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I'd Tell You I Love You but Then I'd Have to Kill You by Ally Carter
Words: 480 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 94221233
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love you but then I'd have to kill you by Ally Carter

Modern girls are caught in a bind: how can they have a social life yet still be talented, intelligent, and athletically amazing, all at once? This dilemma is starkly illustrated in Ally Carter's I'd tell you I love you but then I'd have to kill you. The book is set in the Gallagher School for Girls, a boarding 'spy school' modeled on Harry Potter's Hogwarts for young wizards The heroine Cammie (alias 'the Chameleon') can speak fourteen languages and engage in covert operations (including making herself invisible) but has no idea how to talk to a 'normal' boy she likes. The book stresses that the support of your fellow girls is the only way to navigate the treacherous waters of female adolescence.

Throughout the book, Cammie's best friends support her, even during the strangest aspects of 'spy school.'…

Works Cited

Carter, Ally. I'd tell you I love you but then I'd have to kill you. Hyperion, 2009.

Women in 20th Century Canadian Society
Words: 2218 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32832303
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Women in 20th Century Canadian Society: Social Conventions and Change

20th century society placed Canadian women within restrictive conventions and norms. There was a very pronounced domestic expectation placed upon women that they would have jobs or careers, but only until they married. Once married, the expectation was that they would abandon their careers to be housewives, working within the domestic sphere of the home, cooking and cleaning and tending to the general needs of the family. During this period, the expectation was that the husband and father was the man of the house and the sole financial provider or “breadwinner” for the family. Given the narrowness of existence for these women, and how limited their choices were, their reactions to this type of domestic captivity were all very diverse. Some women responded to the limiting social conventions by conforming to the expectations placed upon them, while others made great…

Delta Sigma Theta Sorority With
Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 4985654
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A bring enthusiasm, drive, and determination with my membership, and I will be as asset to the sorority because of my leadership and organizational skills. I value the sorority environment during my university years, and feel developing long-lasting relationships with my sisters can create opportunities and relationships that will enhance the rest of my life. I feel I bring many qualities to the organization, and hope to give back to my sisters and much (or more) than I gain during my stay. I believe the only way to truly gain from every moment of the university experience is to live with like-minded individuals who share the same commitment to community, global understanding, and education, and so, I hope you will recommend me for membership in elta Sigma…

Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, with its standards of excellence in education and service to the community, has been serving primarily black, college-educated women since 1913. This longevity makes Delta Sigma Theta extremely attractive to many individuals in communities throughout America and the world. The value placed on physical and mental health is an important part of this organization, as is promoting and enhancing global awareness and compassion. To be a member of Delta Sigma Theta combines the tradition of nearly one hundred years of growth and development with a cutting-edge 21st century organization geared for success today and in the future.

Delta Sigma Theta would benefit from my membership for a number of compelling reasons. I hold a deep love for public service, sisterhood, and have a fervent drive for success in education for myself and others in my community. I feel Delta Sigma Theta meets my objectives for a service and sisterhood organization throughout my college years and beyond, and that I will learn more about community service and developing service programs during my membership with the organization.

A bring enthusiasm, drive, and determination with my membership, and I will be as asset to the sorority because of my leadership and organizational skills. I value the sorority environment during my university years, and feel developing long-lasting relationships with my sisters can create opportunities and relationships that will enhance the rest of my life. I feel I bring many qualities to the organization, and hope to give back to my sisters and much (or more) than I gain during my stay. I believe the only way to truly gain from every moment of the university experience is to live with like-minded individuals who share the same commitment to community, global understanding, and education, and so, I hope you will recommend me for membership in Delta Sigma Theta.

Caryl Churchill's Play Top Girls Explores Gender
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62582598
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Caryl Churchill's play Top Girls explores gender issues in Thatcher-Era British society. Churchill contrasts feminism that simply enforces patriarchy, embodied by Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister, and a feminism that is more radical and transformative. Marlene exemplifies the type of woman who is achieving personal goals but only within a patriarchal framework that continues to exploit not only women but also people of color and secondary social class status. Her success does not represent the goals of feminism, which are to create a more egalitarian society for all people. Therefore, the text advocates second wave feminism, which is presented as a whole social revolution that is more inclusive of issues related to class and race as well as personal and political power.

The opening scene of Top Girls shows different forms of feminism and female achievements of historical power. Weaving the stories of famous females throughout the play allows Churchill…

Black Fem Thought a History
Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15383721
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Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…

Works Cited

1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.

2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.

3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.

4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.

Democratic Education Question No What Are the
Words: 2620 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60875072
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Democratic Education

Question No.

What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…


IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from

Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.

Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.

Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.

Why Do Some People Join Fraternities and Sororities and Do Others
Words: 5266 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5741651
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people join fraternities and sororities, and do others not?

You may be a fresher in college or a student who has got transfer. Certainly you have taken up the college to attain a degree. Also you may be in search of some work to perform with all the leisure time you possess when you just are not doing anything in the class. There are umpteen groups of particular interest situated in the campus. You can enroll in one of these to enhance your extracurricular activities or render something for a valuable cause. It is recurrently convenient to make a decision about which group of particular interest you want to enroll in. But we see that the chosen lot of college students challenges the viability of joining a brotherhood group or sisterhood campaign. Each and every person has their own cause to enroll in or turn down these sororities or fraternities.…


Advantages of Being Greek" Retrieved at . Accessed on 12/02/2003

Parent's Guide to Greek Life" University Union and Student Centre: Clemson University. Retrieved at Accessed on 12/02/2003

Boan, Cliff. "In Praise of Greek Organizations." The Retriever - Opinion October 30, 2001

Retrieved from Accessed on 12/02/2003

Piaf Pam Gems provides a view into
Words: 46193 Length: 125 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 73251446
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in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…


Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786

Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260

Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.

Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from.

Racial Ideology of Latinas
Words: 11967 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 57637272
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The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.

The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…


Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.

San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).

San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.

Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.

Cultural Competancy Recent Awareness About
Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11083706
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The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.

When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…

Turning Girl Scouts Into Women
Words: 3456 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29808832
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She found a place where she could grow and succeed as herself. Diane Oakes, executive director of the Kaw Valley Council, saw girl scouting as a tool in bringing out the leader from every girl of any age. It is one of the few service organizations, which gives full voting power to its young representatives to choose council board of directors. These elected and hardworking representatives become an important voice in the council. The respect they earn from the adult members of the board boosts their self-esteem. That self-esteem, productivity and sense of achievement contribute to their total personality development into adulthood. And Amanda Atwood, a senior high school student, relished a sense of fulfillment when her opinions benefit younger girl scouts. Amanda and three other Senior Girl Scouts organized a safety program for students in the elementary level. As a result, 2,000 children received identification cards with their photos…


Achiever, the. (2006). Spellings addresses girl scouts leaders. 2 pages. Gale.

Retrieved on September 22, 2007 at 

Business Wire (2006). Girl scouting undergoes historic transformation to focus on leadership development for 21st century girls. 2 pages. Business Week: Gale Group

Girl Scouts of America (2007). What is girl scouting? Girl Scout Central. Girl Scouts of America: Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Retrieved September 22, 2007 from

Gender Bias in the U S Court System
Words: 2961 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84999901
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Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System

Statistics regarding male and female criminality

Types of cases involving women and men

Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities

Feminists say women should get less jail time

Number of women vs. men arrested

omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time

Death penalty cases

10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women

Leniency of juries on women defendants

Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries

Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children

omen are always given less punishment than men in this area

Reaction of judges towards female defendants

Male judges

Female judges


a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators


Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators


In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…

Works Cited:

Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from 

Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice

Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.

Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.

frances marion and female filmmakers
Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46717883
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Positively a enaissance woman with a background in art, acting, photography, and journalism, Frances Marion positioned herself at the forefront of early filmmaking in Hollywood. Her legacy lives on with more than 300 films in her portfolio and two screenwriting Academy Awards, and yet her name lacks the notoriety of many of her contemporaries. Marion's work in filmmaking helped to propel Hollywood from the era of silent movies to the world of "talkies," which was around the time businessmen and major studios started taking over the once-bohemian industry from early pioneers like Marion. Marion also came to fame during a time when filmmaking boasted gender equity in its ranks. Women in the silent era of filmmaking "directed, produced and edited hundreds of silent movies," and by some estimates more than half of all silent movies were made by women (Blakemore, 2016). Sisterhood, a conscientious effort to help other women in…


Beauchamp, C. (1997). Without Lying Down. Berkeley: UC Press.

Blakemore, E. (2016). This forgotten female screenwriter helped give Hollywood its voice. Time. 21 Jan, 2016. Retrieved online: 

"Profile: Fances Marion," (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Zeidel, C. (2009). Frances Marion and Mary Pickford. Thesis. Retrieved online:

Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated Membership Application
Words: 366 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 12705081
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Director of Membership

Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated

5656 South Stony Island Avenue

Dear Watkins,

This is a formal request for membership at Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated. I wish to express my interest in joining a sorority for sisterhood that will provide me with opportunities to volunteer towards impact people's lives and transforming communities. I have examined several organizations for sisterhood and chose Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated because of its diverse programs that seeks to meet community needs. For instance, the organization targets educational enrichment, family strengthening, health promotion, environmental ownership, and global impact. Engaging in these diverse target areas will help me make meaningful contributions towards meeting community needs.

Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated will provide me with opportunities to develop my servant-leadership skills through guidance from the sisters. The opportunity will enable me to engage in activities that promote my personal and professional development. The…

Othermothers in the Women of
Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 13585304
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Kiswana is proud of being black and pillories her mother as "a white man's nigger who's ashamed of being black" (ibid., p. 85). Kiswana therefore helps Cora Lee to heal from her "shadow men" who have made a mother without caring about their offspring (ibid., 113).

Lorraine and Theresa are a lesbian couple which challenges the women's notions of love and friendship. Their relationship is truly complex and outside of the comprehension of men. Baker observes that the women move to Brewster place to be themselves and that they do not fully accomplish this and are not successful even there (illiams). It is the opinion of this author that without this love for each other, they would not have survived.

The implications of this books and others like it by Naylor have been very profound in the study of black feminism. Nnaemeka makes the argument that, "The texts discuss women's…

Works Cited

Khaleghi, M. "Female Leadership in Gloria Naylor's Novels: Bloodmothers,

Othermothers, and Community Othermothers." Journal of Social Science. 26.2 (2011): 131-138. Print.

Naylor, Gloria. The Women of Brewster Place. New York, NY: Turtleback Books, 1982. Print.

Nnaemeka O. 1997. "Introduction: Imag (in)ing Knowledge, Power, and Subversion in the Margins." in: Obioma Nnaemeka (Ed.): The Politics of (M)othering:

Black Church the Redemptive Role
Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 2523902
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It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…


Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from

Audre Lorde's Age Race Class
Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5041111
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The contents of this memoir, however, are much more far reaching than a single person's story. Through her experience and analysis, Clare brings out two themes -- the inappropriateness of gender identities and the connection between bodies and powers. Clare's first theme is encompassed in her constant feelings of isolation, and her inability to define herself. As a child, all Clare knew were the differences between men and women. As someone who had never been feminine, she wondered what kind of women she was. The fact that she was raped by her father made things even more difficult. Using this experience, Clare transitions to her second point. She argues that her father's violent act with her body, and other parents' violent acts with their children's bodies, was a lesson teaching the children that they are not powerful. Furthermore, Clare discusses physical disability, including her own, suggesting that disability is equated…

Motorcycle Clubs Reality vs Myth
Words: 816 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36626301
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org, 2007). Their 10 founding principles read as follows:

Bringing together "Old School Biker Values" and "New World Attitudes

Diversity (bikes and membership)

Promoting Biker Brotherhood/Sisterhood


Promoting a Love of iding

Promoting Safety

Having Fun

Engaging in Community Service Activities

Supporting the Larger Biker Community

Improving Our Overall Motorcycling Skills

Likewise, the Mission Statement of the oad aiderz motorcycle club founded in 2005 and based out of Maryland, Virginia, and Washington D.C. also emphasizes community relations; it reads, in part, as follows:

The mission of the club is to bring in those different experiences and ideals and create a club of riders that demonstrates a positive attitude to the motorcycling community.... our members demonstrate a passion for riding and contributing their time and efforts to community service, unity amongst all riders and assisting those less fortunate. Beyond this we love the freedom and excitement that comes from being on…


James, S. (2007) South Florida Sun-Sentinel; Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital honors bikers for fund-raising. October 19, 2007. Accessed October 20, 2007, at,0,1385761.story 

Road Raiderz Motorcycle Club Homepage, (2007), Accessed October 20, 2007, at

Wolf Pack Motorcycle Club Homepage, (2007), Accessed October 20, 2007, at:

American History the Greatest Change
Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59402187
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Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.

The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…

Works Cited

Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.

New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.

Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon Became
Words: 1814 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63201060
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In Zhu's study (2005), because of the priority to the tenet of righteousness, the Chinese viewers questioned the validity of various fighting scenes. For instance, one commented that the ferocity of the fight between Jen and Shu Lien, using a variety of weapons against the stolen sword seems hardly justified by the nature of their quarrel or the substance of their friendship based on sworn sisterhood." In other words, the director seems to have added a ferocious fight that is not justified by the relationship itself or the plot development.

The literature thus far analyzed as a whole shows that the main concern about the movie "Crouching Tiger" especially by the Chinese viewers and critics is that it does not portray China's culture and values, but rather the intercultural viewpoint of the director, Lee. This can impact viewers who interpret this as true Chinese culture. In Kenneth Chan's essay, he…


Chan, K. (2004) The global return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." Cinema Journal, 43(4),

Katz, H.M. (2002). Escaping gravity. Movie magic and dreams of flying. Psychoanal. Study Child 57, 294-304.

Klein, C. (2004). Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: A diasporic reading. Cinema Journal 43(4), 18-42

Leung, W. (2001) Crouching sensibility, hidden sense. Film Criticism 26 (1), 42-55

Western Contact With One of
Words: 2336 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34871386
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460). This research focuses more on the latter as displaying more indigenous cultural subsistence evidence, which is nonetheless indicated and measured against more modern developments in the less traditional periphery. The result is a one-stable culture experiencing major structural transition or demic change, resulting primarily from population density changes driven by resource scarcity and subsistence mode of different cultures, specifically "everyone else," i.e. The global demand for forest and mineral resources (oil) located under the Huaorani home range (Belaunde, 2008, p. 460). The traditional Huaoranis resisted invasion by neighbors while those neighbors were peer tribal cultures, but are having more difficulty resisting invasion by industrialized nations themselves driven by subsistence mode constraints. One major cultural change has become the necessity for a more articulated central 'government' to represent Waos against encroachment by the states that have arisen around them, where their previous subsistence mode allowed less formal norms and roles…


Beckerman, S., Erickson, P., Yost, J., Regaladod, J., Jaramilloe, L., Sparks, C. et al. (2009, May 19). Life histories, blood revenge, and reproductive success among the Waorani of Ecuador. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106 (20), 8134 -- 8139.

Belaunde, L. (2008). Review, Rival, L., Trekking through history: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 2002. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 14, 431-472.

Lu, F. (2006). The commons' in an Amazonian context. Social Analysis 50 (3), 187-194.

Lu, F., Fariss, B. And Bilsborrow, R.. (2009). Gendered time allocation of indigenous peoples in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Ethnology 48 (3), 239 -- 268.

Keeping Up With the Kardashians
Words: 4992 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61123867
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" In order to see how this influences the show's representation of the interpersonal relationships of the family, one may examine a scene from the first episode, in which the editing choices serve to identify the shop as a particular kind of expressive space.

The special role of the shop as a space of differential relationships and conversations can be seen in the first episode when Kourtney and Khloe are in the shop discussing a dinner Kourtney had with Scott the night before, where Scott acted aloof and generally impolite. The two sisters discuss Scott's astrological sign and the way it relates to Scott's personality, and later, when Scott arrives, the three of them discuss the variability of Kourtney and Scott's relationship in positive terms, highlighting the fact that they can make up so readily. All the while, Kris has been in the store, but she does not speak throughout…


Armenians watch calls for full-scale investigation of armenian deputies and high ranking officials. (1999, Nov 20). Armenian Reporter, pp. 16.

Bruce, L. (2011). One mom, six kids, a reality empire. Hollywood Reporter, 417(00183660), 48-


Der-Sarkissian, J. (2005, Jan 15). Should the armenian community of greater los angeles have an armenian public charter school? Armenian Reporter, pp. 16.

Nurse Discuss as Well as
Words: 7577 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66122797
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The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:

hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.

(Fiedler 94)

The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,

It is…

Works Cited

Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.

Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.

Fudge, Keith. "Sisterhood Born from Seduction: Susanna Rowson's Charlotte Temple, and Stephen Crane's Maggie Johnson." Journal of American Culture 19.1 (1996): 43+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.

Greeson, Jennifer Rae. "'Ruse It Well": Reading, Power, and the Seduction Plot in the Curse of Caste." African-American Review 40.4 (2006): 769+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.

How Did Nursing Change Social Roles of Northern Women During the Civil War
Words: 7299 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 96446723
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Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar

The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.

The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar

"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…

Works Cited

Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A

Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.

Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.

Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).

Sue Monk Kidd's Book the Secret Life
Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5752854
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Sue Monk Kidd's book, The Secret Life of Bees, is a testament to the healing power of love in a young girl's life. Lily, was left motherless at four, and blames herself for her mother's death. The book is deeply moving and beautifully written, especially through Kidd's treatment of the loss of Lily's mother. Personally, the book reinforced my understanding of the important role a mother plays in her child's growth, and how love can heal many wounds.

The Secret Life of Bees tells the story of Lily Owens, a young woman reeling from the death of her mother at the age of four. Lily lives with her ornery and dismissive father, and blames herself for her mother's death. She is largely alone in the world, with only the company of a black woman, Rosaleen, who her father has hired to keep up the house, and who ends up being…

Works Cited

Kidd, Sue Monk. The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin Books, 2003.

Revisiting Dr King's Dream
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4781956
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Dr. Martin Luther King: In memoriam

An America facing the increasing threat of an entangling war abroad. An America where the right to vote was unsure, despite constitutional guarantees. A world torn apart by hated, by religious and regional divisions and destruction. All of these were realities of the world faced by Dr. King so many years ago, when he made his famous "I have a dream" speech in 1963. Today, Vietnam has been replaced by Iraq as a constant, nagging international threat. Voting prohibitions and segregation has been ended, but still the ability of individuals to freely and fairly make their voices heard through the vehicle of the ballot box remains uncertain in many counties across America. But even in the face of all of these threats, Dr. King was still able to dream of a better tomorrow. And his willingness to dream created a world, while still imperfect,…

Works Cited

King, Martin Luther. " I Have a Dream." 1963. Speech the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. On August 28, 1963.

Hassey, Eliza. "The History of Black History."

Sula Advertisement
Words: 1300 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12070972
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The audience (MARKET) for Sula includes women of all ethnic/racial backgrounds, young adult classrooms discussing black history and racism, and any other individuals who are interested in the history of blacks in the 20th century.

ADVERTISING COPY FOR CAMPAIGN).Sula, by Toni Morrison, provides an excellent historical vision into the life of blacks living in the community of Bottom Ohio after World War I and into the 1960s. This sometimes personally disturbing novel follows the lives of two black women -- from their emotionally troubled and violent childhood, through their different paths of adulthood, to their final meeting and reconciliation. Women readers, especially those who seek stories about historical women protagonists, will be engrossed yet dismayed by the way that Sula lives her life. Young adults and those who study black history will widen their understanding about the challenges and ordeals that blacks had to face even after gaining their…

Nellie Mcclung
Words: 3239 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7133698
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Nellie McClung

Many women and children live in substandard and marginal conditions in many parts of the world and they need a voice to transmit those conditions and voting power to correct those conditions. Too much masculinity is behind this contagion and chivalry cannot substitute for true justice. Nellie McClung, one of Canada's foremost social activists and its first feminist waged a political battle for Canadian women's rights, specifically the right to vote. In her time, women were not considered persons under the British North American Act but were mere appendages to men. She and the rest of the Famous 5 fought to secure that right and won it. Women's rights and women's movements are expressions of the best instincts of womanhood to serve and help the human race. Women, like men, think and think as dynamically. If women's thoughts are ignored or repressed, evolution is blocked and similarly suppressed.…

"Women who place a low value on themselves make life hard for all women."

"The world has taunted women into marrying."

(Industry Canada 1998)

Arthurian Legend and Myth --
Words: 763 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12850778
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She receives the wounded king after the last battle and offers to cure him if he remains long enough." (Rise, 2001) Because Christianity had such a difficult time "assimilating a benevolent enchantress," into Camelot's structure of tales, particularly a female outside of male religious spheres of power, Morgana "becomes more and more sinister," in later tales, and also more human in her jealousies and passionate wrangling in Camelot. (Rise, 2001)

In Malory's "Morte d'Arthur" for example, Morgana gives Excalibur to her lover Accolon so he can use it against Arthur. In the anonymous but still clearly Christian poem "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" Morgana is presented as the instigator of the Green Knight's visit to Arthur's court, partly motivated by her desire to frighten the Queen. (Camelot Project, 2004) "Part of Christianity's failure to understand the character of Morgan was their misapplied versions of morality. They imposed a Judeo-Christian…

Works Cited

Mythical Realm. "Morgan le Fay." 2004. [22 Mar 2004]

Morgan le Fay," Camelot Project at the University of Rochester. 2004. [22 Mar 2004]

Took, Thalia. "Morgana." 2004.[22 Mar 2004]

Rise, Brian Edward. "Morgan le Fay.' Folklore Encyclopedia.

Sex Body and Identity
Words: 2749 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99705928
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Body, Identity, Gender]

From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.

For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…

References Cited

de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.

Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.

Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.

hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.

Classical Drama
Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19349733
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The Roman play Hecyra is a comedy of errors that did bomb in its first two showings and could easily bomb again if it does not have the right mix of stage direction and acting. The actors must be able to have a very subtle comedic style, not playing any role with too much zaniness or spoof. There is a fine line between being credible and too hard to believe.

There are four main characters: The newly weds, Pamphilus and Philumena, the mother (mother-in-law) Myrrina, and mistress Bacchio. In addition to being a little young, naive and ditzy, Pamphilus, Philumena and Bacchis have to look (the part) as if they could have a Latin background. The mother-in-law must be pleasant yet proud. She is not a dislikable character -- after all, she is not really the reason for the split of the newly weds. All four characters (even the…

Jewish Religion Also Known as Judaism --
Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31806783
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Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).

Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…

Works Cited

Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from .

Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,

MN: Fortress Press.

Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. Retrieved April 15,

Male Persona Alice B Toklas the Relationship
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56557451
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male persona: Alice B. Toklas

The relationship of Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas

Much as Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas observed the rules of heterosexual gender roles as 'man' and 'wife,' in other respects the two were remarkably similar, including their politics. They remained surprisingly reactionary, despite the fact that both were Jewish as well as lesbians. Stein supported the side of the fascists of the Spanish Civil War and lived in France during the occupation: "How were Stein and Toklas-Americans, Jews, and, oh yes, lesbians-able to live unmolested in occupied France while the war raged all around them and deportations were being carried out at every mm? How did they manage to maintain their pleasant, country life while experiencing few deprivations other than a reduction in the number of their usually lavish meals?" (Stone 2008). The answer was their failure to support resistance movements. The two effectively…


Constantine, S. 1998. Think You Know All About Gertrude Stein? The Lesbian Review of Books,

1: 11-11.

Mills, J.E. 2003. Gertrude Stein took the War like a man. The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide,

10 (2): 16-16.

Clare of Assisi
Words: 4723 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64373905
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Clare of Assisi

Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…


Anderson, C. Colt. The Great Catholic Reformers: From Gregory the Great to Dorothy Day. Paulist Press, 2007.

"The Blessing of Clare" (1253?) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 66-70.

"First Letter to Agnes of Prague" (1234) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 43-46.

"The Form of Life of Clare of Assisi" (1253) in Armstrong (Ed): 106-28.

Washington Square by Henry James
Words: 1368 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58922260
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Washington Square by Henry James. The writer explores the importance of Mrs. Penniman in the novel with a focus on her role's impact on the character of Catherine. There was one source used to complete this paper.

From the beginning of writing fiction authors have built their stories around the protagonist. Usually there is one person who is closely involved with the protagonist as well. This is what draws the reader into the story and helps define the boundaries and the structure of the plot. Every once in awhile the world is treated to an author who can provide an important non-protagonist character who contributes as much to the story as the protagonists do. This is the case in the classic tale of Washington Square by Henry James. In this story James works to present a story of love, defiance, obedience, greed and heartache. While this is being developed James…

Houses as Symbols
Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26314543
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house is the symbol in the House of Mango Street.

The title of the novel A House on mango Street, by Sandra Cisneros, is both straightforward and deceptive. The name of the street suggests a quiet street in a nice neighborhood, a street lined with trees in a lazy afternoon. As soon as the first chapter begins, the reader will find out that the street and therefore the house in question are anything but. Houses do indeed symbolize in the novel stability, anchors in childhood memories, family life, and shelter.

The narrator introduces a grim series of houses she has spent her childhood in, culminating with the house that will give the title of the novel. Houses are for the adult remembering childhood memories a symbol of a life style, reminders of a harsh or sometimes, happy reality. A house stands there for the one remembering the days she spent…

Education Military and Governments in Ancient Greece
Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35332507
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Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).


Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).


In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…

Girl Power Feminism
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36523071
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Girl Power Feminism and the Illusion of Control

Girl power feminism ala the sort represented by today’s new age pop starlets like Miley and the other graduates of the Mickey Mouse Club school of adolescent sexuality have embraced their sexuality—as they say—though what it appears objectively to symbolize is their willingness to be objectified by the male gaze so long as they can control the discourse, the narrative, the image—and not be “shamed” for what earlier generations would have deemed “slutty,” “trashy,” or “tasteless.” In other words, there is a tendency for today’s post-Feminists or “girl power feminists” to attack or fight back against any criticism of their use of their sexuality, even if that criticism is valid. The attention-getting that comes from flaunting one’s sexuality, or joining in the bandwagon of the #MeToo or #TimesUp movements, is the reward that the girl power feminists seek—or as Miley so aptly…

sociology feminism and the'symbolism of the hejab
Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49051470
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Problem, Puzzle, Research Questions
The author critically examines all types of social controls on women, but focuses on laws related to the hejab in Iran. Neghibi (1999) claims that the Shah’s law that forbade the hejab and the Ayatollah’s mandatory hejab law had an ironically similar overall effect of controlling women’s bodies through a patriarchal state. The main difference is that the former aligned national identities in Iran with Western norms, and the Ayatollah/revolutionary approach created a national identity based on anti-Western and fundamentalist Muslim norms.
Theories and Concepts
The author works within several related theoretical frameworks: namely feminism, post-colonialism, and critical theory. Related concepts include the differentiation between the public and private space, the construction of gender norms, oppression, and the failure of feminism to find a universal voice. Another core concept is symbolism and symbolic-interactionism: the way the hejab can represent identity, rebellion, and subversion depending on how…

colored girls rainbow'shange play reaction
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64497851
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The play, “For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow Is Enuf” was staged at South Carolina State University in 2013. Ntzoke Shange's play blends the finesse of performance art with the subtlety of poetry to communicate heady political and social concerns. The title of the play immediately alerts audiences to the weighty matters that will unfold on stage. Through the play, seven women tell their stories one by one, without interruptions, making “For Colored Girls” somewhat unconventional in its lack of an overarching plot. Each woman is named after one of the seven colors of the rainbow, symbolizing individuality amid diversity, and the importance of diversity as the defining feature of beauty, hope, and wisdom. Delivering their stories as monologues prevents the encroachment of hegemonic masculinity or racism onto their lives; the women take back their power through the art of storytelling. “For Colored Girls” is about…

Feature Story on Transwoman and Cause
Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 42103345
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Geena Rocero is a model with a purpose. Rocero was born and raised in the Philippines, and recently returned to her homeland to help victims of Typhoon Haiyan. In the midst of a busy schedule, Rocero spends time in her first interview because she feels that sharing her life story is one of the first steps toward helping others. "e're all in this journey together," Rocero exclaims.

Coincidentally, the interview falls on Transgender Day of Remembrance, which commemorates all transmen and transwomen who lost their lives because of targeted attacks. "Transwomen of color are the most marginalized," Rocero reminds us. "70% of hate crime in the LGBT community is committed against transwomen of color. I want this to change. I need this to change. I get so emotional about this and I'm reminded how privileged I am," she says with tears in her eyes.

Rocero works as a model…

When she was a young girl, Rocero knew she was female. Her dream was to become a model. She borrowed her sister's clothes, wore her mom's lipstick, entered local beauty pageants, and eventually self-medicated with hormones. Her parents, especially her mom, supported Geena and helped her to enter beauty pageants. When she was 17, Rocero moved to the United States. She was able to work in the United States and save enough money for the gender reassignment surgery, which she had done at age 19. In fact, while on her upcoming trip to Thailand, Rocero is meeting her surgeon to "thank him for giving me a wonderful vagina."

After her sexual reassignment surgery, Geena pursued her dream of modeling. She moved to New York City in 2005 and while working as a bar hostess, met a photographer who helped her develop a portfolio. That same year, Rocero signed with her first modeling agency. Currently, Rocero is signed with NEXT Model Management. In addition to modeling, Geena has worked as a makeup artist with Benefit Cosmetics, a manager at Inc. Magazine, and a sales representative for First Go Green biodegradable products. Rocero has also worked with the Summit Series, an entrepreneurial organization, to learn how to collaborate with partners on achieving mutual goals. It was because of her broad working experience and her networking with Summit Series contacts that Rocero has been able to develop a plan for promoting her public policy initiatives around the world. Rocero's ultimate goal is to transform public policy at the trans-national level. Her vision is to serve as an ambassador for transgender issues with the United Nations.

Rocero knows she has led a privileged life because of supportive friends, supportive family members, and a supportive spiritual community in both her native Philippines and in the United States. Rocero wants to ensure that the underprivileged people of the world also have access to the support systems and resources needed to live a healthy life. Referring to brutal assaults on transwomen around the world, Geena states, "People are dying. I need to do something."

Media Review Project the 1993 Film What's
Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 31395513
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Media eview Project

The 1993 film "What's Love Got To Do With It" presents many of the classic symptoms and effects of domestic violence. As such, it provides a great deal of insight into this phenomenon, both on the part of the abuser and on the one who is receiving the abuse. The film is a musical biography of Tina Turner, who was one of the late 20th century's most popular singers. The movie opens up with Tin Turner as a young girl singing in a church choir. Even at this early age her prowess as a singer, the power of her voice and the zeal she expresses through her musical performance, become readily apparent. It is crucial to note that despite such an enthusiastic performance, Tina Turner (who is going by her true name at this point, Anna Mae Bullock), is enduring a tumultuous home life. Her mother eventually…


Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1997. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from 

Ebert, R. (1993). "What's love got to do with it." Retrieved from 

Maslin, J. (1993). "What's love got to do with it film review." The New York Times. Retrieved from

British Poetry
Words: 1309 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22043678
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"The Sleeping Beauty" by Lord Alfred Tennyson uses several narrative techniques. The first of which can be seen in the second line of the first stanza. "She lying on her couch alone" (). The phrase uses incorrect English to change the tone of the poem. Although the poem does not try to establish a rhyming pattern in the BC in the first stanza with "grown" and "form," the two words sound well together as though they rhyme. The pattern however is ABABCDCD with BC sounding like they should rhyme. All the "slumberous light" uses personification to describe light.

Many of the lines within the first stanza are filled with imagery of this woman: "A braid of pearl" and "rounded curl." She is so beautiful and magnificent that even the smallest things she does are explained or described on a grand scale. She is the epitome of beauty and wears the…

Fiction and Non-Fiction in 19th Century England Example of the Grotesque
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91505486
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All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)

To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…

By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:

When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)

We may note the classic elements of