For example, in the case of sickle beta thalassemia, the individual has inherited a gene for hemoglobin S. from one parent and a gene for beta-thalassemia from the other. Or, in the instance of SC disease, the individual has inherited a gene for hemoglobin S. from one parent and a gene for hemoglobin C. from the other.
The sickle cell trait in heterozygous carriers confers the resistance to malaria phenotype characterized by a dominant gene (Sickle cell anemia, Wikipedia). ecause people with sickle trait were more likely to survive malaria outbreaks in Africa than those with normal hemoglobin, it is believed that sickle hemoglobin evolved as a protection against malaria.
Haplotypes of sickle cell disease are polymorphic restriction endonuclease sites in and around the mutant beta-globin gene Acording to Fields (2000), the existence of haplotypes specific to certain regions of the world suggests that the mutant beta globin gene arose…… [Read More]
These crises are a direct result of way in which the deformed red blood cells adhere to both each other and the insides of the blood vessel walls, blocking tissues from receiving oxygen. The disease is prevalent across some parts of Africa, the Middle East and India, which is due to the way in which the heterozygous form of the condition offers carriers a degree of protection against malaria, which is present in these areas. As a result, there is also a significant incidence of the disease in African-Americans, as a direct result of their African heritage, which means that the condition is significantly important for practitioners across the U.S. To understand.
Chowning, J.T. (2000) Sickle cell anemia and genetics: Background information. Washington State University Website. etrieved on June 18, 2007, at http://genetics-education-partnership.mbt.washington.edu/.
Frenette, P.S. And Atweh, G.F. (2007) Sickle cell disease: Old discoveries, new concepts and future promises.…… [Read More]
Sickle Cell Anemia
There are both advantages and disadvantages of having sickle cell anemia. How much benefit a person gets from sickle cell anemia's advantages, however, largely depends on where that person is located and what his or her environment is. The same concept applies to the disadvantages of this condition, although to a lesser extent. The root of the advantages and disadvantages of this disease pertain to its specific form of anemia. Anemia is succinctly defined as an occurrence in a patient's blood characterized by a marked lack of healthy red blood cells. Some of these blood cells look like a sickle because they are abnormally shaped. Because this disease is based on one's blood, it substantially impacts processes and conditions that are related to blood -- which has both boons and detriments.
The principle boon associated with sickle cell anemia is the fact that it has a selective…… [Read More]
Sickle Cell (Rough Draft)
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disease that causes badly formed red blood cells. The disease is genetec. Mostly people from Africa or other coutries around the Mediterraean Sea get it. In the United States, African-Americans are most likely to have it (Howard, 1995).
Red blood cells are the blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. When a person has sickle-cell anemia the hemoglobon in the cell is shaped wrong. ecause of this the cells are not round but sickle-shaped, which is how the disease gets its name. Sometimes these cells stick together and interfere with blood flow. This is very painful but also causes medical problems. It can cause damage to organs and keep the body from receiving the oxygen it needs to function well. It also leaves the person likely to get lung infections (Howard, 1995).
Although sickle-cell anemia is genetec, both parents…… [Read More]
If there is evidence of the sickle cell gene the tests will be repeated to confirm diagnosis (NIH). It is also possible to test the fetus for sickle cell anemia prior to birth through amniocentesis although this is not normally performed unless there is reason to believe the child will have sickle cell anemia due to the risk which this procedure presents to the fetus. Electrophoresis is performed on the blood to test for presence of the sickle cell gene as there are different patterns observed in those with sickle cell anemia than normal blood, as the hemoglobin present is Hb S. rather than the Hb a or Hb A2 which is usually present in normal adult erythrocytes or Hb F. which is usually present in fetal hemoglobin. When the blood sample of a sickle cell sufferer is examined under the microscope, the sickle shaped cells present an immediate diagnosis…… [Read More]
The science behind the research was not incredibly profound, but again the article was fluidly written and very easy to follow the logic of.
This is not an aspect of the disease I had thought of before; it is important to remember that there are very human bodies that contain these sickle-shaped cells. The fact that this "treatment" focuses on the symptoms of the disease rather than the cause is also indicative of the difficulty in combating the disease. Comfort is really all that's possible.
Beutler, E. (2002). "Sickle cell disease." Encyclopedia of public health, Vol 4. New York: Macmillan, pp. 1099-100. Retrieved via Gale Cengage.
This encyclopedia entry gives a detailed overview of the disease -- it's pathology, causation, prevalence, etc. It begins with a definition of how the disease is classified, both through morphological changes to the red blood cells and, in more recent years, genetic…… [Read More]
relationship among African-Americans, Malaria and Sickle cell anemia. Many people born in regions affected by malaria are resistant to the disease. Malaria, rampant in parts of Africa, south of the Sahara has killed millions of people many of them little children. Further examination shows that those who are resistant to the disease carry at least one sickle cell trait. Blacks in America whose ancestors hail from Africa show a higher incidence of the disease. Are African-Americans who carry the abnormal gene proof of a genre of natural selection, allowing those with the trait to survive and those without the trait to perish? I will explore the link between those with the sickle cell gene and their apparent immunity from malaria and the connection between African-Americans and their ancestors.
What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
Linus Pauling originally discovered sickle cell in 1949. Sickle cell anemia is a red blood cell disorder…… [Read More]
As shown in Part 1 of the Case Report, sickle cell anemia is one of the highly prevalent diseases in today’s society. This disease is a disorder of the blood brought by the inheritance of the gene that changes the shape of the sickle cell. The case provides significant insights regarding this blood disorder through examining the various issues relating to sickle cell anemia. One of the most crucial aspects towards understanding sickle cell anemia is examination of its genetic information, causes, and gene mutation. Part 2 of the Case Report examines whether chromosomal analysis was indicated, causes of the disorder, its origin with respect to gene inheritance, and gene mutation.
Even though the case provides significant insights regarding sickle cell anemia, chromosomal analysis was not indicated. According to Quest Diagnostics (2013), chromosomal analysis is the microscopic evaluation of chromosomes in dividing cells. The analysis is usually carried…… [Read More]
Sickle cell anemia is among the highly prevalent diseases in the contemporary society. Sickle cell anemia is a disorder of the blood that is caused by the inheritance of the gene that alters the shape of the sickle cell. Therefore, the gene interferes with the working of hemoglobin in the movement of oxygen. The prevalence of the sickle cell anemia varies regarding the geographical position and the ethnic identity. In the United States, the sickle cell anemia is most prevalent among African Americans. The disease also shows a relatively higher prevalence of the disease in the Hispanics followed by the Whites. However, the prevalence also varies from one place to another in the United States (Lervolino et al. 2011).
Sickle cell anemia is a cancerous disease making it difficult to treat. However, various trends are involved in the diagnosis of the disease. The diagnosis of the disease involves a blood…… [Read More]
Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.
Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.
Ye, L.,…… [Read More]
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…… [Read More]
Segal, J.B., et al., (2008), Hydroxyurea for the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease,
Baltimore, MD: AHRQ
To determine efficacy, effectiveness, harms, and barriers of the use of hydroxyurea treatment of sickle cell disease for determining solutions and further research need.
Research studies based on variables.
Conducted by experts in sickle cell disease management, clinical trial methodology, systematic review, epidemiological studies, and ethics and adherence research.
Instruments were quality assessment, data extraction, and evidence grading. Literature inclusion tailored toward research questions. Studies on children and adults evaluated separately. Included randomized trials, non-randomized trials, cohort studies with control groups, and pre/post studies. Evaluations of data was based on variable-based research questions.
Hydroxyurea lowered the rate of hospitizations among children with sickle cell disease and raised HbF cell percentages.
Limited evidence for toxicity, barriers, and guide dosing. Insufficient evidence for efficacy and safety.
Even…… [Read More]
student, degree Health Adminstration. I worked a health care staffing supervisor 10 years. personal experience incorporated paper fact husband sickle cell anemia I cared 20 years.
I have always been drawn to helping people, both in my life and in my career pursuits. In planning the next phase of my life, I wanted to follow a path which would allow me to better the lives of others while also learning new things every day. I have come to realize that nursing is the profession that suits me best because of my interests, my experience, and my goals.
A degree in nursing would be the second degree that I have pursued. My first degree was in Health Administration. I chose to study that field because I knew that I wanted to work in a health care setting, where my actions would be at least indirectly responsible for aiding in the well-being…… [Read More]
Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems
Sickle Cell Anemia
Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…… [Read More]
History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring
Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.
Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…… [Read More]
Human Genome Project
Launched in 1990 as a collaborative initiative between the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Human Genome Project completed its goal ahead of time despite the enormous challenges that were involved (Greene, 2006). The goals of the Human Genome Project included developing comprehensive genetic and physical maps of the human genome in order to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the three billion base pairs that make up the human DNA and to identify the estimated 100,000 genes that are contained within the human genome (Greene, 2006). To determine the importance and implications of the HGP, this paper reviews the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and salient findings concerning this initiative in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
How will research in the Human Genome Project further medical research? What disorders are most likely to benefit from the…… [Read More]
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…… [Read More]
ace and Genetics
On the surface, race seems like a legitimate way of categorizing human beings. Physical characteristics are passed down from parent to child, thereby recreating racial markers. However, the concept of race is generally rooted in ignorance. ace is an ephemeral construction, and genetic science is proving this to be so. If race were real, then there would be ways of tracing different races back to a few ancestors: such as an ancestral Polynesian, ancestral African, and ancestral Jew. As it stands, though, all human beings trace ancestry to the same basic gene pool from humanoid ancestors in Africa. This one fact alone is sufficient to debunk the concept that race "exists," or is a form of biological determinism. There are other reasons to believe that race is not as real as was once thought. ace is not real, and the reasons are rooted in genetic science, anthropology,…… [Read More]
Edit Research Premarital Screening
Evaluating Premarital Screening Knowledge in Saudi Students
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of premarital screening (PMS) in Saudi Arabia. The use of PMS as a means to identify and approach both and infectious and hereditary disease was investigated in order to determine the impact of this practical approach.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jazan University from January to June 2014 to perform this research. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 Jazan University Students, both males and females. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts. The first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students' knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.
The vast majority of the participants (922; 94%) believed that a PMS program was a preventive measure. More than two thirds of…… [Read More]
Genetic screening is one of the most controversial topics in the scientific arena today. The advent of the Human Genome Project, which maps the complete human genetic code, has brought this issue to the forefront. This paper will discuss the basic science that underlies genetic screening, applications of genetic screening, and investigate some of the common misconceptions and ethical questions about its use.
Genetic screening itself is simply "the systematic search within a population for persons possessing particular genotypes, which are either associated with disease, predisposing to disease, or leading to disease in descendants" (Miller). In simpler terms, genetic screening involves testing and determining whether "an individual's genetic material to predict present or future disability or disease either for oneself or one's offspring" (McCarrick). Essentially, genetic screening is conducted for several basic reasons, including the care of the ill and the prevention of disease, providing reproductive information, determining the incidence…… [Read More]
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…… [Read More]
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose…… [Read More]
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]
A company cannot refuse to hire someone with sickle cell anemia (a disease that primarily affects persons of African ancestry), because the person might require costly health insurance, for so long as the person was strong enough to perform the job, discrimination would not be acceptable as it would affect persons disproportionately of one racial category.
Explain trade secret and how it could be protected legally and in day-to-day operations. Provide an example.
According to Nolo.com, an online legal dictionary, a trade secret is:
in] most states, a formula, pattern, physical device, idea, process, compilation of information or other information that 1) provides a business with a competitive advantage, and 2) is treated in a way that can reasonably be expected to prevent the public or competitors from learning about it, absent improper acquisition or theft" ("trade secret, 2007, Nolo.com). Perhaps the most famous trade secret in business is…… [Read More]
Biliary colic and cholecystitis are in the spectrum of gallbladder disease, ranging from asymptomatic gallstones to biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and cholangitis (Santen pp). hen gallstones temporarily obstruct the cystic duct or pass through into the common bile duct, gallstones become symptomatic and biliary colic develops, however, if the cystic duct or common bile duct becomes obstructed for hours or gallstones irritate the gallbladder, then cholecystitis develops, and when the stones become lodged in the common bile duct, choledocholithiasis occurs, resulting in possible cholangitis and ascending infections (Santen pp).
Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder caused by obstruction, usually a gallstone, of the cystic duct, and the inflammation may be sterile or bacterial and the obstruction may be acalculous or caused by sludge (Santen pp). Bacterial infection is believed to be a consequence, not a cause, of cholecystitis, approximately 75% of bile cultures are positive, with the most…… [Read More]
Africans had poor health care in the 1950s
There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.
Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.
Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…… [Read More]
Marketing Case Study
Explain what you think would be an appropriate promotions strategy for both of them. In doing so compare and contrast the two promotions strategies explaining why you think they would be similar or different.
NINE POSSIBLE PODUCT -- MAKET COMBINATIONS
POSSIBLE TAGET MAKETS
GAY MEN O WOMEN
BLACK WOMEN AGED 18-30
NON-LETHAL PESONAL SECUITY PODUCTS
FITNESS / EXECISE PODUCTS
More than one billion adults worldwide are overweight. In the United States alone obesity is responsible for an estimated 300,000 deaths annually. What's interesting is that nearly all of these deaths are preventable through proper exercise and nutrition. As such, fitness is a very contentious issue plaguing many of the developed nations worldwide. Statistics indicate that nearly 33% of all Americas are obese. This bodes very well in regards to marketing as 1 in 3 Americans could use the fitness and exercise related…… [Read More]
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…… [Read More]
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…… [Read More]
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…… [Read More]
How variations arise within a phenotype?
Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…… [Read More]
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…… [Read More]
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
Patients…… [Read More]
Genetic counseling involves the sharing vital information and knowledge by experienced and well trained experts in the field of genetics for individuals with high risks of suffering some genetic disorders or transferring it to their children. It is the responsibility of a genetic counselor to provide relevant information concerning the hereditary nature of certain diseases and their risks of reoccurrence; addresses the concerns of patients, their health care providers and their families; and lends assistance to both the patients suffering these hereditary ailments and their families.
The first genetic counseling center was the Hereditary Clinic established at the University of Michigan in the United States in 1940. Since then, several such centers have been established in different parts of the world.
Through genetic counseling, information is made available to give the needed support to people who are dealing with any genetic disorder or at risk of developing one. When dealing…… [Read More]
Huntington's disease (HD) was the first autonomic dominant disorder for which genetic prediction became possible" (Harper, et al., 2000, Journal of Medical Genetics, p. 567). HD is a disease that occurs due to an inherited disorder leading to the death of brain cells. A diagnosis of HD is accomplished through genetic testing which can be implemented at any age regardless of whether the symptoms manifest or not. Although, the specific symptoms vary between people, nevertheless, symptoms can start with people between 35 and 45 years of age and can also start in some individuals at even anearlier age. The disease may affect successive generations if health interventions are not implemented (Mandel, 2016).
Additionally, "the cause of HD is due to a dominant mutation of autosomal form of the gene called Huntington. This shows that a child born by an affected person has a 50% chance of developing or inheriting the…… [Read More]
They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).
The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…… [Read More]
However, this form of racism rejects racial rights and instead calls for active racial competition among races towards achieving mastery and territorial dominance. This is a form of racial survival for the fittest in which there is no belief of the existence of racial rights (McCulloch 2010, p. 1).
Despite the negative connotation of racism, there is a need to have some form of racism, but in a positive manner. Arguably some form of racism is necessary. For example, there is a need to socially map and define the racial landscape and this cannot be done without the use of some form of racism. This has indeed been a historically compelled action because throughout history, racial lines have naturally existed between men and thus could not be ignored (Pataki & Levine 2004, p. 87-90). Therefore, it can be conclusively stated that the society cannot cast a blind eye to racism;…… [Read More]
The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today
Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…… [Read More]
One cannot think of Jazz without thinking of Miles Davis. Davis is widely regarded as one of the foremost jazz trumpeters. However, it would be a mistake to believe that Davis' influence on the world of jazz was limited to his abilities as a trumpeter. Davis was recognized as a composer, a bandleader, and a keyboard player. In addition, Davis helped develop improvisational playing techniques, which incorporated modes. Finally, "Davis had an uncanny ability of always selecting great sidemen for his recording sessions. These recordings are full of original and creative sensitivity and are outstanding examples of jazz recordings made at that time." (The Official Miles Davis Website, 2001).
If Davis' mother had her way, jazz music today would be dramatically different. Davis was born to Miles Henry Davis, a dentist, and Cleota Davis. Cleota Davis was a blues pianist, but she kept that fact hidden from her…… [Read More]
Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: one original genetic mutation that subsequently caused generations of people to carry and/or suffer from a serious illness like sickle cell anemia. Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor. The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light. Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…… [Read More]
OBRA Health Insurance
How OBRA Works
Davis was terminated from his employment because of long absence from work and not because he voluntarily resigned or any gross negligence on his part. Therefore, he and his family are eligible for health insurance coverage under the onsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) provided his company maintains its group health plan and still has 20 or more employees for which they currently have 100. If his former employer were to have fewer than 20 employees, then he might still be eligible for what is called mini-OBRA. The OBRA Act was put into law in 1986 in order to provide continuation of group health coverage for workers who have lost their jobs. The Act allows for the unemployed individual to avoid any gaps in coverage that would prevent them from having pre-existing conditions excluded once they were able to obtain group health…… [Read More]
eligion has the ability to give people hope especially the hopeless. Despite the harsh situations and challenges that people face, religion plays a fundamental role of giving them hope and optimism from which they draw strength. eligion is also an agent for socialization. It is no doubt meeting with other believers for religious events is more than just practicing faith (eeve 2006).
People use the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones, sing together and above all socialize. Interactions can be a powerful source of happiness to individuals. eligion provides more than just individual hedonism to guide behavior. In essence, religion provides guidelines for faithful to follow and in the end live an orderly and moral life (Furness & Gilligan 2010). Even though people appear to be happier within the spheres of religion, many researchers show that people in relatively nonreligious nation are the happiest lot. Scandinavian societies…… [Read More]
Fiction of ace
ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race
A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…… [Read More]
Parents not with great joy as their children meet important developmental milestones. oth first steps and first words are celebrated and described in detail to friends and family. ut sometimes as a child gets older, changes occur. Inexplicably, sometimes children who have talked for several years suddenly stop talking. Typically the child becomes selectively silent, talking animatedly with family and known friends but becoming mute at school or with strangers. When the problem is severe and exists over a period of time, the child may be diagnosed with selective mutism.
In one example, a child who was almost five years old started preschool, and after two weeks, refused to speak either to the teacher or his classmates. He also cried at arrival and would ask his parents to take him home. At home he spoke, but only to his mother, but clearly and in complete sentences. He communicated only…… [Read More]
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…… [Read More]
How did the African slaves receive guidance, physical preparedness, and social support ("seasoning") as they were brought from their home continent to the Americas? This paper covers the transition from freedom to slavery, and how Africans were given certain tools to help them handle the raw socialized cruelty from freedom to being put on ships and transported to North America.
hat are the phases of the "Seasoning Process"?
hile no readily available reference cited a specific "five phases" of the seasoning process, there clearly are at least five phases that can be reported. According to Assistant Professor Brenda E. Stevenson, the first phase of seasoning began "before many [slaves] reached Virginia," and she is referencing the "harsh lessons learned during the Middle Passage." Going through the sickness from new surroundings caused many slaves to suffer from pneumonia, malaria, smallpox, sickle cell anemia, typhus, worm infestations, whooping cough, dysentery,…… [Read More]
Option 3: Darwin's Perspective
According to Darwin, the survival of a species is determined by the degree of strength of its members. Thus, the "fittest" in terms of physical prowess as well as to a degree mental capacity survives. Human beings have long used their mental capacity to overcome the challenges of the physical environment. The very first discoveries of tools, fire and the wheel have set the species apart from the rest of life on earth. Human beings use their mental capacity to create tools in order to ensure and facilitate their survival in the face of challenges such as weather, predators and illness. From the Darwinian viewpoint, genetic engineering is simply the next step in the evolution of the human capacity to ensure the survival of their species. Some of the unforeseen results of technological advancement have admittedly been devastating, but another uniquely human capacity is accountability.…… [Read More]
Clinical Decision Making Guide
Chief complaint: Acanthosis nigricans
History of Present Illness: Patient was good in health until...(put the chronological history of your patient for example..2 years prior to consult patient experienced....)
Current health data is obtained
Current medications: NA
Last physical examinations: 2 years
Immunization status: NA
LMP and type of birth control (if applicable)
Past Medical History
Illnesses / trauma: NA
OB History: NA
Sexual History: NA
Emotional/Psychiatric History: NA
Family History: Family history for Diabetes, Type II maternal grandparents, and hypertension in grandparents on both sides of the family.
F. Personal/Social History: NA
G. Review of Systems (appropriate to clinical scenario)
Her Vital signs from school are BP 144/92, HR 88, RR 16, Temp 97.9.Wt. 195 pounds, Ht: 62 inches, BMI =35.6.
The results of the fasting labs are as follows:
Fasting blood sugar = 118
Total Cholesterol…… [Read More]