Shoplifting & Social Process Theory
The Social Process Theory argues that people commit crime based on social influences (McQuade, 2009). Social influences can be strong where shoplifting is concerned with peer pressure in delinquency or with family influences when family members are corrupt. Although the theory does not fully explain all acts of shoplifting, it does explain acts of shoplifting where delinquency and corrupt family members are concerned.
Peer pressure causes stress where teens are striving to be accepted by their peers. If teens are associated with deviant peers, they will shoplift if the peers want them to in order to be accepted by the peers. This is the social influence of peer pressure. Regardless of how they were taught or how they feel, the idea is being accepted in their peer group. With deviant group affiliation, the justification is a sense of loyalty to the deviant group. There is…… [Read More]
Shoplifting Detection and Deterrence Methods
Perhaps the most common shoplifting deterrence technique is obvious surveillance. This may include either having cameras in the store screened by security personnel or covert observation of suspect shoppers. Simply the knowledge that shoppers are being watched can act as a deterrent. Store employees should be thoroughly briefed on how to prevent potential thefts. Store personnel should be briefed to keep track of suspicious items. Store employees should interact with shoppers: sometimes making a personal connection with a potential thief can be useful ("10 tips," 2015).
Anti-theft devices can make shoplifting less convenient and easier for potential shoplifters. These include having tags on clothing which must be removed when a purchase is made and placing easy-to-pocket items behind the counter.
Keeping close watch upon inventory to be aware of potentially desirable objects of theft is essential. Store owners should be aware at all times of…… [Read More]
Shoplifting is currently one among the most prevalent of non-violent offenses in the U.S.A. Shoplifting refers to stealing property put forward for sale. It is a costly issue - U.S. businesses and consumers lose billions every year to shoplifting. The former have to bear the burden of security-related costs and that of lost merchandise, while the latter have to pay a larger amount as retail prices as sellers pass on those costs. The police must strive hard to ensure prevention of the crime, as well as capture of shoplifters (Shoplifting Prevention Guide, 2011).
Shoplifters come from all income levels and age groups. Literally anybody entering a retail outlet may be a possible shoplifter. Shoplifters generally appear to be of two types: professionals, for whom this is their livelihood; and amateurs, who steal for many different reasons. This may involve merely a wish to possess the product, a wish to own…… [Read More]
The case involve M, a 35-year-old mother with three children from two fathers. He most recent boyfriend, the father of the youngest child, has beaten her twice, been arrested and jailed, but is about to be released. Despite a restraining order, Melissa is terrified. Her economic situation is dire -- she lives at an inexpensive motel, works part-time for under the table wages, and relies on IC services. Most recently, her 12-year-old son was arrested for shoplifting and suspended from school for fighting. Melissa is aghast about her lifestyle, and heard about my sliding scale fees from a previous client whom I saw when I interned at a public mental health center.
Challenging Aspects -- There are several challenging aspects to this case: 1) Decisions on pro-bono work; 2) Services for those in need; 3) Family in crisis, son acting out, mother feeling frightened and family potentially in…… [Read More]
Determine whether Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting. If Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting, determine what he can expect his punishment to be.
Mr. Ebersol purchased a flathead screwdriver from the hardware store on Saturday, but purchased a Phillips head screwdriver by mistake. Mr. Ebersol returned to the store with the intention of purchasing screws for his new screwdriver. When he discovered that the hardware store was out of flathead screws, Mr. Ebersol left the flathead screwdriver on the counter and left the store with a Phillips head screwdriver in his pocket. Mr. Ebersol was detained, interrogated for 2 1/2 hours, and released with shoplifting charges against him.
(1) Is Mr. Ebersol guilty of shoplifting?
(2) If Mr. Ebersol is guilty of shoplifting, what can his expected punishment be?
(1) Mr. Ebersol is not guilty of…… [Read More]
Ben & Jerry
The concept of unit pricing relates to the price per unit of a good. Often, companies like to convey the impression that buying a larger size saves the consumer money, but unit pricing allows the consumer to see whether or not this is the case. Unit pricing reflects the price per unit of something, rather than the price per container. The point of unit pricing is that it allows the consumer to see the price per unit, rather than the price for whatever size container is available. This allows for comparison between products sold in different sized containers (Montaldo, 2012).
The Consumer Bill of Rights was introduced by John F. Kennedy in 1962. There are six such rights. These are as follows: the right to be safe, the right to choose freely, the right to be heard, the right to be informed, the right to education and…… [Read More]
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…… [Read More]
hat are the roles of a juvenile police officer, a judge, and a probation officer in the juvenile system?
The juvenile police officer's role is to arrest those under the age of 18 who commit crimes, and according to an article in the Houston Chronicle, that officer must determine if the offender should be referred to the juvenile court or to an adult court. The juvenile police officer questions the alleged offender, fingerprints the offender, officially books the offender into the juvenile justice facilities and basically handles the case at the start of the process (Bolden-Barrett, 2011).
The statistics show that about 83% of court referrals for juveniles come from police officers; the remaining 17% come from parents, from schools, from the victims of crimes and from probation officers. Federal law requires that the arresting juvenile police officer can keep an under-18 offender in custody "…no more than six…… [Read More]
Stubbornman's abuse of power specifically involves the infant. By refusing Ms Jane to breastfeed her infant, Mr. Stubbornman violated not only the Florida jurisdiction, but also the right of the infant to be nourished when he was in need.
The security guard and the store, however, can justify their position in detaining Ms Jane initially, in order to determine whether there was any case of shoplifting. The defendants should refer to the Florida Statute of 811.022, which provides that "[a] peace officer, or a merchant, or a merchant's employee who has probably cause for believing that goods held for sale by the merchant have been unlawfully taken by a person and that he can recover them by taking the person into custody, may, for the purpose of attempting to effect such recovery, take the person into custody and detain him in a reasonable manner for reasonable length of time" (Jefferson…… [Read More]
" (Paul v. Davis)
The majority went on to argue that it is almost impossible to guess at any logical stopping place to the afore-prescribed theory of reasoning. Davis' interpretation of the law as set out in his briefs would seem almost necessarily to manifest itself in every legally cognizable injury which may have been inflicted by a state official - of any sort, not just a police officer -- acting under "color of law" establishing a violation of the Fifth Amendment as extended to the 50 states by the aforementioned Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
According to the majority, "We think it would come as a great surprise to those who drafted and shepherded the adoption of that Amendment to learn that it worked such a result, and a study of our decisions convinces us they do not support the construction urged by respondent."
Section 4: The Result
Consequently,…… [Read More]
exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.
Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…… [Read More]
classical criminology theory. The author will apply the theory of the Lacassagne School which combines Durkheim's determinism plus biological factors. This applies to contemporary criminology in the case of recidivist situations where a criminal will not or can not be reformed. In the opinion of the author, this theory supports a social responsibility perspective. In this case, such a criminology theory would explain the behavior of serial killers who are hopelessly recidivist and justify the death penalty.
The above view would follow logically into neoclassical criminology theory that applies to contemporary criminology. This type of approach supports a social responsibility perspective. If the behavior is caught early enough, it should prevent crime because the criminal is certain that they will punished. For instance, this is the case in situations of direct control whereby punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior and such compliance is rewarded by family, parents or…… [Read More]
Psychology and the Criminal Offender
Individuals commit crimes for many different reasons, and some of these and psychological in nature. In other words, the way that a person's brain works and the way that the person looks at the world can contribute to how that person reacts to many different things and whether that person commits crimes, or what kinds of crimes. The circumstances of the individual can also contribute to what kind of crimes are committed, since access to different things affects the types of crimes that are committed by specific individuals. Looked at here will be white collar, blue collar, and organized crime, since they are all different and those differences can be important. In addition to this, it will be important to describe and distinguish the common characteristics that these criminals have.
White collar crime is generally committed by those that make more money and that work…… [Read More]
Judy Blume's Then, I Are God ? It's margaret Oedipus Rex Elektra bySophocles.
Affinities between Judy Blume's "Then Again, Maybe I on't" and "Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret" and Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex" and "Electra"
Judy Blume's novels "Then Again, Maybe I on't" and "Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret" are, to a certain degree, similar to Sophocles' tragedies "Oedipus Rex" and "Electra." It is probable that Blume inspired from the tragedies when devising the storylines for each of the novels. However, it would surely be absurd for someone to claim that her works are not unique in character. Tony, the protagonist in "Then Again, Maybe I on't," and Oedipus, the central character in "Oedipus Rex" are alike when considering that they both experience a false feeling of success only to eventually feel that they live in a lie. Similarly, Margaret and Electra are two young women who…… [Read More]
Saints and the Roughnecks - William J. Chambliss
In his seminal essay "The Saints and the Roughnecks," William J. Chambliss studied how a community's differential perceptions led to preferential treatment of a group of juvenile delinquents from upper-middle class families over another gang of delinquents from lower-class families. The main determinant for a community's reaction to a juvenile's deviant behavior was socioeconomic class.
Since this essay's publication in 1973, the idea that people get treated differently according to their class has become widely accepted. Based on Chambliss's thesis, poor people who engage in deviant behavior - ranging from shoplifting to murder - are still more likely to be prosecuted and to receive harsher punishment. They are also more likely to be perceived as guilty by the public.
The more recent research on other determinants of social stratification allows us to expand on Chambliss's original thesis. Thus, in addition to class,…… [Read More]
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…… [Read More]
value of photo ID badges for employees from the standpoint of security. The writer examines the issues at hand and presents a logical argument about the topic. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
The memo stating that recommendations for employee photo badges should go out to all clients based on the study of ten companies is based on limited information. The information provided is not enough to be able to ascertain that the badges were the deterrent.
Upon examination of the proposal one can see that there are several areas of missing information regarding whether or not the photo badges were the actual cause of eliminating employee theft.
One of the first things that is missing is whether or not those companies had ever had a problem with employee theft in the past. The study says that there were ten companies in the study and that none…… [Read More]
trade libel is fair to business owners. Argue both sides of the issue.
From the general public's viewpoint, the definition of trade liable is accurate. This is because the store detained someone they accused of shoplifting. To determine where the stolen item was hiding; they effectively conducted a strip search by revealing private areas. At one point, Cockrell (the plaintiff) had to remove a bandage that was use to cover a recent scar from a liver transplant. He asked security not to remove it and they insisted. This is a clear violation, as the security at Wal Mart has no right to conduct these activities. Instead, they should have detained the person and contacted the police. (Statsky, 2011)
Wal Mart will argue that shoplifting is a major problem and they were following proper procedures. This occurs by bring the subject into an isolated area and checking them. After they have…… [Read More]
children go through. This is especially true for children that underwent something traumatic or continue to endure traumatic events. Billy, a 13-year-old Hispanic boy, deals with many stresses in life. From having dealt with physical abuse from his parents to enduring multiple foster care families, to living in a bad neighborhood where there are multiple gang related incidents a week, it makes sense Billy has rebelled and become a product of his environment. That is not to say however, he will continue to vandalize cars and shoplift, but it may help explain why he has done the things he has.
The first societal influence is abuse. When a child goes through physical abuse there a host of consequences. First and foremost, the child loses trust in people. When someone like a parent physically abuses their child, the child sees that the person meant to protect him instead hurts him, destroying…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlett Letter explores the method of public shaming as a form of legitimate legal sentencing. In the novel, Hester Prynne has an affair with Reverend Dimmesdale. Even though her husband has practically abandoned her and lives in another country, she is punished for what was in Puritan America considered a crime. The punishment reflects Puritanical values related to female sexuality, and reveals ways a patriarchal society controls women's choices by monitoring and controlling their private lives. Given private and domestic spheres were the only realms women had any degree of power, the control over women's sexuality in The Scarlett Letter shows how patriarchy becomes entrenched and immutable. Moreover, the use of public shaming to sentence Prynne serves an overarching function of social control. Religion, a core theme in The Scarlett Letter, is the vehicle of that social control and the law is also used to enforce and…… [Read More]
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…… [Read More]
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…… [Read More]
The absence of such support could mean a quick relapse to the old habits. Indeed, those patients who prefer to battle their addiction alone are much more likely to relapse more quickly than those with a strong social and family network to support them. In this, open communication among family members, the physician an the patient is of vital importance. Support is directly related to effective communication, especially among family members.
In terms of social support, the narrator appears to be a little out of his depth when it comes to helping Sonny. This becomes clear in the way in which the narrator is unable to openly approach the issue of the abuse with his brother. Indeed, it is Sonny who volunteers the information about his habit to his brother, who does not seem entirely willing to listen. The narrator has to almost force himself to listen to his brother,…… [Read More]
And according to studies conducted within the last
decade, that vulnerability exists on an extremely elastic scale. Such is
to say that the bodily and emotional responses to stress which are most
commonly manifested as an accelerated heart-rate, heightened blood
pressure, logical disorientation and shortness of breath may at first be
the practical reactions which are levied against stressful situations. As
we consider stress in children, this helps to point us toward a strategy
not of removing stress, which as a general rule of life is essentially
unfeasible, but of achieving more effective and proven methods of stress
management. Coping mechanisms for young sufferers of stress can also be
used to help children better understand the nature and implications of
It does bear noting that in and of itself, stress does not possess a
negative connotation. As point of fact, stress is an important inducer of
the survival instincts…… [Read More]
From 1990-1993, prior to three-strikes, the CCI dropped a total of 2.4%. From 1994-1997, post three-strikes, the CCI dropped 30.8%. For violent offenses the decrease was 27% post three-strikes vs. An increase of 7% from 1990-1993 (eres and Griffith 106).
However, some argue that the drop in the crime rate actually began in 1993 with a significant drop before any impact from three-strikes. This does not imply that the huge drop in the crime rate post three-strikes was not due to that legislation. And it cannot be doubted that three-strikes definitely had a significant impact on the crime rate drop. However, other factors may have initiated the drop in crime in 1993, which also impacted the bigger drops after three-strikes. A booming California economy during that same time period is one explanation offered.
Similar Laws in other States?
Twenty-eight states have three-strike laws. Most are "similar" to California's. However there…… [Read More]
death conveniently resolves the problem of the murder of the Soc and is followed within hours as Whissen puts it, "Dally is made into a tragic antihero. He 'fought for Johnny,' and when Johnny dies, Dally, too, must die. And what he dies for is the absence of fairness in the world, for as all teenagers know, life is anything but fair. Again, though, where adults may guffaw at the sentimental silliness of Dally's way of death, Hinton makes it all quite credible -- even moving" (p. 185).
These events also serve as the basis for Ponyboy redeeming himself academically with his English teacher who cautions him that, "Pony, I'll give it to you straight. You're failing this class right now, but taking into consideration the circumstances, if you come up with a good semester theme, I'll pass you with a C. grade" (p. 178). After calling his English teacher…… [Read More]
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…… [Read More]
Very often, plea bargains allow the defendant to agree to perform some socially beneficial tasks for the purpose of deterring similar crimes which are more beneficial to society than traditional incarceration. For example, those charged with littering might agree to clean up highways while wearing signs publicizing the embarrassing consequences of littering or those charged with petty thefts like shoplifting wearing signs identifying their crimes publicly in lieu of ninety-day jail sentences. In other instances, plea bargains in which defendants agree to conditions including reimbursing victims of their crimes also serve more social utility than imposing a term of incarceration without any restitution to the victims.
Besides the issues of cost savings associated with plea bargains in lieu of trial, incarceration itself is tremendously expensive to administrate.
Furthermore, in some cases, defendants convicted of relatively non-serious crimes could be seriously harmed by incarceration alongside dangerous criminals.
The Problems with Plea…… [Read More]
At each incident, Delaire ranted and punished Nita severely, though her punishments were ineffective, as she did not carry through on monitoring.
Nita soon found another ally, a "boyfriend." An older boy had found that Nita would do almost anything for him in order to be accepted by the group and had her perform sexual acts with him, though she would not consent to intercourse in the beginning. However, as time went on, she did have sexual intercourse and became pregnant. Without her mother's knowledge, she and her girlfriend, who helped her, went to a clinic and Nita had an abortion. She told her mother what had happened in a moment of weakness and her mother was horrified, taking Nita's actions to mean that she was ruined. Delaire had been a Catholic, but was not then a practicing one. Her attitudes and ethics were derived from the Catholic religion, but…… [Read More]
In terms of the theories that are put forward in the book by Simon et al. (2004), Gary's profile conforms to a number of theoretical perspectives. In general however this profile tends to concur with the point made by the authors that the criminal behavior is largely a result of lax or ineffective parenting. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15) as this book states, there are numerous studies that refer to the importance of family and home environment as well as problematic parenting in the development of developmental antisocial tendencies. This also refers to larger problems when these become permanent behavior patterns and extend into later life. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15)
Furthermore, parents are seen as "primary argents of socializations" of children and therefore they play a major role in the creation of negative and "abnormal "tendencies in developing children. (Simon et al., 2004, p.16)
Theorists like Gleuck and others…… [Read More]
This substantiates the concept that simply building more correctional facilities will only exacerbate the problem, as it will probably fill up even faster than it can be completed.
Moses Wright (2007) notes that there is light at the end of the tunnel. An increasing number of critics and professionals are recognizing the possibilities of rehabilitation as opposed to imprisonment. Rehabilitation has a number of advantages. Most notably, it will discourage repeat offending and thus reduce the number of prisoners who return to prison after only a short time. In addition, rehabilitation programs will both help those participating and other prisoners for whom an example is provided to become worthy contributors to society. Furthermore, rehabilitation will also relieve society of those repeat offenders who are never apprehended and thus continue to have the opportunity to commit their crimes. It therefore appears that rehabilitation programs could be much more effective in reducing…… [Read More]
A truly gendered theory would therefore provide a more unified theoretical framework. The gendered theory that the authors suggest has four key elements. These are the following. Male as well as female criminal behavior should be able to be explained by the theory. This is achieved through the understanding of the he organization of gender. For example, the organization "... deters or shapes delinquency by females but encourages it by males." This refers to norms and gendered identities as well as the effect of institutions and relationships that shape both female and male criminal behavior and criminal predilection.
A second key aspect of this theory is context. This is an essential aspect of the theory and is a concept that makes it different to many other theories on this subject. Context is the aspect that possibly raises this gendered theory to another level of significance. By context is meant that…… [Read More]
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot
Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot…… [Read More]
On the upside, having more associates in the aisles also increases same store sales by encouraging up-sell and cross-sell of additional products. Altogether, the role of self-service checkout is to provide retailers with the opportunity to get higher levels of productivity from the sales associates by both providing personalized service, alleviating the potential of theft in the aisles, and most importantly, increasing the potential of up-sell and cross-sell opportunities as well. On a final note behavioral studies like the one completed by Cap Gemini (2003) showing that shoppers' main frustration is with waiting to check out of stores, and that self-service checkout lanes are specifically created to address that pain point of shoppers so they will return to the same store and chain.
AM esearch (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula osenblum. Boston, MA
AM esearch-1 (2003) - the Aha…… [Read More]
Capital punishment, however, does reflect the retributive perspective and is the most obvious modern manifestation of Hammurabi's code. Even so, the moral righteousness of capital punishment is questionable for several reasons. First, capital punishment is illogical and hypocritical. If killing another human being is wrong, and if the state kills human beings, then the state is committing a wrongful act. Second, capital punishment can be considered cruel and unusual. Third, capital punishment precludes the state from promoting positive moral values in favor of a perceived increase in public safety. Whether public safety is increased by the use of capital punishment is also questionable. For the most part, capital punishment is used "solely for symbolic purposes," (Turow, cited by Stern, 2003). Capital punishment is the epitome of revenge-based, retributive justice. It would seem that even if revenge were morally just, that the state would have no justifiable role in exacting revenge.…… [Read More]
Del O'Conner, head of the British chapter of the Hammerskins, carried out a nail-bomb attack on a gay pub in England that injured several; he was hidden for years in Texas by his Hammerskins brethren (Reynolds, 2002).
All of these crimes by Hammerskins leaders meet the definition of terrorism for the following reasons: the violence was repeated; the violence was criminally and politically motivated (the crimes were committed against groups like gays and blacks that the Hammerskins politically oppose); and the victims were targets of opportunity or symbolic, such as black or gay people who happened to be using a park or having a drink at a pub at the wrong time. Further, the acts of terrorism committed by Hammerskins leaders have the effect of encouraging terrorism among rank-and-file members. The average member would be right to deduce that those who practiced violence would be protected by the group and…… [Read More]
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…… [Read More]
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…… [Read More]
As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…… [Read More]
On the one side are those who argue against advertisements aimed at children due to a belief that children are uniquely susceptible, and on the other side are those who sell advertisements and advertising, such as ad agencies and business school textbook authors, out of a belief that advertising is able to effect product preference in any meaningful way. In short, both of these groups are incorrect, because advertising, and animated characters in particular, actually have fairly little influence on product preference and purchasing decisions. They can generate recognition and positive emotional connections between the audience and the product, but these connections do not necessarily translate into actual purchases. However, in order to demonstrate why this is the case, one must examine some relevant scientific research on the subject and attempt to inject some reasonable skepticism into the hyperbolic claims of parents' groups and advertising cheerleaders.
Aside from market research…… [Read More]
In this vein, the EU judges in Strasbourg will be much more likely to respect guidelines that are set out in UK
courts and legislation. The European Court would, with the introduction of a British
Bill of Rights likely give greater leeway to British judges. The repealing of the Human Rights of 18 would limit the influence of British judges over the interpretation of pertinent legislation by enshrining the central features of the Act that reflect the English common law. At the very least, if
British judges feel that acts of Parliament are wholly incompatible with the European
Convention or with EU law.
To be effective as a complete solution to the problems which we have identified above a British Bill of Rights also would need to be accompanied by reforms which reinstate the British
Parliament's role as the sovereign authority over the whole legislative process. This would not be…… [Read More]
ritten by Alex Kotlowitz, a reporter for the all Street Journal, the book There Are No Children There follows two boys' activities around the Henry Horner Homes, a low-income public housing project in Chicago, Illinois. The book covers the time period from the summer of 1987 through September, 1989, and follows the protagonists, Lafeyette Rivers (nearly 12 years old) and Pharoah Rivers (nine years old). This is not an ordinary American neighborhood. It is a heavy gang area, a war zone where shootings are commonplace, drugs are a catalyst for crime and death seems to lurk around every corner. This paper will review the book chronologically through five chapters then provide a closer critique of LaJoe Rivers, the mother of the protagonists.
The average American comes home from work in the evening, opens a refreshing cold drink, gets comfortable on the couch and turns on the evening news.…… [Read More]
Cousin Vinny and American Criminal Justice
The 1992 film My Cousin Vinny starring Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei is a typical Hollywood foray into the realm of jurisprudence. So comical and seemingly realistic is the film (it takes place in the South -- where the unexpected nature of the backwoods setting gives the fish-out-of-water antics of Pesci's Gambini a convincing legitimacy) that one is willing to believe that it actually gives accurate representation of the criminal justice system and the court process in America. This paper will compare and contrast My Cousin Vinny with the actual American criminal justice system and court process, showing where the two meet and where (as in all Hollywood fare) they eventually depart.
The Film in eality
In reality, it may be noted that even the United States is using My Cousin Vinny as a guide when it comes to justice and jurisprudence -- at…… [Read More]
The wide diversity and large benefit of FID technology implementation and application in the warehousing, distribution, and general wholesaling operations of the supply chain, as well as in other less related settings, makes it difficult to explain the relative dearth of the technology's usage in retail settings. There are many different ways in which these technologies can be used to assist customers, employees, and managers at point-of-sale retail locations, may of them direct extrapolations of current uses of the technology in supply chain management that takes place further up the chain. The cost of rolling out retail FID applications on a wide basis has been prohibitive for much of the past decade, with initial costs of FID tags running at more than a dollar in their first uses, but as the cost of the technology continues to decline -- tags are currently available for as low as fifteen…… [Read More]
Wrongful arrest due to seizure activity in public is a not uncommon complication for individuals with epilepsy and other seizure disorders, not caused by illicit behaviors. There are "2.3 million Americans living with epilepsy," (Guiden, 2003) all of whom at some time have experienced challenges associated with their disease and many of whom have been the victims of wrongful arrest and incarceration.
Yet, it seems that lack of awareness of the signs symptoms and the variety and degree of seizure activity can be the source of arrest and incarceration, that would coincide with those arrests made for such occurrences as drunken disorderly conduct or drug induced dementia. This work will address the problem of wrongful arrests for seizure-related behavior in public, the degree of the problem and some possible solutions to the problem.
In general peoples with seizure disorders have nearly always had to deal with concerns and conflicts associated…… [Read More]
When I first entered the State Courthouse I immediately checked the bulletin boards to see what cases were being heard that day. However, not knowing the details from reading the list, I just chose a few by chance and decided to sit in and listen. I was surprised how many other observers there were in the courtrooms; I thought at first that people would look at me funny but no one minded my being there at all. The first hearing was one for the issuance of a search and seizure warrant by the police. Two uniformed officers were petitioning the judge to search someone's car and home, I believe. The second case I saw being tried was part of an actual misdemeanor trial. The defendant was accused of petty theft. Finally I briefly sat in on a traffic violation case. Although each of these cases was heard differently,…… [Read More]
The "Safety First" scenario is even less cut-and-dry for me. If a company wants to increase its profit margin and include a high-end line of clothing, then it has the right to do so. I do not believe that a company can prevent or control crime through its pricing strategies. Shoplifting is not necessarily related to the presence of luxury goods. I feel that crime is a reflection of overarching social, economic, and political problems. As long as the company is acting ethically in other respects, then I don't see the problem with offering the high-end jacket. Offering a low-cost alternative to the high-end jacket in my opinion is not the best solution in this case either, because it undervalues the more expensive article of clothing and could prevent people from buying it. Instead, a win-win situation might be to firmly decide that the Daze line would become high-end and…… [Read More]
law and society are intertwined, and how social conflict can actually aid in creating criminology. I also have a much deeper understanding of the many different theories on criminology and society, and how each of them has merit, at least in one form or another.
Just about all of this information was new to me because sociology is not my strongest interest, and yet the information here was informative and interesting. I did not know there were so many different perspective theories pertaining to the legal and criminology community, and I did not know the ideas of each one. I knew that Marxist philosophy and criminology had many commonalities, but I did not know the extent of them until I read this chapter. I also did not know about "radical" criminology.
It was surprising to me that so many criminologists have studied these social causes of crime, and made such…… [Read More]
However, I would also want to ask some pointed and direct questions if the parents were being belligerent, to discover why they appeared to be hostile. Perhaps they were embarrassed by their child's behavior and were acting defensively. In that case I would try my best to talk to them in a non-threatening manner, making sure they understood that we were not trying to persecute their son (or daughter) but rather, to correct deviant, anti-social, and harmful behavior. I would avoid arguing with them if the parents refused to believe that their child had done anything wrong.
We cannot tolerate stealing at school. Therefore, I would drive home the point that the next time the student is caught stealing that we might have to alert the authorities. I would report the misbehavior to the student's teachers and to the school administrators, so that they would know what was going on…… [Read More]
There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.
Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…… [Read More]
Education and Bullying -- Argumentative esearch Paper
Bullying and Education
Education and Bullying
Argumentative esearch Paper
The purpose of the research in this work is to answer the question, "Does bullying effect an individual's education? First bullying will be defined in the perimeter of the educational environment. The author of this work takes the stance that bullying does most positively affect an individual in terms of their quality of education and in fact does continue to affect the individual who receives and even the one who perpetrates the bullying behavior. Inclusive in the research will be the stated 'signs' of bullying behavior taking place, preventative measures that are stated to be effective, types of bullying behavior, and common myths surrounding those who are bullies. Some important facts about violence in schools are stated to be that first, that 1/3 of all injury death that occurs in the United States are…… [Read More]
(Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers) Thus there is a lot of increase in demands from channel members and the possibility if that there is a demand from them to provide them with lower priced products. Even existing marketing companies like Scott Paper Company are facing this problem. There are wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains, and retailer cooperatives which are likely to put pressure on a new manufacturer. (the Environment of Marketing Channels)
With all this consideration, it is better to look at a new market and the reasons for this are that the U.S. population is increasing at the low age end and the high age end, and there are a large number of individuals of different origins. In 2000, the total population was 275 million and this shows a growth of 10.5% from 249 million in 1990. Of this lot 58.4 million Americans were below the age of 15…… [Read More]
In either case, privacy issues were known to be much more complicated than mere issues of personal secrecy. In fact, as Richard Posner suggested more than 20 years ago, there is a fundamental economics of personal privacy -- an economics that is in large part responsible for, and untiringly organic to, our Constitution.
It is feasible, therefore, that there are rudimentary, biological, economic bases at the very roots of humankind's insatiable desire and need for privacy and security. (Posner, 1983)
As Mcride's research further indicates, "In 2002, the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies initiated Project Guardian: Maintaining Civil Liberties in the Information Age. The effort is aimed at shepherding discussion from all qualified voices on issues central to the tradeoff between privacy and security, particularly as this balance is threatened, or is perceived to be compromised, by advances in technology. Guardian is enriching the discussion by establishing a rigorous, multiway…… [Read More]
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…… [Read More]
There is one however, and it is the level of education they have. I plan to go through with my Master's Degree at some point and many of the people who lead my community including council people, the mayor the police chief and department heads also have high levels of education.
If I could change any inequality in my community I would change the fact that there are two African-American city employees out of 300 total workers.
I would do it with a drive to recruit people of color and encourage them to apply for open positions. I would require them to have educations equal to the average education of other city employees. I would change it so that the face of our town reflected the true demographic make up of the town.
When I called the mayor he had no way of knowing what color I am. When he…… [Read More]
Women's crimes like shoplifting may thus be more individualized, garner less media attention because of their less violent and wide-spread nature, and while women may commit crimes such as abusing drugs, these crimes may not provide women with connections to profiting off of crime, because of a lack of social opportunities within criminal organizations.
ne reason Curran and Renzetti's analysis is particularly interesting today is that juvenile delinquency amongst females is on the rise, as a kind of mirror-image of the ways that women have become more integrated into legitimate professional activities and the fact that aggression in women is now more acceptable in mainstream society. n one hand, traditional crime organizations, at least as they are portrayed in the contemporary media, have only allowed women to take subsidiary roles. However, as society changes and presents more opportunities and greater acceptance within the criminal subculture of female, professional criminals, the…… [Read More]
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…… [Read More]
Asked by Friends to Overlook Shoplifting in a Store
Like many students, to supplement my income I worked in a jewelry store in a local mall. The store did exceptionally good business during the holiday season with many married couples choosing to get their wedding bands just before the holidays or right after. There was often a rush of customers during the big sales the Friday after Thanksgiving and throughout the holiday season which unfortunately met more customers would try to walk out with expensive merchandise without first paying. One of my friends came into the store and asked to see a gold necklace worth over $500. It was 14K gold and had a very unique design which made it immediately recognizable. My friend wanted to get it for his girlfriend, but did not have the money. Their efforts to get the necklace made me face a very…… [Read More]