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Shinto-Buddhism in Japan
Japan's main religious tradition is a combination of the conventional Shinto beliefs integrated with the imported Buddhist practices. Long been considered the land of several million gods, Japanese base their traditional Shinto beliefs on this pantheon. But the introduction of Buddhism in the mid 500's A.D. forced an amalgamation of the two belief systems. Over time these two very different religious traditions blended together into a unique system practiced throughout Japan.
Shinto, also known as the "way of the deities," arose during Japan's earliest period and focused on what the early Japanese believed as gods, or kami, which inhabited the natural world. Kami were usually some extraordinary aspect of nature and could be anything including trees, rocks, mountains, rivers and even people. The introduction of agriculture began the association of Shinto rituals with the agricultural cycle and festivals and other religious events often coincided with times of…… [Read More]
Shinto is the indigenous religion of Japan. It is often called 'nature worship' because of the way the material world is invested with spiritual significance. The world is populated with kami: "the best English translation of kami is 'spirits', but this is an over-simplification of a complex concept - kami can be elements of the landscape or forces of nature" ("Kami," 2009). Kami may include nature, the spirits of the dead, or other supernatural beings. Worship in Shintoism "is highly ritualised, and follows strict conventions of protocol, order and control. It can take place in the home or in shrines. Although all Shinto worship and ritual takes place within the patterns set when the faith was centralised in the 19th century, there is much local diversity" and Shinto practices can be tailored to the needs of the adherents ("ituals," 2009). Shintoism in Japan is also characterized by a…… [Read More]
As a consequence, the society provides a culturally acceptable outlet for such expression, i.e., while under the influence of alcohol during a Shinto festival procession (also known as Japanese matsuri).
During these public processions, which are generally held on annual basis, a large object (supposedly containing the spirit of a local deity) is carried shoulder-high through the streets, in order to revitalize the community with its supernatural presence. The bearers of the deity are required to "purify" themselves by drinking large amounts of sake before taking part in the procession. The intoxicated state of the bearers together with the bulk of the object they carry, conveniently "ensures" that the object may crash into the home or a shop owned by a greedy merchant or an intolerable official. As the object's movement is supposed to be "guided" by a deity, no one can be held responsible for the damage caused.
The…… [Read More]
..as Shinto was hijacked by the military before the War to their own political ends." (1999) Lamont-rown states "...today members of the new religions-based spiritual regenerations tends to be both socially and politically conservative." (1999) the influence that is seen is the "contemporary trend for such member groupings to be more selective of their choice of candidates to support..." (Lamont-rown, 1999) Lamount-rown states that the Risshokosekai has five million members and has had considerable influence on the politics of Japan as have the Komeito which was founded in 1964 and is a political wing of Soka Gakkai." (Lamont-rown, 1999)
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The review of literature in this study has revealed that Shinto is so closely interwoven into the cultural of the Japanese people that it cannot fail to exert influence in politics in Japan. Furthermore, this study has found that not only has Shinto historically and traditionally exerted…… [Read More]
As the BBC points out, "Shinto can't be separated from Japan and the Japanese." This fact led to the fusion of Shinto with Japanese national identity during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Prior to the age of nationalism, Shinto was used to create a sense of allegiance not necessarily with the state but with the lineage of emperors that were the spiritual and political leaders of the Japanese people. The Shinto sun goddess Amaterasu is said to be the mother of the Imperial family ("Shinto and Nationalism," 2009). Therefore, one of the reasons why Shintoism is connected with Japanese nationalism is that Shinto has been the heart and soul of Japanese identity for centuries. Shinto infuses every aspect of daily life in Japan, including social and political culture. The easiest way to create a national identity in the modern sense was to use Shinto as…… [Read More]
earliest origins of Shinto are unknown; just as the earliest origins of the Japanese people are fairly unknown. Both are, however, suspected to be rather ancient, with the groundwork of Shinto having been laid well before that of Christianity, in the late Jomon period in Japan. These early belief systems were quite fragmented from region to region and through the centuries until writing was introduced into Japan in the fifth century and Buddhism in the sixth century A.D. As a result of the former, the Kojiki -- the record of ancient things -- and the Nihonshoki -- the chronicles of Japan -- were put to paper shortly after writing took hold in Japan. Fundamentally, these two works were the first formal compilations of ancient belief systems and mythologies. The immediate result of the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki were that they officially legitimized the position of the Imperial Family. Additionally, the…… [Read More]
Buddhism vs. Shinto
This report will compare and contrast the Shinto and Buddhism belief systems. There will also be a comparison between the art and architecture that is common to the two faiths. Some of the more Western religions have a place in countries like Japan but the Eastern religions obviously dominate in the area with Buddhism, Shinto and Zen being three of the major examples. These beliefs are so strongly entrenched with the Japanese people that they are part of the national identity and culture of the country, at least in the eyes of many of their people. While both of the religions are Eastern in their origin and they share some common traits, there are some obvious and easily explainable differences between the two as well.
As noted in the introduction, many people in Japan regard the beliefs and religious habits of Japan as an inextricable and…… [Read More]
Healthcare Philosophies of Christians and Shinto Followers
Christianity approaches healthcare from a rather different perspective as compared to Shintoism. The contemporary Western worldview is generally termed 'dualism', which incorporates the idea that evil and good are eternally and continuously locked in combat. Human advancement progresses via rhythms occurring within continuous environment-individual interaction. That is, nurses acquire knowledge of best caregiving practices by working with and understanding fellow human beings, engaging in honest communications with them, and viewing every patient as unique, from a biological, social, psychological, emotional, spiritual and cultural perspective. Christianity claims the Universe and its Creator ought to be considered the principal reality. Mankind views its surroundings using its respective cultural lens, experiences, and worldview. The world is not all evil and unethical; the existence of continuous aggression and brutality around us does not and, definitely, must not influence our worldview. Humanity is a biological specimen encountering immense…… [Read More]
Healthcare Philosophies of Christians and Shinto Followers
Every culture has its own worldview, and its own approach to the health of its people. The Christian philosophy when it comes to healthcare is quite different than the approach that believers in the Shinto faith take. This paper points to the worldviews of each of these faiths, and it uses the available literature to delve deeply into those worldviews and the differences / contrasts between the In the process of providing worldviews, this paper also offers answers to questions (hat is prime reality? hat is the nature of the world around us? hat is a human being? hat happens at death?
hy is it possible to know anything at all? How do we know right from wrong? hat is the meaning of human history?).
orldview / Faith & Health Philosophy from a Christian Perspective
In the book, Called to Care: A Christian…… [Read More]
creation myth in the Shinto religion is a beautiful and poetic. The gods in the story appear out of nowhere and form the foundations of life. The story portrays Japan as the first land to be created. The story reads as follows (from a translation by Philippi and Joseph Campbell):
"When heaven and earth began, three deities came into being, The Spirit Master of the Center of Heaven, The August Wondrously Producing Spirit, and the Divine Wondrously Producing Ancestor. These three were invisible. The earth was young then, and land floated like oil, and from it reed shoots sprouted. From these reeds came two more deities. After them, five or six pairs of deities came into being, and the last of these were Izanagi and Izanami, whose names mean "The Male Who Invites" and "The Female who Invites" ... The first five deities commanded Izanagi and Izanami to make and…… [Read More]
These narratives were also intended to validate the Imperial house, showing its lineage back to the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, as other ethnic groups were warring against the Shinto and not accepting the Imperial House's rule.
Eventually, Shinto was made the official religion of Japan in hopes of unifying the country, and combining it with Buddhist beliefs was outlawed. Shinto beliefs spread to territories like Hokkaido and Korea. After World War II, it was no longer the state religion because the Emperor no longer claimed to be the living god. Shinto has remained, but without the same focus on mythology or divine Imperial family, and more focus on helping ordinary people have good relations with their ancestors. There are far less people that identify as Shinto today officially, but many offshoot religions in Japan remain highly influenced by Shinto.… [Read More]
The ritual is the most important aspect of Shinto; thus performing the ritual the right way is the most important part of worship in Shinto. The rituals serve to bind Japanese to their past as well; since the rituals themselves are sacred they do not change.
The other key element of Shinto is purification. iping clean restores the natural process, which is clean and beautiful, and free from pollution. For the Japanese, purity and religion are one and the same (Boyd & illiams, 1999).
Festivals are also important in Shinto. Adherents use festivals as a means to bring the community together. Festivals also become celebrations of ritual, or are held to ask the spirits for prosperity in a profession, or for a harvest.
No author. (2009). Shinto at a glance. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/ataglance/glance.shtml
Boyd, J. & illiams, J. (1999). Artful means: An…… [Read More]
Shinto, the indigenous religion of Japan, emphasizes nature to a considerable degree, a distinguishing feature of the faith. Buddhism offers a far more cerebral and philosophical approach, as well as pathways for personal psychological development. Unlike Shinto, Buddhism is not indigenous to Japan and is in fact a foreign religion that simply became entrenched there. In Japan, the two religions often fuse and their temples are found in close proximity to one another. They are not considered mutually exclusive or conflicting; they are both integral to Japanese identity, social norms, and culture.
Shinto places of worship are often referred to as shrines, although that translation is weak in the sense that in English, a shrine can convey a ritualistic altar to a dead person. Although Shinto does include ancestral worship as part of its core features, a Shinto shrine is simply a specific place that is deemed sacred space. To…… [Read More]
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…… [Read More]
Another element shared in common by Shinto and Taoism is religious purity. The concept of purity is taken to a greater extreme in Shinto, in which physical illness is perceived as spiritual impurity. A Taoist is concerned with both physical and spiritual health, but practices Tai Chi and similar methods of calming and balancing body and mind.
Shinto is an indigenous Japanese religion, whereas Taoism originates in China. Although the two religions have different geographic origins and different means of worship, they share some elements in common. Both include reverence for ancestors or ancestral spirits, and both are concerned with physical and spiritual purity.
Written Assignment Unit Three
2. Discuss the process that led to the formation of the Talmud. Explain the basic contents of the Talmud and their relation to the Torah.
The Torah refers to the Hebrew Bible as a sacred text. The Talmud evolved as a living…… [Read More]
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…… [Read More]
The non-Buddhist religious practices of Japan are given the name Shinto, "Way of the Gods." Presently, there are over one hundred million members of Shinto religion in Japan, which is about eighty percent of the population. Many Shintoists in society are moral and live happy lives because the society provides the religion etiquette. Moreover, Shinto acceptance of other religions makes it possible for the religion to practice Buddhism, and the vice versa applies to Buddhists (Coogan, 2005). This openness belief in Shinto religion has managed to tie many people back to the society, and this has made it a national religion. Besides, people do not necessarily have to devote completely to the religion, and thus, its members are allowed to practice parts of the religion they feel comfortable handlings or performing. The Shinto religion is different and is seen in most western religions yet one religion is to…… [Read More]
Japanese History And Chinese Fixation
Japanese History & Chinese Fixation
If any single term can characterize early Japan, it may be called a period of "Chinese fixation"
Borrowing of culture by Japan from China started with the introduction or adoption of Buddhism in 552 A.D. And continued steadily until the end of the Nara period in 784. This is an expression of the impact of Chinese Civilization. If any single term can characterize these two & half centuries, they would be called the period of "Chinese fixation." This indicates the adoption and integration of the concept of Chinese relationship and culture into the development of the leadership style, language, religion, and other aspects in the context of the history of Japan. For instance, in curtailing power of the great clans and promotion of the prestige or status of the imperial institution, China was vital in the provision of inspiration to…… [Read More]
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…… [Read More]
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…… [Read More]
Not only does her presence allow the couple to feel at home, as if they are in any bar in America, rather than half way around the world, she is representative of Bob's career back home. He is an actor, but not a big, big, actor like many others. He is actually more famous in Japan than he is in his own country, because he has gotten older, and the parts pass him by. The lounge singer would never make it in America, or if she and her band did, it would be in small, insignificant clubs. She represents what Bob's career could turn into - second rate and forgotten, and so, she is somewhat like another form of reality and conscience for Bob. He knows it would be very easy to become just what she is.
There are many things that keep Charlotte and Bill from connecting. Their ages…… [Read More]
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…… [Read More]
However, this trait is magnified in Shintoism because the religion developed in close relationship to the rest of Japanese culture. While a person who, say, married a Japanese person could follow Shinto practice, it is unlikely that someone outside Japan or a Japanese family would do so (Japan-guide).
HOLIDAYS and TADITIONS
Unlike most other religions, celebrations are typically local festivals that focus on local shrines. This is because the festivals honor the kami living in those shrines (Author not given, 2004). Thus, use of festivals and ceremonies varies from location to location. Some festivals may take place over several days (Japan-guide). So, although Shinto is a unifying cultural trait throughout Japan, the expression of the religion can vary greatly from location to location.
However, some traditions are practiced nationwide, such as Kagura, or ritual dances performed to traditional music. Many people wear mamori, or charms intended to protect and heal.…… [Read More]
Japanese popular culture has a unique aesthetic, and is completely modern as befits a wealthy industrial society. Comics, known as manga, and cartoons, known as anime are two of the more immediately recognizable elements of Japanese popular culture. oth are long-established entertainment forms in Japan and cover all genres of fiction, not just the children's genre. Indeed, some anime and manga are exceptionally graphic and brutally violent.
Whereas manga and anime are decidedly Japanese in character, fashion and music in Japanese popular culture borrow more heavily from Western elements, but meld them with a uniquely Japanese character. Traditional Japanese music is reminiscent of western classical music and features distinctive Japanese instruments such as lutes, taiko drums and percussion and was played before imperial courts. Today's Japanese music takes on European forms, albeit almost always in the Japanese language. The most popular form is pop, known as J-Pop. There are also…… [Read More]
..Of course, her earnings were also meager, but it was better than relying on farming alone" (Nagatsuka, 1). Oshina, the wives' character in the novel, could be the impersonation of any hardworking farmer's wife during the Meiji Restoration in Japan. The hardship of the life in a village struggling to adjust to the wave of modernity swiping the country, but still very deeply rooted in the previous period was plausible in the case of those who did not own much land or the means to improve their living standards from other not farm-related activities. "At all hours of the day, as long as there was light, Oshina kept busy at one task or another; soaking straw from rope making, sweeping up leaves, her hands were never idle" (Nagatsuka, 1). The lives of the farmers like those described by Nagatsuka were subject to rapid change since the early stages of the…… [Read More]
Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.
The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.
It is often said that Buddhism…… [Read More]
1. Satsuki and Mei first discover the nature spirits in the house, but their encounter with Totoro is even more transformative. The initial encounter with the supernatural seems to open their eyes to the other dimension, and eventually they follow their instincts. The girls’ natural curiosity then leads them to examine what appear to be bunny ears beneath the house, but which are really spirits who lure her to a sort of portal under the house. Following the little spirits eventually leads them to the magical dimension.
As a child, I also spent tremendous amounts of time in nature, following my innate curiosity just as Satsuki and Mei follow theirs. I climbed trees, some so big I could sit on their branches comfortably for hours, and personified plants and animals, just as the little girls in My Neighbor Totoro do. Although I have never had the type of supernatural experiences…… [Read More]
human experience is the manner in which certain themes appear again and again over time, in literature, religion, mythology, and culture -- regardless of the geographic location, the economic status, and the time period. Perhaps it is the innate human need to explain and explore the known and unknown, but to have disparate cultures in time and location find ways of explaining certain principles in such similar manner leads one to believe that there is perhaps more to myth and ritual than simple repetition of archetypal themes. In a sense, then, to acculturize the future, we must re-craft the past, and the way that seems to happen is in the synergism of myth and ritual as expressed in a variety of forms (Bittarello, 2008).
The idea of myth is so tied into culture that even our motion picture industry epitomizes the need for particular stories to remain focal themes. In…… [Read More]
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…… [Read More]
Asian media, specifically anime and animated movies like "Spirited Away," impact Saudi youth?
Anime or what some may consider, Japanese animation, is one of the main aspects of Japanese media. It has reached millions of people worldwide and inspired fashion, movies, and even an entire city, Akihabara. Hayao Miyasaki's "Spirited Away" is what some consider one of his best works. The magic of this animated film has brought countless fans into the realm of anime and Japanese animation. ith its themes of connection, the spirit world, and memory, it has generated meaning and depth within its growing audience. The creator, Hayao Miyasaki, is a traditional artist, focusing on strong images and themes of love, good and evil, and childhood to portray his character and tell his stories. These stories have brought him and Japanese animation in general, increased success, with "Spirited Away" becoming the most popular Japanese animated film…… [Read More]
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…… [Read More]
The tale of Chibana Shoichi's, the Okinawan supermarket owner, demonstrates how there is still a major segment of society that believes in the "emperor system," even in Okinawa. However, Field exposes how these people have been forced to conform with this system, though social pressure, threats, and even violence. But despite these obstacles, there are still people like Shoichi who will speak out against this system and its historical amnesia. However, this fight has only just begun and not all those who stand up against the system are successful. Mrs. Nakaya was unsuccessful in her attempt to stop the government from using her husband to reinforce a system that she felt was unjust and restricted her religious beliefs. The response by the government signifies how deeply ingrained into Japanese society is the "emperor system," and how many Japanese, including the Japanese Supreme Court, see no differentiation between tradition Shinto-based emperor…… [Read More]
Japanese: Cultural Interview and Nursing Assessment
Presentation of client and scenario
This interview was conducted with a Ms. X, a Japanese national visiting friends in another country. She was, over the course of the interview, asked about a number of personal and culturally sensitive factors about her native culture that might affect a nursing intervention.
It is important for a nursing practitioner to keep this in mind as, in the 2000 census, 796,700 residents of the U.S. identified their "race" as Japanese,
Thus it is useful for all nursing practitioners, particularly those residing on the est Coast to keep abreast of Japanese cultural traditions. (Tanabo, 2001) Also, even when residing in Japan, Japanese first-generation immigrants have traditionally seemed less eager than other immigrant groups to assimilate into the hegemonic culture. One measure of this is that compared to other Americans of Asian background, a lower percentage of Japanese elders speak…… [Read More]
Typically, Japanese marry before a Shinto altar and are buried, after cremation, in a Buddhist funeral. Many people, young and old, pay a New Years visit to a Shinto shrine and visit family graves once or twice a year. Young couples take their children to a Shinto shrine at the shichi-go-san festival to celebrate the ages 3, 5, and 7. For funeral and periodic memorial services, a family invites a priest from a Buddhist temple that belongs to the same Buddhist sect with which the family ancestors were affiliated.
The Japanese, both officially and unofficially resisted the influence of the western religions, while at the same time conglomerating the traditional faiths of the region into an amalgamated faith of sorts.
In the past, every family in Japan had to be registered at a Buddhist temple to comply with the antiChristian policy of the Tokugawa government (1600-1868). After the…… [Read More]
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…… [Read More]
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform.
Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…… [Read More]
Religious Taoism is the third objective of all Taoist followers although it entails a deep commitment into the priesthood. Priests in ancient China were more than just religious leaders -- they were the doctors, lawyers and intellects of the times as well as the individuals who could deal with evil spirits and the occult. Some things that have come from this function are ideas like Feng Shui where the church helped communities become in sync with nature or the absolute.
Confucianism can be considered to be nothing more than a type of humanism. In other words, it is a philosophy that focuses on just that, human beings. By dictating human achievements, interests and social conduct rather than with abstract ideas like god or heaven, Confucius made life simple.
Confucianism entails that man is the center of the universe but he must also share the universe with his fellow man…… [Read More]
This era is significant because it was dominated by peace at a local level, political constancy, and economic growth as a result of a dictatorship created by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The moment when he became shogun was very important in Ieyasu's life, as he was provided with the opportunity to commence a plan that he was thinking of long before he came to rule Japan. He sent many of his allies to rule over areas that he considered being potentially hostile in an attempt to have people there change their opinions regarding his personae. This individual was well-acquainted with the fact that control was one of the most effective tools that a leader could use and thus focused on having as much control as possible. Ieyasu's successor further continued his predecessor's system of gaining control over his people and influenced all of the Daimyos in Japan to live in Edo for…… [Read More]
Discuss changes in the religious culture between 1750 and present day in at least one country from each of the three regions of Asia we have studied (East Asia, South Asia, and South East Asia)
Changes in modern Asian religions: Japan, India, and Thailand
Buddhism is a religion which began on the Indian subcontinent but which has spread across East and Southwest Asia. Its portability as a religion may partially be explained by its ability to blend with other religions and folk traditions. For example, the two dominant religions of Japan have historically encompassed Buddhism and Shinto: two different religions that most citizens profess to one degree or another. A common phrase "born Shinto; die Buddhist" highlights the comfort with which both of these religions exist side-by-side. However, Buddhism in Japan has been undergoing some notable changes in recent years.
Buddhism has been practiced in Japan for 1,440…… [Read More]
apan finds itself at a critical point in its historical development. The world's third largest economy, it also has the world's second-highest debt burden in proportional terms and the current triple disaster is going to have dire consequences on the nation's recovery from the current worldwide recession. Economic uncertainty, loss of faith in current political structures and leaders, loss of status in the world, betrayal by corporations that have also been a key stabilizing structure in the nation: This is a potent mixture for resistance against the state and its representatives. This resistance may be peaceful and democratic. Or it may be violent, arising from dark, dank pools of ultranationalism that may well be already feasting on the bodies of the uncollected dead.
It is entirely possible that various ultranationalist right wing groups in apan may produce or support recruitment of terrorists in the coming months. There are currently hundreds…… [Read More]
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…… [Read More]
"'m not religious, 'm spiritual." Conversely other people state that they dislike the formality of religion, of beliefs and practices, but do believe in God and in some sense of 'higher truth.' This confusion might be best addressed by doing away with the category of religion altogether -- religion is whatever a society defines it to be, and the term has grown so meaningless, people even speak of making golf or music their 'religion' simply because they love these hobbies so much.
n this postmodern age, the idea of absolute truth has ebbed away. n medieval times, absolute truth for Christians was manifest in Jesus; for some empires the word of a great leader was a manifestation of absolute truth, and for Buddhists, the absence of any 'absolutes' in the world is 'the truth.' Philosophy and science have a more rigorous but also a narrower set of criteria…… [Read More]
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…… [Read More]
Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. One of their daughters, Amaterasu Omikami or "Sun Goddess," became the ancestor of the Imperial Family the chief deity, and her descendants united the country (eligious Tolerance).
The Shintoism philosophy deeply reveres and worships ancestors. All humans are considered "Kami's child," and therefore all human life and nature is sacred. Followers seek the will of Kami to have sincerity and a true heart and act in a way that is best for the group. The most important aspects in life are tradition and family, nature, worship of Kami and peace (eligious Tolerance).
Shintoism is very different from Buddhism, because it is based on a philosophy of a nation, Japan. Other major related differences include ancestral worship, that centers around the Imperial Family, the philosophy's lack of discussion regarding death, and the emphasis on goodness and cleanliness instead of pain and…… [Read More]
At the church I visited, many of the parents had returned to regular church-going for the sake of their children, because they wanted their children to have a spiritual foundation. However, the manifestation of their spirituality was social, not simply individual. Many of the children were part of a youth group, and knew one another as friends. They went on retreats together, bonded at prayer meetings, as well as talked and joked about non-church related things. All of the regular members had made a substantial investment of time and effort in the community, and even those who mostly came on holidays clearly felt that church-going was something they 'should' do, to show their respect for the community, their faith, and perhaps most importantly of all for the sake of a familial tradition. eligion is not something that can be performed alone: even solitary prayer connects someone to beliefs, actions, and…… [Read More]
And just as different divisions of Christianity are more or less fundamentalist in their interpretation of religious texts and traditions, different divisions of Islam are more or less strict. The most fundamentalist version of Islam, one that is primarily associated with Saudi Arabia, is Wahhabism. Muslims who follow this minority version of Sunni believe that they are the only true Muslims and that other branches of Islam are illegitimate (Cleveland, 2004, p.123). In some ways, the division between Wahhabism is like that between Catholics and Protestants during the eformation and Counter-reformation or that between Orthodox and eform Judaism. All major religions have internal divisions, and all major religions -- including also Hinduism and Buddhism -- can be organized along a spectrum from most conservative to most liberal.
Some followers of Wahhabi Islam have been responsible for horrific violence. There is no justification for their actions. It is true that --…… [Read More]
While not a nostalgic or positive portrayal of nature, Miyazaki appears to strip away all civilized and male-dominated pretences towards what appears to be, and portrays to the Japanese people a vision of what lies beneath the pretence and the civilizing influence of traditionalism. Perhaps this is why his film was the highest-grossing ever in Japan at the time.
Another possible reason is the sense of cultural loss that Japan has been experiencing ever since the World Wars. The increasing Americanization of the country has brought home to its citizens a sense of cultural alienation, both from their own and the foreign culture. The sense of cultural loss is exacerbated by the ambiguous conception of the United tates as the "Other." This image was subverted, whereas American culture was accepted by the Japanese as inevitable. Indeed, the country has been continually prone to the influences of other cultures. While this…… [Read More]
And it cannot be denied that there is evidence to support that concern in many respects. But for women, it would help to open certain pathways to personal advancement. According to Mackie, "the women's liberation movement developed out of a critique of modern Japanese capitalism, a dissatisfaction with the sexism of the New Left, and the need of women in Japan to theorise their place in East Asia." (p. 4)
Among the forces that would significantly aid in their ability to establish any such identity would be the new set of doors opened by the shift in Japan's educational principles. The goals of modernization and capitalist advancement -- which would ultimately call for more opportunities for women to make contributions -- would demand an emphasis on education in the evolving state of Japan. So would this be demonstrated by the policies on this front which passed into law concurrent with…… [Read More]
He also gave money to certain Japanese authorities to help them build roads and buildings. Sometimes he used his wealth to pay off important Japanese occupiers of Korea so they would not seize him and take him to Japan. He worried that if he ever was taken as a slave or as any kind of worker to help the Japanese in Japan, that he would never come back. It hurt him deep inside to turn his back on his own ethnic Korean people. Many nights he cried because he felt like he was a traitor to his own people in Korea. But he was coy enough and shrewd enough to realize that if he did not renounce his real ethnicity, he could be taken away or treated very badly in Korea, and that would not help his family or his country either.
When World War II ended and the Americans…… [Read More]
How the Noble Truths can be achieved through the Confucian virtues.
Of course, please note especially the last ingredient, a lifetime of spiritual enlightenment, and the cooking instructions, which required all these ingredients to be mixed by a "strong, feminist hand." The recipe ultimately allows individuals, particularly women, to achieve salvation. If you've read books on Eastern philosophy and religions, you would note that in Japan, the history of Zen Buddhism is inextricably linked also with the eventual "salvation" of women in the society, and I am proud to say that my philosophical writings have helped serve as a catalyst, not only in developing Zen philosophy, but also in promoting women's equality, be this equality socio-political in nature, or in terms of salvation.
Zen philosophy promoted right-mindedness in people because it paved the way for progressive thinking. That is, Zen philosophy opened people's minds that salvation can be achieved not…… [Read More]
uddhism and Christianity: Complementary Worldviews
According to the Gospel of Matthew, when a wealthy young man came to Jesus, and asked him how he might be made perfect, Jesus advised the eager young man to keep the commandments and essentially adhere to the Golden Rule to be good. ut when the young man persisted and asked the Savior for more advice, Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and follow Him. Jesus said that the man should sell all he owned and seek to be rewarded in heaven, not on earth. ut the young man turned away, saddened that he would give up his great wealth to achieve spiritual perfection. Jesus commented to his disciples that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 19:28). However, in the uddhist…… [Read More]
All is forgiven. Eventually, both of them disappear into one of the trees that the old man's ancestors have looked after, for hundreds of years.
Is the story emotionally positive or negative in tone? On one hand, the old man was a failure in life, and drove a woman to suicide. Yet in death, everything seems to be forgiven, and he returns to her and the spiritual resting place of his ancestors. Both her and his saving grace was that he remembered her. Misako says that so long as he lives on and remembers her, she is still alive. The author resists judging his characters, either the formerly suicidal girl or the deaf old man who betrayed her when he was young. It suggests that there is absolute forgiveness after death for everyone, and the dead live in a state of unity with the natural world. So long as a…… [Read More]
S. There were 2,794,130 Americans of East Asian decent in the United States in 1990. Not all of these people practice a traditional East Asian religion, and reliable figures for the religious affiliations of East Asians are impossible to obtain because the United States Census does not ask questions about religion. In addition, the religious groups are very disparate and keep different kinds of records, and many East Asians observe traditional religious practices only in a family and not in an institutional context. Still, it is clear that the number is sizeable. In addition, many Americans of occidental background have also become involved in East Asian religions, sometimes through a spiritual quest, sometimes through marriage, and sometimes as a by-product of an interest in meditation or the martial arts. Commitment may range from entering a Zen monastery to taking class or doing practices on a lower level. Figures for this…… [Read More]
Evaluate the impact of globalization and management across borders
After its retrenchment in the U.S., Starbucks is still considering expanding its operations China. "Despite its long presence in the Chinese market -- Starbucks opened its first shop in Beijing in 1999 -- the Seattle coffee giant only has 376 stores on the China mainland, compared with 878 in Japan" (Sanchanta 2011). Starbucks has tried to learn from some of its mistakes domestically in the U.S., such as its super-saturation of certain marketplaces, while incorporating many of the successful lessons of its other ventures, such as its ability to tailor product offerings to local needs. "Cracking the code in China for any company is not an easy task -- there will be a number of winners and lots of losers of people who go there and rush to judgment and don't succeed…The thing I am most interested in when I go…… [Read More]
Mimi-nashi-hoichi is interesting in many different ways, but its most fascinating context lies in that which the West may call 'insanity' and, accordingly, penalize, whilst the Orient, seeing the same condition, rewards it and accords it fame.
Mimi-nashi-hoichi is the Shinto sacred narrative of a man who was visited by an august assembly and ordered to play for them his bewitching composition of the battle of Dan-no-ura. Night after night he did so refusing to reveal his mission to others as demanded by his listeners. One day, the priest and others who hosted him elicited the story out of him when they discovered him sitting in the cemetery and playing to the dead, "and behind him, and about him, and everywhere above the tombs, the fires of the dead were burning, like candles." Alarmed that the dead bewitched him, the priest and the acolyte covered him with protective amulets:
with…… [Read More]
Workers are employed in fisheries, mining, and defense industries while the farmers work in the agricultural collectives. Standards of living are defined by the family background as to the political and ideological heritage. The children of revolutionaries (those who died in the Korean War) are given special educational opportunities at an elite school called the Mangyndae Revolutionary Institute. However, the children and descendants of those who were in collaboration with the Japanese or the "exploiting class" are considered to be 'bad elements' in the society.
North Korea supports equality in aspect of the genders. The employment of women is expected and demanded by the South Korean government and those working with children under the age of four are expected to put the children in permanent nurseries if there is no family to take care of them while the mother works. However, the women are paid less than are men and…… [Read More]
...social conditioning was effected in such a way, that any thing that was considered primal, pagan, or unchristian, was frowned upon... [leading to] persecution of the Druids, Witches, Gypsy, and Jewish cultures that still continues today." Curiously, it may be that very historical hostility towards the primal which has corroded the power of Catholic sacred music and turned new catholics and protestants alike against it.
In the Jewish ritual, music of all sorts has long played an important part. The majority of each service is sung. The Jewish Encyclopedia described the history of this tradition and describes the way that (in antiquity) the singers-of-songs were slowly absorbed into the priesthood because of the importance of their role. From the ancient days cantors (those who sing the Torah scriptures) have received tunes from their ancestors and embellished them to fit the present eras. Thus one can see in such Jewish rituals…… [Read More]
Marriage in Eastern and Western Nations
A Comparative Analysis of Marriage Rituals and Customs in the North America and Asia
Throughout the history of humanity, distinctions and differences between the Eastern and Western cultures had been studied, most especially during the 20th century, wherein anthropological studies uncovered the various cultures extant in the world during the said period. Indeed, between the 20th century and the present time, these differences prevail, primarily because there are still evident distinctions that characterize both Eastern and Western cultures.
One important aspect of these numerous distinctions is the differences in marriage rituals among peoples of the Eastern from the Western cultures. Take as an example the differences in the marriage practices between North American and Asian nations: the latter are considered as subsisting to more elaborate and implicitly meaningful ceremonies while cultures in Western societies are often considered as straightforward and practical. Furthermore, religion plays…… [Read More]
Such a system has the obvious advantage that the worker is very loyal to his company and develops a certain practice working in the same place, but, on the other hand, we may question ourselves on the motivating issue: is this still functional?
The example of the Japanese society nowadays may show that it is not. Indeed, we find in Japanese companies that the motivating factors are actually restrictive factors that are used to control production capabilities. Promotion, for example, one of the motivating tools most used in the Western world, is almost non-existing in Japan, as promotion is performed according to age and you will never expect to reach a certain position within the company until a certain age. Additionally, the fact that you work in the same company and have long-term contracts may induce the fact that you will not be interested in delivering highest achievements, as the…… [Read More]
John La Farge is often referred to as one of the most "innovative and versatile American artists of the nineteenth century" and "the most versatile American artist of his time," a true Renaissance spirit that was not afraid to experiment in different areas of paintings and with different techniques. One look at works such as "The Great Statue of Amida uddha at Kamakura, Known as the Daibutsu, from the Priest's Garden," painted during his trip to Japan, will gives us the impression of a personality that transcended boundaries, approached new cultures and civilizations and remained an icon for art in the 19th century.
orn in New York City, in 1835, John La Farge studied with William Morris Hunter at the beginning of his career as a painter. In 1856, he benefited from a trip to France, where he familiarized himself with the most notable artists in art history. Visiting the…… [Read More]