean? How do we define work? Does unpaid labor = work?
Now imagine you have just won the lottery (millions!) and financially do not need to collect a pay check. Describe your decision to either continue to work or not work and what work means to you.
In some ways, it could be said that 'work' is primarily defined by its compulsory nature. People work because they must earn a paycheck. Someone with a trust fund does not have to work. He or she might volunteer to work for a charity or elect to play golf for many hours a day, 'working' hard at these endeavors. But this is usually not defined as 'work' because these are not paid positions. The dividing line between work and a hobby is usually cast in monetary terms -- someone…
Jeffrey, Terrence (2011). Unemployment actually 10.2%. CS News. Retrieved:
Unemployment across the United States. (2009). Econompic Data. Retrieved:
Hour vs. 8-Hour Work Shifts
The Effect of 12 Hour vs. 8-Hour Work Shifts on Health Care in Intensive Care Units
Critical care areas, such as intensive care units (ICUs), may be very demanding and challenging places to work. ICU's are typically populated by very highly dependent patients. This work requires an increased staff to patient ratio, entails periods of high activity, the use of advanced equipment, and the need for multiple and significant decision-making situations. Since the late 1980s, the conventional shift work pattern of 8 hours has been increasingly re-engineered into the 12-hour shift pattern meaning nurses work longer, but fewer shifts. esearch has been conducted on 12-hour shifts for nurses since this practice began, however consensus on the effects of this practice on healthcare and the individuals involved is still highly contentious and problematic.
In general terms, the best kind of shift system to promote maximum…
McGettrick, K.S. & O'Neill, M.A. (2006, July/August). Critical care nurses -- perceptions of 12-h shifts. Nursing in critical care. Vol. 11, Issue 4, 188-197. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8e2c823c-2c9e-4b7c-999f-909aed15af3c%40sessionmgr10&vid=4&hid=12
Richardson, A., Turnock, C., Harris, l., Finley, A., & Carson, S. (2007, November). A study examining the impact of 12-hour shifts on critical care staff. Journal of nursing management, Vol. 15, Issue 8, 838-846. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=126&sid=e34a1818-19dd-4758-b9a4-5fdc6712a718%40sessionmgr115
Rossen, B.R. & Fegan, M.A. (2009, Jan/Feb). Eight or twelve-hour shifts: What nursing students prefer. Nursing Education perspectives, Vol. 30, Issue 1, 40-43. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=122&sid=3ac0d29b-956b-4220-9fe9-3da93dec099b%40sessionmgr113
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…
Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?
Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.
Web site: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195
DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.
Paediatric, pediatric, infant
How would you describe your Participant, Patient, or Population group?
Female hospital worker age 20 to 45
What characteristics of your Patient/s are important? Age, gender, condition, etc. can all be significant.
What Intervention are you interested in?
Work shift 8 hours long
Defining the Intervention is often the central part of PICO.
What alternative or different option do you want to Compare your intervention to?
Work shift 12 hours long
You might want to Compare the chosen intervention to usual care, to another intervention or to no intervention.
What measurable Outcome/s are you interested in?
Outcome is the final aspect of PICO. Some examples include: symptoms of asthma, accuracy of diagnosis or mortality.
2. eformatted (PICO) Clinical Question
In healthcare providers working in a hospital (nurses) (P…
Classen, J., Davis, S., Sutter, E. (2016). The impact of an 8-hour versus 12-hour shift for registered nurses: An integrative review. Cedarville University Symposium. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.cedarville.edu/research_scholarship_symposium/2016/poster_presentations/12/
Dall'Ora, C., Griffiths, P., Ball, J. (2016). 12-hour shifts: burnout or job satisfaction? Nursing Times, 112(12/13): 1-2.
Dall'Ora, C., Griffiths, P., Ball, J., Simon, M., Aiken, L. (2015). Association of 12 h shifts and nurses' job satisfaction, burnout and intention to leave: findings from a cross-sectional study of 12 European countries. BMJ Open, 5(9): e008331 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008331.
Han, K., Trinkoff, A., Geiger-Brown, J. (2014). Factors associated with work-related fatigue and recovery in hospital nurses working 12-hour shifts. Workplace Health & Safety, 62(10): 409-414.
As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.
Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.
The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…
Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.
Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.
Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.
Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…
Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011
CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011
For example, the word "ring" connotes a wedding ring and it also refers more directly to the "ring of boots" at her feet. The word "lifted" also has a double meaning, one literal and one metaphorical. The mother remembers literally lifting her baby boy in the bathtub, but she contemplates how he is being "lifted" or stolen by his fiance. Her baby boy is leaving her. The word "bedded" also connotes two different things, suggesting both sex but also finality as she describes the feeling wedding ring being permanently em-bedded on a person's finger.
6. The first stanza of Agha Shahid Ali's poem "Postcard from Kashmir" is filled with hope and optimism, delivered mainly by the word "neat." Written from a youthful perspective, the word "neat" is often used as slang like the word "cool" is. Moreover, the word "neat" is used to described his humble yet poor home. The…
The reforms he underwent in communist Russia slowly offered the American Administration the hope that communication and cooperation would be possible and that an end to the communist regime was in sight. Thus, perestroika and glasnost became the tools with which the Russian leader also earned Reagan's trust. (Hyland, 1990) the Reykjavik summit, although ended with no important outcome, represented the first proof of the reevaluation of the relation between the two superpowers. It all culminated however, in the Malta summit, when the two leaders ush and Gorbachev declared the Cold War over.
Overall, it can be said that the Vietnam War was indeed an important moment in history because it offered the conditions for the U.S. To realize the change in the international political environment and the need for diplomatic cooperation more than military confrontation. From this point on, subsequent administrations worked, more or less, to reaching a peaceful…
Hyland, Wiliam G. The Cold War is over. New York: Random House, 1990.
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Tower, John J."Foreign policy for the seventies." The Vietnam legacy: the war, American society and the future of American Foreign Policy Ed. Anthony Lake. New York: New York University Press, 1976.
Rothney, John Alexander, and Carter Vaughn Findley. Twentieth-century world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986.
shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.
War and Terrorism
War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…
Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf
Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf
shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.
The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial evolution a shattering (as well…
Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
Piper Alpha Disaster
An Environmental and Safety Management Analysis of the Disaster that Occurred on the Piper Alpha Oil Rig off the Coast of Scotland
Piper Alpha (Seconds from Disaster, 2013)
The Piper before the Explosion
Timeline of Events
Piper Alpha Mechanism
Root Causes of the Analysis
Design and Process Factor
Permit to ork System
Evacuation and Escape
Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. The platform began the oil production in 1976 and then later converted to gas production as the hub of multiple networked rigs. The piper alpha platform was operated in multiple shifts by the employees who worked the whole platform to continue supply the oil and gas on a perpetual basis. The operations of the Piper Alpha platform included receiving the oil and gases…
Allen, B., 2008. Lest we forget: Piper Alpha. [Online]
Available at: http://www.beckyallen.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Lest-We-Forget-Piper-Alpha.pdf
[Accessed 19 April 2013].
Centre of Risk, N.d.. Piper Alpha Accident. [Online]
Future of Renewable Energies
hile the reliance of the United States on natural resources and fossil fuels must give way to renewable and sustainable resources at some point, the ability to change to new technologies is not yet here and further efforts are needed to make the United States both energy-independent and free of fossil fuels.
The USA is one of the greatest countries in the world. This is not just because of its superpower in terms of policing the entire globe, but also being with an extensive source and use of the natural resources. ith the use of these natural resources, the country has been able to feed its population. This population is one of the greatest and is continually growing even with an annual admission of over 700,000 people from other countries. ith the use of the resources, the country developed a strong capacity before the world wars…
CEF. "Alternative Energy Sources - Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Biomass, Ocean And Other
Energy Sources." Conserve Energy Future. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 May 2017.
Cubbage, Frederick Jay O'Laughlin, and M. Nils Peterson. Natural Resource Policy. New York,
NY: Waveland Press, 2016
Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China
A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…
Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
In the midst of an economic downturn that has been compared to the 1929 Great Depression, the United States' unemployment figures are far too high. "The unemployment rate rose from 9.8 to 10.2% in October, and nonfarm payroll employment continued to decline (-190,000), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The largest job losses over the month were in construction, manufacturing, and retail trade." (Bureau of Labor Statistics) The ten percent mark seems high but it has not matched the Great Depression high at over twenty five percent, yet. Obviously, getting and maintaining a job is very important objective right now. Some management teams around the nation have successfully implemented various solutions to the problem of high levels of layoffs and job elimination during this current financial meltdown. The underlying goal is to try new approaches that will keep workers employed and companies operating in a fiscally…
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). "Employment Situation Summary." Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from United States Department of Labor at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm .
Kirrane, Diane E. (1994). "Wanted: Flexible Work Arrangements." Association Management. November.
Leveen-Sher, Margery. (1996) "Flexibility Is the Key to Small Business Benefits." Washington Business Journal. February 16.
Research. (2009). Edited by Susan Albin., Joseph Hartman. Industrial Engineer: IE; Dec., Vol. 41, Issue 12, p48-50, 3p, 3 color
For instance, in looking at the case of Frank and Carmen Delacorte, a couple that both works to make ends meet within the family, while both couples bring in significant paychecks, Carmen attempts to alter the view of her work within the home to meet the couple's traditional ideologies. While Carmen brings in a significant portion of the family's earnings, she feels the need to fake incompetence and act in a manner submissive to her husband in order to make him feel he has met his standards in enacting the role of the traditional male within the family. In her belief that her equal contribution to her family does not measure up to that of her husband's, Carmen aligns herself with the gender roles that have traditionally been placed upon her by society
A far more contemporary view of the second shift structure within the two-career home is seen in…
Hochschild, Arlie and Machung, Anne. The Second Shift. New York, NY: Penguin,
The Second Shift
The economic condition of a country could also affect the Amcor Company. In the time of recession, the company was generally affected by the costs of labor, which affected the company profitability.
Industrial elations and Procedures
The industrial relations cover all aspect of formal relations with Amcor Company's employee and its representatives. The purpose of industrial relations is to achieve a harmonize workplace. The workplace policies and procedures are communicated to Amcor Company through NSW Government Industrial elations in Australia. The NSW Government Industrial elations website contains all the relevant information that the company needs to comply with the workplace policies and procedures.
Contract of Employment
The following provisions are provided in the contract of employment of Amcor Limited.
Details duties required by employees,
Set out whether the duties are full time or part time,
Agreement or award applying to the position,
All payments and fringe benefits related to the…
Amcor Limited (2012). Maintaining a safe workplace. Amcor Limited Australia.
Australian Government (2012). Introduction to the National Employment Standards. Fair Work Ombudsman. Australia.
Australian Government (2012). South Australian Industrial Relations Tribunal. Australia.
Frazer, A. (2004). Interpretation in Industrial Agreements, and the High Court Redundancy
Does Leisure Time Affect Work Performance?
Employees are the most valuable asset that any organization has in their possession. Many times it is difficult for employees to balance their obligations of work, yet still maintain a fulfilling life outside of the workplace. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia recognizes the importance of maintaining a healthy work and home life balance. This research measures the ability to detach from work to get quality leisure time and its impact on employees. The results found that at this organization workers did not have the ability to recover during leisure time. Suggestions were made for improving the situation at the healthcare facility.
Does Leisure Time Affect Work Performance?
Employees are the most valuable asset that any organization has in their possession. Many times it is difficult for employees to balance their obligations of work, yet still maintain a fulfilling life outside of the…
Berg, J. & Grant, A. (2010). When Callings Are Calling: Crafting Work and Leisure in Pursuit of Unanswered Occupational Callings. Organization Science. 21 (5), 573-994.
Binnewies, C., Sonnetag, S., & Mojza, E. (2009). Feeling recovered and thinking about the good sides of one's work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3),, 243-256.
Demerouti, E., Taris, T. & Bakker, A. (2007). Need for recovery, home -- work interference and performance: Is lack of concentration the link? Journal of Vocational Behavior. 71, 204-220. Retrieved August 12, 2012 from http://www.beanmanaged.eu/pdf/articles/arnoldbakker/article_arnold_bakker_153.pdf
Fullick, S., Grindey, C., & Edwards, B et al. (2009). Relationships between leisure-time energy expenditure and individual coping strategies for shift-work. Ergonomics 52 (4), 448-455.
Meanwhile, it is the high-earning but consumption-oriented under accumulators of wealth (UAWs) who patronize luxury car dealerships, high-end country clubs, and so- called "high fashion" clothing manufacturers. In this regard, one of the most powerful influences motivating such irresponsible consumption is the concentration of media attention on relatively few wealthy celebrities whose model of ostentatious consumption is simply not representative of the habits of most Americans with equally high net worth (Stanley & Danko 1996).
Whereas many PAWs earn substantially less than some of their UAW counterparts, they invest a substantial portion of their salaries into long-term stable investments that translate into a secure financial future. Conversely, the typical UAW, many of whom are so-called "successful professionals" earning very high salaries, increases spending to match any increase in income. As a result of continually "trading up" to the most expensive car, home, and clothing they can afford at any given…
Branden, N. (1985) Honoring the Self: The Psychology of Confidence and Respect. New York: Bantam
Einstein, a. (1954) Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
Lowenstein, R. (2007) Subprime Time: How Did Home Ownership Become So Rickety? New York Times Magazine; Sept. 2/07
Mills, C. (1953) White Collar: The American Middle Class. New York: Oxford University Press.
There is an idea of cognitive and valuation confusion in the book. The writer is a professor yet the book is not academic.
There are many inconsistencies in the book yet it is something that gives a different opinion about the combination or working and leisure in the American context. Hence I will recommend this book to peers (ichard, 2008). However, there are a few things I will be telling about the books that they do not develop high expectations from the book. The book is conditionally recommended. The book offers a unique perspective on advantages of leisure time and the blessings of working less. The money we earn more is seldom spent on productive areas and normally falls prey to mere consumerism. People work more normally to be able to shop more. Besides that the people that I recommend the book will be told that the book does…
Gini, Al. (2006). The Importance of Being Lazy. NY: Taylor & Francis . ISBN: 0415978696.
O'Brien, T., (2009), "Review - the Importance of Being Lazy," Retrieved from:
Richard, C., (2008), "The Importance of Being Lazy: In Praise of Play, Leisure, and Vacation,"
Incentive Programs Among Low Income
The effects of work incentive programs in encouraging low income individuals to participate in employment depend on the income thresholds of reforms in whether the individual gains benefits that are equal to or greater than what they would receive by not working. The factors in the determination include after tax income plus benefits, such as Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and fixed work costs, compared to the total change in revenue received. If the loss of welfare is greater than the total change in revenue, work incentives have no value and discourage employment participation. On the other hand, if the total amount of changed revenue is greater than the welfare loss and compensates for fixed work costs, incentives encourage employment among the low income.
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86) expanded EITC benefits by increases in the standard deduction, personal deductions, and favorable tax…
Elissa, Nada. Taxation and Labor Supply of Married Women: The Tax Reform Act of '1986 as a Natural Experiment. Feb 1995. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Elissa, Nada, Kleven, Henrick Jacobsen, & Kriener, Claus Thustrup. Welfare Effects of Tax Reform and Labor Supply at the Intensive and Extensive Margins. May 2004. working paper. 20 July 2013.
Riccio, Jim. Promoting Employment Stability and Advancement Among Low-Income Adults. Mar 2013. article. 20 July 2013.
Rothstein, Jesse. The Unintended Consequences of Encouraging Work: Tax Incidence on the EITC. May 2008. pdf. 20 July 2013.
Philosophy Crime Punishment Shifted
Social Context and the Justification of Punishment
Punishment is an authoritative exercise aimed to impose a negative or unwanted response to a behavior considered wrong or unjust by an individual or group. Philosophies surrounding crime and their punishment have changed between centuries, and even decades, to reflect the societies in which they occur. The legal mandate of punishment enforces a source of pain or deprivation to place suffering on the convicted individual, and is an action not morally matched by all citizens. The justification of punishment shares a unique relationship with social context, particularly in the legal sense. Over the course of history, society's beliefs about crime have translated into specific policies. This is exemplified by the present "get tough on crime" belief that has weaved its way into punishment policies in modern correctional systems. Although not all citizens within a specific society may not share…
Currie, E. (1998). Crime and punishment in America. New York, NY: Henry Hold and Company, LLC.
Garland, D. (1993). Punishment and modern society: a study in social theory. Chicago:
Lynch, J, & Sabol, W. (1997). Did getting tough on crime pay?. Crime Policy Report, 1.
Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/publications/307337.html
Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense
Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).
The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998
Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm
Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008 http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm
His philosophical method of questioning first called into question accepted truths about the nature of human learning and then began to question society's overvaluation of aristocratic social and political hierarchies, and the presumption that one religion was innately better than another religion.
However, as politics began to retreat from the English national consciousness, as the monarchy and religious debate appeared to reach an easier truce, a new aristocratic influence became evident upon the literature of the period, as exemplified in the highly artificial neo-Classical literary style of Alexander Pope. Pope favored brittle, social couplets, satire, and an aphoristic style to advance his ideas in poetic form. Pope was more concerned with what was good art for the individual artist than what was good political or scientific philosophy for the masses.
Pope's "An Essay on Criticism" (1711) like Locke's political essays, attempted to synthesize ancient and modern thought. But Pope's essay…
Locke, John. An Essay concerning Human Understanding. 1690.
Pope, Alexander. "An Essay on Criticism." 1710.
Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.
In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…
Curry, A. (2003). Why we work. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.andrewcurry.com/portfolio/WhyWeWork.html
Crowley, M., Trope, D., Chamberlain, L. & Hudson, R. (2010). Neo-Taylorism at work: Occupational change in the post-Fordist era. Social problems. Vol. 57 (3) 421-447.
eNotes. (2010). Industrial Revolution. eNotes. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.enotes.com/industrial-revolution-about/introduction
Ferrante, J. (2005). Sociology: A global perspective. Cengage.
Demographic Shifts Instructions Assuming demographic Hispanics accurate, comment shift segmentation grocery fast food industries. For, a grocery store visit frequently 15% space dedicated Hispanics changed light
Hispanic population has been rising steadily over the last couple of years. According to demographics Hispanics will become the largest ethnic group in the coming years. With these changes, the fast food industry will have to start catering for their preferred tastes. The same will also apply in the grocery section. What this indicates is that fast food restaurants and groceries have to increase their Hispanic foods and groceries. Failure to do this would result in lost market segments and revenues. Hispanics have a different lifestyle when compared to the average American. With an increase in their numbers, a grocery store would be forced to either shut down or increase the space dedicated to Hispanics. Hispanics prefer specific foods or groceries, which are characteristics…
http://www.retailleader.net/top-story-consumer_insights-hispanics__buying_power_has_retailers__cpg_companies_listening_up-1622.htmlAnn Meyer. (2012). Hispanics' Buying Power Has Retailers, CPG Companies Listening Up, from Brian Bueno. (2011). The Growing Hispanic Population Means Big Business for These 7 Sectors. Los Angeles.
Kim Piston. (2013). Why Hispanic consumers will revive the American economy, from http://www.voxxi.com/hispanic-consumers-revive-economy/
PR Newswire. (Feb, 2013). Hispanic men present opportunities for marketers, reports Mintel, from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/hispanic-men-present-opportunities-for-marketers-reports-mintel-191033671.html
Organizational ehavior: Shift From Individual to Team ehavior
Traditionally, organizational behavior has been defined as understanding human behavior and the means of influencing individuals, singularly and in work groups. Hierarchical control and hierarchical referral have been common practice. More contemporary visions of organizational behavior have de-emphasized the role of the individual and hierarchical management in favor of team work and decentralization. When considering the merits of these two organizational behavior approaches, the real answer is that the old needs to be melded with the new. Teams still require strong leadership to prevent conflict that can cause the same degree of inefficiency as centralized hierarchies. However, the role of leader is vastly different from that of a hierarchical manager.
There are many reasons that companies are transitioning to team management. In complex operations with diverse business units, it's difficult for one person to manage everything.
Also, hierarchical management implies that a…
Brady, D. (2000, August 28).
An executive whose time has gone: Increasing corporate complexity and the shift to team management are killing the chief operating officer.
Business Week, (3696).
Greene, C., Everett, A., & Ebert, R. (1985). Management for effective performance. Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
ole and Improving Management Performance: Nurse Shift Leader
Management plays a key role towards improving performance in an organization. In the 21st century organizational setting, management is fundamental in ensuring that there is a high performance in an organization. Organizations are investing in developing the right management systems, people so that they boost the employee performance, and foster the realization of departmental objectives. This has become a critical thing in enhancing employee performance in the workplace. In this study, I have focused on various issues of management and the role that I, as the Nurse Shift Leader, will play in boosting the performance of employees under me in adult intensive care unit and the entire hospital.
Managers have a role to play to improve performance in an organization. In fact, all the success of an organization begins and ends with the form of management and style adopted. Effective organizations are…
Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of management techniques. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Awamleh, R., & Gardner, W.M. (2004). Perceptions of Management and its effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 345 -- 373.
Avolio, B.J., Bass, B.M., & Jung, D.I. (2009). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 72, Issue 2, p. 441 -- 462.
Alannah E. & Mark A. (2004). Transformational leadership, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 15, Issue 2, p. 329 -- 354.
Individuals performed low-level jobs (that is, jobs with low prestige, low salaries, and a narrow range of required skills and duties), on the other hand, are generally not satisfied with their jobs and would welcome an increased range of responsibilities. Thus the concept of an universal healthcare worker is especially relevant in a medical context in which a very high degree of the care is provided by personnel who are neither doctors or nurses. Such a locale that is ideal for the insertion of a universal healthcare worker is a long-term care facility.
Increasing the job satisfaction of workers in long-term care facilities is especially important because such facilities experience very high turnover rates. This is expensive for the institution, stressful on the workers, and traumatic for the patients.
While some assisted living facilities still operate within this model the industry as a whole is moving toward a more "holistic"…
Kolus, K. (2010). Activities angst. Retrieved from http://www.ltlmagazine.com/ME2/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications::Article&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=4EC15B97B92D47EEA1AE40DF0E4C8292 .
Peter Senge and the Learning Organization.
Widdes, T. (1996). Assisted living's universal worker. Nursing Homes.
This was further detrimental to the morale of existing workers, as they began to resent the striking section of the workforce for their situation. The managing team then determined that a management of change assessment was necessary.
The first step in this assessment was an assessment of the existing situations. Workers were beginning to suffer from extreme fatigue, resulting in outbursts of anger and potential fights. This created physical hazards in the underground workplace. Worker resentment and anxiety were also rising as a result. Because these elements were detrimental for concentration and awareness, the physical hazard of spending long hours in the underground environment also rose exponentially for each worker.
It was also determined that input from workers themselves and their division supervisors was needed. For this purpose, several meetings were held between employees and their supervisors, and then with supervisors and management. These helped determined the precise areas of…
ith respect to productivity, there are multiple measures that can be used. The two key metrics are speed and accuracy. The accuracy can be measured in terms of the amount of time that the couriers, when they arrive at their trucks, need to spend to re-arrange their trucks into the correct order. A reduction in this time can be used as a proxy for the accuracy of the loaders. The speed of the loaders can also be measured. e will likely speed the belt up to accommodate for the five minutes of stretching and warm-up exercises. Thus, we will measure the number of packages down the belt per minute to assess speed improvements. Our scanning devices along the belt give us an accurate count of package throughput that we can use for this measure. e will also add another measure to account for the extra staff member, by measuring throughput…
Murphy, Lawrence R. & Cooper, Cary L. (2000). Healthy and Productive Work: An International Perspective. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=gVIVAAAAIAAJ
No author. (2009). Ramp -- Manual Loading and Unloading. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/baggagehandling/ramp_manual.html
organization work, familiar . The expected word count assignment 3300 words length.
According to Baines (2011)
relationship marketing is a marketing style that emphasizes customer satisfaction and retention, rather than focusing dominantly on sales transactions. It focuses mainly on continuous nurturing of customer relationships, instead of focusing mainly on them for one-time purchases. The idea behind relationship marketing is for a company to develop emotionally strong connections with their existing customers, and convert them to be the company's loyal advocates. This is not only fun, but it is more profitable. One will require fewer resources to sell to someone who trusts, likes, and knows your company products than selling to a stranger. elationship marketing recognizes a customer's long-term value to the company and offers communication that goes beyond sales promotional messages and intrusive advertising.
Apple Inc. is a Multinational Corporation based in Cupertino, California. The company deals with consumer electronics,…
Baines, P., Fill, C. And Page, K. (2011). Marketing (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gronroos, C. (1994). From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing. Management Decision, Vol. 32(No. 2), 4-20.
Harker, M.J. a. E., J. (2006). The past, present and future of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 22, 215-242.
Kumar, V. a. S., D. (2004). Building and sustaining customer loyalty for the 21st century. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 80(No. 4), 317-330.
.....workforce has undergone significant changes in the last six decades or so. Today, the age structure of the workforce differs significantly from that of the previous century. Owing to rapid population growth, the proportion of the younger workforce has significantly outpaced that of the older workforce. In particular, the proportion of the population aged 19 years and below has grown more rapidly than the proportion aged 20 years and above (Wilson, 1996). These changes have impacted the workforce today in one way or another. According to Wilson (1996), an increase in the proportion of the younger generation has partly contributed to an increase in unemployment amongst the older generation. Looking at today's workplace, one sees a greater number of younger workers and a smaller number of older workers. Majority of the jobs have been taken by the younger generation. From a rather positive note, however, there has been a greater…
discover how marketing principles work in different corporations. First there is Parcelforce, a company which has a mission of providing parcel service that is connected to the oyal Mail Group. The company is the parcel branch of the UK mail system, and as such they have had to compete with other services that are both national and international in nature. As a matter of fact, Parcelforce works in other countries as well, so they also are an international entity as well. The other company to be examined is Peacock an international clothier. Peacock is primarily based in Britain, but they also have more than 200 stores outside of the UK. How these companies conform to basic market principles, distribute products, react to economic local and international market forces will be discussed.
Task 1 - Understand the Concept and Process of Marketing
1a) Identify the main elements of the marketing process…
Hull, L. (2010). Cheap and chic: The 35 Peacock dress celebrities are 'desperate' to get their hands on.
Peacocks. (2011). Marketing Peacocks.
The Times 100. (2010a). Customer service as a strategy. Retrieved from http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study--customer-service-as-a-strategy -- 133- 324-1.php
The Times 100. (2010b). Using the marketing mix to drive change. Retrieved from http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study -- using-marketing-mix-to-drive-change-- 133-404-1.php
Moreover, the strong correlation between confidence in peers and communication/problem understanding demonstrated that it is the confidence and ability of these co-workers that encourage members of self-managing teams to gather new information and knowledge, so that they may create useful decisions in relation to problem solving. Confidence in peers resulted in a negative, not positive, impact on organization and negotiation. This suggested that confidence in peers has a negative effect in the process of organizing the dissemination of knowledge in self-managing teams. Thus, it is imperative for team members to trust their peers and management and, in doing so, create and share new knowledge and further the organization's opportunity to offer best solutions to clients. Present research lacks the empirical evidence supporting the relationship between interpersonal trust and knowledge acquisition. Especially, academicians and practitioners are interested in studying whether "interpersonal trust" advances the follower's knowledge acquisition practices -- knowledge sharing…
Abbott, J.B., Boyd, N.B, and Miles, G. (2006) Does Type of Team Matter? An Investigation of the Relationships Between Job Characteristics and Outcomes Within a Team-Based Environment. The Journal of Social Psychology
Attaran, M. And Nguyen, N.U. (1999) Succeeding with self-managed work teams. CT Industrial Management. 41(4). 24-29
Brannick, M.T. And C. Prince. An overview of team performance measurement. In Team performance assessment and measurement-Theory, methods, and applications, ed. M. Brannick, E. Salas and C. Prince. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brannick, M.T., E. Salas and C. Prince. 1997. Team performance assessment and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Flex Work Literature eview
Gone are the days of single-income households being the norm. The costs and other economics of today basically mandate that many families have both parents working and this leads to the need for day care, school transportation plans and other arrangements for things like doctor visits and school events. This can present a challenge if neither parent has a workplace situation has a job that is forgiving and understanding and allows for somewhat frequent (if not very frequent) quick breaks and extended lunch periods to deal with family affairs. Combine that with the fact that many employers are actively or hostilely resistant to flexible work arrangements under the auspices that it allows for or even encourages waste and misuse of time, then the problem is exacerbated even more. However, the author of this paper would assert that employers should be as understanding as they reasonably can…
Kolhatkar, S. (2013, February 28). The Excessive Uproar Over Marissa Mayer's Telecommuting Ban - Businessweek. Businessweek - Business News, Stock market & Financial Advice. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-02-28/the-excessive-uproar-over-marissa-mayers-telecommuting-ban
Moen, P., Kelly, E.L., & Hill, R. (2011). Does enhancing work-time control and flexibility reduce turnover? A naturally occurring experiment. Social Problem,58(1), 69-98. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/sp.2011.58.1.69
Wong, V. (2013, July 09). At Best Buy, flex time failed to boost family time. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-09/at-best-buy-flex-time-failed-to-boost-family-time
Human esource Management (business work) Must answer 6 topics questions close outline (Siemens Ohio H. Doc.
Human esource Management at Siemens, Ohio
The practice of human resource management is becoming more and more important within the climate of modern day business agents. And this trend is generally associated with the realization that people are not just the individuals operating the machines, but they are valuable resources, possessing essential intellectual capital. As the business climate turns more and more to services in the detriment of industry and agriculture, the economic agents become forced to invest more in the management of their staffs.
Human resources management is a complex set of techniques and mechanisms by which the economic agents manage the relationship between the firm and its staff members. This relationship is vast and includes not only the collaboration between the parties, but even the periods before and after the employment contract…
Anderson, J.A., 2008, Driving change through diversity and globalization: transformative leadership in the academy, Stylus Publishing LLC
Beardwell, J., Claydon, T., 2007, Human resource management: a contemporary approach, 5th edition, Pearson Education
Clarke, J., White, A., A guide to employment practice in the community and voluntary sector, Combat Poverty Agency
Fisher, R., Ury, W., Patton, B., 1991, Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, Houghton Mifflin Hardcourt
In ode to coect this mistake the best method is to povide an addendum. Students will engage in constant coopeative wok envionments that tests thei ability to accept and undestand diffeing cultues.
Objective 2: The objective is clealy stated fo students and the conditions ae given. This makes the task easy fo the students to follow. Thee ae limited conditions fo this objective. Objective doesn't lend to a vaiety of methods, as thei numbe ae only 3 specific seach stategies and 5 efeences to be used. This estiction povides fo a limited ability of students to compehend a shift within the diect context of seach.
Rewite fo Objective 2: Students will lean how to use specific seach stategies to conduct eseach on the Intenet and find efeences fo a specific topic.
Objective 3: The objective is clea and compehensible. The conditions ae povided. The method doesn't lend to a vaiety…
references for a specific topic.
Objective 3: The objective is clear and comprehensible. The conditions are provided. The method doesn't lend to a variety of methods.
Rewrite for Objective 3: Students will identify the causes of the U.S. Civil War and their impact on the outcome of the war by completing a cause and effect chart.
Objective 4: The objective is clearly stated, but no conditions and criterions are given. There are a many different types of food chains that could be investigated.
Rewrite for Objective 4: Students will become familiar with the food chain of sea creatures.
In "The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure," Andrejevic (2002) critically analyzes interactive media in terms of labor economics. Being watched is a form of work, Andrejevic (2002) claims. Because consumers are not typically paid for their services, the relationship between consumer and enterprise is a parasitic one. Enterprise is exploiting consumers by watching their online behavior, tracking that behavior, and tallying that behavior as marketing data. That marketing data has inherent value, which is why large investments are made into online and other forms of high-tech surveillance. If Andrejevic (2002) had his way, each and every consumer would be paid for surfing the Web and even for watching television. Andrejevic's (2002) claim is of course absurd and completely unfeasible. Moreover, Andrejevic (2002) is completely ignoring the potentially positive effects of consumer surveillance. Contrary to what Andrejevic (2002) has to say, consumer surveillance has…
Andrejevic, M. (2002). The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure.
Joseph, P. (2007). Zeitgist: The Movie.
Social Work Groups
Definition of Three Types of Groups
Most of us have participated in a task group at one point, and indeed many of us participate in tasks groups on a regular basis. A task group is any group of individuals who come together (or who are brought together) to produce a particular outcome, either a particular product or a specific action. Such groups exist in every aspect of life. Such groups can be found in business, such as a group formed to assess whether a company should shift to a new software system. Such a group might do research on different types of software, interview managers at other companies to determine how well different software systems work in similar situations, and survey the staff on their needs.
Task groups also exist in the political realm. Many communities across the country have recently been hosts to such groups as…
This means that in so much as a direct and solution-oriented conversational style is preferred in the business setting, it does not mean that this style is the most efficient. There are "cultures" or other sectors in the business environment that uses female communication style because they are able to appeal more to the people or audience. A woman handling a focus group discussion on a product may be preferred by the discussants rather than a male moderator. Usually, people in a boardroom meeting would want to have a male, rather than female, representative to delegate the company.
These examples show that communication styles between males and females are used in different, specific business contexts. Both are useful in the workplace for different purposes. Though the prevailing communication style is direct and solution- oriented, there are also gradual shifts towards adopting supportive types of communication, because this especially bonds employees…
People can be affected by religion in different ways and The Misfit becomes the perfect character to uncover the grandmother's gullibility. She, in turn, is the perfect person to expose his evil nature. This contrast allows O'Connor uses to reveal the delicate nature of man. Somehow, in the midst of everything, the two people bond, leaving the grandmother with a false sense of hope. She believes, because she knows best, that she has transformed his life. She truly believes she can change him. Parini writes that at the moment he shots her, she realizes "they are connected, and through a horrible act of violence she has received a moment of understanding, if not grace" (Parini 231). The showdown becomes one between The Misfit's powerful convictions and the grandmother's shallow beliefs. O'Connor proves with these individuals the importance of being passionate about the right thing. Being passionate about Jesus is good,…
Denham Robert D. "The World of Guilt and Sorrow: Flannery O'Connor's 'Everything That
Rises Must Converge." The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin 4. 1975. Gale Resource Library.
01 May 2010. Web.
Malin, Irving. "O'Connor and the Grotesque." Flannery O'Connor. Broomall: Chelsea House
Charles . Chesnutt was an American author and essayist who explored themes of race and society in his many works. In addition to these themes, Chesnutt explores the themes of ignorance in the short story "The Passing of Grandison" and in the essay "The Free Colored People of North Carolina." Although "The Passing of Grandison" is an allegorical/moral tale and "The Free Colored People of North Carolina" is an essay based upon statistics based upon the number of freedmen in North Carolina before the Civil ar and their contribution to society, Chesnutt is able to demonstrate that ignorance on the part of whites in the South lead to a loss of laborers, both skilled and enslaved.
In "The Passing of Grandison" there are two types of ignorance that are displayed by the characters. In the story, Col. Owens believes that he has treated his slaves so well that…
Chesnutt, Charles W. "The Freed Colored People of North Carolina." ChestnuttArchive.org.
Web. 23 May 2012.
-. "The Passing of Grandison." The Literature Network. Web. 23 May 2012.
Marriage Work is a New York Times best-selling book by John Gottman, a psychotherapist, researcher, and award-winning author. The book focuses on the stability of marriages, outlining how couples can build lasting, harmonious relationships. Gottman's in-depth research on relationships focuses on the key behavioral predictors of divorce, which he calls "The Four Horsemen": Criticism, Contempt, Defensiveness, and Stonewalling. He notes that relationship counseling often focuses on improved communication, and couples who fair best are those that have strong coping skills such as self-soothing abilities. He also stresses that couples with a "high negative sentiment" in their relationships typically can not build better rapport through communication alone, and should, thus, focus on building positive sentiment, shared experiences, and resolving basic, solvable problems (Gottman, J. And Silver, N., 2000).
As the title suggests, Gottman's book outlines seven key tools to build positive rapport and minimize the negative issues that often place…
Gottman, J. & Silver, N. (2000). The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work: A Practical Guide from the Country's Foremost Relationship Expert. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Feet of Jesus, a Work of ealism
Helena Viramontes' book, From Under the Feet of Jesus, is a novel that explores the difficulties of life that Chicanos faced in the United States from the 1930's through the 1970's. Her work is an exercise in realism as it does not trivialize the trials of Chicano life with grand political statements or symbolism. Instead, it is a very clean portrait of a family and their friends who are all attempting, at times desperately, to live their lives in a land that, more often than not, does not want them there. A realist work find the truth paramount. Viramontes faithfully reconstructs life in a series of pictures, that puts a perspective of reality, of truth, and of hopefulness for a people long suffering in this nation. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate the elements of realism in Viramontes' book and…
Chicano! Episode Four: Fighting for Political Power." Galan, Hector; Morales, Sylvia; Racho, Susan; Moreno, Mylene & Cozens, Robert. Film. National Latino Communications Center, 1996.
Garrison, Chad. "Reporting 'The Other': A Challenge on Both sides of the Border" The IRE Journal Jan-Feb, 1999. v22. i1. p15.
Viramontes, Helene. From Under the Feet of Jesus. Chicago: Plume, 1996.
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
The Shared Information Principle is also the most reliant on technologies, with the Human esource Information Systems (HIS) and communications technologies being the most crucial within this specific principle.
The Principle of Knowledge Development
The most strategically important aspect of any HPWS, this principle is where the greatest value is delivered to an enterprise. Knowledge Development is heavily dependent on the training aspects of an organization, including instruction in broad skills, cross-training, problem solving and team training. This phase is also heavily dependent on gain sharing, profit sharing and skill-based pay. Its most important aspect from a workflow standpoint is the development of empowerment, another aspect of effective transactional leadership (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010).
This is where the highest performing HPWS concentrate their efforts, creating a very high level of personal ownership of knowledge capture, classification, taxonomy definition and knowledge sharing (Wood, de Menezes, 2011). This is also the principle that…
Boxall, P. (2012). High-performance work systems: What, why, how and for whom? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50(2), 169.
Birasnav, M., Rangnekar, S., & Dalpati, a. (2011). Transformational leadership and human capital benefits: The role of knowledge management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(2), 106-126.
Jorg Felfe, & Schyns, B. (2004). Is similarity in leadership related to organizational outcomes? The case of transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 92-102.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.