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In order to understand the value and significance of the life of Simon Bolivar, it's important to understand both his early and adult life. His Jamaican Letter, why he was called The Great Liberator, and his historic significance -- that has been compared with the significance of George Washington -- all matter. Bolivar was a military leader, but also a political leader. The combination opened up many different options for him, allowing him to focus on several different aspects of serving his country and advancing the values he felt were important. During Latin America's struggle to become independent from the Spanish Empire, Bolivar played a crucial role (Arana, 2013; Bushnell, 1970). That struggle was ultimately successful, further endearing Bolivar to the people of his country and to history in general. Because of his work to make life better for his country from both military and political standpoints, he…
Arana, M. (2013). Bolivar: American Liberator. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Bushnell, D. (1970). The Liberator, Simon Bolivar. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Bushnell, D. (ed.) & Fornoff, F. (tr.). (2003). El Libertador: Writings of Simon Bolivar, Oxford University Press.
Bushnell, D. & Macaulay, N. (1994). The Emergence of Latin America in the Nineteenth Century (2nd ed). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Listening & Analysis: Violin
Listening Introductory Concepts -- the eferential Listener
Clarinet Concerto in a major II. Adagio
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed Clarinet Concerto in A major II for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. The musical work is classical and consists of three movements in the fast-slow-fast form or allegro-adagio-allegro. The work exhibits Mozart's delicate and purely instrumental approach. The interplay between the orchestra and the soloist is characterized by clarity, balance, and transparency. The soloist's role is introverted as there are no cadenzas in the piece. From a the perspective of a referential listener, the piece causes me to associate with mountain and valley vistas that I have encountered when hiking. It is precisely that moment when one deliberately slows one's pace as the scene comes into view. Memories of the view are associated with the aroma of the plants crushed under booted feet, the feel of the breeze that…
The Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela
I am a keen fan of El Sistema, the music program that is conducted in the barrios of Venezuela, of which the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra has been a natural outgrowth. The Orchestra is associated with Maestro Gustavo Dudamel who grew up in the El Sistema program and has become an internationally respected and adored conductor.
West-Eastern Divan Orchestra
Ecuador is a country full of beauty and culture. It also has an interesting history. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the country of Ecuador as it relates to Geography, Natural esources, Political and legal System (past & current), Culture, major Trading Partners (past & present), Export, labor forces and Technology. Let us begin the discussion by discussing the history of the country.
History of Ecuador
The history of Ecuador is amongst the most interesting in all the world. Most of the nation that is now known as Ecuador was captured by the Peruvian Incas in the 15th century (Ecuador 2001). The conquest of the Incans is described in more detail by Meggers (1966). The author asserts that the Incan conquest of Ecuador was commenced between 1463 and 1471, when the southern highland basins of Loja and Cuenca were integrated into the Empire by Topa Inca. The author…
The World Factbook, Ecuador 2005. CIA. retrieved Februeary 16, 2005 from; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ec.html#
Democracy Prevails in Ecuador. (2000, May). Americas (English Edition), 52, 52.
Ecuador. (2001, November). Geographical, 73, 60.
Goffin, A.M. (1994). The Rise of Protestant Evangelism in Ecuador, 1895-1990. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.
Termed "the forgotten battle," the Battle for the Aleutians represented the only instance during World War II when the Japanese occupied American soil and the campaign exacted a significant toll of American lives and treasure. The Aleutians became strategically significant during World War II for the Japanese as well as the United States, but the American preparations in anticipation of this attack were woefully inadequate. Despite a U.S. naval base was being established at Dutch Harbor in 1942, the Japanese bombed the base and later occupied Attu, Kiska, and Agattu islands. Although a U.S. counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka retook these islands in 1943, several thousand of American lives were lost in the process and many more were injured. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the primary and secondary juried and scholarly literature concerning the Battle of the Aleutians to…
'Aleutian Islands,' 2012, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
'Battle of the Aleutian Islands,' (n..d). History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics / battle-of-the-aleutian-islands.
Breslin, CB 1994, June 18, 'World War II in the Aleutians: The Fundamentals of a Joint
Campaign,' Newport, RI: Naval War College.
The manner in which consumer goods can affect human affairs, however, differs. hile demand for certain consumer goods can lead to oppression, the way people demand consumer goods may also destroy oppressive practices. hen Britons demanded sugar with no regard to the way sugar and coffee they enjoyed for the breakfast were produced, slavery flourished. But when the Britons began to demand goods that they believed were not causing slavery, the change of tastes undermined slave trade and contributed to the ending of slavery. hile tobacco and cotton were not as important at the time as sugar, they played a similar function in abolitionist and independence movements that fought against slavery.
The function of consumer goods is also linked to material culture. This was the case in the eighteenth century, as books by Dubois and Carrigus and Hochschild demonstrate. European colonial practices that led to the enslavement of tens of…
Dubois, Laurent and John D. Carrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 2006. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chain: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. Print.
George ashington's Contributions
hen George ashington died on December 14, 1799, he was hailed as America's "savior" and the "father of liberty" (Petri pp). Today, he is referred to as the father of this country. Delivering ashington's eulogy, John Marshall said, "The hero, the sage, the patriot of America, the man on whom in times of danger every eye was turned and all hopes were placed, lives now only in his own great actions, and in the hearts of an affectionate and afflicted people" (Petri pp). ashington was not only a great general, leader, and politician, he was the epitome of a great American and an extraordinary human being.
As Commander in Chief of the colonial forces, ashington transformed an untrained army into a disciplined military force, despite the lack of supplies and equipment and in spite of the continuous political bickering (Petri pp). Remaining focused and determined, ashington led…
Smith, Richard Norton. "The Surprising George Washington."
Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. .Knopf. 2004; pp. 3, 4.
Flexner, James Thomas. Washington: The Indispensable Man.
Santa Anna Dictatorship
In his self-described revisionist biography Santa Anna of Mexico (2007), Will Fowler has courageously taken up the defense of the Mexico caudillo, fully aware that he is all but universally reviled in the historiography of the United States and Mexico. From the beginning, he made his intention clear to vindicate the reputation of a dictator whose "vilification has been so thorough and effective that the process of deconstructing the numerous lies that have been told and retold" is almost impossible.[footnoteRef:1] Timothy J. Henderson asserted that he had a great talent for exploiting and manipulating political divisions but none for governing a country. In U.S. history and popular culture, he has always been portrayed as a corrupt megalomaniac, the 'Napoleon of the West', responsible for the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. As John Chasteen and James Wood put it, even his autobiography was an "extraordinary work of…
"The Alamo" in William Dirk Raat (ed). Mexico from Independence to Revolution, 1810-1910. University of Nebraska Press, 1982, pp. 84-90.
Borneman, Walter R. Polk: The Man Who Transformed the Presidency and America. NY: Random House, 2009.
Eisenhower, John S.D. So Far from God: The U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848. NY: Random House, 2000.
Fehrenbach Timothy R. Fire and Blood. De Capo Press, 1995.
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.