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With the assistance of world organizations, however, and with the health services offered to Guinea refugee camps, many individuals have or are learning simple and inexpensive ways to reduce these deaths. Rehydration salts, trained birth attendants, improved sanitation, increases in the number of health facilities, immunization, vitamins, insecticide, and other basic health care is expected to drastically increase the population by reducing infant and child mortality.
For nearly two decades, Sierra Leone's population has been deprived due to war, poverty, poor education, and a host of other problems. In most cases, corrupt political officials and rampant rebel forces have been the cause of the problem. In recent times, however, with the assistance of world organizations, foreign investment, and a more stable political structure, the population of Sierra Leone has seen resounding increases in both population as well as standard of living. There can be no question there is still much…
Amnesty International. Sierra Leone (2001), http://web.amnesty.org/web/ar2001.nsf/e115d4d1bde7ce3780256a4d006a5000/4106fa35bee2b4aa80256a53004d73a4/$FILE/ATTVNAHF/sierra%20leone.pdf (Accessed November 20, 2007).
Archibald, Steven. "Converts to Human Rights? Popular Debate about War and Justice in Rural Central Sierra Leone." Africa 72 (2002): 339-445.
Central Intelligence Agency. "Sierra Leone." World Factbook (2007), https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html (Accessed November 30, 2007).
Haxall, Katharine. "Sierra Leone: Health and Hope After the Conflict," Global Health Council Report (2007), http://www.globalhealth.org/reports/text.php3?id=231 (Accessed November 30, 2007).
The average person reading the news about the West African nation Sierra Leone in 2015 might never get further in terms of understanding Sierra Leone than the Ebola crisis. Indeed, this epidemic has taken a serious toll on Sierra Leone; in the first week of January there were 248 new cases reported, and thousands have died from Ebola in Sierra Leone. And though Sierra Leone remains "by far" the "worst-affected" country in Africa, there are positive signs that the spread of the virus might be slowing down (Reuters, 2015). Meanwhile, this research paper opens the door to a greater understanding of Sierra Leone as it delves deeply into the society in terms of how issues related to diversity and gender fairness impact the citizens.
Introduction to Sierra Leone -- After the Civil War
Any cultural critique of diversity and gender issues in Sierra Leone should be preceded by…
Bah, Abu Bakarr. 2013. 'The Contours of New Humanitarianism: War and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. Africa Today, Volume 60, 3-36.
Berhane-Selassie, Tsehai. 2009. 'The Gendered Economy of the Return Migration of Internally Displaced Women in Sierra Leone.' European Journal of Development Research, Volume 51, 737-751.
Bogert, Carroll, and Dufka, Corinne. 2001. 'Sexual violence in Sierra Leone.' Lancet. Volume 357, p. 304.
Glennerster, Rachel, Miguel, Edward, and Rothenberg, Alexander D. 2013. 'Collective Action in Diverse Sierra Leone Communities.' The Economic Journal. Vol. 125, 285-316.
Such jobs would put the children in potentially the most dangerous and deadly of the jobs available. Failing to perform tasks to the approval of superiors, whether that be fetching firewood, carrying ammunition, or committing a murder, would invariably lead to severe punishments. There were even reports of young girls being killed for failing to cook properly (Denov 2005,-page 3). Among the most common forms of punishment was the severing of limbs by someone who had committed an infraction to the displeasure of rebel leaders (Zack-illiam 2001,-page 73). Pictures from the area abound which show young boys and girls, even some infants, who are missing hands or feet because they have upset their superiors. The children are most often trained as violent soldiers, who take up the first wave in armed interaction, leading to a high percentage of casualties, many of them fatalities. The children were taught not that they…
"AK-47: the Sierra Leone Child Soldier." (2005) BBC News. Retrieved from:
Beah, Ishmael (2007). "The Making, and Unmaking, of a Child Soldier." The New York Times.
Angola and Sierra Leone Blood Diamonds
Cecil John hodes founded De Beers, a diamond mining and trading corporation back in 1888. It is the world's largest diamond cartel and receives all credit for making the engagement ring "an inseparable part of courtship and married life" (Jay Epstein, p.121). De Beer has shown immense success at controlling the price of diamonds. It achieved this goal by limiting the worldwide supply. It has a strong monopoly in the diamond business and is thus what one may call "the mafia" of the diamond world. It was till the 1980s that De Beers was involved directly in Sierra Leone. De Beers had some concession in offshore diamond mining and it enjoyed an office in Freetown. After that time it was known that De Beers has maintained an indirect relationship rather than a direct one. It then started to purchase offices in other lower diamond…
(1) Jay Epstein -- 1982. The Rise and Fall of Diamonds, New York: Simon and Schuster. Page 121
(2) Edmund Conway - Article Title: De Beers Cleared over Blood Diamonds; 'No Evidence' Gem Giant Fuelled War in Congo, Newspaper Title: Daily Telegraph. Publication Date: May 15, 2004.
(3) Greg Campbell - Article Title: Carat, Colour, Clarity ... And Conflict: The History of a Cold Blooded Love Affair. Magazine Title: African Business. Issue: 290. Publication Date: August-September 2003. Page Number: 62+.
(4) Tom Rawstorne -- Article Title: DIAMONDS TO DIE FOR; It's the Dark Side of the Diamond Industry - the Millions Mutilated and Murdered Just to Keep the West's Most Beautiful Women Dripping in Jewellery. Newspaper Title: The Daily Mail. Publication Date: October 25, 2004. Page Number: 36.
Diamond ars in estern Africa
Throughout estern Africa, the quest for diamonds has taken control of many of people and affected the stability of economic and governmental status throughout the nation. The diamond mines have caused civil wars, which have resulted in many casualties over the years.
Possibly the major cause of the diamond wars is human nature, as it is human nature that sparks the desire to own diamonds. Due to the amount of people who are seeking diamonds and the limited resources of the mineral, the diamond market has become a major source of conflict in estern Africa.
Throughout estern Africa, rebel groups have formed in an effort to gain control over diamond mines in Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The Diamond ars have destroyed these areas, which could potentially become well-developed nations if the conflicts did not exist. hile countries like Botswana and Namibia are using diamonds…
Campbell, Greg. Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World's Most Precious Stones. Westview Press, 2002.
Collier, Paul, "Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy," World Bank. 15 June 2000.
Epstein, Edward Jay, "Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond?" The Atlantic Monthly, February 1982. at: www.theatlantic.com/issues/82feb/8202diamond1.htm
Kerlin, Katherine "Diamonds Aren't Forever: Environmental Degradation and Civil War in the Gem Trade," The Environment Magazine. Sept. 2001.
Poverty in Sierra Leone
Ever since gaining of independence in 1961, the Leone has been as a nation has been plagued with civil wars and poverty. The country continues to suffer from extreme poverty despite the abundant presence of precious resources such as diamonds and rare minerals.
There are a number of factors that has essentially contributed to the almost never ending poverty of the citizens of the country which include corruption within the government, insufficient infrastructure, lack of education and inadequate civil rights.
According to Sachs et al., (2004) the entire sub-Saharan Africa is prone to poverty due to factors like very high transport costs and small market size, low-productivity agriculture and adverse geopolitics and lack of technological diffusion form the developed countries (Sachs et al., 2004).
In a similar manner, Sierra Leone too suffers from most of these deficiencies. Despite being one of the world's top exporters of…
Chaudhury, S. (2012). Empowering women through microfinance. New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House.
Clarke, M. (2006). Aid in conflict. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Date-Bah, E. (2003). Jobs after war. Geneva: InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction, International Labour Office.
Desai, S. (n.d.). Post-Conflict Microfinance: Assessment and Policy Notes for Iraq. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Diamonds may be a girl's best friend, according to a concept popular in the 1950s. Alternatively, diamonds might also be forever, a concept popularized in advertising for several decades. Diamonds are a symbol of love, but they have hardly been the source of much loving interaction between various populations of humans. In fact, diamonds have been at the root of intense and deadly strife in Sierra Leone, most notably, for most of the past two to three decades. The fact that advertising for diamonds is so memorable suggests that advertising messages have some causative responsibility for the devastating civil wars in Sierra Leone, and the human suffering that resulted.
Indeed, in 2000, the orld Bank released a report noting that "Greed for Diamonds and other 'Lootable' Commodities Fuels Civil ars." (orld Bank eb site) The report did not mention advertising as a direct contributor. Conceivably, that conclusion could…
De Beers advertisement. History Wired, http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=246
Diamond History. Retrieved 14 June 2004 at http://www.diamondsonweb.com/learn/history.pl
Dubois, Bernard & Paternault, Claire. "Understanding the World of International Luxury Brands: the "Dream Formula." Journal of Advertising Research, 35.4, 1995, 69+. Accessed at www/(Dubois & Paternault 1995, 69+) Accessed at www.questia.com/
Greed For Diamonds and Other 'Lootable' Commodities Fuels Civil Wars." World Bank Web site. Retrieved 14 June 2004 at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20014607~menuPK:34465~pagePK:64003015~piPK:64003012~theSitePK:4607,00.html
Microfinance: The Effectiveness of Microfinance in educing Poverty in Post-War Sierra Leone
A decade and a half into the 21st century, issues of poor growth, poverty and civil war still continue to afflict masses and inhibit sustainable growth in countries across the world, particularly in the African Continent. The bottom ten spots in the UNDP 2014 ranking of countries in terms of human development, for instance, were all taken up by African countries -- Niger, Congo, the Central African epublic, Chad, Sierra Leone, Eritrea, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Guinea, and Mozambique (UNDP Human Development eport, 2014). Of these, Sierra Leone presents the most dramatic case of development failure given its richness in marine resource endowment, tourist attractions, fertile agricultural land, and natural resources. The country has reported a slow annual growth rate averaging 6.8%, which is a mere shadow of its growth rate in the late 1980s prior to the outbreak…
Ahmeti, F., 2014. Microfinance as a Tool for Economic Development in Transitional Countries: Experience from Kosovo. The European Scientific Journal, 10(4): 269-287
Durrani, M.K., Usman, A., Malik, M.I., and Ahmad, S., 2011. Role of Microfinance in Reducing Poverty: A Look at Social and Economic Factors. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(21): 138-144
Gratton, C. And Jones, I., (2010) Research Methods for Sports Studies. Oxon: Routledge
IMF, 2005. Sierra Leone: Poverty-Reduction Strategy Paper. The IMF. Accessed April 9, 2015 https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2005/cr05191.pdf
The entire framework of the country is shifting, and it is leaving the people from the rural outskirts behind. Soon, the natives will be like strangers in their own country, and they will not retain any rights or voice.
Even worse, those whites with power and money run the government, and own just about anyone they want by bribing them and throwing their money around. Conteh writes, "People who had money could to virtually anything and get away with it, if they knew the right channels" (Conteh 97). That means the government is corrupt, and does not exist for the good of the people, but only for the good of the few and the powerful. In governments like this, there is usually revolt and revolution, both by the people and inside the government, creating an unstable environment for the country and society.
There is another lasting affect on society brought…
Conteh, J. Sorie. The Diamonds. New York: Lekon New Dimensions Publishing, 2001.
Structural Violence Framework in International Conflict
A Structural Violence Framework for Understanding & Analyzing International Conflict
Introduction to Structural Violence
Structural violence is differentiated from direct violence both in terms of etiology and nature. Direct violence is a result of events or the actions of individuals that kill or harm people. Structural violence, on the other hand, is a phenomenon made manifest through social inequalities (Christie, 1997). The organizational structures of political and economic systems cause and sustain the sort of hierarchical relations that enable dramatic differences between and across sectors of societies. Within these hierarchies, the people at the top have privilege, wealth, and power, while those at the bottom of the hierarchy are dominated, oppressed, and exploited (Christie, 1997). People are harmed and killed as a result of structural violence but, unlike direct violence, it occurs more slowly. The harm or death of oppressed people may…
Addison, T. And Murshed, M. (2001). From conflict to reconstruction: Reviving the social contract. UNU/WIDER Discussion Paper No. 48, Helsinki: UNU/WIDER, Retrieved at www.wider.unu.edu / research.
Barak, G. (2003). Violence and nonviolence: Pathways to understanding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Retrieved http://www.greggbarak.com/custom3_2.html
Barak, G. (2007). A critical perspective on violence. In Walter S. DeKeseredy and Barbara Perry (2006) Advancing Critical Criminology: Theory and Application, Lexington Books.
Bohman, J. (2010). Critical theory, [Web], The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/archives / spr2010/entries/critical-theory
Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.
A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.
Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
Journal 13.5 (1995): 4-7.
Gikandi, Simon. "Chinua Achebe and the Invention of African Culture." Research in African
School of Public Health
Public Health Admissions Essay
The most logical next phase of my career would be the completion of a degree in Public Health Administration.
A currently hold a BS in Sociology and the diversity that this and my personal history have offered me will lend well to the challenges of a postgraduate degree program. I am goal driven and will succeed, regardless of the difficulty of the task. I have researched the program that is offered by your institution and I believe the curriculum and faculty afforded there will be exactly what I am looking for and exactly what my professional goals need to progress.
The impetuses for my professional goals are strongly rooted in my life history. I am an immigrant from Sierra Leone. The reality of meeting my education goals were at times in my life fortuitous accidents. As a child myself my parents and…
Aid strategies or Trade Agreements more likely to relieve poverty in Sun-Saharan Africa?
Please a postgraduate essay. GUIDELINE FO THE ESSAY LINE. In assessing coursework, criteria: • elevance question • Sound ordering structuring material • Quality clarity written expression • Effective evidence • Appropriate theory • Demonstration sound understanding topic • Adequacy research analysis • Identification major themes arguments • Critical evaluation judgement • ange sources • Consistent referencing AND page numbers • Insight originality • Grammar language Please aware questions require critical analysis consideration: A] The nature continuity change global politics B] An analysis historical, politico-economic geo-political context C] Use case studies.
The development of African countries has been for decades now one of the most discussed subjects in the international arena, especially in the area of international development. There have been numerous attempts to find the proper solutions to be implemented in countries on the Black continent; however,…
CNN "Gem-of-a-deal spares Botswana from blood diamonds," in World, 15 decembrie 2006, available at http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/africa/12/11/koinange.botswana/index.html
CNN. "Your world today (transcript)" in Your World Today, 12 decembrie 2006, available at http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0612/12/ywt.01.html
Horvath, Ronald J. "A Definition of Colonialism." Current Anthropology, Vol. 13, No. 1, (Feb., 1972), pp. 45-57
Ministry of Education in Botswana. "The Revised National Policy On Education" in Government Paper No. 2, 1994, available at http://www.moe.gov.bw/headquarters/rnpe/RNPE%20Pages/rnpeone.htm
The historical change in this society is illustrated quite vividly in this essay. Clearly, this is a country undergoing political change, and there will be unrest for some time. The coup has removed law and order from the streets and replaced it with looting and violence, and it has sent the officials of the country packing, so there will be disorder and fear for some time to come. This is a drastic change in society, and that is made clear throughout this essay. The author makes it quite clear they are fearful, that the country is undergoing drastic change, and that things will not ever be quite the way they were before the coup. It reveals that politics in many of these developing nations is volatile at best, and that people can never take their safety and security for granted, because there is always someone ready to take their way…
Andrews, T. Letters from a 1990s bush doctor.
He notes that many of the young men who were in rehabilitation with him returned to fighting, but he managed to escape and finally come to America, where he went to school and finally wrote about his experience. During his rehabilitation, the people working with him would tell him what happened was not his fault. One social worker said, "None of what happened was your fault. You were just a little boy, and anytime you want to tell me anything, I am here to listen" (Beah 160). Her encouragement helped him overcome his fears and his self-recrimination, and helped him move along the road to true rehabilitation.
ehabilitation takes time and patience, and this woman, "Nurse Esther," had both. She is largely responsible that Beah was able to assimilate back into society and live a normal life.
She helped him realize that he could not feel guilty about what had…
Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…
Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry in Mozambique and Tanzania
The Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry
In Mozambique and Tanzania
Both nations of Mozambique and Tanzania are among the poorest globally, with each supported through foreign subsidies and foreign direct investment (FDI) (Tanzania, 2011). The relative levels of poverty however have led to political unrest in Mozambique and diamond smuggling to Zimbabwe, where gems are in high demand in that nations' economy which is rampant with information today
(Latham, Katerere, 2011). Due to the strength of its mining operations in aluminum and abundance of natural resources however, Mozambique's GDP growth rate is expected to reach 8.3% in 2010 according to the CIA Factbook.
Tanzania is the 16th highest ranked producer of diamonds globally, having one of the highest quality of diamonds produced in their mining operations of any on the African continent (Macklem, 2003). Paradoxically however, Tanzania has a…
Sierra Leone: diamond king. (2000, January). The Economist, 354(8155), 46,52.
Laffin, Simon. (2000, January 4). Let's hear how mining companies are helping with power, roads and water: [London edition]. Financial Times, p. 14.
Latham, B., & Katerere, F.. (2011, January). Diamond Smuggling Thrives in Zimbabwe. Business Week,1.
Katherine Macklem. (2003, September). Diamonds with an edge. Maclean's, 116(36), 52.
Forced labor is one of the most important and at the same time intriguing "diseases" of the 21st century particularly because it should no longer be a subject for discussion considering that the 21st century should be one of technological advancements, of improvements in the living standards, as well as it the overall consideration of human life as being essential for the well-being of our future. Yet, there are constant cases of forced labor in regions such as Africa or Asia that have questioned the ability of the state and of the human being to protect another human being from abuses.
The current research focuses on the way in which forced labor is viewed from the point-of-view of the international law, as well as through the lens of a known case study of forced labor that determined not only reactions from the state, but also an increased in the awareness…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Man Indicted for Forced Labor and Sex Trafficking of Women Forced to Work as Prostitutes in Orange County, 2012, available at http://www.fbi.gov/losangeles/press-releases/2012/man-indicted-for-forced-labor-and-sex-trafficking-of-women-forced-to-work-as-prostitutes-in-orange-county
Holocaust Encyclopedia. Forced labor: an overview, 2013, available at http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005180
International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor Convention, 1930, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/subjects-covered-by-international-labour-standards/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm
International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor, 2013, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/
To wit, in several SSA countries, the ratio of girls to boys in school is less than 80% (eight girls to every ten boys who have a chance at an education). In Chad, there are 6.4 girls to every 10 boys in primary education; in Guinea-Bissau there are 6.5 girls for every ten boys in school. Child mortality is a horrific problem in SSA: in 30 of the 47 countries the rate of child mortality is at least 1 in ten (for children under 5 years of age). In Sierra Leone, for example 262 out of every 1,000 children die before the age of five (orld Bank data).
Maternal health is a very serious problem in SSA; over thirty countries report more than 500 mothers out of every 100,000 either die during pregnancy or during childbirth. There are some frighteningly stark numbers among those 30 countries; to wit, in Sierra…
Franklin, Thomas. "Reaching the Millennium Development Goals: equality and justice as well as results." Development in Practice 18.3 (2008): 420-423.
United Nations. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008." Retrieved July 11,
2009, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/ .
World Bank. "Data and Research." Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://econ.worldbank.org.
This disbelief would fade with relative quickness though as in a matter of less than a day from this intrusion into his life, Baeh would see more bloodshed and death than any child should ever know. The horrific sequence in which the war first becomes visible to the author tells with unflinching honesty the degree to which violence had come to rule his former home. This would be part and parcel to his rehabilitation though, with four years of war behind him. Baeh would have to remind himself that he had been a victim and not the perpetrator during the four years of his childhood that were deployed to this brutal conflict. A perfectly fitting metaphor for the moment of his innoncence being taken from his is that in which he describes a woman carrying a dead baby. Baeh tells that "the image of that woman and her…
Baeh, I. (2007). A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. Farrar, Giroux & Strauss.
1. Describe the conditions that forced Ishmael to turn from being a gentle 12-year-old boy to become a "solider" capable of gruesome acts of terror. Did he have any options? How was he rehabilitated into being a normal boy again?
They may know what they have done and freely confess to it, but a true understanding of what they have done is not really present.
It is somewhat like the difference between knowing that jumping off the roof and hitting the ground will hurt, and actually making the jump and understanding what it feels like to hit the ground that hard from 10 or 15 feet up. The concept of what it really means to take another human being's life is not there; nor is the concept of being executed by the state for the taking of that life.
Third, the person must have an IQ that is significantly below average. There are quite a few people out there who do not have an 'average' intelligence score, (around 100 to 110, as previously mentioned), but that does not make them mentally retarded to the point that their reasoning and abilities…
AAMR. Position Statement on Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty. 6 March 2002. AAMR. http://www.aamr.org/Policies/position_statements.shtml .
American Civil Liberties Union. Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty. 26 June, 2002. ACLU Publications. http://www.aclu.org/DeathPenalty/DeathPenalty.cfm?ID=9314&c=63 .
Death Penalty, the. 2002. Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/deathpenalty/mr.htm .
Derbyshire, John. She was just someone. (2000, August 10). National Review Online. Retrieved from http://www.nationalreview.com/nr_comment/nr_comment081000b.shtml
Although Rotberg states that elections are not first priority but constitutions and elections to encourage democracy are very important. It is more important according to Rotberg that strength is given to nation states prior to failure as it is much easier to attempt revival from this point instead of after failure and collapse. He cites 'outside support' as being 'conditional on monetary and fiscal streamlining' with 'renewed attention to good governance, with reforms of land tenure systems and strict adherence to the rule of law" taking place. Nothing that endures can be accomplished in a short period of time. It is very important that failure of many of these states is prevented but it is also costly. These places ethnic cleansing and famines result in the newly failed states with terrorist groups taking hold.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
While Rothberg's appointed facts are certainly factual yet the policies being used to…
National Security Strategy of the United States of America (2002) as cited by Stewart Patrick 2002 September p. online available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html .
Patrick, Stewart (2002) Weak States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction? Online available at http://www.twq.com/06spring/docs/06spring_patrick.pdf .
Rotberg, 2002) The New Nature of a Nation-State Failure Online available at http://www.twq.com/02Summer/Rotberg.pdf
Critique and Review of Rotberg (2002) "The New Nature of a Nation-State Failure"
reality globalization interdisciplinary perspective. Concretely, means analyzing a variety phenomena globalization process, economic, political, social, cultural psychological aspects reality, extent .
Globalization has become such an important world in defining the way in which economies and countries develop that an actual definition of the term itself is no longer sought. It represents nowadays a terminology that entangles the entire array of economic, political, social, and cultural elements of life at the global level. However, the critics of the globalization process tend to view these developments as worsening the condition of the human being through the high level of dependency on economic revenues, on the strong inter-connectivity between countries, societies, and individuals that eventually leads to diluting the actual nature of the individual as a particular human being, with rights and obligations, with a life following the social contract norms of the 18th century. Perhaps one of the most spread discussion…
Balas, Kevin. Disposable people. London: University of California Press 2002
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
George ush & Charles Taylor
General Analysis; current affairs; George ush & Charles Taylor"
The Objective of this paper is wholly to illustrate and depict what President Charles Taylor done to have been ordered by President George ush to relinquish his power
One of the most significant and relevant happenings within the contemporary world has been, arguably, the achievement of ultimate global, strategic and military power by the United States of America, an occurrence that the country appears to be intensifying and fortifying in so much as enhancing the ostensible war on terrorism incepted as a consequence of the ghastly September 11th attack (s) on the WTC and the Pentagon.
Subsequent political influence
The U.S., as a result of contemporaneously being the nation wielding supreme power, finds itself in a position demanding monumental commitment and responsibility, such as resolving particularly deteriorative issues around the globe. This is something that becomes…
Jones Tony & Hermant Norman (09/07/2003) Bush still to decide on Liberia force, Lateline, Australian Broadcasting Corporation @ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2003/s898642.htm
Wiley Ed III (July 3, 2003); U.S. Military Command in Europe Told to Prepare for Possible Action In Liberia @ http://www.bet.com/articles/0,1048,c1gb6733-7533-1,00.html
Hoffman Lisa (July 9, 2003); A look at Liberian President Charles Taylor @ http://www.knoxnews.com/kns/world/article/0,1406,KNS_351_2098076,00.html
Fofana Lansana (Thu Jul 03, 2003); Liberia: Pressure mounts on President Taylor to resign, Inter-Press Service (IPS), @ http://www.afrika.no/Detailed/3803.html
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…
Chasek, P., Downie, D., & Brown, J. (2014). Global environmental politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Clerici, M., Combal, B., Pekel, J., Dubois, G., van't Klooster, J., Skoien, J., & Bartholome, E. (2013). The eStation, an Earth Observation processing service in support to ecological monitoring. Ecological Informatics, 18, 162-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2013.08.004
Davies, C. (2015). Deforestation 'may have started west Africa's Ebola outbreak'. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/29/deforestation-might-have-started-west-africas-ebola-outbreak
Ginsberg, J. (2014). How saving West African forests might have prevented the Ebola epidemic. The Guardian, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/vital-signs/2014/oct/03/ebola-epidemic-bats-deforestation-west-africa-guinea-sierra-leone-liberia http://news.mongabay.com ,. (2006). Africa's deforestation rate may be underestimated. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from
Social Context of HIV and AIDS in Africa
The government of Africa has been moving toward criminalization of HIV transmission in its attempts to respond to the rising numbers of HIV infections however, those who advocate for human rights are concerned that these laws result in a violation of the rights of individuals living with HIV and ultimately resulting in the marginalization of these individuals. As well, it has been argued that laws criminalizing transmission of AIDS are counterproductive to the reason for their creation, which is that of slowing the rate of transmission and infection of HIV. There are arguments both for and against criminalization of HIV transmission that are valid and worthy of consideration.
The question addressed in this research study is one asking if criminalization of HIV transmission is a valid option to slowing the rate of infection among the population.
Significance of the Study…
The Criminalization of HIV (nd) UNFPA, Worldaids Campaign, IPPF, and GYCA,
Bernard EJ: (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
UNFPA Fact Sheet (2008) 'The Criminalisation of HIV' in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Bernard EJ (2008) Criminal HIV Transmission. Neue Zurcher Zeitung 2008 in: HIV is a Virus, Not a Crime: Ten Reasons Against Criminal Statutes and Criminal Prosecutions. Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dec 2008.
Since 1996, military abuses have forced one million villagers to flee their homes.
The presence and conduct of the military are central to the plight of these civilians. Military operations have placed a particularly heavy burden on rural populations affecting their ability to sustain livelihoods.
Cases of rape and sexual violence committed by military personnel, many of them against young girls and adolescents, have been reported by human rights organizations.
It should also be noted that after the crushing of the pro-democracy movement in 1988, the regime"…took a number of steps to increase their military strength."
Instead of considering the extent of popular dissent the government in fact increased their supply of arms and military strength in order to act even more effectively against any protests. "… the regime had begun planning an ambitious ten-year program to expand the armed forces and significantly upgrade their operational capabilities. The SLORC also…
Aspden, Rachel. "Forgotten Burma: As the Country Prepares to Vote in a Discredited Referendum, Rachel Aspden Visits the Forgotten Burmese Resistance -- the Eastern Ethnic Groups Promised Independence 60 Years Ago." New Statesman 5 May 2008: 31+.
Blaustein, Susan. "Burma's Surreal Police State." The Nation 30 Apr. 1990: 599+.
Burmese army's violence against civilians. 2010, March 26, 2010,
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense, India is ranked 17 and China 18, as opposed to 119 and 89 respectively.
There are several aspects for this change. On the one hand, positive indexes were taken into account for both countries. For instance, the income in China is constantly improving, as China has a 76 ranking as opposed to 89 the general index. By comparison, this is also applicable to India, with a positive index of 87 as opposed to its general 119.
In terms of inequality China is relatively low as its ranking is 72 compared with the general one of 89. Therefore there is little difference largely because despite the constant developments in the economy the results of this development are not evenly spread and therefore…
Human Development Index. The Human development concept. Human Development Reports. 2010. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/
D., a senior child-protection specialist with the Christian Children's Fund. "You don't falter. You don't disobey. Any show of weakness and you're killed" (Amber, 2004).
Hamer (2010) writes "Child soldiers were portrayed as having no connections in society, without skills, incompetent and prone to violence, and it was strongly implied that they were trapped in a vicious circle and that they would always experience difficulties in returning to a non-violent routine because they had been actors and witnesses of too many atrocities during the war (p. 54).
Post Traumatic Stress
It is possible to identify with captors by other means as well. Due to their age and size children are basically powerless in the world. By identifying with their tormentors it is possible for children to gain a strong sense of power, denied to them by other means. By following orders they may come to believe they will receive additional…
Amber, J. (2004). Abduction of Innocents. Essence (Time Inc.), 35(8), 172-218. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Convention on Rights of the Child. (n.d.). United Nations Office of the High Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 6, 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf
Denov, M. & MacLure, R. (2006). Engaging the Voices of Girls in the Aftermath of Sierra Leone's Conflict: Experiences and Perspectives in a Culture of Violence. Anthropologica. Vol. 48, No. 1, War and Peace / La guerre et la paix (2006), pp. 73-85. Published by: Canadian Anthropology Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25605298
Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002, Dec.). Growing up in Guerrilla Camps: The Long-Term Impact of Being a Child Soldier in El Salvador's Civil War. Ethos. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 327-356 .
Another example of unethical globalization choices would be the irresponsible exploitation of child labor and, more generally, of extremely poor societies where local populations have no choice but to work long hours for pennies a day. In that regard, it is fundamentally unethical for product manufacturers based in nations with public policies and laws that prohibit exploitative wages and working conditions to outsource their manufacturing processes to foreign nations where there are no such local restrictions.
It may be perfectly acceptable for an American athletic footwear company to employ foreign labor to take advantage of generally lower wages by American standards that still provide humane working conditions and a livable wage to employees. It is another matter entirely to exploit foreign populations living in abject poverty without doing anything to improve their lives or provide a livable wage. Similarly, there is nothing necessarily wrong for an American company to use…
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
" It should be noted that Perriello supported a "Republican version" (House.gov) of PAYGO that supported stronger restrictions on spending. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello even posted an update on Twitter, stating that he was "very pleased that PAYGO passed the House" (Twitter.com). Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). hile still a freshman in ashington, Perriello has demonstrated…
Gibson, Bob. "Perriello Enters Race for 5th seat; Hopeful Seeks to Bring Faith, Global Experience to D.C." The Daily Progress. Charlottesville, Va.: Oct 7, 2007.
Goldsmith, Will. "Can he go the Distance? Tom Perriello hits Southside in his effort to beat Virgil Goode." Charlottesville News and Arts. < http://www.c-ville.com/index.php?cat=121304062461064&ShowArticle_ID=11800610083997492 >
Lithwick, Dahlia. "Goode Riddance." Slate Online. 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/2204124/
Mission and Vision.
The chambers approach may be more suitable for states that seek a quick resolution to a particular dispute or for other compelling reasons; however, like the full Court, these alternatives are likewise voluntary in nature and require the consent of the disputants to have the case heard by one of the three foregoing chamber types. According to the Court's published information concerning "Chambers and Committees" (2009), "Despite the advantages that chambers can offer in certain cases, under the terms of the Statute their use remains exceptional. Their formation requires the consent of the parties. While, to date, no case has been heard by either of the first two types of chamber, by contrast there have been six cases dealt with by ad hoc chambers."
Given the significant representation by most of the countries of the world in the UN, the UCJ has the capability to provide a valuable forum in…
Alvarez, Jose E. And Thomas M. Franck, "Judging the Security Council." American Journal of International Law, 90(1), 2 (1999).
Basic Facts about the United Nations, Department of Public Information. New York: United
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul: West Publishing Co. (1990).
Life had not been easy for the prisoners that survived, as they had been taken over and prepared for their lives as slaves. The operation of preparation had been called "seasoning" and it involved a sort of training process which would make blacks good slaves for the American world.
The main African centers had been found in Senegambia, Sierra-Leone, Oyo, Dahomey, and Benin. The trip from inland towards the ports in which the European awaited for the slaves had also been unforgiving for the prisoners. Captives would have to travel for hundreds of miles while they were tied up in order to prevent them from running away. Many of them died on their way towards the ports.
The time it took for ships to get from Africa to America varied between forty days and six months. The conditions onboard ships had been horrible and prisoners had been packed by ship…
Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harold. "The Africa-American Odyssey." Prentice Hall, 2005.
Doudou Diene. "From Chains to Bonds: The Slave Trade Revisited." Books/UNESCO, 2001.
Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harold. "The Africa-American Odyssey." Prentice Hall, 2005.
There have been numerous debates over the right choice between breast feeding and other substitutes in the conditions of mothers infected with HIV. Due to the possibility of infecting the infant with the virus, many women prefer bottled milk or other substitutes. However, unlike western countries where the issue of hygiene is no longer a problem, not even in the remotest corners of the countries, the situation is Africa is greatly related to the idea of a clean environment for women and their newborns. In this sense, the lack of financial possibilities determines the state and the population to be unable to provide a proper environment and to be unable to afford one respectively. Thus, the milk other than the maternal one is subjected to all sorts of bacteria, viruses, and even diseases. Therefore, on the one hand, there is the risk of the child to become infected with HIV;…
Afolabi, et al. (2001) Malaria in the first 6 months of life in urban African infants with anemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 65, Issue 6, 822-827. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/reprint/65/6/822
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger's children continue dying. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4274728.stm
Andersson, H. (2005). Niger children starving to death. BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2008, from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4695355.stm
Aneki (2008) Countries with the Highest Infant Mortality Rates in the World. Aneki Web page. Retrieved 26 March 2008, at http://www.aneki.com/mortality.html
His daughter Martha married David amsay, a physician, historian, and South Carolina Congressman. Her lifelong journal was published by the family after her death, and it chronicled her life, but much of her father's life in the political arena as well. Lauren's son, Henry Jr., married Eliza, the daughter of John utledge, and inherited his father's estate, and his other daughter Mary had been involved in a dubious relationship with a Frenchman, causing problems with the father-daughter relationship. She married Charles Pinckney and died in childbirth soon afterwards, leaving only two remaining children out of the original twelve. Laurens family is very representative of life during colonial times. Most couples had numerous children, and only a few lived because life was so difficult. Many died from disease or illness, but many others died as a result of farming accidents and such. This was accepted as a part of life, and…
Chesnutt, David R. And Taylor, C. James, Editors. The Papers of Henry Laurens. Volume XVI: September 1, 1782-December 17, 1792. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2003.
Chesnutt, David R. And Taylor, C. James, Editors. The Papers of Henry Laurens. Volume XI: January 5, 1776-November 1, 1777. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
Despite the political agreement, it did not result in any sustainable resolution due to the fact that while the Sudan People's Liberation Army endorsed the provisions with a clear focus on the self-determination solution, the regime in Khartoum underlined the importance of the unity of the country and the preeminence of the Shari a as the national reference law. Consequently, the peace talks reached a stalemate.
The international community became more actively involved in the negotiations underway in Sudan. In this sense, the involvement of the U.S. is most relevant. The Clinton Administration in particular imposed economic and political sanctions on the regime in Khartoum given the fact that it was the Sudanese state that constantly refused to accept negotiations with its counterparts. Countries in the region as well got involved in the process and supported the ongoing talks through the Intergovernmental Authority for Development. This structure included states such…
Abdelgadier, Osama. God, Oil, and Country: Sudan's Long Road to Peace. Sudan at the Crossroads. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://fletcher.tufts.edu/sudanconference2004/outcomes/Abdelgadier%20Thurs.pdf
Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-Interim and Interim Period. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://www.usip.org/library/pa/sudan/wealth_sharing_01072004.pdf
BBC. "Country profile: Sudan" BBC World. 2007. 3 October 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. 3 October 2007 < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
eapons of mass destruction are just an excuse. But is known that
"President George Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney were both oil
company executives before entering politics, as was half the present US
administration," which means that not only do you have friends in the oil
business but that they dictate your policy (Vesely 2002). Having such
deceptive and underhanded policies and engaging an entire nation in a war
that not only kills Amerians, but also people of other countries and
encourages anti-American sentiment among even our allies is a horrible
foreign policy when all we receive in return is natural resources and
riches for a few Americans. Alternatives must be sought. No longer can
weapons of mass destruction be an excuse to involve the United States in
such costly polices.
And yet even more so now weapons of mass destruction are being hinted
at as an excuse to go…
Buckley Jr., William. "Looking Ahead-Oil." National Review (2005). 17 Apr.
"Imperialism Definition." Dictionary.Com. 17 Apr. 2007
Lewis, Bernard. "Did You Say 'American Imperialism'? : Power, Weakness, and
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison
Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).
In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…
About.com. (2008). Fast Facts About Mesopotamia. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nearest/ss/052909Mesopotamia.htm.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html .
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…
AFP. (2010). Ivory Coast PM urges UN to speak out on poll results. AFP. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iedxpbLd4aBzQjdcFHeD-LdVH2qA?docId=CNG.347958328eebaf1a5122e531750726d6.c81
Africa Speaks. (2011). 2010 elections in Cote d'Ivoire: What most media do not tell you. Africa Speaks. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=7026.0
Aloisi, S. (2003). New hope of Ivory Coast peace as rebels join talks. The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/09/westafrica
AP. (2011). Gbagbo nationalizes cocoa in Ivory Coast. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Gbagbo-nationalizes-cocoa-in-apf-4254897232.html?x=0&.v=1
European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .
Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.
From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…
African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).
Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.
Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010. http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html (accessed March 05, 2011).
Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.
Slave Community. In the development of southern architecture slaves constructed both slave quarters as well as larger plantation homes. Choose 3 examples of these types of structures and discuss why they were used, they overall design (using terminology) and also the origins of the design ideas and why these design elements were incorporated into the buildings.
The plantation architecture in the South developed over centuries, reflected not only the evolution of the slave communities, but also their interaction with the owners, their cultural background and their integration in the economic structure of the South. Many of the phases in this development, including creolization, brought forth new elements in architecture, as well as in the anthropological and cultural evolution of these communities. The aim of this paper is to discuss Southern architecture with distinct examples from plantation houses and slave communities, with an additional perspective on creaolization and its impact.
1. Plantation Architecture in Alabama. 2011. Encyclopedia of Alabama. On the Internet at http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1671 . Last retrieved on February 14, 2012
2. Buisseret, David. 2000. Creolization in the Americas. Texas A&M University Press
3. Edwards, Jay; Kariouk, Nicolas. 2004. A Creole lexicon. LSU Press.
4. Vlach, John Michael. 1993. Back of the big house. UNC Press Books
" There is a more calm feeling to his description. This is not to say that the author was portraying war as being a patriotic act, but the author was not as graphical in his describing what the soldiers were seeing and going through. The reader is more connected to the actions of the poem and not the fact that someone is dying. He ends his poem by referencing "hell" and the reader is left wondering whether the hell that he is referring to the war that is being left behind, or to dying itself.
3) Rites of Passage Activity
In speaking to my grandmother, I was able to find out what it was that she took when she first left her home. At the age of sixteen, she was married to my grandfather and was getting ready to start her knew life as a wife and very soon, as…
" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."
Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…
An-Na'Im, Abdullahi, 1994. Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child. in: P. Alston, ed. The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 62-81.
Burman, Erica, 1999. Appealing and Appalling Children. Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(3), 285-301.
Burman, Erica, 1995. The Abnormal Distribution of Development: policies for Southern women and children. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2(1), 21-37.
Freeman, Michael, 1997. The Moral Status of Children: Essays on the Rights of the Child. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.
Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…
'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.
"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.< http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .
Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
English Humanities Honors class. teacher Mrs. Vogt, period 1, Spring 2012. questions, call [HIDDEN]
Gun laws around the world
Gun laws are a particularly divisive issue around the world, as they are often associated with more or less alarming crime levels. hile people are generally inclined to support the expression "guns don't kill people; people kill people," it is only safe to assume that crimes are largely dependent on gun laws. Some countries are known to express zero tolerance regarding gun ownership while others promote the belief that it is perfectly normal for guns to be accessible to the masses. Particular groups believe that harsh gun laws are imposed by bigoted politicians who are unable to understand matters from an objective point-of-view and certain communities consider that gun ownership needs to be controlled using severe means. All things considered, gun laws worldwide differ on account of Constitutions and depending on…
Cukier, Wendy, Sidel, Victor W. "The global gun epidemic: from Saturday night specials to AK-47s," (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006)
Braun, Yury, "A Comparison Between the German and the United States Law Concerning the Differences in Gun Laws," (GRIN Verlag, 2009)
Hongju Koh, Harold, "LECTURE A WORLD DROWNING IN GUNS," Retrieved March 28, 2012, from the Yale Law School Website: http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2738&context=fss_papers
Liptak, Adam, "Gun Laws and Crime: A Complex Relationship," Retrieved March 28, 2012, from the New York Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/weekinreview/29liptak.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
The origin of the Carthaginian Empire can be traced back to 814 C, North Africa where Carthage was situated towards the east of Lake Tunis where we can locate Tunisia today. Carthage was basically founded by Phoenician settlers which came from Tyre city which is now known as Sur in Lebanon. Queen Dido was credited with being the founder of this city and since the establishment of this empire; there are numerous myths that can be traced back to the association with Romans and Greeks, essentially their literature (owman).
Success of the Carthage Empire
The Carthage city was famous for trade and that proved to be the means of their survival and helped the Carthaginians gain massive amounts of power and spreading the trade routes and networking all along the Mediterranean. In the early 6th century C, Hanno, a famous Carthaginian explorer went on his trip sailing till…
Bagnall, Nigel. The Punic Wars: Rome, Carthage, and the struggle for the mediterranean. Hutchinson Publishers, 2005.
Bowman, David. The Carthaginian Empire. Bluewood Publishing Limited, 2010.
Durham, David Anthony. Pride of the Carthage. Anchor Publishers, 2006.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Punic Wars. Cassell Publishers, 2001.
Humanity and Empathy
ar Tears Families Apart
The thought of "war" conjures images of men in combat, but what of the families left behind? Throughout history, families have watched their men go to war. In more recent history, they have watched their women go to war as well. These soldiers are sons and daughters, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, and fathers and mothers. The families they leave behind are affected when someone goes to war. There is continual worry when a soldier is deployed; families worry for their soldier's safety and pray for his safe return. People go to war all over the world and the stress experienced by families is the same. There are no cultural or ethnic boundaries when it comes to the effects of war on a family. ar tears families apart and family life may never again be the same as…
Beah, Ishmael. A Long Way Gone. New York: Sarah Crichton Books. 2007. Kindle file.
Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak! New York: Soho Press. 2004. Kindle file.
Eggers, Dave. What is the What? New York: Vintage. 2007. Kindle file.
War is one of the primordial human traditions. Man has always been enthusiastic about fighting, murdering and stealing from others. However, it doesn't derive us to the conclusion that interpersonal associations are dependent on war as a requisite or obligatory institution (Mises 10+).
Many believe that war is a natural necessity and man can only attain full human importance if he behaves aggressively and antagonistically (Mead 415). If the militarist theory is taken into consideration for the sake of argument, it can be accepted that man is gifted with an intrinsic natural feeling to struggle, battle and to cause destruction and damage. Nevertheless, man cannot be characterized with these instincts and primal inclinations to harm and destroy. Man is distinguished from other mortals on the basis of his intellect, rationales and imagination. It is the 'reason' and 'logic' that teaches and guides man to the right path. The…
Bannon, Ian, and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003. ix. Web. .
"Conflict & Natural Resources." Environmental Literacy Council. The Environmental Literacy Council, 26 August, 2008. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .
Gausset, Quentin, Michael A. Whyte, and Torben Birch Thomsen. Beyond Territory and Scarcity: Exploring Conflicts over Natural Resource Management. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2005. 20. Web. .
Kaptur, Marcy. " Feb 15, 2007- Kaptur: No Troop Surge in Iraq." Marcy Kaptur Representing Ohio's 9th District. U.S. House of Representatives, n.d. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111931454
Campbell, B. (1993). 3 A Canadian Labor Perspective on a North American Free Trade Agreement. In The North American Free Trade Agreement Labor, Industry, and Government Perspectives, Bognanno, M.F. & Ready, K.J. (Eds.) (pp. 61-68). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24509387
Conti, D.B. (1998). Reconciling Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Interdependence: The Rhetoric of Presidential Economic Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15432294
Youth Advocate Programs, Inc.
Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. (YAP) is a registered as a nonprofit corporation, licensed to conduct business in the United States according to rules and regulations of not for profit companies in the states in which the corporation operates. The YAP Institute as it is better known derives most of its revenues cash contributions made by private charitable sources. According to the Institute's 2009 IS 990, those sources are undisclosed, and line itemed according to a general statement about cash contributions in support of the organization's mission and programs. Some grant monies are also mentioned in the federal reporting narrative, yet the title to those sources of contribution also unmentioned with exception of annual totals.
External granting to YAP's international programs is mentioned, and is listed as earmarked funds for programmatic and operational support in those countries. YAP's connection to the court system,…
Light, C. (2004). Sustaining Nonprofit Performance: The Case for Capacity Building and the Evidence to Support It. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.yapinc.org/